Links to related documents referenced within the Engineering Manual: Appendices and Risk Assessment Spreadsheet

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

Engineering Manual

Version No.

07/10

Overview
i ii iii Engineering at Fermilab Purpose and Scope Responsibilities

4

Table of Contents

5

7

Fermilab Engineering Process
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Requirements and Specifications Engineering Risk Assessment 10 Requirements and Specifications Review System Design

9

17

18 21 23

Engineering Design Review

Procurement and Implementation Testing and Validation Release to Operations Final Documentation Closing Thoughts Appendices

26 28 29

31

33

Overview
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual

The lead engineer will determine the degree of oversight you will need using a risk-based graded approach. 07/10 Overview: Engineering at Fermilab Your engineering career at Fermilab will test your skill at a number of levels. involving frequent interaction between you and those for whom you design. You will undertake routine design tasks. Management will ask you to participate in project reviews.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. You will usually inherit operational responsibility for your designs and will be asked to assist with problem-solving. 4 . The engineering process can be dynamic and fluid at the laboratory. Often you will work on projects alone with oversight and mentoring provided by senior engineers or scientists. cost-effective and reliable designs. detailed request. On other occasions you will do design work as a member of a team. The development of specifications can begin as a discussion between scientific staff and the individual engineer or engineers and can evolve into a formal. You will be involved in internal design reviews and may take part in Department of Energy project reviews with formal presentations covering cost and scheduling. Page No. but you will also take on challenging projects at the cutting edge of technology. It is your responsibility as a Fermilab engineer to make scientific dreams and what-ifs a reality by providing safe.

Chapter 9: Final Documentation describes the final documentation the lead engineer must create and archive in order to complete a project. Chapter 2: Engineering Risk Assessment explains the process of determining the level of rigor required for documentation and review of an engineering project based on technical. potential ES&H issues. reviews and applicable codes and standards for every step in every project. as depicted on the following page. You may need to repeat some of the process steps multiple times as your design matures. Chapter 4: System Design explains the steps of the design phase. programs and manuals. expense or involvement by other departments and institutions. to determine those requirements. and the Integrated Quality Assurance Program. Anyone undertaking a design effort at Fermilab. include additional requirements not stated in this manual. Chapter 5: Engineering Design Review describes the required reviews the design must undergo. must follow this document. a risk assessment. Managers will note these additional requirements in project specifications. engineers go through the same procedure. The manual contains nine sections. Chapter 3: Requirements and Specifications Review describes the process of reviewing the adequacy of the resulting specification. Safety and Health Manual. It is important to note that other processes. for each project. regardless of his or her job classification. cost and schedule risks. However. which defines the objectives and requirements of the project. Chapter 7: Testing and Validation explains the process of verifying that the design meets the requirements. This manual explains that procedure. Engineers at Fermilab must consider quality assurance. Page No. Fermilab Environment. one for each step in the Fermilab Engineering Process. Fermilab Project Management System. Chapter 6: Procurement and Implementation explains the process engineers follow to make their projects a reality. Examples in the Appendices demonstrate how Fermilab engineers have conducted more formal processes for past projects. Chapter 1: Requirements and Specifications explains the first step in the design process. The specific requirements included in each step of the engineering process differ for projects carrying different degrees of risk. Director’s Policy Manual. The authors of this manual believe that the fundamental engineering steps are the same for a project of any size or phase of development.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. 07/10 Overview: Purpose and Scope This document provides a manual for properly executing and documenting engineering projects at Fermilab. It is important that the risk assessment be completed correctly for all projects at each step as it determines the appropriate level of formality as a project moves forward. such as the Department of Energy’s Critical Decision Process. Chapter 8: Release to Operations describes the operating and maintenance documents the lead engineer must produce before the project is complete and becomes operational. 5 .

6 . 07/10 Fermilab Engineering Process Requirements and Specifications ↓ Engineering Risk Assessment ↓ Requirements and Specifications Review ↓ System Design ↓ Engineering Design Review ↓ Procurement and Implementation ↓ Testing and Validation ↓ Release to Operations ↓ Final Documentation Page No.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No.

