11/11/2007

UNIVERSITY OF GÄVLE

STIRLING ENGINE

MAIER Christoph GIL Arnaud AGUILERA Rafael SHUANG Li YU Xue

Index
Summary ........................................................................................................................ 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 4 History............................................................................................................................ 5 Presentation of Stirling Engines..................................................................................... 7 I. Stirling thermodynamic cycle ............................................................................. 7

II. Engine configurations ......................................................................................... 8 1. 2. 3. 4. Alpha Stirling: ................................................................................................. 9 Beta Stirling................................................................................................... 11 Gamma Stirling ............................................................................................. 13 Other types .................................................................................................... 14

Reasons to use a Stirling Engine .................................................................................. 15 Analyze from Economic point ..................................................................................... 18 Applications of the Stirling power ............................................................................... 20 I. Cars ................................................................................................................... 20

II. Submarine ......................................................................................................... 21 III. IV. Aircrafts ......................................................................................................... 22 Heat and power System ................................................................................. 23

V. Cryocooler......................................................................................................... 24 VI. VII. Nuclear power ............................................................................................... 24 Solar Energy .................................................................................................. 25

Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 29 References .................................................................................................................... 31

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Stirling Engine

Summary
This essay mainly makes an exposition of the Stirling Engine. Firstly, the history of Stirling Engine is showed to make a guide of first comprehension. Then the Stirling Engine’s thermodynamic cycle is explained and the configuration is analyzed, which we do to make sure a further insight into the Stirling Engine. After that, the reasons to use a Stirling Engine are discussed, especially from an economic point of view. This is to describe why the Stirling Engine is widely used in nowadays’ world. And the last part is to show out how the Stirling Engine is applied in each field. But with a special focus on sterling engines in applications with renewable energies. This whole essay displayed a broad overall presentation to the Stirling Engine, and analyzed its intrinsic value for the future.

Stirling Engine

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XIX with the development of the internal combustion engine and the appearance of electric engines. since a Stirling Engine works with smaller pressures than the device created by Watt and it did not require a qualified train engineer. 4 Stirling Engine .Introduction "…These imperfections have been in a great measure removed by time and especially by the genius of the distinguished Bessemer. This device was born as a competence to the vapor machine. And we show how the Sterling Engine in combination with renewable energy sources can be part of a sustainable energy supply. At the end of s. Nowadays the technology that involves the invention of Robert Stirling is in completely development because of the fact that now very useful applications are available. Robert Stirling [1790-1878]) Figure 1 : Sketch of Robert Stirling of his invent The Stirling Engine was invented by Robert Stirling. This project explains the principle function of the engine with a deep investigation. This document travels in the history of this curious device looking for reasons of this incredible development in this called high technology with its different applications and doing an analysis from the point of view of the economy. If Bessemer Iron or steel had been known thirty five or forty years ago there is a scarce doubt that the air engine would have been a great success … It remains for some skilled and ambitious mechanist in a future age to repeat it under more favorable circumstances and with complete success…" (Written in the year 1876 by Dr. the machine of this study was forgotten.

he found the steam engines are dangerous for the workers. But the internal combustion engine substituted for it quickly. The patent also mentioned the possibility of using the Stirling Engine 5 . At this period. he invented a regenerator. used to pump water from a quarry. This is the earliest Stirling Engine. for its improvement of fuel-economy. James Stirling. He became a minister of the church at Scotland in 1816. It is put out 100 W to 4 kW. He called the “Economiser” and the engine improves the efficiency. His father was interesting in engine and he inherited it. It was invented by Robert Stirling (1790-1878) and his brother James. Figure 2 : Earliest Stirling engine Robert Stirling gets a patent for the economizer with an air engine incorporating it in 1817. The original patent by Reverend Stirling was called the "economizer".History The Stirling Engine is one of the hot air engines. The inventors sought to create a safer engine instead of steam engines at that time. After one year. and could not cause steam burns. Robert’s brother. In 1818 he built the first practical exponent of his engine. He hope it wound be safer alternative. also played an important role in the development of Stirling engines. He decided to improve the design of an existing air engine. The Ericsson invented the solar energy in 1864 and did some improvements for after several years. whose boilers often exploded as a result of high pressure of the steam and the inadequate materials. the danger to explode is impossible. Since the Stirling engine worked at a lower pressure.

