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SKILL BUILDERS PRACTICE

Boost Your Score! FREE Access to Instantly Scored Online Practice Questions

PROBLEMS

Proven to IMProve Your AlgebrA SKIllS

Mark A. McKibben, PhD

3 Gain algebra confidence with targeted practice 3 Acquire new problem-solving skills 3 Master the most commonly tested algebra problems

L EARNING E XPRESS

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS

Mark A. McKibben, PhD

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Copyright © 2011 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: McKibben, Mark A. 1001 algebra problems / [Mark McKibben]. p.cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-764-9 1. Algebra—Problems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) II. Title. III. Title: One thousand and one algebra problems. IV. Title: One thousand and one algebra problems. QA157.A16 2011 512.0078—dc22 2010030184 Printed in the United States of America 987654321 For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

where his area of study was nonlinear analysis and differential equations. in mathematics in 1999 from Ohio University. precalculus. and calculus. as well as a recent book entitled Discovering Evolution Equations with Applications Volume 1: Deterministic Equations.D. v . His dedication to undergraduate mathematics education has prompted him to write textbooks and more than 20 supplements for courses on algebra. statistics. Maryland. He earned his Ph.ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. He is an active research mathematician who has published more than 25 original research articles. trigonometry. published by CRC Press/Chapman-Hall. Mark McKibben is currently a tenured associate professor of mathematics and computer science at Goucher College in Baltimore.

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 Pre-Algebra Fundamentals Linear Equations and Inequalities Polynomial Expressions Rational Expressions Radical Expressions and Quadratic Equations Elementary Functions Matrix Algebra Common Algebra Errors ix 1 17 65 77 89 101 123 143 153 277 ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS GLOSSARY vii .

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1001 ALGEBRA PROBLEMS .

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Mastery of the rules and techniques embodied in the problem sets in this book will arm you with the tools necessary to attach applied problems accurately and with ease. make a given mathematical statement true.INTRODUCTION M any of the questions you ask in everyday life. this book will provide you with some extra practice. It has been written with several audiences in mind. we hope that you will find it to be a useful resource in your journey through algebra! xi . you’ve been doing algebra for quite some time. Although you might not have realized it. the number of minutes a jogger needs to run in order to catch the nearest opponent. Such a value might be the length of the side of a fence. or the original cost of an item. if you are a student taking algebra for the first time. Or. Teachers and tutors might use the problems in this book in help sessions. Instructors teaching an algebra course might find this repository of problems to be a useful supplement to their own problem sets. Anyone who has taken an algebra course and needs to refresh skills that have become a bit rusty—this book is for you. How to Use This Book This book has been designed to provide you with a collection of problems to assist you in reviewing the basic techniques of algebra. when used. such as “How many MP3 downloads can I buy with a certain amount of money?” or “What percentage reduction in price would lower the cost of a particular shirt to $20?” are solved using algebra. believe it or not! The set of rules and techniques that has come to be known as algebra revolves around finding values of some unknown quantity that. Whatever your background or reason for picking up this book.

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exponential expressions. These properties are reviewed in the first five problem sets in this section. it is sensible to first gain familiarity with them and to then determine how to adapt them to a setting in which variables are involved. Translating verbal statements into mathematical ones and learning to deal with elementary algebraic expressions involving variables are the focus of the remaining four problem sets in this section. As such.1 T he basic arithmetic properties of whole numbers. the properties used to simplify algebraic expressions later in the text coincide with the rudimentary properties exhibited by these number systems. integers. fractions. In fact. and decimals are fundamental building blocks of algebra. S E C T I O N PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS 1 .

16. What is the estimated product when both 162 a. Which of the following choices is equivalent 4. Which of the following expressions is equal to 60. 16. 125 10. 8 b.000 c. c. b. 8 c. 15 c. 180. d. c. 7 b. Which of the following choices is equivalent to 74.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– Set 1 (Answers begin on page 153) 6.429 3. 42 b. 60.000 b. a. 6.000 + 80 + 2 d.428 d. 112 d. 1 10 100 1.000 b. c. 16. 10 e. 786 796 841 54. b. c.000 to 35 ? a.000 + 800 + 2 c.404 and 849 are rounded to the nearest hundred and then multiplied? a.465 30 4 rounded to the 2. 1. 128 7. 9 d.000 c. d. 12(84 – 5) – (3 a. The whole number p is greater than 0. d.000 + 800 + 2 of 6. 16. 243 d.000 8.715 nearest thousand? a.802? a. Estimate the value of 7. 142 799 4. 78 c. and a factor of 180. a multiple 5. 80. (15 + 32)(56 – 39) = ible by both 7 and 8? a. 600 + 80 + 2 b. 11 2 .000 d. 20. 60. b. 160. b. What is the value of 65. Which of the following whole numbers is divis- The arithmetic properties of the set of whole numbers are reviewed in this set. d. 5 5? 3 5 10 5 15 125 9. How many possibilities are there for the value of p? a.000 54) = 5 a.

{ } b.3} d. b. if p is a positive 16.2. 5 – (–17 + 7)2 3= a. c. d. Which of the following operations will result in a. 36 + 48 b. In the equation y = 6p – 23. b. 10 15 32 16 20. –135 315 –295 –45 75 7) – (48 (–4)) = a. –25 4–9 = tors of 12 that are NOT multiples of 2? a. 37 + 47 d. 3 3 10 12. c.3} e. 2 3 3 5 d. b. {1.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 11. b. c. Which of the following equals 24 ? 19. {1} c. an odd number? a. 9 10 b. d. –4 –30 –20 –5 5 13 –2 –144 144 –9 9 –6 3= a. Which of the following is the set of positive fac- The arithmetic properties of the integers are reviewed in this set. c. Which of the following is a prime number? a. b. 17. 2 5 9 e. d. 13 + 12 14. b. e. c. d. c. Which of the following is the prime factoriza- Set 2 (Answers begin on page 154) tion of 90? a. {1.6. 4 e. b. 18. 7 12 e. d. d. (1 + 2)2 9 – 22 11 – 10 5 45 3 3 21. 19 5 –5 –19 15. 5 3 . e. 3 d. c. (49 a. d. which of the following is the least value of p for which y is positive? a. 2 c.4. 6 9 11 27 whole number. Which of the following expressions is equal to 5? a. 1 b. 90 1 c.12} 13. 20 8 c. {2.