Project and system managers work with department heads and lead engineers to determine which projects require special design or safety reviews. 07/10 The next section defines the responsibilities of those involved in the engineering process. Page No. When a project is divided. is performed according to the provisions of the Engineering Manual. department heads and supervisors. They work with department heads in setting up those reviews. Engineers must ensure their subsystems comply with project specifications and all applicable standards and safety codes. The lead engineer has overall responsibility for the efforts of all engineers working on a single project. 7 . Line Management Responsibility for the quality and effectiveness of the design and engineering process at the laboratory lies primarily with line management. any engineering effort defined by a set of specifications requires the participation of a lead engineer. The project manager coordinates with department heads to integrate the tasks. Project and system managers are ultimately responsible for system integration. Department heads are directly responsible for using the graded approach under the guidance of the risk assessment section to determine and implement the proper level of formality for a project. This is based on the same principles used in the Fermilab Integrated Safety Management System. Members of line management are responsible for adding additional requirements to the engineering process as they see fit to ensure the success and quality of projects executed under their supervision. He or she provides technical leadership and ensures that all engineering. Overview: Responsibilities Project and System Managers Project and system managers are responsible for ensuring that tasks are completed using good engineering and quality-control methods.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. They are directly responsible for determining which projects should have special design and safety reviews. Department Heads The project manager divides some projects into multiple tasks and assigns them to different divisions or sections. These managers should be aware of the design and engineering process requirements outlined in this document and should verify that engineers fulfill these requirements. The lead engineer is responsible for organizing overall project documentation. Lead Engineers Generally. Engineers Engineers are responsible for following the provisions of the Engineering Manual and for fulfilling any additional requirements established by their Division/Section/Center heads and departments. Line management includes Division/Section/Center heads. the engineer responsible for ensuring that the design meets project specifications. These managers should be aware of the design and engineering process requirements outlined in this document and should verify that engineers fulfill these requirements. department heads are directly responsible for ensuring that their tasks are completed using good engineering and quality-control methods. including system integration. These definitions apply to all chapters of the Engineering Manual. their assistants.

Fermilab Engineering Process Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual .

DOE reviews or additional documenA tation requirements The department head and lead engineer. Chapter 1: Requirements and Specifications Engineering Specification In the first step of the design project. based on the graded approach applied to each project. The department head and project management must agree upon changes to the specification. determine the level of formality the specification document needs. the specification document must include all elements. Larger engineering projects with multiple subprojects require an engineering design project plan. The Requirements and Specifications Appendix includes example requirements and specifications from previous Fermilab projects. In order to prepare the specification. For high-risk projects. The lead engineer makes the specification accessible to project management and collaboration members throughout the project. They range in complexity from e-mail correspondence to a more formal document. The department head and project management approve specifications before the lead engineer initiates the design. This plan clearly defines the level of subproject subject to a separate engineering risk assessment. Change control is the process that ensures design changes achieve the desired result without adversely affecting other aspects of the system. Each identified subproject follows the chapters of this manual. which defines the desired project result and enumerates the project requirements.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. following the guidance of the graded approach described in the Engineering Risk Assessment section. The design engineer must fulfill these requirements during the implementation of the engineering project. such as further reviews or documentation. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the specification process. • Scope of the work • Project milestones • Relevant codes and standards • Relevant ES&H and QA requirements • Functional or design technical requirements • Requirements for interfacing to external systems • Acceptance criteria included or referenced • dentification of those characteristics of the design that are crucial to the safe and I proper functioning of the project • ny special requests such as design reviews. This may result in specifications ranging from a simple e-mail message from the requester to a detailed document that is subject to the change-control process. outside the technical specifications described in this manual. It is important to note that managers and project leaders may introduce additional requirements. Page No. Engineering departments document their agreements with other organizations in the form of engineering specifications detailing the technical and project requirements of the system to be provided. the lead engineer prepares the engineering specification based on requirements from the project or system manager. 9 . as determined in Chapter 2: Engineering Risk Assessment. the lead engineer must consider the elements listed below.

This risk assessment applies to the engineering subproject at hand. not the overall project. The lead engineer and department head complete the graded approach worksheet as part of the specification process. This process helps the lead engineer and department head evaluate project risks and determine the appropriate level of documentation and review a project needs. without appropriate control measures. Page No. 3 and 5. risk assessment integer values between 1 and 5. Subprojects do not take on the risk level of the larger project. as defined in Chapter 1: Requirements and Specifications. 10 . The engineer should record. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this chapter is to define a risk-based graded approach for use in engineering projects. Levels 2 and 4 are implied to fall between those provided. The department head and lead engineer determine the level of risk for each element and document it using the graded approach worksheet. Definitions Graded Approach: A graded approach uses a list of factors to establish the appropriate level of formality a project requires. Completion of the graded approach worksheet is a way to quantify project risk early in a project. the engineer needs to complete further risk analysis based on guidelines from other governing organizations. component or system that generally falls under the responsibility of a single department. The department head and lead engineer can use the guidelines in this chapter to determine the overall level of risk and to highlight high-risk categories. in Tables 1 and 2 below. Chapter 2: Engineering Risk Assessment Risk Assessment The Engineering Policy Manual Team has identified 15 potential risk elements to evaluate for each project. If a project carries a high level of risk.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Risk-Based Graded Approach: A risk-based graded approach evaluates the level of risk in various risk elements in order to establish the appropriate level of controls a project requires. as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 low risk low to medium risk medium risk medium to high risk high risk Definitions of the risk levels are given below with criteria for risk levels 1. The project manager may add additional requirements. Risk Element: A risk element is an aspect of a project that could prevent its successful completion. A subproject is a self-contained engineering task.