it represents the blooming of the modern age of Stirling Engine development. Figure 3 : Stirling Engine’s principle of operation Stirling engine of the second generation began in 1937. The knowledge about the heat transfer and fluid physical. 6 Stirling Engine . the price of Stirling engine is too high for the market. And they did the Type 10. Though the MP1002CA may have been a dead end. Several patents were later determined by two brothers for different configurations including pressurized versions of the engine. incorporated into a generator set as originally planned The set progressed through three prototypes (102A.The Philips of Holland used new materials and technology to ascend a very high level. which is a great significance to improving of the structure and raised the stability. In addition to which the advent of transistor radios with their much lower power requirements meant that the market for the set was fast disappearing. It made used of radios at that time. with the production version. Though the MP1002CA may have been a dead end. In 1951. Throughout World War II and by the late 1940s. This component is now commonly known as the "regenerator" and is essential in all high-power Stirling devices.device in an engine. and C). Philips’ subsidiary Johan de Witt does this work continued. B. it represents the start of the modern age of Stirling engine development. being designated MP1002CA. rated at 200 watts electrical output from a bore and stroke of 55x27mm.

Stirling thermodyna thermodynamic cycle The Stirling engine cycle is a closed cycle and it contains. The working fluid cools and contracts at constant temperature TC. while an equal amount of heat Q3-4 is added to the system from the heating source. No work is done. No work is done. hydrogen or helium). 3-4: isothermal expansion process Work W3-4 is done by the working fluid process. while an equal amount of heat Q1-2 is rejected by the system to the cooling source. absorbed by the working fluid and temperature is raised from TC to TH. Figure 4 : A pressure/volume graph of the ideal Stirling cycle Stirling Engine 7 . 2-3: constant volume displacement process with heat addition Heat Q2-3 is onstant addition. rejected by the working fluid and temperature decrease from TC to TH. The principle is that of thermal expansion and contraction of this fluid due to a temperature ansion differential. fluid. So the ideal Stirling cycle consists of four thermodynamic distinct processes thermodynamics acting on the working fluid: two constant-temperature processes and two constant temperature constantvolume processes.Presentation of Stirling Engines I. fluid. 4-1: constant volume displacement process with heat rejection Heat Q4-1 is rejection. The working fluid heats and expands at constant temperature TH. most commonly a fixed mass of gas called the "working fluid" (air. Each one of which can be separately analysed: ch 1-2: isothermal compression process Work W1-2 is done on the working process.

But many engines have no apparent regenerator like beta and gamma engines configurations with a “loose fitting” displacer. are cooling. It is not overly intuitive. where a portion of the heat is deposited. Understanding how a Stirling engine works is not a simple matter. Beta and Gamma arrangements. The regenerator is constructed by a material that conducts readily heat and has a high surface area (a mesh of closely spaced thin metal plates for example). The main processes. The gasses used inside a Stirling engine never leave the engine. so that the overall efficiency is often only about half of the ideal (Carnot) efficiency. it can function as a heat pump (reversibility of the Stirling cycle). Thus the regenerator “pre heats” and “pre cools” the working gas. this heat is reclaimed. These engines also feature a regenerator (invented by Robert Stirling). Compared to the ideal cycle. friction. heating and expansion. like for most heat engines. and so improve the efficiency.The process lines in the figure above reflect the properties of an ideal gas. Let’s explain the device through the presentation of the different engines configuration. Engine configurations Mechanical configurations of Stirling engines are classified into three important distinct types: Alpha. When the cool gas is transferred back. II. and the loss of short-circuit conducted heat. as in a gasoline or diesel engine. it is first driven through the regenerator. When hot gas is transferred to the cool cylinder. There are no exhaust valves that vent high-pressure gasses. the surfaces of the displacer and its cylinder will cyclically exchange heat with the working fluid providing some regenerative effect. and there are no explosions taking place. compression. the efficiency of a real engine is reduced by irreversibilities. Another useful characteristic of the Stirling engine is that if supplied with mechanical power. A Stirling engine operates through the use of an external heat source and an external heat sink having a sufficiently large temperature difference between them. 8 Stirling Engine .

transferring the bulk of the gas to the cold piston cylinder. pushing the hot piston down. Most of the gas is still in the hot cylinder. a regenerator and a cooler. Transfer: At this point. Stirling Engine 9 . One is a “hot” piston and the other one a “cold piston”. The generator is illustrated by the chamber containing the hatch lines. the gas has expanded. it pushes most of the fluid through the heat exchanger and into the cold piston cylinder. the most of the gas in the system is at the hot piston cylinder. As it does so. Figure 5 : Alpha engine’s configuration The hot piston cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold piston cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger. As the crankshaft continues to turn the next 90°. Alpha Stirling: Alpha engines have two separate power pistons in separate cylinders which are connected in series by a heater. and flowing through the pipe into the cold cylinder. The gas heats and expands. pushing it down as well.1. Expansion: At this point.