g – h c. b. d. 2g + 3h 0 and h 0. which of the following quantities is the smallest? a. which of the following quantities cannot be negative? a. –g –h d. If g 27. g + h d. If g a. –(5 3) + (12 (–4)) = 28. (32 + 6) a. d. –g c. If g 25. –g + h b. (–g)2 32. d. g + h d. c. b. b. which of the following quantities is the largest? a. d. b. 3(5 – 3)2 –3(52 – 32)= a. which of the following quantities is always positive? a. gh b. –g2 d. –5 5 4 –4 0 and h 0. gh b. g + h c. g + h c. h2 a. If g 24. |h| – |g| e. 3 –3 4 –4 4 . g – h c. c. –g –h 30. –12 –18 12 18 23. –36 36 28 196 31. –g + h b. which of the following quantities is the largest? a.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 22. c. 9 –36 15 0 2 0 and h 0. b. c. –g –h –2. c. g – h d. c. d. b. g b. d. –(–2 –(–11 – (–3 – 5) – 2)) = a. 4 –4 –12 12 (–24 8) = 29. If g 26. –2 (–2)2 – 22 = 0 and h 0. (–2[1 –2(4 – 7)]2 = a.

d. none of these 37. c. 15 + 5 + 6 + 10 = b. Which of the following fractions is between 4 and 3 ? a. 5 18 63 100 300 45 9 20 = 1 5 12 14 1 60 a. c. 300 d. b. b. 98 5 . 20 – 6 = The arithmetic properties of the set of fractions are reviewed in this set. 5 8 5 6 8 11 7 10 3 2 40. 7 36 4 5 1 750 38. none of these 35. c. c.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 17 5 Set 3 (Answers begin on page 156) 36. 1 2 1 4 2 3 3 8 English class. c. 4 5 d. 1 – 4= 11 a. 33. d. How many pages has she read? a. 216 b. d. 36 4 b. 18 2 1 1 3 5 9 a. 72 c. b. d. Irma has read 5 of the novel assigned for her a. 8 d. 34. d. b. c. What fraction of the following figure is shaded? 5 8 2 3 8 11 4 10 1 39. Which of the following fractions is the largest? a. b. 10 a. 5 3 c. The novel is 360 pages long.

m c. 4 4 5 1 4 1 1 value to 2 ? a. c. 2 43. b. n n m b. 7 5 – 3 1 6 2 = a. 5 . there are m men in a class of n students. Danny addressed 14 out of 42 envelopes. Which of the following pairs of fractions is in 46. d. b. 5 . Which of the following fractions is closest in m n m the ration 4:5? 1 1 a. 1. 3 2 1 2 1 c. Judy’s math class. d. 5 44. 5 b. b. What is the reciprocal of 42 ? a. b. 1 + 7 5 10 3 = a. 23 42 13 21 2 3 4 7 48. 4 e. d. 5 d. 45. m – n d. 99 49 b. 5 . 4 c. c. n – m e. 1 2 21 1 –2 d. c. c. b. – 49 42. d. 2 3 3 10 5 6 3 5 2 1 What fraction of the envelopes still needs to be addressed? a. 8 5 4 7= 5 14 20 8 25 32 9 16 21 –5 3 –2 –10 7 a. – 42 d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 41. Which expression gives the ratio of men to women in the class? a. 17 24 17 6 61 12 5 4 6 . 4 . c. n – m 47.

– 4 56. b. 26 5 24 5 24 –5 3 –2 a. 121 –121 –22 22 1 –3 –2 – 1 –3 9–2 = 51. 1 b. – 8 57. b. (–11)2 = a. 0 1 5 20 2 –3 d. –1 c. – 9 c. 1 2 1 7 . d. –1 c. c. 12–2 d. 49. b. – 18 1 2 8 50. (1 – 3) –8 2 58. d. –53 = a. – – 2 – 2 2 3 = a. –5(–1 –5–2) = The basic exponent rules in the context of signed arithemetic are reviewed in this set. d. – 2 0 52. 0 d. 1 2 28 1 a. c. 0 b. –45 b. –15 15 125 –125 55. – 5 3 b. 4–2 1 – 2(–1)–3 = = a. – 144 c. – 9 d. 32 b. – 54 b. c.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– Set 4 (Answers begin on page 157) 54. –17 c. c. – 2 d. What is the value of the expression 5(4˚)? a. 1 64 1 – 32 a. 7 8 9 a. (2 ) = 5 (–32 + 2–3)–1= a. b. 8 71 –2 71 c. –12 d. 2–5 53. d.

On an exam. b. What is the result of increasing 48 by 55%? a.4 which of the following has the largest value? a. c. (n 0. –2–2 + (–13 + (–1)3)–2 –22 = 64.9 69. – 4 b. (n 0. p b. c. I and II I and IV II and III II and IV III and IV 61. p2 c. p b. He is given these four choices: I. d.01) 40 Which two ways are correct? a. If p is a fraction strictly between 1 and 2. 66. –5 d. 4 – 4 + 3 d. e. p–1 8 . p–1 62. – – 4 1 0 1 to determine n% of 40. p3 d. d. – 10 b. p–1 63.4 30. p3 d. n 100 40 II. p2 c. Which of the following quantities has the great5 1 of the following has the smallest value? a. (n 100) 40 IV. Bart is asked to choose two ways c. b. p3 d. p–2 d. which of the following has the largest value? a. p2 c. 65. If p is a fraction strictly between –1 and 0. p b. which of the following has the smallest value? a.6 74.01) 40 III. If p is a fraction strictly between 0 and 1. p2 c. 26. – 1 –1 Set 5 (Answers begin on page 158) 3 8(– 4 ) 1 Arithmetic involving decimals and percentages is the focus of this set. p–1 est value? a. which a. – 16 60. If p is a fraction strictly between 0 and 1. 3 c.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 59. p b.

Which of the following is 400% of 30? a. c.5 74. 117.34 68. c.0052 0.52 0. 22. which of the following is a possible value for x? a. e. b. Which of the following is the value of the point x 0. e.200 5 9 73. (1 + 0. e.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 67. 0. c. b. 3 b.5 –2.04 c.25 b. d. 0. d. b.052 0.225 c. c. 117. Which of the following inequalities is true? to determine the sale price of a $250 car stereo that is being offered at a 25% discount? I.25 $250 II.00052 0. 0.25) $250 IV.3285 to the nearest hundredth decimals? a. a. c.052 0. 100 b. (1 –0.0225 75.0404 3 8 3 7 1 a.5 –1. 1 3 2 5 3 8 3 7 4 9 labeled as A on the following number line? A –10 –5 0 5 10 d. b.0052 72. 0. 0. d. Which of the following is not less than 5 ? 2 results in which of the following decimals? a.2 12 120 1. I and III I and IV II and III II and IV III and IV a.52 0.5% is equivalent to which of the following 69. d.33 d.5 –3. 0. c.052 0. Rounding 117. 117. 2. 200% 1 133 3 % 500% 1. If 0. b.25) $250 a.3 c. 0. What percentage of 300 results in 400? a.75 $250 III.329 70.40 and 16 x 20 . d.200% 9 . 0.025 d. 1. d. 2. Which of the following expressions show how 71. b.