5 The project will require the development of new technology. 11 . 3 The project will require increased diligence due to its location. 5 The project will require very restrictive safety considerations. This includes work requiring review and personnel safety systems. 1 Vendors could cause minor issues. B: Environmental Impact This defines the potential level of environmental impact. D: Resource Availability This defines the availability of internal and external resources to plan and execute the project. 5 The quality requirements are beyond the capability of existing infrastructure. 3 Engineers will purchase and modify off-the-shelf technology. 3 Vendors could cause manageable complications. 1 The quality requirements can be met easily with existing infrastructure. 3 The project may have some environmental impact but will not require an environmental assessment. E: Quality Requirements This determines the effort required to achieve the quality level the customer assigns to the final product. Complicating factors may include long lead times and issues with vendor qualification and reliability. 5 The project will require an environmental impact statement. C: Vendor Issues This defines the expected complexity of working with vendors. the configuration of the product or the type of work required. 1 The project will use off-the-shelf technology. 1 There will be no significant environmental impact. 5 Vendor issues could result in significant schedule delays or cost overruns or could otherwise jeopardize the successful completion of the project. 1 Resources will be readily available. 5 The difficulty of obtaining resources puts the project schedule at high risk. 3 The quality requirements are challenging but can be met with existing infrastructure. Page No. 1 The project will require standard safety considerations. 3 Resources could be somewhat restricted. F: Safety This defines the safety issues the project team will encounter. This includes work requiring review according to FESHM.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. 07/10 A: Technology This defines the technical complexity of the project. as determined by FESHM.

5 DOE. 3 A source outside of Fermilab will fund the project. 1 The manufacturing processes will be routine. Top management or outside agencies will schedule visits and issue monthly performance reports. 5 Only inexperienced personnel will participate. 3 The project will require quarterly performance reports. operations and schedule in product manufacturing. 3 A blend of experts and inexperienced personnel will participate. 1 Regulatory agencies will have minor to no involvement. 1 A single source within Fermilab will fund the project. 1 Time will be unlimited. 5 Multiple sources outside of Fermilab will fund the project.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. 5 The project will require new or complex manufacturing methods. 1 Reports to senior management about the project will not be required. 5 The project will be highly visible. M: Project Reporting Requirements This indicates the level of reporting to the senior management the project requires. 5 Project success depends upon contributions from multiple institutions. Page No. 1 Only experts will participate. 07/10 G: Manufacturing Complexity This defines the expected complexity of combining the elements of technology. H: Schedule This defines how much time the project team will have to complete the schedule. 5 The subproject will be on the overall project critical path and has no schedule contingency. 3 The project will require an existing technology that the manufacturer has not previously used. K: Regulatory Requirements This identifies the impact of oversight by governmental or other regulatory agencies on the project. 12 . I: Interfaces This defines the complexity of integrating multiple subprojects. 3 The schedule will be somewhat constrained. will have regulatory involvement. L: Project Funding This defines the availability and approval status of project planning and execution funds. 3 Project success depends upon contributions from multiple departments at Fermilab. 3 The Department of Energy (DOE) will have direct regulatory involvement. J: Experience/Capability This defines the level of experience and capability project team members will have. as well as other state or federal government agencies. 1 One department at Fermilab will be involved with a standalone project.

5 The project will require laboratory or DOE budget tracking and reporting.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. O: Project Cost This defines the projected cost. 3 The public may be somewhat affected and should be informed with news releases. 1 The project will be within the department operating budget. The public should be involved through public forums and may participate in advisory councils. 13 . 1 The public will not be affected. 3 The project will require divisional budget planning. 07/10 N: Public Impact This indicates how much the project will affect the public or public opinion. Page No. 5 The project may have an impact on the public.

the topic covered in that chapter requires formal control.O). notify the project manager. Project Risk Element H Score X I X J X K X L X M X N X O X High Risk ≥ 25 Total Page No. or the project management risk (H .Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. If the subtotal of the risk scores for the elements related to one chapter is higher than the high risk score indicated in the table below.O).O) subtotal is 25.G). If the project or subproject has a risk score of 5 in any project risk element (A . it requires formal control as described within the Engineering Manual chapters indicated in the table below. 07/10 Interpreting the Graded Approach Worksheet The lead engineer fills out an engineering and project risk element table for his or her project or subproject. 14 . The project manager may choose to elevate formal control requirements to address elevated project management risk (H . Engineering Risk Element Chapter 1 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 X X A X X X X B X X X X X X X X X X X X X X C D E F X X X X X X X X X X X X G High Risk ≥ 10 ≥ 16 ≥ 19 ≥ 19 ≥ 16 ≥ 13 ≥4 ≥7 Subtotal *The System Design chapter encompasses several subtopics. If the project or subproject has a risk score of 5 in any engineering risk element (A .

