Basic Japanese Language Course Grammar of the Lesson 1

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hiragana

Display/hide romaji Hiragana

Modern Japanese is written with a mixture of hiragana and katakana (simple set of syllables), plus kanji (a little bit complicated symbols) and may also include romaji (Roman letters). Hiragana is mainly used to write word endings, known as okurigana in Japanese. Hiragana are also widely used in materials for children, textbooks, animation and comic books, to write Japanese words which are not normally written with kanji, such as adverbs and some nouns and adjectives, or for words whose kanji are obscure or obsolete. Hiragana are also sometimes written above or along side kanji to indicate pronunciation. Hiragana used in this way are known as furigana. The hiragana consists of 48 syllables (the table shows 46 commonly used ones). The syllables are combinations of the consonants k, s, t, n, h, m, y, r, w and the vocals a, i, u, e, o but please note the exceptions shi, chi, tsu, fu and n. Example
anata

Hiragana a
a

i
i ki shi chi ni hi mi

u
u ku su tsu nu fu mu yu

e
e ke se te ne he me

o
o ko so to no ho mo yo

kstnhmyrw-

ka sa ta na ha ma ya ra wa

ri

ru

re

ro wo n

you Japan
nihon

Example

Hiragana with diacritics
hiragana

Additional sounds are represented using diacritics. Diacritics are simple symbols

Hiragana with diacritics

onomatopoeic kwords. Hiragana combinations a kgshjchnhbpmrkya gya sha ja cha nya hya bya pya mya rya u kyu gyu shu ju chu nyu hyu byu pyu myu ryu o kyo gyo sho jo cho nyo hyo byo pyo myo ryo Example kyou today Katakana katakana The katakana consists of 48 syllables (the table shows 45 commonly used ones). ni. yo.added to the basic symbols. shi. in telegrams and for emphasis (the equivalent of bold. italic or s- Katakana a a ka sa i i ki shi u u ku su e e ke se o o ko so . yu. foreign names. gzdbpExample go a ga za da ba pa i gi ji ji bi pi u gu zu zu bu pu e ge ze de be pe o go zo do bo po language who dare Example Hiragana combinations hiragana Additional sounds are represented using combinations of syllables ki. mi. ri (possibly with diacritics) and small versions of the syllables ya. chi. Katakana have been used mainly to write non-Chinese loan words. hi.

Instead they jja prefer to use "b". e.upper case text in English). fu.kya g. ni. ch.cha n- . ri. Katakana with diacritics a gzdbpvga za da ba pa i gi ji ji bi pi u gu zu zu bu pu vu e ge ze de be pe o go zo do bo po Example INDONESHIA Indonesia Katakana combinations katakana Additional sounds are represented using combinations of syllables ki. hi. Katakana combinations a k. Diacritics are simple symbols added to the basic symbols. o. chi. and rarely a. yo.gya i u kyu gyu shu ju chu che she je cho e kyo o gyo sho jo The katakana for with the initial "v" are sh. tnhmyrw- ta na ha ma ya ra wa chi ni hi mi tsu nu fu mu yu te ne he me to no ho mo yo ri ru re ro n Example TAI Thailand Katakana with diacritics katakana Additional sounds are represented using diacritics.sha recent creations as the Japanese people are not used to pronounce "v". mi. i. yu. shi. vu (possibly with diacritics) and small versions of the syllables ya.

I am not Mr. watashiha sensei deha arimasen. I am a teacher. Hayashi.nya nyu hyu byu pyu myu ryu fa fi va vi ve fe nyo hyo byo pyo myo ryo fo vo h. A ha B deha arimasen. A and be can be both things and people.mya r.pya m. The negative of Example watashiha hayashideha arimasen. A and B are both Noun Phrases. . watashiha sensei desu. Example watashiha hayashidesu. A ha B desu Expresses a relationship between A and B. This sentence is not only used to identify A and B. Sentence pattern: A is not B.hya b. I am not a teacher. I am Mr. but it is also used to supply information concerning A at the time of the utterance.rya fvExample FIRIPIN Philippines Vienna (capital of Austria) VIIN Example Sentence pattern: A is B. The teacher is not over there. Hayashi. The teacher is over there. Example Example senseiha asokodeha arimasen. Example Example senseiha asokodesu.bya p.

After giving information B about A. (who). Which person is Mr. Example Wrong ARIsanhamo gakusei desu. a female student from Germany Mr Hayashi. Example watashiha gakusei desu. Hayashi? Attribute: A is en attribute of B. I and Ali are students. Example anataha gakuseidesuka. ARIsanmo gakusei desu. C is B too.. This structure serves to introduce related information. Note that interrogative pronouns cannot be used in A. an interrogative sentence is formed. I am a student. Are you a student? Who is that person? anokataha donatadesuka. this structure is used to express the fact that B also holds of C.. Example Example hayashisenseiha donokatadesuka. (which person) in B and adding to the end of the sentence. Interrogative sentences can also be formed by putting interrogative pronouns such as (who). More than one can be used in one sentence. Ali is also a student. including possession. and adding a rising intonation. A no B By inserting a between two NPs an attributive NP is formed where the first NP A modifies the next NP B. Ali is also a student Mister. By adding to (A is B) and (A is not B). Example DOITSUno onnano gakuseino ANAsan Example nihongono senseino hayashisensei A ha B desu. + = . ~san. Hayashi? Which person is Mr. watashimo ARIsanmo gakusei desu. C mo B desu. the Japanese teacher Sentence pattern: A is B. B of A Wrong donokataha hayashisenseidesuka. Example nihongono sensei a teacher of Japanese Anna.Sentence pattern: Is A B? A ha B desuka. ~sensei .

Example Example kono kataha hayashisensei desu. Ali? ARIsanha gakuseidesuka. is used when    the name of the person is unknown. (who) are usually used. Example Wrong ARI. . Example senseiha nihongono senseidesuka. Mr. Are you a student. a woman speaks to her husband. With teachers should be used instead. watashiha ARIdesu. This (person) is Ali. At the elementary level. The Japanese custom is to use polite expressions when speaking to people they do not know well.Usually used after a name of a person to address or refer to him/her politely. when you know the name of the person you are speaking to. Wrong anataha nihongono senseidesuka. and (that person). donata Interrogative pronoun: who When referring to people. a mother speaks to her children. not . dare and anokata. it is better to use . Hayashi I am Ali. So when speaking of somebody nearby (who is this person) should be used instead of (who is this person?). but there are severe restrictions on its usage. Example konohitoha ARIsandesu. I am Ali. (that person). Personal pronoun: you anata This is a second person singular pronoun. Are you a teacher of Japanese? Are you a teacher of Japanese? Are you a student. Ali? and anohito. (who) are polite words with the same meaning. This (person) is a teacher. use . at least the following points should be noted:   When speaking to a teacher. not . Wrong watashiha ARIsandesu. anataha gakusei desuka. In an actual conversation.

(A . A ha B ja arimasen is the contracted form of is not B).Sentence pattern: A is not B. and in conversation this form is usual.

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