015 b. –34 b. –0. –27 c. c. c. 3. 15 d. x =6.25 b. 3.5 d. 7 83. and z=–8? a. b. –14 b. 2 82. d.005 c. –0. 20 84. –21 c. What is the value of the expression –2x2 + 3x – to 8 – 5 ? a.09 5 2 7 when x = –3? a.5% 1 40 3 % when x = –3 ? a. 3.25 d. –0. 7 4 e.21 106 d. –16 d. 28 b. what is the value of y a. What is the value of the expression a2 + a 7a a. 288 d. 18 e. 0. d. –35 b.21 10–6 b. –7 c. 33 10 .09 1. 0.15 77. –10 e.00000321 is equivalent to which of the following? a.03 3.03 1012) 3 = 104 104 1012 3. 81. Which of the following decimals is between Set 6 (Answers begin on page 159) –0.21 10–5 c. Which of the following decimals is equivalent This set contains problems that focus on evaluating algebraic expressions at numerical values. What is the value of the expression 2ax – z 7 79.01? a. 3. 1. 44 c.3312 when a = –2? a. – 4 d.275 78. (3.03 1.01 and 1. b. 1. 1.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 76.6% 37. 0. 1 3% 29.225 c. 0. What percentage of 9 results in 3 ? 8 1 when a = 3. If y = –x3 + 3x –3.21 105 80.

What is the value of the expression 7x + x – z 12 92. c. d. – 25 c. b. What is the value of the expression 3 – 4m + m2 10 when m = 6? a. What is the value of the expression when x = 6 and z = –8? a. 58 d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 85. 6 d. 6 b. 16 11 . –4 b. –2 c. – 2 5 d. e. b. –4 b. 8 c. –1 e. c. –76 d. –12 b.4 80 a. 4 9 4 3 20 9 21 9 13 3 4(x –y)(2xy)(3yx) when x = 2 and y = –2? a. 25 91. –2 d. What is the value of the expression bx + z when b = –5. 384 88. 0 93.8 32. What is the value of the expression (3xy + x) x y ab + b + a2 – b 2 when a = 1 and b = –1? a. 76 1 2 y and z = –8? 90. What is the value of the expression when x = 2 and y =3? a. 24 e. 4 e. d. What is the value of the expression (xy) y x a if x = 2 and y = –x? a. 1 256 1 16 when x = 2 and y = 5? 16 12. 46 b. c. What is the value of the expression 5a2 + 10a 7 3 a when a = –2? a. –3 c. – 10 b. d. –46 c. y = a. What is the value of the expression 2y2 + 3y 6x2 4x 2 1 86. 12 e. 12 d. 46 89. x =6. 36 c. 22 87. 52 b.

Simplify the expression 4(3x3)2. –1. –82 d. c. a. 97. x3y3 e. 4 b. 12x5 144x6 12x6 36x6 4 3 102. 4w12 4w27 12w27 64w27 . What is the value of the expression 3x2b(5a – 3b) (–45a4 b9 c5) a. x 2 – 3 – 4a when a = 3. e. b. Simplify the expression (3x2)3 x2x4 a. c. c. x5y5 104. What is the value of the expression z2 – 4a2 y when a = 3. d. Simplify the expression 2a b a–1 (2b)–1 98. and x = 6? a. Simplify the expression (4w9)3. –5a5b12c 8 (9ab3c3)? 101. –5a4b36c2 d. 1. e. –5a3b6c2 b.800 c. b. b. Set 7 (Answers begin on page 160) The problems in this set focus on simplifying algebraic expressions using the exponent rules. Simplify the expression 6(e–2)–2. d. b.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 94. c. x = 6. b. a. 27 c. when a = 3. 0 d. 6e –4 6e 4 36e–4 36e4 100. 1 y a. b. 9 b. and y = 2 ? 6 –6 12 –12 a. 9 x 27 x 1 xy x3 y5 x3 y3 d. d. c. d. a.800 a. d. d. and y = 2 ? a. What is the value of the expression 99. 1 2 2a 4 a2 b2 12 . c. What is the simplified result of the operation 1 95. b. Simplify the expression (ab) . 46 96. b = –5. a7 a12 a7b6 a12b8 a12 b11 b 103 Simplify the expression x 2 y y –2 x xy .200 b. d. c. –28 c. z =–8. –5a4b3c3 c. –16. a.

Simplify the expression (3xy5)2 – 11x2 y2 (4y 4)2. c. to what would this expression simplify? a. Simplify the expression 5c2 + 3c – 2c2 + 4 – 7c. a. The product of 6x2 and 4xy2 is divided by 3x3y. 1 a a3 b4 a4 b4 a5 b4 b b a –2 1 a –1 . x + 7y x – 7y –x – 7y –x + 7y 13 . a. c. b. Simplify the expression 3x2y(2x3y2). What is the simplified expresson? a.296x16y4 c. a. 108. e. –82x2y10 6x2y7 – 88x 2y8 –167x2y10 9x2y7 – 176x 2y8 2(3x2y)2 (xy)3 . d. Simplify the expression a. –5ab4 –5a2b8 4ab4 The expression cannot be simplified further. –4p4r – 15p3r2 b. 115. d. 111. c. 4x5y3 c. b. c. d. a b. 3(xy)2 Set 8 (Answers begin on page 161) The problems in this set focus on simplifying arithmetic combinations of algebraic expressions by using exponent rules and combining like terms. –45p3r + 54 p3r2 107. 6x6y2 6x5y2 6x5y3 6x6y3 2 106. 4 a2b2x4 4 a2b2 4 a2b2x4 2 a2b2 a. d. d. d. the fourth power. 4x 2 y2 d. Simplify the expression (2ab2x)2 . 6x5y3 b. b. Simplify the expression –5(x–(–3y)) + 4(2y + x). 113. (4b)2x –2 7 5 7 5 a. b. 8y x 4y a. d. 48x14y4 b. x c. 6x14y4 112. c. 6x 2 y2 109. b. c. c. If 3x2 is multiplied by the quantity 2x3y raised to a. Simplify the expression 5ab4 – ab4. Simplify the expression a a. 110. 8y b. Express the product of –9p3r and the quantity 5p – 6r in simplified form. –45p4r + 54p3r2 c. 6x9y4 d. 114. –45p4r–6r d. 1. 3c 2 – 4c + 4 –3c 4 – 4c 2 + 4 –10c2 – 21c + 4 The expression cannot be simplified further. b. 4y d.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 105.