10 Stirling Engine . conceptually however suffers from the disadvantage that both pistons need to have seals to contain the working gas. Figure 6 : Example of a real cycle of an alpha engine The Alpha engine is conceptually the simplest Stirling engine configuration.Contraction: Now the majority of the expanded gas is shifted to the cool piston cylinder. This diagram is feature of an alpha engine. The gas is shaft therefore pumped back. drawing both pistons up Transfer: The fluid is cooled and n the now crankshaft turns another 90°. The most important is to have the biggest grey area which represents the recuperated work during a cycle. It cools and contracts. it is heated and we go back to the first step. through the heat exchanger. into the hot piston cylinder. Once in this.

The displacer piston is a loose fit and does not extract any power from the expanding gas but only serves to shuttle the working gas from the hot heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger. Both Beta and Gamma engines use displacer piston arrangements. pushes the power piston the other way to compress the gas. and heater.This type of engine has a very high power volume ratio but has technical power-to-volume problems due to the usually high temperature of the "hot" piston and its seals 2. When it is pushed to the cold end of the cylinder it contracts and the momentum of the machine. regenerator. Figure 7 : Beta engine’s configuration The purpose of the single power piston and displacer is to “displace” the the working gas at constant volume. at When the working gas is pushed to the hot end of the cylinder it expands and pushes the power piston. the beta type avoids the technical problems of hot moving seals. The Beta displacer-piston engine has both the displacer and the piston in an in line cylinder system. Stirling's original engine from his patent drawing of 1816 shows a Beta arrangement. Unlike the alpha type. usually enhanced by a flywheel. A beta Stirling has a single power piston arranged within the same cylinder on piston the same shaft as a displacer piston. Beta Stirling The Beta configuration is the classic Stirling engine configuration and has enjoyed popularity from its inception until today. The Gamma in-line engine uses separate cylinders. and shuttle it between the expansion and the compression spaces through the series arrangement cooler. Figure 8 : Beta engine with momentum flywheel Stirling Engine 11 .

the gas has expanded. moving the displacer and transferring the bulk of the gas back to the hot end of the cylinder. 12 Stirling Engine . It contracts and the displacer is almost at the bottom of its cycle. Flywheel momentum carries the crank another quarter turn.Expansion: At this point. Most of the gas is still located in the hot end of the cylinder. driving more fluid into the cooled end of the cylinder. the cycle repeats. The gas heats and expands driving the power piston outward. most of the gas in the system is at the heated end of the cylinder. As the crank goes round. Transfer: At this point. And at this point. Flywheel momentum carries the crankshaft the next quarter turn. the bulk of the gas is transferred around the displacer to the cool end of the cylinder. Contraction: Now the majority of the expanded gas has been shifted to the cool end. Transfer: The contracted gas is still located near the cool end of the cylinder.

multi-cylinder Gamma type engines have a displacer and power piston. This configuration produces a lowe compression lower ratio but is mechanically simpler and often used in multi cylinder Stirling engines. but in different cylinders. Gamma engines are therefore used when the advantages of having separate cylinders outweigh the specific power disadvantage.Figure 9 : Example of a real cycle of a beta engine 3. Gamma Stirling A gamma Stirling is simply a beta Stirling in which the power piston is mounted in a separate cylinder alongside the displacer piston cylinder. This allows a convenient complete separation betw between the heat exchangers associated with the displacer cylinder and the compression and expansion work space associated with the piston. The cylinders Stirling Engine 13 . similar to Beta machines. The gas in the two cylinders can flow freely between them and remains a single body. Figure 10 : Gamma engine’s configuration Furthermore during the expansion process some of the expansion must take place in the compression space leading to a reduction of specific power. but is still connected to the same flywheel. The advantage of this design is that it is mechanically simpler because of the convenience of two cylinders in which only the piston has to be sealed.

The work produced by the non-return fluidyne goes into pumping the liquid. In its most basic form it contains a working gas. Figure 11 : Small gamma engine Figure 12 : Example of a real cycle of a beta engine 4.disadvantage is the lower compression ratio but the gamma configuration is the favorite for modelers and hobbyists. which uses the Stirling cycle via a hydraulic piston. a liquid and two non return valves. Other types Changes to the configuration of mechanical Stirling engines continue to engines interest engineers and inventors who create a lot of different version of the Stirling engine. For example. luidyne 14 Stirling Engine . including those with liquid pistons and those with diaphragms as pistons. There is also a large field of "free piston" Stirling cycles engines. . as an alternative to the mechanical Stirling engine is the fluidyne pump.