15 . 5 MW peak power RF source. 07/10 Sample Risk Assessment Worksheet A sample risk assessment worksheet is shown below. Past experience with the production of the high-power tubes has shown this to be a high-risk procurement. Engineering Risk Item A B C D E F G Risk Element Technology Environmental Impact Vendor Issues Resource Availability Quality Requirements Safety Manufacturing Complexity Risk Assessment 2 2 5 4 3 3 4 Project Management Risk Item H I J K L M N O Risk Element Schedule Interfaces Experience / Capability Regulatory Requirements Project Funding Project Reporting Requirements Public Impact Project Cost Risk Assessment 3 3 4 2 2 2 1 3 Page No.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Only one vendor is capable of manufacturing these tubes. and it is expected that significant vendor oversight will be warranted. Consider a project to design and build a 201 MHz.

16 . Project Risk Element H Score 3 I 3 J 4 K 2 L 2 M 2 N 1 O 3 High Risk ≥ 25 Total 20 The engineer will use the high-risk control measures in Chapter 4: System Design and Chapter 5: Engineering Design Review because the Vendor Issues risk element has a rating of 5 and because the risk element subtotals for those chapters are high.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Page No. 07/10 Engineering Risk Element Chapter 1 3 4* 5 6 7 8 9 2 2 A 2 2 2 2 B 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 C D E F 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 G High Risk ≥ 10 ≥ 16 ≥ 19 ≥ 19 ≥ 16 ≥ 13 ≥4 ≥7 Subtotal 7 14 19 19 16 12 3 5 *The System Design chapter encompasses several subtopics. In addition. the engineer will use the high-risk control measures in Chapter 6: Procurement and Implementation because the risk element subtotal for that chapter is high.

the lead engineer must consider the elements listed below. The lead engineer provides a copy of the review results with proposed resolutions to the manager who called the review and files it with the project final documentation. what issues they discussed. Together they assemble the review team and establish the review schedule. for example. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the steps of the requirements and specifications review process. Chapter 3: Requirements and Specifications Review Review Documentation The lead engineer ensures all requirements and specifications reviews are documented. at a minimum. For high-risk projects. need to ask other departments to provide members. a meeting summary describing who attended the review. Reviewers may or may not be members of the same department. The lead engineer and the department head determine the type and level of detail of review materials using the graded approach. The project manager works with the department head responsible for a particular task to arrange these special reviews. These reviews use a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. When documenting a technical review. 17 . Managers may call for reviews of the technical aspects or safety of entire systems or of individual components. the department head selects engineers or subject-matter experts to serve as reviewers. The project may require only an informal technical review within the engineering department. In consultation with the lead engineer and his or her supervisor. include all elements in the review documentation. High-risk projects require formal technical reviews with subject-matter experts from outside the engineering department or laboratory. The review focuses on whether the requirements are complete and whether the proposed specifications fulfill the requirements. which would necessitate an additional requirements and specifications review. Page No. The extent of a review depends on the complexity of the project as evaluated using the graded approach. Subsequent design reviews could result in changes to the requirements. Project Manager Reviews Project management may decide to conduct special targeted requirements and specifications reviews for important subprojects or tasks. projects undergo department-based requirements and specifications reviews. Smaller departments. The department head may also invite additional stakeholders. The manager must accept the results of the review before the lead engineer can implement the proposed recommendations or action items. • Project description • Project presenters • Review date • Review committee members • Project specification document • Review findings • Review recommendations • Action items Department Reviews At the request of the department head. Project documentation includes.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. what deficiencies they identified and what recommendations they made. Any additional changes that may arise during implementation require reapproval by the manager.