y10 16(4x +1)10 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 . –5g6 + h d. The expression cannot be simplified further. x–3 – 3x –5 c. Simplify the expression –1 121. x4 c. The expression cannot be simplified further. 19m7n7 19(m3n + nm3 + m3n3) 17(mn)3 + 2m3n3 The expression cannot be simplified further.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 116. Simplify the expression 9m3n + 8mn3 + 2m3n3. d. –15g6 + 11h 119. 62 4 9x 7 d. 117. b. b. a4c6 24b2 4a4c6 b2 6a4c6 b2 a4c6 4b2 a. d. Simplify the expression –7g6 + 9h + 2h – 8g6. c. Simplify the expression –(–a–2bc–3)–2 + 5 a2c3 . –2g – 4h c. The expression cannot be simplified further. c. –4g6 125. a. 9 x4 b. 14 2b2 – 63a3b6 2b2 – 11a3b6 a3b5 + 2b2 – 12a3b6 The expression cannot be simplified further. (z + 1)2w3 d. b –2 a. d. a. 122. none of the above 127. 118. Simplify the expression 123. 10x4 + 2a2x2 – a4 d. Simplify the expression (5a2 3ab) + 2a3b. Simplify the expression (ab2)3 + 2b2 – (4a)3b6. Simplify the expression 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2w(z + 1) ((z + 1)w2)–1 1 w . d. 12x 2y 2 14x 2y 2 2x 2 + 4y 2 + 6x 2y 2 8x 2 + y 2 + 6x 2y 2 8x 4y 4 + 6x 2y 2 –2(4x + 1)5 y–5 – ((4x + 1)y–2)–3 a. 10x2 + 2ax – a2 c. The expression cannot be simplified further. b. Simplify the expression a. e. c. a. 21x2 – 8a2x – 56a2 b. 3(z + 1)2w3 – c. + zx3 2y6 . (–3x–1)–2 x–2 + 9 (x2)2 8 a. 3x–1 b. a. – zx3 2y6 a. Simplify the expression 2x–3 – x4 – (x3)–1. b. b. a. –x–3 – x –2 d. h 6 b. 8(4x + 1) –3 y–7 d. Simplify the expression 3x2 + 4ax – 8a2 + 7x2 – 2ax +7a2. 15a2b + 2a3b 17a6 b2 17a3b The expression cannot be simplified further. d. 124. –2x –3 4z((xy–2)–3 + (x–3y6))–1 – a. d. c. Simplify the expression (2x 2)(4y 2) + 6x 2y 2. 8zy6 x3 3zx3 2y6 2zx3 3y6 8zy6 x3 1 2y6 z x3 . 120. 126. 8(4x + 1)–10 y10 c. 3(z + 1)2w3 – w3 b. c. c. b. b.

15y + 0. (4x)2 – 2 d. the total amount Jonathon will be charged for h hours? a. c.25V d. 32 times 2 is equal to 15 more than a number. All three choices are correct. (3x + 5) –9 c. 5 – 2 x 135. both b and c 130. y = 0. 131. 3(x + 5) – 9 b. A hotel charges $0. Which of the following equations represents the cost y of a phone call lasting x minutes? a. 3 more than 15 times a number is 32. (a + b + c) ( a + d. y = 0. Which of the statements below represents the equation 3x + 15 = 32? a. V + 0. 15 more than 3 times a number is 32. b. 1.35 c.35 d. a( a ) + b( b ) + c( c ) c. which of the following expressions represents the new volume of water? 1 a. V + 4 V b. Which of the following expressions describes 1 1 1 25%. x = ($30 + $40)h d. (a)(b)(c) + 1 1 b + c) 1 1 1 ( a )( b )( c ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fee plus $40 per hour for time spent tutoring. 9 – 3(x + 5) d. 4x2 – 2 c. Which of the following equations indicates how to compute x. 2 5x4 132. Two less than four times the square of a number can be represented as which of the following? a.35 134.35 b. 2 – 4x2 b.15x + 0. b. c.25V c. d. Jonathon is paying a math tutor a $30 one-time the sum of three numbers multiplied by the sum of their reciprocals? a. 2 x – 5 d. If the volume V in a water tank is increased by phone call and $0. d. x = $30 + $40h c. 15 less than 3 times a number is 32. Which of the following expressions represents half the difference between a number and five? a.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 128.35 for the first minute of a Set 9 (Answers begin on page 162) This problem set focuses on interpreting verbal mathematical statements as symbolic algebraic expressions. x = 0.15 for each additional minute of the call.15(x – 1) + 0. x – 5 b. 2 (x – 5) c. Simplify the expression (0. 9 – (3x + 5) 133. ($30 – $40)h 136.15(y – 1) + 0. (a + b + c) + ( a )( b )( c ) b. x = 0. Which of the following expressions represents a. none of the above 83 2 20 x 2 2 9x –21 2 4 x nine less than three times the sum of a number and 5? a.2x–2)–1 + 5 x2 – (2x)2 . 129. 15 . x = $30h – $40 e. x = $30h + $40 b.

q – e.75E b. mw d w d d. and z file cabinets. which of the following expressions can be used to calculate the total cost T? a.15(a + b +c) 2 (a + b + c) + 0.15(W + X + Y + Z) d. E + 3 E 4 144. 0. b. Which of the following expressions represents the number of days in a year? a. d + is increased by 75%. Mary gets a 15% discount on all orders that 140. xD + yE + zF d.85(W + X + Y +Z) b. and a 15% tip will be added in for the waiter. and d days in a week. (W + X + Y + Z) + 0. then the resulting costs E dollars. 80% larger than k. both b and c 143. and Z dollars before the discount is applied. q – p b. c. 10% larger than k. 0. If the three meals cost a. c. e. xE + yD + zF c. E – 0. which of the following expressions represents the new enrollment? a. xF + yE + zD b. It is 25% larger than d. If the enrollment E at a shaolin kung fu school month. If her orders cost W dollars.75E c.15(a + b + c) 2 2 d. Y dollars. c. b. It is the same as d. and c dollars. mwd b. b. then j is a. w weeks in a taking their father out to dinner evenly between the two of them. Suppose that a desk costs D dollars. (W + X + Y + Z) – 15(W + X + Y + Z) 16 . and then quantity is represented by which of the following expressions? a. It is 50% larger than d. e. If an office needs to purchase x desks. q – 1p 00 c. It is 25% smaller than d. which of the following expressions represents how much it will cost her after the discount is deducted from her total? a. a chair 141. 3 E 4 d. There are m months in a year. 20% larger than k. m + w + d c.15(W + X + Y +Z) c. If 40% of j is equal to 50% of k. If q is decreased by p percent. 139. 0. – 100 d. The value of d is increased by 50%. pq pq 100 – 1p0q0 pq 142. 15% larger than k. 25% larger than k. and a file cabinet costs F dollars. How does the resulting quantity compare to d? a. Two brothers decide to divide the entire cost of the resulting quantity is decreased by 50%. xF + yD + zD 138. 0.–PRE-ALGEBRA FUNDAMENTALS– 137. d. It is 50% smaller than d. 1. which of the following equations represents how much each brother will spend? a. she places at the copy store. y chairs.15(a + b + c) b. d. X dollars.

