Methods of Teaching

1. The Lecture method
-a teaching procedure for clarifying or explaining a major idea cast in the form of a question or problem (Nelson Bossing 1961). -Is more of exposition, not just narration. -however, it can make use of narration and description.  When to use lecture method?  Conditions: >When the teacher can give one hour of lecture-demonstration information instead of two or three hours of laboratory work. >When the teacher has available data that would be difficult for the class to obtain. >When a new topic is to be introduced. >When summaries are needed. >To create proper mind set at the beginning of the lesson. >When problems arise or valuable questions are asked. >When supplementary materials may be introduced t advantage. >When visual materials need explanation.  Steps of the Lecture method 1. Preparation 2. Presentation 3. Comparison 4. Generalization 5. Application  If the lecture is informal, Walton (1966) gives the following steps: 1. Introduction to the lecture 2. Presentation of the body of the lecture 3. Conclusion, closure, completion, culmination  Advantages: >Arouses appreciation. >Motivate a study. >Trains the students to listen. >Enriches a topic by giving additional information.  Disadvantages: >Violates the principle of “learning by doing”. >Not applicable in immature audience or students. >Not effective in teaching when the students do not know how to take down notes. >The learner becomes a mere recipient than a thinker. >There is a lack of opportunity for discussion and expression. >The teacher cannot monitor whether the students is getting the right ideas or not.

2. Discussion Method
 Techniques in Discussion Method: >Small-group discussion technique >Socialized classroom technique >Direct instruction or classroom teaching technique >Panel discussion technique

Investigatory Method: Techniques: Laboratory Technique: Students actively manipulate and study a given situation upon which a given problem lies. Steps of Laboratory Technique: o Pre-Laboratory discussion o Actively proper o Post laboratory discussion Problem-Solving Technique: Requires a learner to work actively in the solution of a difficulty or an undesirable situation. Two types: Rational Mode(through process of reasoning done either qualitatively or quantitatively).) Steps in Problem Solving technique:  Identifying and defining a problem  Formulating a hypothesis  Verification  Collection and organization of data  Generalization  Application . instead. Lab.  Disadvantages: >Not applicable if the students are not participative. >The teacher can know whether the students are getting the right ideas or not. It is the responsible of the students to work on their own. Only concretizes basic data expounded by the teacher Exploratory type: more or less like a scientific investigation. Types of Laboratory Techniques:  Laboratory Exercise  Laboratory Investigation  Confirmatory type of laboratory technique  Exploratory type of laboratory technique Lab. Besides. he/she can make early corrections for false ideas of the students. 3. they are made to feel that they are responsible in actively searching for it.>Recitation technique >Interview technique  Advantages: >Opinions of the students can be expressed. Investigation: deeper and more serious undertaking that requires careful planning and doing on the part of the research Confirmatory type: traditional since the teacher explains the concept or principle to students before they undertake the investigation. The situation being manipulated is contrived and it necessarily need materials. Exercise: help the students acquire fundamental knowledge and skills. Empirical mode (through a carefully laid down procedure. Students are not given the expected generalization.

It is highly purposeful Types of Experiments: o Structured o Unstructured o Semi structured Classifications: (Methodological and explanatory) Steps:  Designing an experiment  Preparing for the experiment  Conducting the experiment  Obtaining results of the experiment Advantages of Investigatory Method Enhance efficiency of Practitioners Enhance Scientific and Analytic Thinking Help students know how to solve problems Enable the student to apply theories in real life . Its end is to seek truth in any kind of study . Is a careful and an organized study designed to serve a specific purpose. Two points: Experimenting is an active process since it is an operation.Research Technique: Technique least used by teachers. Purpose to get a first hand information to clear up some uncertainties and doubts. institution  Doing a simple experiment Steps:  Preparing for research works  Collecting and gathering data  Organizing the data obtained  Analyzing and interpreting the data organized data  Making a formal report of a research done Field Study Technique: Technique in which the student investigates a given situation by being part or an integral component of it. to test or establish a hypothesis. or illustrate a known law. Steps:  Preparation  Actual investigation  Making a formal report  Class reporting Experimenting technique: An operation carried out under controlled conditions to discover an unknown effect or law. community. The purpose depends greatly on the specific type of research. Types:  Interviewing a chosen subject  Making a simple survey  Constructing the historical episode on an individual.

Disadvantages of Reporting Method: Some students don't work well this way. Reading or story-telling technique: reading of the source or sources or to narrate their own experience in relation to their given topic. film strips and tapes. The teacher assigns every unit or every chapter as the subject of the class activity.Reporting Method: Unit or Morrisonian Technique: process of taking the contents of a particular subject as big locks and not as isolated and fragmentary bits of information.  Substantiating points shared  sustaining the interest of the audience in the report  ensuring permanency in learning Symposium technique: entails a lot of preparation and involves certain complexities in the actual implementation. Bright students tend to act superior. Individual or Group Reporting Technique: Reporting could be done by an individual or by a group. Schematic technique: type of reporting which considerably makes use of hardwares of instruction.Disadvantages of investigatory Method Very costly due to use of materials Time consuming There is danger of students being dishonest with results and computations Requires Higher Instructor/student Ratio. slides. Aim is to approach topics in organized and integrated body. Loners find it hard to share answers. . tape-recorders Purpose:  Making an interesting. Supported by research as an effective technique. showing relevance. Is a closely identified with school forum which is open to al faculty members and students. and cognitive relationship. less critical and more compassionate. Students learn to be patient. Aggressive students try to take over. Used to aid the reporter. vivid and well-done illustration of an idea. 5. Phases:  Identifying the theme of school celebration  Breaking down the theme into three or more specific topics  Selecting the appropriate speaker for each topic  Allotting adequate time for each speaker  Giving time for the open forum whereby the students ask questions to the designated Advantages of Reporting Method: Helps foster mutual responsibility. Requires well-organized content preparation and good oral communication skills. Types: Resource speaker. photograph records. film-showing.

It expects student-participants to make a total adjustment to a given situation. 3. The technique is problem centered b. Activity method technique 1. All possible solutions are exhausted. d. 7. Teacher-directed technique 2. It is a highly student-directed activity. Inductive-deductive technique .5. direct experience. Film-showing-discussion 4. Resource speaker-directed technique 7. Reporting-discussion 5.Integrated method Comes also in different forms namely: 1. Student-directed technique 3. Lecture-discussion 2. 6. It is a highly creative undertaking. Teacher-student directed technique 4. and d. It recognizes the importance of each participant. 5. Debate technique 6. 4. Project technique Field trip technique Dramatization technique Role-playing technique Simulation game technique Characteristics: a.Demonstration method Comes in different forms namely: 1. c. The learning environment approximates the real situation. b. 2. Brainstorming technique a. The students’ performance is directly geared to the acquisition of the desirable and acceptable behavioral patterns.Activity method It refers to a classroom encounter whereby students are actively engaged in first-hand . c. Lecture-demonstration 3.

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