And inside the cylinder there are no explosions needed to run the pistons like in an Otto or Diesel engine. nitrogen or hydrogen and you don’t have to refill it because it uses always the same body of gas. There are no ignitions. This was a big advantage to the steam engines in the days when Stirling invented his engine because it was much less dangerous to work next to a Sterling Engine than to a common steam engine. Figure 13 : Schematic Stirling Engine Stirling Engine 15 .Reasons to use a Stirling Engine There are several reasons to use a Stirling Engine: One reason is that for this kind of engine it’s almost impossible to explode. no carburetion because you only need one kind of gas and no valve train because there are no valves. You don’t have to produce steam in a high pressure boiler. helium. Inside the pistons can be used air.

E. so the most types of emissions can be reduced.g. oil. Figure 15 : Figure 16 Gotland : HMS 16 Stirling Engine . That’s why they are used a lot in submarines. in the Royal Swedish Navy.To produce heat you can use whatever you want: fuel. If heat comes from a renewable energy source they produce no emissions. They run very silent and they don’t need any air supply. biomass or geothermal heat. gas. nuclear power and of course renewable energies like solar. Figure 14 : Solar panel The external combustion process can be designed as a continuous process.

They can be constructed to run very quiet and practically without any vibration. with the heat of your hand or from a cup of hot coffee. They are extremely flexible. e. They can be used as little engines for work which needs only low power.g. Figure 17 : CHP Stirling Engine 17 . Or in summers they can be used as coolers. Figure 16 : Low power Stirling engine They can run for a very long time because the bearings and seals can be placed at the cool side of the engine → they need less lubricant and they don’t have to be checked very often ( longer period between the overhauls ). They can run with a small temperature difference. The engine can run as a CHP (combined heat and power) because the heat which is produced to run it can easily be collected.

run on a cup of coffee. the Stirling engine will run on and on. In the external heating sealed chamber. Figure 18 : Stirling Engine working on a cup of coffee This experiment shows that only a very small power operation can carry out a Stirling engine. a Stirling Engine can be formed. After the expanded gases cooling down in the air conditioned room. The Stirling engine is a kind of piston engine. diesel. and he it can use a variety of fuels. A cup of coffee cannot become a cup of gasoline. Of course it costs much to manufacture a Stirling engine. There is a famous experiment that a Stirling engine can easily iver.Analyze from Economic point As said above the Stirling engine is a kind of external combustion engine. the cost would surely be cut down for quite a lot. It can be estimated that combustible gases are the best can material. This characteristic especially shows out on economy point. even cow dung can be run on as fuels. next he air-conditioned process is taking on. As long as a certain value of the temperature difference exists. propane. as it requires manufacture 18 Stirling Engine . but it can be also used as a Stirling engine driver. including gasoline. As long as there is sunshine. sunshine and salad oil. The benefits obtained from the Stirling engine are definitely far beyond the costs. the expansion of gases inside the engine promotes the pistons work. ne So once solar is used to produce energy for the Stirling engine. which contributes a lot to energy conservation.

Some engines cause a lot of pollution. So another part of cost is saved. Typically these material requirements substantially increase the cost of the engine. renewably and efficiency. In fact. so much is cost for pollution control and government. The expansion-side heat exchanger’s temperature is often very high. however the theory provide a direction for improving the thermal efficiency. only 3% to 5%. heat engine generally is steam engine. Nowadays. Stirling thermodynamic theory is aiming to improve the thermal efficiency. But once the Stirling engine is made and put into a proper condition. Energy problem is a worldwide one. may get the infinite enhancement. While the environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious today. Certainly it cannot come to 100% due to the physical limitation. Because of its sustainability. Its efficiency is very low. The materials and assembly costs for a high temperature heat exchanger typically accounts for 40% of the total engine cost.a high level of the materials and manufacturing processes. use clean energy as much as possible instead of the high carbon content of fossil energy is a principle which should be followed during energy construction. this characteristic is extremely valuable. quite a few costs would be paid for keeping it running. On contrast. Stirling engine exhausts cleanly and avoid this type of matter. over 95% of the heat is not used. It saves the cost for a lot while making sustainable development. under the ideal condition. more and more countries have recognized that a society with sustainable development should be able to meet the needs of the community without endangering future generations. At the end of 18th century and the early 19th century. the Stirling engine is just the very one being consistent with the requirements of the times. Development and utilization of solar will not pollute the environment. and it is sooner or later to get into the transitionto-new-energy period. so the materials must stand the corrosive consequences of the heat. Therefore. Stirling proposed that the Stirling cycle efficiency. Stirling Engine 19 . that is. Vigorously develop new and renewable sources of energy utilization technology will be an important measure to reduce pollution. as solar is one of the cleanest energy. now the efficiency of Stirling engine can come up to 80% or even more.