although there are more possibilities regarding the final graphical representation of the solution. the associative and distributive properties of addition and multiplication).g. Elementary arithmetic properties (e. S E C T I O N LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES 17 . are said to be linear. with the additional step of shading the region on the appropriate side of the line that depicts the set of ordered pairs satisfying the inequality. Systems are handled similarly. made up of expressions in which the unknown quantity is a variable that is raised only to the first power throughout.2 E quations and inequalities and systems thereof. properties of inequalities. and the order of operations are used to solve them. A graph of a line can be obtained using its slope and a point on the line. the same is true for linear inequalities.. These topics are explored in the following 13 problem sets.

5p + 6 = 18. 16 d. 1 8 b. –8.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 10 (Answers begin on page 163) 150. 451 c. 21 148. 2 d.5 b. b. What value of z satisfies the equation 2. 6 149. What value of y satisfies the equation 2. –3 d. 16 e. 17 –9 + 1 x = 4? 6 1 24 1 6 a. –1 c. 18 p 6 155. What value of x satisfies the equation x 2 15 11 8 3 9a + 5 = –22? a. 5 2 = – 10 16 5 3 11 6 –2? 3 b. d.3(4 – 3. 8 c. What value of k satisfies the equation –7k – 11 =10? a. c.5? a.13x ? a. 145. 10 c. –3 18 . What value of p satisfies the equation + 13 = p – 2? a. –27 b. 8 d. What value of a satisfies the equation a. 5 b. b. What value of k satisfies the equation 8 = 8? k a. c. –1 c. 15 d. –2 e. –9 c.5 153. 16 146. –2 b. b. What value of b satisfies the equation b– a. 64 152. –3 b. 8.1 d. 12 c. d. 6 b. 15 d. what is the value of 33c – 21? 147. 3 d. 20 3x 151. 45 154. What value of p satisfies the equation This set is devoted to problems focused on solving elementary linear equations. c.1x) = 1 – 6. 2 2.5 a. c. 2 d. 24 e. 8. If 11c – 7 = 8. What value of x satisfies the equation 10 = 15 ? 25 z – 7 = –9? a.5 3 3.

–4 160. 81 c. 36 158.25 d. – 5 2 d. 0 d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 156. a. 3. –3. 16 d. What value of v satisfies the equation – 2 a = –54 ? 3 a. – 37 12 b.3 b.3 d. What value of a satisfies the equation 4a + 4 7 30 a.3 159. 4 d. 3. 6 e. What value of a satisfies the equation 3c 4 Set 11 (Answers begin on page 164) This problem set is focused on linear equations for which obtaining the solution requires multiple steps. Find the number. –21 b. 0. What value of v satisfies the equation 163. 12 c. 43 d. –2 c. –36 d. –0. What value of c satisfies the equation – 9 = 3? a. 3 c. – 5 2) + 3x = 3(x + 2) – 10? 1. What value of x satisfies the equation 5 2 (x – 1 a. 5 2 b. 161. Twice a number increased by 11 is equal to 32 4(4v + 3) = 6v – 28? a. –81 b. –2 164. –1 c. 1 d. 5 = 2 – 3a 4 ? c. 5 c.3 c. –4 b. –0.1 = –1. 5 1 c.2 – 3x? a. 43 5 21 13k + 3(3 – k) = –3(4 +3k) – 2k? a. 20 157. What value of x satisfies the equation –2(3v + 5) = 14? a. 1 b. What value of k satisfies the equation less than three times the number.3 + 5x – 0. 3 162. 16 19 .3 b. 4 b.

1 168. 2˚C c. –80 167. c. Find the number. b.8(x + 20) – 4. a. 80 c.5 = 0. Solve the following equation for b: a = 7b – 4 4 using the formula F = 5 C + 32. What is the number? a. d. 115 d. –8 c.6 b. 2. 12 b. 8 c. 76 20 –14 3 0. 63 166. d. 27 b. –52 173.9x ? a. a. a. 114 c. What value of x satisfies the equation 2x + 8 5 14 a. 20 a 7 4a 7 a+1 7 4a + 4 7 7a – 4 7 decrease in its value is the number 93. What are the integers? a. 4 d. –15 c. 2. 18. 80 d. d. 12 d. The sum of two consecutive even integers is 171. 64 b. e. What value of x satisfies the equation = 5x – 6 6 ? b. c. 64. 8 170.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 165. 63 c. Determine a number such that a 22. 15 b.86 d. a. 120 . 66 d. 9 174. 122˚C 175. 6 c. When ten is subtracted from the opposite of a number. 3 8 8 3 8 3 = 8 3x + 9? b. Ten times 40% of a number is equal to four less than six times the number.5 15 22. 45˚C b. What value of x satisfies the equation a. Convert 50˚ Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius the number minus 17. then 10x + 5 = 172. c. b.7(5 + x) – 0. 3 126. 62. 10˚C d. 62.5% 9 a. Find the number. e.5 25 30 9x + a. 2 169. the resulting difference is 5. 8 of nine times a number is equal to ten times 7 d. 1. If 4x + 5 = 15. 8 b.