if commercial software is used. If the engineer creates the code. Some projects may require a calculation as simple as an analysis in a log book. The document numbering system applies only to mechanical and electrical documents created at the laboratory.pdf Engineering Calculations Engineering calculations are an integral part of the engineering process. including document numbering. The documentation should include the methodology. The engineer may document calculations in a lab notebook. the lead engineer will A scan all log books into the documentation database. the documentation should include the source code listing. See the System Design Appendix for more information. The laboratory plans to replace this system as Fermilab adopts a new electronic document management system. http://bss. refer to http://fess.gov/techpubs/drawlist. assumptions. as defined in the System Design Appendix. consider using simplified methods to validate the results. Historical document numbers will still be accessible through local document-control representatives. 18 .gov/engineering/CADStandardManual. Refer to Chapter 9: Final Documentation for project documentation archival requirements. checks and documents engineering calculations depends on a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. Page No. software and interlock safety systems. • f the results of the calculations suggest a problem with the project design. the software version. High-risk projects require detailed calculations that are subject to review and the change-control process. Historical documents that are ported to the new system will still be identifiable by the original document numbers. engineering drawings. For informal engineering calculations. the engineer I may need to review or revise the engineering specification or risk assessment. any format is generally acceptable. The rigor with which the engineer performs. T • s the laboratory moves toward electronic documentation. The System Design Appendix gives an example of a formal engineering calculation procedure. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the elements of system design. input parameters and.html. engineering calculations.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. system and subsystems category number. C For complex analyses or those involving computer software. on a computer spreadsheet or with specialized computer tools. • he department head or project leader must review and approve calculations.fnal. Engineering calculations associated with high-risk projects must adhere to the following requirements: • ngineers must document calculations with sufficient detail so that they are reproducE ible and peer-reviewable. • alculation results should be realistic and comparable to results from past experience. Document Numbering System Chapter 4: System Design The local design drafting group and the lead engineer assign to a document a project.fnal. For Facilities Engineering Services Section document numbering.

test results and design algorithms S Operator Instructions Engineers provide operator instructions that are clear. Fermilab’s Computer Security Policy regulates the use of computers in high-value systems. The purpose is to ensure that other personnel can review and maintain installed software. The engineer must follow the proper procedure for assigning a drawing number and must track changes to each version of the drawing. is not included in this scope. Design Note Engineers must prepare a design note describing all software. Software projects that are assessed to be high-risk must include these elements in detail. As engineers create or modify drawings. succinct and readily available. approve and release drawings. Field Programmable Gate Arrays and embedded software. In creating or modifying an engineering drawing. Design iterations take place until the engineering drawings are completed.. Three documents that help others to do this are the design note. if applicable (d) A change-control plan including security • ystem analysis. 07/10 Engineering Drawings This section describes the basic approach used in the creation and modification of engineering drawings. The note contains: • ystem overview and requirements S • nterfacing information I • rimary code and configuration P (a) Source code or backup code information (b) ‘Module’ or program organization description (c) ‘Build and Boot’ information. The lead engineer ensures that a qualified person. High-risk projects require detailed software documentation that is subject to the change-control process. has properly reviewed and approved them. The instructions must include: • unctional descriptions of all operational modes F • lear means to display operating status C • he location of default or custom operator settings. etc. the engineer must use applicable drafting standards and requirements. Engineers follow the procedures of their local design/drafting groups to create. Software design and documentation uses a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. including personnel safety systems. such as CAD. operator instructions and system and software maintenance plans. they may need to hold design reviews to validate progress and address any design. Software This section covers software programs and computer configurations designed to operate experiments. Examples include PLC logic. as described in the System Design Appendix. file storage. public displays. accelerator components and associated equipment. 19 . See the System Design Appendix for detailed information.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Commercially purchased software not modified by Fermilab. review. tests. quality or safety concerns. e-mail. if applicable T Page No. other than the originator of the drawings. Documentation as simple as inline comments may suffice for some projects.

20 . implemented in software have additional design requirements. which are spelled out in FESHM and in International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61508. The lead engineer and department head maintain software security to prevent unwarranted changes. 07/10 System and Software Maintenance Plans Engineers should create maintenance plans that take into consideration: • ource code or configuration comments in code or logic S • omments wherever the functions of the software are not reasonably obvious to C another programmer Hardware and software tools should be maintainable for the life of the project. or Interlocks. Interlock Safety Systems Safety Interlocked Systems.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. “Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. The lead engineer maintains code versions to allow others the ability to fall back to previous operating code should the new code present problems.” Page No.

