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Methods of Teaching

1. The Lecture method
-a teaching procedure for clarifying or explaining a major idea cast in the form of a question or problem (Nelson Bossing 1961). -Is more of exposition, not just narration. -however, it can make use of narration and description.  When to use lecture method?  Conditions: >When the teacher can give one hour of lecture-demonstration information instead of two or three hours of laboratory work. >When the teacher has available data that would be difficult for the class to obtain. >When a new topic is to be introduced. >When summaries are needed. >To create proper mind set at the beginning of the lesson. >When problems arise or valuable questions are asked. >When supplementary materials may be introduced t advantage. >When visual materials need explanation.  Steps of the Lecture method 1. Preparation 2. Presentation 3. Comparison 4. Generalization 5. Application  If the lecture is informal, Walton (1966) gives the following steps: 1. Introduction to the lecture 2. Presentation of the body of the lecture 3. Conclusion, closure, completion, culmination  Advantages: >Arouses appreciation. >Motivate a study. >Trains the students to listen. >Enriches a topic by giving additional information.  Disadvantages: >Violates the principle of “learning by doing”. >Not applicable in immature audience or students. >Not effective in teaching when the students do not know how to take down notes. >The learner becomes a mere recipient than a thinker. >There is a lack of opportunity for discussion and expression. >The teacher cannot monitor whether the students is getting the right ideas or not.

2. Discussion Method
 Techniques in Discussion Method: >Small-group discussion technique >Socialized classroom technique >Direct instruction or classroom teaching technique >Panel discussion technique

Investigatory Method: Techniques: Laboratory Technique: Students actively manipulate and study a given situation upon which a given problem lies. Lab. 3. Empirical mode (through a carefully laid down procedure. Exercise: help the students acquire fundamental knowledge and skills.) Steps in Problem Solving technique:  Identifying and defining a problem  Formulating a hypothesis  Verification  Collection and organization of data  Generalization  Application . Only concretizes basic data expounded by the teacher Exploratory type: more or less like a scientific investigation. they are made to feel that they are responsible in actively searching for it. Types of Laboratory Techniques:  Laboratory Exercise  Laboratory Investigation  Confirmatory type of laboratory technique  Exploratory type of laboratory technique Lab.  Disadvantages: >Not applicable if the students are not participative.>Recitation technique >Interview technique  Advantages: >Opinions of the students can be expressed. Students are not given the expected generalization. Two types: Rational Mode(through process of reasoning done either qualitatively or quantitatively). >The teacher can know whether the students are getting the right ideas or not. Besides. he/she can make early corrections for false ideas of the students. instead. The situation being manipulated is contrived and it necessarily need materials. Investigation: deeper and more serious undertaking that requires careful planning and doing on the part of the research Confirmatory type: traditional since the teacher explains the concept or principle to students before they undertake the investigation. Steps of Laboratory Technique: o Pre-Laboratory discussion o Actively proper o Post laboratory discussion Problem-Solving Technique: Requires a learner to work actively in the solution of a difficulty or an undesirable situation. It is the responsible of the students to work on their own.

or illustrate a known law. community. Purpose to get a first hand information to clear up some uncertainties and doubts. Its end is to seek truth in any kind of study . Types:  Interviewing a chosen subject  Making a simple survey  Constructing the historical episode on an individual. Is a careful and an organized study designed to serve a specific purpose. institution  Doing a simple experiment Steps:  Preparing for research works  Collecting and gathering data  Organizing the data obtained  Analyzing and interpreting the data organized data  Making a formal report of a research done Field Study Technique: Technique in which the student investigates a given situation by being part or an integral component of it. to test or establish a hypothesis. The purpose depends greatly on the specific type of research. Steps:  Preparation  Actual investigation  Making a formal report  Class reporting Experimenting technique: An operation carried out under controlled conditions to discover an unknown effect or law. Two points: Experimenting is an active process since it is an operation. It is highly purposeful Types of Experiments: o Structured o Unstructured o Semi structured Classifications: (Methodological and explanatory) Steps:  Designing an experiment  Preparing for the experiment  Conducting the experiment  Obtaining results of the experiment Advantages of Investigatory Method Enhance efficiency of Practitioners Enhance Scientific and Analytic Thinking Help students know how to solve problems Enable the student to apply theories in real life .Research Technique: Technique least used by teachers.

film strips and tapes. Students learn to be patient. Supported by research as an effective technique. vivid and well-done illustration of an idea. showing relevance. Individual or Group Reporting Technique: Reporting could be done by an individual or by a group. Schematic technique: type of reporting which considerably makes use of hardwares of instruction. Phases:  Identifying the theme of school celebration  Breaking down the theme into three or more specific topics  Selecting the appropriate speaker for each topic  Allotting adequate time for each speaker  Giving time for the open forum whereby the students ask questions to the designated Advantages of Reporting Method: Helps foster mutual responsibility. Bright students tend to act superior. and cognitive relationship. 5.Disadvantages of investigatory Method Very costly due to use of materials Time consuming There is danger of students being dishonest with results and computations Requires Higher Instructor/student Ratio. Aim is to approach topics in organized and integrated body. Reading or story-telling technique: reading of the source or sources or to narrate their own experience in relation to their given topic. Disadvantages of Reporting Method: Some students don't work well this way. Used to aid the reporter. film-showing.Reporting Method: Unit or Morrisonian Technique: process of taking the contents of a particular subject as big locks and not as isolated and fragmentary bits of information. Is a closely identified with school forum which is open to al faculty members and students. less critical and more compassionate. Loners find it hard to share answers. Types: Resource speaker. .  Substantiating points shared  sustaining the interest of the audience in the report  ensuring permanency in learning Symposium technique: entails a lot of preparation and involves certain complexities in the actual implementation. photograph records. Aggressive students try to take over. slides. The teacher assigns every unit or every chapter as the subject of the class activity. Requires well-organized content preparation and good oral communication skills. tape-recorders Purpose:  Making an interesting.

The students’ performance is directly geared to the acquisition of the desirable and acceptable behavioral patterns. c. Film-showing-discussion 4. It expects student-participants to make a total adjustment to a given situation. The learning environment approximates the real situation. d. It is a highly student-directed activity. b. Lecture-demonstration 3. direct experience. Debate technique 6. Activity method technique 1. The technique is problem centered b. 4. It is a highly creative undertaking. c. It recognizes the importance of each participant.Integrated method Comes also in different forms namely: 1. Inductive-deductive technique .Demonstration method Comes in different forms namely: 1. Brainstorming technique a. and d. 2. All possible solutions are exhausted. Resource speaker-directed technique 7. 3. 6. Reporting-discussion 5. Teacher-student directed technique 4. 7. Project technique Field trip technique Dramatization technique Role-playing technique Simulation game technique Characteristics: a. Lecture-discussion 2.Activity method It refers to a classroom encounter whereby students are actively engaged in first-hand .5. 5. Student-directed technique 3. Teacher-directed technique 2.

ADDITIONAL NOTES: .