March 21. 2002. but it is a challenge for the stop and go of the automobile. This is a slow method of changing power levels because is not enough to accelerate crossing an intersection. On March 20. Figure 19 : Hybrid car designed by GM 1 20 Stirling Engine . 2002 I delivered one of our KY-2000 Stirling engines to the Mechanical Engineering department at San Diego State University. Cars In the ages of 1970s and 1980s several automobile companies like “General Motors” or “Ford” were researching about Stirling Engine. This device is good for a constant power setting. The batteries could give the instant acceleration that drivers are used to. A good car can change the power quickly. It has a 60 hp diesel engine and a 200 hp electric motor. One possibility to obtain this important characteristic is design a power control mechanism that will turn up or down the burner. While I was there I had the opportunity to see their hybrid diesel/electric car. depending on which fuel was cheaper.“Brent Van Arsdell". This invention makes the car silent and clean running. The extra power (above 60 hp) for the electric motor is of course supplied by the batteries when needed.Applications of the Stirling power I. The best solution in spite of these difficulties in automobiles is hybrid electric cars where Stirling Engine could give enough power to make long trips where could get burn gasoline or diesel.

was the first submarine designed from the beginning to operate with AIP system. by means of a cut and lengthened by an intersection of a Stirling AIP section. which before the installation is equipped by two Stirling units. If the Stirling was designed to operate at ambient pressure (and had a valve system to ensure such) then it could be enclosed in a small bubble of gas that would slowly be crushed by the pressure of the ocean and increase the internal working volume of gas to a level that could not be easily achieved at sea level. Successful demonstration of AIP system during many routine patrols of HMS Näcken made that Gotland. which was launch in 1978 and after ten years 1988 became the first submarine equipped with AIP system. 2002” Figure 21 : Stirling engine in Näcken Stirling Engine 21 . Figure 20 : AIP system This high-technology is named air-independent propulsion (AIP). Submarine “Kockums”. The models are HMS Näcken.II. June 23. With such enormous internal pressure the power output would be huge! “Mick Viner. liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks and electrical equipment. There are four submarines equipment with Stirling AIP. produce Stirling Engines for the navy making the quietest submarines in the world. The other four submarines that operates with this technology are two Söderman class were upgraded by 2004. a Swedish defense contractor. another type of submarine.

the communities near airports could benefit from the quiet engine. in the Stirling the ignition is necessary at the beginning to start the fire after is not needed. The shaft torque on four cylinders varies from 100% negative to 350% positive in each revolution. Only 5% of variation characterised the quiet engine obviously increasing the comfort of occupants as well as airframe fatigue is greatly reduced and isolator’s materials. Usually the first failure is the ignition system. nowadays the propeller is designed considering the pulse of torque As long as the prop is also the flywheel it must be heavy and robust. Another hamper is eliminated Figure 23 : Altitude-Airspeed 22 Stirling Engine . Figure 22 : Torque-Crankshaft Angle Like is showed above vibration is an area that Stirling excel. Unlike other types of aircrafts this kind of aircrafts increases the performance climbs to altitude. Aircrafts In relation about Stirling engines in aircraft. Less vibration is good advantage for the propeller in means of torque.III.

In fact. engine power increases. Since the Stirling exhaust is cool... the fuel is only needed to make up the losses. water heating and electricity. But the Stirling re-uses the same heat energy on successive strokes.We can combine the building of homes with building communities with combined heat and power. if the level of CHP was increased to the Government's target of 10.000 MW. “. This compounds the natural ability of the aircraft to fly faster as air density decreases. In addiction. As the outside temperature declines. the Stirling is a much more efficient powerplant.” Figure 24 : AC Whisper Gen “Rt Hon Gordon Brown MP. Stirling allow the plane to cruise above the weather rather than trough it thus it is a safety aspect because there are many accidents because the weather. The second reason is that the fuel is always burned full lean. “Darryl Philip. An internal combustion engine takes in new air and fuel for each stroke. It is an innovative system developed to provide central heating.. the possibility of the pilot to choose the altitude could benefit the optimize use of the winds. while normal aircraft engines actually use gasoline as a coolant.. Heat and power System This device replaces traditional boilers in houses. it is obvious that less energy is being thrown away. saving nothing from the previous one. First. Usually this device is called “Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP)” and produces much less carbon dioxide than other ways of providing heat and power. There are several reasons for the superior fuel economy.without valves. April 1993” IV. In the following graph it is possible see that the performance of the Stirling engine increases with altitude because the system is sealed without reference of ambient air density. Prime Minister” Stirling Engine 23 . the UK could be one third of the way to meeting its international commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Stirling also uses the exhaust from the burner to preheat the incoming combustion air. at the best air/fuel ratio.