The lead engineer provides a copy of the review results with proposed resolutions to the manager who called the review and files it with the project final documentation. Chapter 5: Engineering Design Review Review Documentation The lead engineer ensures that all design reviews are documented. a meeting summary describing who attended the review. include all the following elements in the review documentation: • Project description • Project presenters and their presentations • Review date • Project requirements • Documents and calculations reviewed • Procurement specifications • Review findings • Review recommendations • Action items The lead engineer returns review results that affect the project specification to the originator of the review for resolution. Page No. Managers call for design reviews of the technical aspects or safety of entire systems or individual components. Engineering design reviews use a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. The lead engineer and the department head coordinate the type and level of detail of review materials using the graded approach. The engineer may need to ask for reapproval of the project requirements and specifications document. what deficiencies they identified and what recommendations they made. High-risk projects require a formal technical review with subjectmatter experts from outside the engineering department or laboratory. conceptual design. Project documentation includes. such as prototyping. 21 . Any additional changes that may arise during implementation require reapproval by the manager. For high-risk projects. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the steps of the engineering design review process. at a minimum. preliminary design and final design. Reviews occur at various stages of the engineering process.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. The manager must accept the result of the review before the lead engineer can implement the proposed recommendations or action items. The project may require only an informal technical review within the engineering department. what issues they discussed.

Division/Section/Center Head Reviews Division/Section/Center heads are responsible for all of the activities occurring in their areas. a single review may address both design and safety issues. Project management may decide to conduct special targeted technical or safety reviews for important subprojects or tasks. 22 . Reviewers may or may not be members of the same department. They also establish the required documentation. This includes the engineering efforts of their own personnel as well as any outside activities that affect their areas. The lead engineer must provide this documentation to reviewers. The department head and lead engineer jointly determine review content and detail. Larger projects may require multiple reviews held over multiple sessions. Together they assemble the review team and establish the review schedule. Together they assemble the review team and establish the review schedule. In consultation with the lead engineer and his or her supervisor. Project Manager Reviews Project management teams oversee progress and coordinate the project phases for all major projects at Fermilab. projects have department-based technical or safety reviews. The review focuses on the project’s ability to meet specifications. the department head selects engineers or subject-matter experts to serve as reviewers. allowing them ample time for study before the review. Project managers and the Division/Section/Center heads work with the department head responsible for the task in question to arrange these special reviews. The extent of the review depends on the complexity of the project as evaluated using the graded approach. The project manager works with the department head responsible for a particular task to arrange these special reviews. Smaller departments. 07/10 Department Reviews At the request of the department head.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Page No. for example. allowing them ample time for study before the review. The lead engineer must provide this documentation to reviewers. For smaller projects. need to ask other departments to provide members. Division/Section/Center heads may decide to conduct technical or safety reviews of any engineering project executed within their areas of responsibility. ES&H requirements and good engineering practices. The department head may also invite additional stakeholders. They also establish the required documentation.

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. The implementation process involves many elements of project management as they apply to an engineering project. Engineers should discuss fabrication issues with the Contracts Group. as it accelerates the procurement process and minimizes paperwork. With appropriate approval. Procurement Department of the Business Services Section The Procurement Department of the Business Services Section buys standard or off-the-shelf items and establishes service agreements for the maintenance of equipment. Administrative personnel know which cardholders can assist with purchasing for their departments. Procurement documentation may be as simple as a purchase requisition description. Fermilab encourages Procard use. Procards. The System Design Appendix includes examples of completed sole-source justifications. to a limited group of employees. They must work with the Procurement Department of the Business Services Section. The Procurement and Implementation Appendix gives multiple examples of formal procurement specifications. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the steps of the procurement and implementation process. fabrication and construction elements. They use Procards to buy most commercial goods and off-site services priced up to $2. services. The department can assist in obtaining product availability information and information about vendors. They can assist in tracking the status of the procurement. 23 . Other projects may require documented vendor communication and detailed. See the Fermilab Procurement Policy and Procedures Manual for more information about the procurement process. Technical personnel send purchase requisitions to the department administrative personnel.500 per transaction. to initiate the procurement of goods or services. Refer to Fermilab’s records-retention policy for additional information. The lead engineer communicates special project requirements to the task managers and ensures that tasks are completed properly. an engineer or member of the technical staff may procure materials. The Procurement Department also procures all services. Communications to Vendors and Subcontractors Engineers must keep records of all vendor and subcontractor communications. multipage specifications that are subject to the change-control process. Procurement and implementation processes together represent the realization of the project. Chapter 6: Procurement and Implementation Procurement Engineers should use a purchase requisition. Page No. The Contracts Group should be included in resolving any problems with outside manufacturers or subcontractors. The department offers assistance in the preparation of specifications and the review of specifications and drawings. Purchases at a cost above the amount specified in the Fermilab Procurement Policy and Procedures Manual require competitive bids or sole-source justifications. Technical personnel cannot directly solicit competitive quotes from vendors or enter into binding agreements on behalf of Fermilab. Business Services restricts the purchase of some items with Procards. Task Management The lead engineer requests the aid of qualified Fermilab task managers when employing workers in contracted trades. The Procurement Department contracts for items to be built to Fermilab design or performance specifications. Procurement Credit Cards Laboratory management issues procurement credit cards. including procurement history. which can include a list of suggested vendors. including all construction projects.