What value of x satisfies the equation B= C+A D–A BD – C 1+B D–C 1+B B–C C+B B+D C+B a. If 6x is then added to this. b. 21 . –23 c. PVnR = T =T 1 PV d. A = 5x – 2[x – 3(7 – x)] = 3 – 2(x – 8) ? a. 4. 9 d. what is 50% of 179. d. the result is 2x + 32. 1 c.5 b. What is the value of the smallest number? a. 17 181. which of the following represents Set 12 (Answers begin on page 166) an equivalent equation solved for T? In this problem set. Solve the following equation for A: a. what is the value of a. 15 e. What is the value of x? a. we consider more advanced linear equations and word problems that can be solved using linear equations. 1 f 4 f 2 – 3f f d. d. A = c. There can be no such number x. 88 178.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 176. A = d. T = nR –4 3 = x+8 5 ? 182. Negative four is multiplied by the quantity 180. 0 d. If PV =nRT. 6 c. The sum of four consecutive. 16 bers is 48. –1 b. g in terms of f ? a. What value of x satisfies the equation 1 2x a. –8 b. 177. odd whole num- x + 8. 9 b. 12 e. 2 – 2f e. A = b. 23 5 –23 5 183. 23 b. –88 d. 13 d. Assuming that a b. 15 184. solve the following equation for x: ax + b = cx + d d+b a+c d–b c–a b–d a–c d–b a–c s if r = 30? a. b. T = c. PVR n PV nR b. If fg + 2f – g = 2 –(f + g). If 30% of r is equal to 75% of s. c. 8 c. c. 11 c.

Solve the following equation for y: 4 – 2x 3 =y 2 – 2y 5+y 2 + 2y 5–y 2 + 2y 5+y 2 + 2y – 5+y a. A grain elevator operator wants to mix two a. y = b.5 d. b. 10. Solve the following equation for x: 5x – 2 2–x the width of the room. y = 1 – 4x 3 1 + 4x 3 4x – 1 3 1 + 4x – 3 187. What is the least of these integers? a. 24 feet d.5 ? Set 13 (Answers begin on page 169) Solving basic linear inequalities is the focus of this problem set. 23 feet c. y = d.5 b. What is the length of the room? a. x = d. 11. 10 feet b. 25 feet 186. –25 188. x = c. c. x = –1= 1–y 2 191. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 3} –3} 3} –3} 22 . The average of five consecutive odd integers is –21. d. –17 b. If he uses 20 bushels of 56 pounds per bushel corn. What is the solution set for 3x + 2 189. 56x + 50x = (x + 20) 54 192. The length of a room is three more than twice 190. c. e. –19 c. 193. –4 1 4 b a 2 –5[x – (3 – 4x – 5) – 5x] – 22 = 4[2 –(x–3)]? a. –21 d. what is the value of the number? a. x = b. 4 d. y = c. If three more than one-fourth of a number is three less than the number. If –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 and b + 6 = 4.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 185. What value of x satisfies the equation value of a. –23 e. 8. b. b. what is the a batches of corn with a resultant mix of 54 pounds per bushel. which of the following expressions gives the amount of 50 pounds per bushel corn needed? a. 9.5 c. 56x + 50x = 2x 54 b. d. 20 56 + 50x = 2x + 54 d. The perimeter of the room is 66 feet. 20 56 + 50x = (x + 20) 54 c. 3 4 11? 4 6 8 12 a. 1 c.

What is the solution set for –4(x –1) a. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two more than the number. b. What inequality is represented by the following 202. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 7 2} 3x + 9? –2} –2} 2} 60? 195. Which of the following statements accurately graph? –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 a. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is less than four less than two times the number. d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 194. x x x x –4 –4 –4 –4 197.3 –x 20? 83? a. {x : x e. {x : x c. b. The product of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two times the number. b. c. d. {x : x 7} d. {x : x 2(–2x + 10)? –10} –10} –11} –11} 3} 23 . {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –9} –9} 9} 9} a. c. {x : x 5} b. What is the solution set for –6(x + 1) a. b. d. What is the solution set for –8x + 11 describes the inequality 2x – 4 7(x – 2)? a. What is the solution set for 199. c. {x : x b. What is the solution set for 1 – 2x 201. d. What is the solution set for x + 5 a. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –6} –6} –60} –60} 204. b. {x : x d. {x : x c. {x : x 2(x + 1)? –3} –3} 1 3} 1 3} 1 1 –8(x + 3) a. {x : x 7} 198. d. b. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 115} 23} 4. 203. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x –9} –9} –11} –11} 196. c.6} 23} –5? a. c. c. The sum of seven and the quantity two less than a number is greater than four less than two times the number. d. What is the solution set for the inequality 4x + 4 24? a. d. c. {x : x d. b. d. What is the solution set for 0. What is the solution set for 5x 23? 200. b. {x : x b. c. {x : x 5} c. {x : x {x : x {x : x {x : x 3} 3} –3} –3} a.

1 c. 209. 208. 1 c. What is the solution set for This problem set focuses on solving linear equations and inequalities that involve the absolute value of certain linear expressions. {x : x –32} b. What is the solution set for the compound inequality –4 3x – 1 11? a. {x : –10 x 0} c. How many different values of x satisfy the 207. b. {x : 0 x 10} b. 210. more than 2 212. 0 b. {x : x 32} d. c. {x : x 32} c. {x : x –17} d. 0 b. What values of x satisfy the equation |3x – 3 | – 9 = 0? a. {x : x –32} 206. There are no solutions to this equation.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 205. more than 2 211. What is the solution set for Set 14 (Answers begin on page 170) 3(x – 16) – 2 9(x – 2) – 7x? a. {x : –4 x 1} d. {x : x 17} b. both –8 and 8 d. What values of x satisfy the equation –5[9 + (x – 4)] a. 5 7 27 and 27 5 5 27 and – 27 7 7 27 and – 27 5 7 – 27 and – 27 2 1 24 . {x : x 17} 2(13 –x)? |–x| – 8 = 0? a. How many different values of x satisfy the inequality 10 3(4 – 2x) – 2 a. What is the solution set for the compound equation 2|x| + 4 = 0? a. {x : 0 x 10} d. {x : –1 x 4} b. –8 only c. 2 d. {x : 1 x –4} c. {x : –10 x 0} 70? equation –3|x| + 2 = 5|x| – 14? a. d. The solution set is the empty set. 2 d. {x : x –17} c. 8 only b.