Steam plants use liquid sodium as 24 Stirling Engine . Reduce emissions of CO2 and other emissions. VI. V. It is possible reach temperatures like 10 K (-263°C) in machines of high technology. reducing electricity costs even further.5 tonnes per year. Invent provides an average household with a saving of about £150 per year. It is possible coach heat output from 7. Nuclear power Steam turbines of a nuclear plan can be replaced by Stirling engine thus reduce the radioactive by-products and be more efficient. The performance is over 90% of the fuel energy resulting in a cleaner and more cost effective alternative to traditional electricity generation. A wide variety of smaller size Stirling cryocoolers are commercially available for tasks such as the cooling of sensors. a real contribution towards tackling the effects of global warming. Thermoacoustic refrigeration uses a Stirling cycle in a working gas which is created by high amplitude sound waves.5-12KW at 220-240V Benefits: • • • • Savings through the production of own electricity. That’s 20% less carbon dioxide per household. The first Stirling-cycle cryocooler was developed at Philips in the 1950s and commercialized in such places as liquid nitrogen production plants. Electricity generated can be fed back into the electricity grid or used in the home. Avoiding peak-load costs when the network is overloaded. Allows for rapid introduction of new generation capacity. It also reduces carbon dioxide emissions by up to 1. Cryocooler If It is applied mechanical energy instead of cold and heat sources by means of external engine.The company Whisper Gen has launched to the market the market MkV AC gas fired that consists in four cylinders with double acting Stirling cycle. This company is still active in the development and manufacturing Stirling cryocoolers and cryogenic cooling systems.

44 kg.coolant in breeder reactors. Stirling Engine 25 . The heat source is a dry solid nuclear fuel slug and the cold source is space itself. Nowadays the company Infina Applications has development a 3 kW Solar Stirling Product. These generators have been extensively tested but have not yet been deployed on actual missions. VII. which in some cases that temperature increase so much this coolant could reacts violently with water. Each GPHS contains four iridium-clad Pu-238 fuel pellets. water/sodium exchanger are required. However control system allows long life. but the wear out of plutonium decrease the heat source. This device converter produces about four times more electric power from the plutonium fuel than a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. this was a herald of the coming of a revolutionary solar. Figure 25 : Conceptual design of the SRG by Lockheed The power output of the generator will be greater than 100 W at the beginning of life. Thus each SRG will utilise two Stirling converter units with about 500 watts of thermal power supplied by two GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) units and will deliver 100-120 watts of electric power. The hot end of the Stirling converter reaches 650°C. Solar Energy Placed at the focus of a parabolic mirror a Stirling engine can convert solar energy to electricity with efficiency better than non-concentrated photovoltaic cells. nowadays It generates electricity much more efficiently and economically than Photovoltaic (PV) systems whit technology called concentrated solar power (CPS). 10 cm square and weighs 1. In 2005 It is created a 1 kW Stirling generator with a solar concentrator. stands 5 cm tall. NASA has developed a Stirling Engine known as Stirling Radioisotope (SRG) Generator designed to generate electricity in for deep space proves in lasting missions.

By a mirror to focus the sun’s rays on the receiver end of a Stirling engine. and drive shaft assembly much like those found in internal combustion engines but without igniting the gas.4 percent to 2. Figure 27 : Solar Dynamic Brayton Schematic This solar application is called concentration solar power (CSP) and is significant potential grid for water pumping or electrification. The equipment is well characterized with ove 25. 26 Stirling Engine . aluminium and glass in the same low cost manufacturing techniques used to make consumer products. cooper. crank shaft. The drive shaft is connected to a small electricity generator. roughly twice as efficient of the others alternative solar technologies.000 hours of on-sun time.6 percent of Edison’s annual sales. The internal side of the receiver then heats hydrogen gas.Figure 26 : Solar Dynamic Brayton Schematic Some companies are launching technology using steel. which expands. The pressure created by the expanding gas drives a piston. In California there is a big contract where the electrical output represents from here approximately 1. over sun This technology is the world´s most efficiency for the conversion of solar energy to grid delivery electricity.