For high-risk procurements. The lead engineer retains specifications in a file accessible to project and collaboration members. consider including the following items: • Design approval • Interface points • Applicable codes and standards • Inspection and test requirements • Installation requirements • Documentation and training requirements • Spare or replacement part requirements • Safety and health plan • Project management plan • Warranty terms and conditions The design review for high-risk projects must include technical specifications for procured materials or services. He or she also keeps a record of any change-control documents. keywords and authors.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. The issuing department approves and controls the specifications. procurement or custom fabrication effort by outside vendors and contractors. at a minimum: • Scope of the work • Performance requirements • Applicable standards • List of required submittals • Quality-assurance plan • Acceptable products or acceptable substitutions • Expected execution of the specified product or service In addition. A procurement specification must include. 24 . Page No. 07/10 Technical Specifications for Procured Materials or Services The lead engineer ensures that technical specifications are developed for items that require engineering. the lead engineer assigns an appropriate document number and record revision dates. design.

connections and interfaces between the project and all V external systems. Listed below are actions that the lead engineer must complete during the project implementation. safety and technical concerns at regular A meetings with key personnel. In some cases. • ssess progress and discuss quality. • ork with groups involved with or affected by the installation to reserve space and W to coordinate work activities. for large projects. approves. • Track delivery dates and identify items critical to maintaining the schedule. For high-risk projects. The department head and. • erify the requirements. the project manager inform engineers of any additional requirements associated with project management. • Perform quality-assurance verification of delivered parts and subcomponents. Implementation In the implementation phase. reviews. assembly and installation procedures. implements and controls implementation procedures. the department head or project manager ensures that the lead engineer develops. Implementation procedures include quality-assurance. 07/10 Civil Construction Specifications Civil construction specifications follow the Construction Specifications Institute’s Master Specification Format numbering system. • rack financial and personnel resources and ensure they are sufficient to meet the T project schedule. sole-source justifications. the lead engineer is responsible for providing cost and schedule progress updates to project management. at a minimum: • Scope of the work • Performance requirements • List of required submittals • Quality-assurance plan • Acceptable products or acceptable substitutions • Expected execution of the specified product or service The Procurement and Implementation Appendix includes several sample specifications. 25 . Fermilab or Division/Section/Center policy may require additional levels of approval for a particular procedure or set of procedures. The content of a civil construction specification must include.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Page No. and bid evaluation sheets. • oordinate with support staff to ensure proper fabrication and installation of the C project components. • Integrate changes resulting from design reviews. fabrication.

Testing and validation demonstrate that the component or system satisfies the project requirements and component specifications. include all steps in the testing process.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. This process uses a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. processes and procedures. For high-risk projects. 26 . updating the testing N procedure. • Document the test results. The test documentation must include the following elements: • Descriptive title and scope of the test • Date of the test • Designation of the last revision • ame of the individual responsible for testing the system. under which E the test was conducted • Any required concurrence of safety professionals • Start-up checklists • ccuracy. such as temperature. Chapter 7: Testing and Validation The lead engineer must consider taking the steps listed below to validate a device or system. • Document the testing plans. reproducibility and uncertainty of A test results Page No. including a list of equipment and instruments required D to conduct the test • Brief description of the importance of the test and its intended use • Test acceptance criteria • Safety precautions and hazard analysis • Environmental concerns and considerations • Required instrumentation calibrations • Calculations and analysis of test results The test documentation may also include the following elements: • Definitions of terminology • Description of sampling procedures and data-logging • Detailed description of testing procedures • nvironmental conditions. • Devise a strategy for testing the device or system. pressure and humidity. The lead engineer should use standard test methods from national standards organizations when available. systematic bias. repeatability. • Analyze the test results and compare them to system requirements. • Conduct the tests. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the testing and validation process. precision. and documenting exceptions • escription of the test plan.

07/10 If the device or system meets requirements. procedures and reports in the project’s final documentation.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. If the device or system fails to meet requirements. Page No. the lead engineer should continue to the next step in the engineering process. 27 . He or she uses the review to determine the implications for the overall project and to determine the next course of action. The lead engineer must include test methods. the lead engineer must conduct a special requirements and specifications review with those affected.