What is the solution set for equation |2x + 1| = |4x – 5|? a. b. d. b. 2 d. d. 3) (– . How many different values of x satisfy the a. 0) (0.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 213. What values of x satisfy the equation 219. –1) (–1. –5) (4. What is the solution set for –|–x –1| 0? |3x + 5| = 8? a. c. 4) 222. 1 c. ( 3 . ) (– . (–5. 3 ) c. b. 1 c. (– . How many different values of x satisfy the a. The solution set is the empty set. ) c. ) 5 b. 13 3 and 1 13 – 3 and 1 13 – 3 and –1 13 3 and –1 a. – 2 ] d. ) 3 (– . The solution set is the empty set. ). ) a. the set of all real numbers 25 . 1 c. b. What is the solution set for |x| 2 – (1 –(2 –|1 – 2x|)) a. d. [0. c. 1) (1. c. – 4 ] 3 [0. c. 0 b. (– . What is the solution set for –7|1 – 4x| + 20 a. (– . 2 d. 0 b. 2] [2. c. d. |1 – (–22 + x) – 2x | |3x – 5|? 5 a. (– . ) (–4. 0) The solution set is the empty set. 4) d. c. (3. –4) (5. 5) b. 3? 220. How many different values of x satisfy the equation –6(4 – |2x + 3|) = –24? a. ) the set of all real numbers (– . (–4. –2] 3 –2|1 – 4x| – 15? b. 0 b. (– . more than 2 215. ) The only solution is x = –1. 2 d. What is the solution set for |2x – 3| equation 1 – (1 – (2 –|1–3x|)) = 5? a. d. (3. 3 217. ) –6? 223. ) (–3. b. 4) (4. more than 2 216. d. ) 224. ) (–3. What is the solution set for |–2x| a. [2. What is the solution set for 218. 1) (–1. (– 3? 3 . d. b. ) 0? 3 [– 2 . (– . – 4 ] none of these choices 5? 221. –3) c. What is the solution set for |8x + 3| 214. (– . (– .

y value is negative x value is negative.–3) (–4.4) (–1. b. 26 (–1.1) (–3. c.6) (–3. a. e.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 15 (Answers begin on page 173) 226. y value is positive x value is positive. d.–4) (3.4) x A D (–1. c. y value is positive none of these choices (–4.4) 227. 225.3) (–3. d. What are the signs of the coordinates of points J y in the shaded quadrant? y x x a. x value is negative. b.–4) (–3.4) . d. Consider the following graph and assume that ABCD is a square.–3) a. y value is negative x value is positive. e. b. e. c. What are the coordinates of point B? y B C (6.–4) (–1. What coordinates are identified by point J shown in the following Cartesian plane? The basics of the Cartesian coordinate system are explored in this problem set.

y) can be in Quadrant I. points whose coordinates are given by (|–x – 2|. in Quadrant II. on the x-axis. in Quadrant IV. which of the following is an accurate characterization of the point (x. in Quadrant II. c. y) can be in Quadrant I. in Quadrant IV.(–y)2) lie in which quadrant? a. y) can be in Quadrant I.–3) number. For all nonzero real numbers x and y. The point (x.–a) 27 . or on the y-axis. or on the x-axis. which of the following is an accurate characterization of the point (x.–3) a. or on the y-axis.–4) (–4. The point (x. d. Quadrant II c. or on the y-axis. in Quadrant II.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 228. 233.–a) c.4) (–6. d. If x is any real number and y is a nonnegative 229. (–a. 234. The point (x. c. Quadrant IV real number. If x is a positive real number and y is any real x A D (–1. Quadrant I Quadrant II Quadrant III Quadrant IV 230. or on the x-axis. Quadrant III d. on the x-axis. b. For all real numbers x ABCD is a square. b. The point (x. Quadrant II c. in Quadrant IV. b. y) can be in Quadrant I. Quadrant I b.6) (6.4) 232. y) can be in Quadrant I. (–a. on the x-axis. d. or on the y-axis. in Quadrant IV.a) d. e. y) can be in Quadrant I. Quadrant III d. or on the x-axis. (6. (a. The point (x.a) b. y) can be in Quadrant I. b. d. y) can be in Quadrant I. The point (x.–5) lies in which quadrant? a. –|–x – 1|) must lie in which quadrant? a. Assume a 0.–4) (–6. c. The point (x. Quadrant I b. The point (x. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant IV? a. Quadrant IV B C (6. in Quadrant II. on the x-axis. The point (2. points whose coordinates are given by (x2. y)? a. (a. or on the x-axis. What are the coordinates of point D? y –2. y)? a. Consider the following graph and assume that 231. c.

9 242. which of the following is an accurate characterization of points of the form (–x.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 235. c. Neither a or b is true. For some values of x. Quadrant III d. the point (1. d.–2) will lie in Quadrant III. Quadrant IV 238.–y)? a. Assume a following is an accurate characterization of points of the form (1. (a.8) (0. 241. 3 d. Quadrant I Quadrant II Quadrant III Quadrant IV –x2 1 y = –3? a. Assume a 0. There is no slope. For all negative integers x and y. (–a.a) b. xy lie in which quadrant? a. Both a and b are true. There is no value of y for which the point (1. 0 c. b. 3 b. Both a and b are true. points whose coordinates are given by (–x3. d. (a.–y) is on the x axis.16) 1 28 . Quadrant I b. c. c. ((–a)2. (–a.– 2 ) (0. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant II? a.–a2) c. –3 c. What is the y-intercept of the line whose equa- 239. 243. –3 b. d. points whose The problems in this set deal with determining the equations of lines using information provided about the line. For all negative integers x and y.–a2) 0. tion is 8y = 16x – 4? a. (–a2. which of the 236. b. What is the slope of the line whose equation is 1 coordinates are given by (–y)3 . (a2. (0.a2) d.a2) b.–a) c. Quadrant II c.a) d. xy2) lie in which quadrant? a. the point (–x. If x is any real number.2) (0. d. 3 d. Which of the following points lies in Quadrant III? a. b. Neither a or b is true. b. What is the slope of the line whose equation is 3y – x = 9? a. If y is a nonpositive real number.–y) will lie in Quadrant IV. (a.–2)? a.–2) is never on the x-axis c.–a) 240. The point (–x. Set 16 (Answers begin on page 174) 237. For some values of y.

y = 4x – 5 c. d. Which of the following equations was used to through the points (2. x = 3 y + 5 d. y = – 2 x + 2 249. y = 2 3x 2 intercept form. Transform the equation y = – 15 x – 5 into 2 3 3 3 1 construct this input/output table? x 1 2 3 4 5 a. 2x + 15y = –9 d. Which of the following lines has a negative slope? a. –5x + y = 1 d. y = –2x + 3 d. 3) and (–2. b. 1 d. What is the slope of the line whose equation is y = 3x + 4 y = 4x – 1 y = 5x – 2 y = 7x –3y = 12x – 3? a. 4 e. –3 c. What is the equation of the line that passes 1 1 –1 e. Which of the following equations describes this line? a. y = 3x + 5 b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 244. y = x + 1 1 b. 2). Transform the equation 3x + y = 5 into slope- (3. A line is known to have a slope of –3 and a y-inter- cept of (0. y = – 2 x d. y = – 2 x + 4 c.1)? a. y 7 10 13 16 19 standard form. Which of the following lines contains the point 247. y = 3x – 2 246. –2x + 15y = –9 b. y = –3x + 2 c. y = – 2 x e. 6 = y – x b. y = –3x + 5 c. 5)? a. y = 2x + 2 c. y = 2x + 1 b. 2x – 15y = –9 250. –4 b. a. y = 2x – 3 b. 12 251. 6y + x = 7 29 . c. a. y = 3 x – 2 d. x = – 3 y + 5 248. none of the above 245. 2x + 15y = 9 c.