500 pm 1.stirlingenergy.CHP plant Working gas Mean pressure Temperature of hot heat exchanger Revolution speed Engine weight Tabla 2: www.5 750 750 1.600 NASA uses an advanced system to concentrate the sunlight.010 kg 1. Waste heat is removed through a heat exchanger and dissipated by radiator panels to space.Stirling engine KW 35 Thermal power output .CHP plant Fuel power input (based on NCV) Electric efficiency .Stirling engine kW 230 kW 300 % 25.htm Next year the Stirling solar dish will be able to be in the market.CHP plant % Overall efficiency .asp?ID=120 % Pa C Helium Helium 4.3 Overall electric efficiency .5 4. Type Initial Size (MW) Possible Expansion Size (MW) Estimated Annual Energy Based on Initial Size (GWH) Estimated Annual Energy Based on Expansion Size (GWH) Initial Phase OnLine Date Completion Date for Initial Size Term of Agreement (Years) Estimated Capacity Factor SES Solar One LLC Solar Thermal (Stirling Dish) 500 850 1.047 1. 2012 20 23.stirling.com/breaking_news. 2009 Dec.Seller Gen.dk/default.780 Jan.7 88. It is possible nowadays dream with CHP plants working with Stirling Engines and it is expected that this technology will be commercially available within the next few years.90 percent Tabla 1: www. A recuperative heat exchanger between the turbine discharge and receiver inlet is used to improve Stirling Engine 27 .Stirling engine kW 105 Thermal power output .7 88.0 11.010 3. therefore high capacity to produce energy with the power of sun helping to reduce emissions of CO2 gases. Electric power output . The power and distribution system is based on the closed Brayton cycle.3 70 210 460 600 25.0 11.

and ultraviolet/atomic oxygen protective coatings on all optical surfaces. Radiation degradation is reduced relative to solar photovoltaic arrays since semi-conducting materials are not used on the large exposed surfaces.cycle efficiency. redundant electronic components. hermetic sealing of the gas circuit. Long life is made possible through the use of non-contacting gas bearings. Figure 28 : Solar Dynamic Brayton Schematic 28 Stirling Engine .

Another good point is that they can be constructed in a way that they produce no emissions. And the high efficiency can bring the maximum utilization. Stirling cycle engines are very efficient for a given temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink. and will have less maintenance issues. because the Stirling engine costs little on environment protection. And this engine is comfortable for the people because is quiet and not noisy like an internal combustion engine. as they can run with air as the working fluid. the original cost is quite lower than for any other engines. so it costs little to handle with pollution governance. too. That means. And last but not least. so the Stirling engine does not only meet the economic needs at present time. As is showed above. It is the main development way in the future. The Stirling engine is an interesting device like it is showed in this document with various applications and high development. Even a few calories can drive it and keep it running. for example to use them in submarines or they can be used as a CHP plant. they can be used as a renewable energy source to produce electricity. steam engines (the Rankine cycle) fall into this category. Above all. but also in the future. Actually. Stirling Engine 29 . Stirling Engines are very flexible. they are very quiet. the profit of the Stirling engine is far beyond the cost. It is a huge advantage to the economy because is possible to burn the cheapest fuel and it is working instead of the more expensive one. Other fluids.Conclusion Stirling engines qualify for “free energy” designation when they allow us to tap previously inaccessible sources of naturally occurring energy. one or the other will be preferred. Steamers have fewer parts and higher power density. in combination with solar or geothermal heat. The fuels it uses can be clean. They can be very small and run with only a small temperature difference. Stirlings avoid fluid containment problems. The next point is that the auxiliary costs are low. such as a variety of refrigerants. Its advantages are really beneficial for the environment because it is possible produce electricity with the power of sun with high efficiency (theorically like the Carnot Cycle). the Stirling engine has strong economic practicality. What is more. There are a lot of different types of engines. can be used instead of water. the Stirling engine is consistent with the requirements of sustainable development. But depending upon what kind of hardware and its maintenance you prefer.