The maintenance procedures should include any required written lock-out tag-out (LOTO) or other ES&H procedures related to maintenance. read FESHM Chapter 5120. This process uses a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. which the department head or designee then controls and distributes.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. The operating procedures should describe steady-state and transient operating conditions. 28 . which may be developed by vendors or by Fermilab project engineers. Consider the following items while preparing written LOTO procedures: • An explanation of special precautions • Checklists of steps to be taken and acknowledged in a prescribed order • A description of normal and current conditions • n explanation of the approval process for exceptions to or deviations from the A procedure • A determination of whether a controlled copy needs to be present during use For additional information. Operating Documents Chapter 8: Release to Operations The department head and lead engineer determine which operating procedures are required. Fermilab Energy Control Program. Maintenance Documents The department head and lead engineer determine which maintenance procedures are required. The lead engineer archives the documents. Page No. 07/10 Purpose and Scope This section describes the operating and maintenance documents the lead engineer must produce before the project is complete and becomes operational. The lead engineer compiles any required maintenance procedures. The lead engineer archives the documents. which may be developed by vendors or by Fermilab project engineers. which the department head or designee then controls and distributes. The lead engineer compiles any required operating procedures.

This must include the following documents: • Project report • Requirements and specifications • Engineering risk assessment with design project plan • Calculations with evidence of reviews In addition. The final documentation includes all documents from prior steps in the process. The detail of the report depends on the complexity of the project. if applicable. which may include: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) specifications statements of work technical change orders supplier quality plans inspection and test results material certifications nonconformance reports deviation request reports other relevant supplier data • Fabrication and assembly documents • esting and validation documents. 07/10 Purpose and Scope The purpose of this section is to describe the final documentation the lead engineer must create and control in order to complete a project. This section of the manual describes additional documents the lead engineer must produce before archiving final documentation for the project. The report consists of system diagrams. where necessary. 29 . including test results and. The report includes an explanation of how the project interfaces with other systems. and explanations of how to operate and maintain the system.Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. explanations of important technical decisions. Chapter 9: Final Documentation Project Documentation All projects require a final written Project Report. the department head or project manager will decide whether to include the following documents: • Software documentation • List of part and subassembly numbers with titles • List of drawing numbers with revision levels and titles • esults of design and safety reviews with a list of identified issues and their R resolutions • Procurement documents. The final documentation incorporates all documents required by this manual. This process uses a graded approach as determined by the department head and lead engineer following the guidance of the Engineering Risk Assessment. T corrections made to the system as a result of testing • Approved operations and maintenance manuals and procedures • Lessons learned Page No.

technical memos. archiving may be as simple as saving the project notebook. workflow. 07/10 • References • Copies of any published papers. document identification. This will provide a central location and common method for document storage. configuration control. change management and document retrieval. Archiving and Control The lead engineer stores engineering documents to allow future engineering teams to review the history of a project. Page No. etc. A project might require formal archival and control of documentation within a Division/Section/Center or within an overall project document management system. reports. Fermilab will implement a labwide Electronic Document Management System (EDMS).Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. In the future. In other cases. 30 .

” Herbert Hoover. President of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers from 1907–1908 “Engineering is a great profession. like a walking encyclopedia. 31 . Stott. We want you to remember that the manual is a living document and will be updated as engineering processes evolve at the laboratory.. There is the satisfaction of watching a figment of the imagination emerge through the aid of science to a plan on paper. engineering is not merely the possession of the capacity to get elegant solutions to non-existent engineering problems. Then it moves to realization in stone or metal or energy.. Then it elevates the standard of living and adds to the comforts of life. “Engineering is not merely knowing and being knowledgeable. engineering is not merely analysis.” Henry G. engineering is practicing the art of the organized forcing of technological change.. Then it brings homes to men or women. 07/10 No matter whether this is your first pass through the Fermilab Engineering Manual or only your latest. President of the United States from 1929 –1933 and professional mining engineer Closing Thoughts Page No. the Engineering Team hopes your project has been successful. This is the engineer’s high privilege. Dean of the MIT School of Engineering from 1959–1968 “Engineering is the art of organizing and directing men and controlling the forces and materials of nature for the benefit of the human race..Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. Engineers operate at the interface between science and society.” Gordon Brown.

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. 07/10 This engineering manual was initially released in 2010 at the request of the laboratory director. Dr. 32 . P. It was developed by a team composed of engineers from across the laboratory representing the major engineering disciplines and an editor from the Office of Communication. The team members were: Russ Alber Mark Champion Paul Czarapata (co-leader) Kathryn Grim (editor) Arkadiy Klebaner Tony Metz Richard Schmitt Jay Theilacker (co-leader) Dan Wolff Page No. Oddone. J.

07/10 Appendices to this manual are collected in a separate document titled Engineering Manual Appendices. We encourage you to add to the Appendices by submitting additional examples. 33 .Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Engineering Manual Version No. which is available online. It gives examples of documents with varying levels of formality as determined by a graded approach. provides example documents for many chapters of this manual. Appendices Page No. This document. You will no doubt face issues similiar to those addressed in the Appendices.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.