This application could be one of the different ways to solve the problem of greenhouse gas emissions and to continue and also to develop our comfort. This competes with solar cells. We think there is also a lot of potential in this area because modern industrialization should be sustained by regenerate power system. Find a heat source to make it works. obviously increase the efficiency is good Depend of which kind of fuel is getting burn in process. In all applications that was showed in this presentation the performance the devices are better.The real renewable energy is the solar application for this device because the other ways to produce the heat source are burning something. or through further development and optimization. Because. It is possible to decrease the emissions of CO2 or other toxic gases but not eliminate completely this problem for the earth and therefore for humans. it is entirely possible that the Stirling engine will find its own niche in the marketplace. Taking one with another. Stirling engine bring a tremendous revolution to human being. as companies look increasingly to alternative power units. perhaps as part of a hybrid power plant. It is showed that the performance is better but in the point of view of environment the real problem continues existing. No high-tech materials are needed. this is the case of biomass fuels in connection with a Stirling engine are concentrated on transferring the heat from the combustion of the fuel into the working gas and in the same way the solar application. It is not a dead end but a new start. The Stirling Engine is a machine of external combustion thus if it is burned fuel the emissions of CO2 is not solved. 30 Stirling Engine .

htm.html http://www.nasa.cec.stirlingenergy.sunpower. clarity and conciseness.sesusa.ohiou.ne.soliclima.html www.cfm http://www.at www.tw/wrkbas.com/faq/one?scope=public&faq_id=1#4 • • • • • • • • • • • Stirling Engine 31 .edu/~me321/chapter4th.cl/~roroman/ http://www. The authors of the project would like to thank the following for their accuracy. • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://en.com/main.stirlingengine.uchile.grc.whispergen.Stirlingengine.wikipedia.tcl?msg_id=00000D&topic_id=Power%2dproducing%20Stirling%20engi nes&topic=4 www.uk/dna/h2g2/A9042707 www.com www.nrel.htm http://www.jp/%7Ekhirata/english/others.stirlingengine.com www.infiniacorp.com/index.com/index.com www.php http://www.bbc.sensi.bekkoame.co.html http://news.ent.com http://www.com www.techfreep.org/index.com.References In order to accomplish the current project.logicsys.Sterlingenergy.gov/csp http://www.html www.org www.se http://www.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetchmsg. www.blog.com http://www.steamshift.edu/~urieli/stirling/me422.org/wiki/Stirling_engine http://www.energytech.info/Chapter3.htm http://www. the following web pages have been consulted.gov/WWW/tmsb/index.ent.kockums.ohiou.

YwEw_4YGB5QSPA-/blog/ap_20060827013919701.html http://www.gq_GFHRT.autobloggreen.com/tag/ford/ www.diracdelta.com/beta.do?id=961285 www.edu/stirling/ideal_stirling_cycle/index.gif tw.psu.at/(en)/kwk/portrait_kapitel-2_6.html http://www.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/beta.com/category/energy/ http://www.com/gamma.com/2005/05/ http://techfreep.ma.htm Figure12 http://www.kockums.se/Submarines/aipconversion.moteurstirling.sunpower.ent.kockums.org/~svo/stirling/ http://energytech.html http://en.ent.se/News/photostock/photo.ohiou.htm http://www.net/archives/idee/stirling/img/stirling.moteurstirling.creusot.f14.htm http://www.kockums.html jiucifang.yahoofs.html www.sensi.htm http://www.ohiou.html 32 Stirling Engine .wikipedia.bokee.com/alpha.jpg?TT_8kNHB1B7ghYo0 Figure4 Figure5 Figure6 Figure7 Figure8 Figure9 Figure10 Figure11 http://mac6.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/gamma.co.html Figure13 Figure14 Figure15 Figure16 Figure17 Figure18 Figure19 Figure20 Figure21 http://blog.steamshift.com www.blog.ohiou.ent.net/bloggermodule/blog_viewblog.com/myper/38.uk/science/source/s/t/stirling%20engine/source.se/Submarines/aipconversion.moteurstirling.edu/~urieli/stirling/engines/engines.org/wiki/Stirling_engine http://www.References of figures: Last visit of these websites: 10/11/2007 Figure1 Figure2 Figure3 www.html http://www.

cse.whispergen../371/abhishe/main1./371/abhishe/main1..ac.com/solar_overview.grc.htm www.stirlingenergy..in/.stirlingenergy..cse.asp?Type=solar www..nasa.gov/.com/main/acwhispergen/ www.com/images..Figure22 Figure23 Figure24 Figure25 Figure26 Figure27 Figure28 www..grc.html www.gov/.html Stirling Engine 33 .in/.html www.ac.iitk.iitk./5000/5490schreiber./doc/adv_sd_tech..nasa.html www.

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