A line is known to pass through the points x-intercept of (9. 255. y = 2 x + 1 c. 13) 256. 0). –8) e. d. –1 c. –1). (–6. A line with positive slope need not cross the x-axis. –3 d. A line has a y-intercept of (0. Which of the statements is true? pletes the following table. –11 0 3 8 y 15 11 z –3 –7 a. assuming that all of the points are collinear. 9) d. (6. y = 2 x – 1 b. b. y = 2x + 1 1 1 (0. and (3.–10) b. A vertical line need not have a y-intercept. y = 2x – 1 d. b. y). (1. 1 b. d. (0. 3) c. 3). a. c. x –4 –2 2 5 7 a. –6) and an 253. –9) are assumed to be collinear. Determine the value of y if the points (–3. A line with negative slope need not cross the x-axis. –5 30 . A horizontal line need not have a y-intercept. c. What is the equation of this line? a. –1) and (2. (3. (0. Determine the missing value of z that com- 254.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 252. Which of the following points must also lie on this line? a.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 y c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 17 (Answers begin on page 176) The problems in this set deal with graphing straight lines. 257. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 31 . y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. Which of the following is the graph of y = –3? a. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 b.

d. What is the slope of the line segment in the fol- the following graph? lowing graph? (10. It has a positive slope. d.–6) y y a. 5 3 5 –3 3 –5 3 5 a.0) (0. – 2 3 d.0) x x (0. –2 b. 2 c. 2 3 259.2) (–3.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 258. Its slope is undefined. What is the slope of the line segment shown in 260. 32 . b. c. Which of the following is an accurate charac- terization of the slope of the y-axis? a. b. c.–5) (–2. It has a negative slope. It has a slope of zero.

Graph y = 2x + 3. 10 8 6 4 2 d. 10 8 6 4 2 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 261. a. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 33 .

Graph y = –2x + 9.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 262. 10 8 6 4 2 2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 d. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 34 . a. 10 8 6 4 2 c.

Which of the following is the graph of y = – 5 x – 5? 2 a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 263. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x x b. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 c. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 d. y 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 35 .

c. y=x+7 y=x–7 y = –x – 7 y = –x + 7 a. c. What is the equation of the line in the follow- following graph? 10 ing graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 –10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x x y a. b. b. y = –2x + 5 3 y = 2x + 5 3 y = –3x + 5 2 y = 3x + 5 2 36 . d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 264. d. What is the equation of the line shown in the 265.

10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y 37 . 10 8 6 4 2 c. Graph 2 y – 1 x = 0. 3 2 a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 266. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y y b. 10 8 6 4 2 d.

y c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 267. y d. Which of the following lines has a positive slope? a. y x x 38 . y x x b.

y c. y x x 39 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 268. Which of the following lines has an undefined slope? a. y x x b. y d.

4 is shown in which of the following graphs? a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 269.1x – 0.7y = 1. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y b. The equation 0. 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y 40 .

10 8 6 4 2 –20 –16 –12 –8 –4 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 8 12 16 20 x y 41 . 10 8 6 4 2 –20 –16 –12 –8 –4 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 4 8 12 16 20 x y d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– c.

y = 1 x + 5 5 e. A line whose graph rises from left to right has a negative slope. A line with positive slope need not cross the x-axis. The line y = –2x + 8 is scenario? a. where c ≠ 0. d. y = 2 x + 5 3 b. Which of the following describes a possible This set focuses on more advanced properties of linear equations. y = 3x + 3. y = 2x + 4. y = 6x + 6. 272. The graph of a line with negative slope cannot cross into both Quadrants I and II. c. y = 3 x – 4 4 c. can cross into only two of the four quadrants. 4)? a. y = – 2 x – 5 3 d. y = 4 x – 4 3 d. d. y = 5x + 5. y = 5 – 2 x 3 c. The graph of y = c. A line with an undefined slope can cross into both Quadrant I and Quadrant II. y = 6x – 6 275. as well as more advanced word problems modeled using linear equations. Which of the following describes a possible perpendicular? a. Which of the following is the equation of the line perpendicular to y = 3 x – 2 and passing 4 through the point (–6. y = 3 x +4 4 b. d. b. where c ≠ 0. cannot cross the x-axis. parallel to the line y = 1 x + 8 2 parallel to the line 1 y = –x + 3 2 perpendicular to the line 2y = – 1 x + 8 2 perpendicular to the line 1 y = –2x – 8 2 perpendicular to the line y = 2x – 8 276. y = 4x + 1. b. d. c. A line with negative slope need not cross the y-axis. b. The graphs of which of the following pairs of linear equations would be parallel to each other? a. b. The graph of x = c. The graph of a line with positive slope can cross into both Quadrants II and IV. The graph of a vertical line cannot cross into both Quadrants II and III. y = – 4 x – 4 3 42 . 271. 273. c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 270. A horizontal line has an undefined slope. a. c. must have a y-intercept. y = –4x + 1 d. Which of the following describes a possible Set 18 (Answers begin on page 177) scenario? a. y = – 3 x + 5 2 274. y = 3 x –5 2 e. A line whose equation is of the form y = –x + c can cross into three of the four quadrants. e. The graph of y =c. y = x + 4 b. To which of the following lines is y = 2 x –5 3 scenario? a. where c ≠ 0. y = – 1 – 3 3 c.

How long should the longest piece be? a. a canister of Ace tennis 279. x = –2 b. 37 feet b. Which of the following is the equation of the line that has y-intercept (0. y = – 1 x + 8 3 278. neither a nor b 43 .2) and (–5.25 before the sales tax. y = 13 18 x 18 13 x – 13 x 18 280. If he bought one more canister of Longline balls than he did Ace balls. y = 1 x + 8 3 d. y = –2 c. y = –2 c. 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls c. Which of the following is the equation of the 282. y = d. 7 canisters of Ace balls and 8 canisters of Longline balls dicular to a line with an undefined slope? a. how many canisters of each did he purchase? a.4)? a.12) and is parallel to the line passing through the points (4. y = 3x + 4 b. y = c. Which of the following lines must be parallel to a line with zero slope? a. 46 feet 283. 5 canisters of Ace balls and 6 canisters of Longline balls d.6)? a. x = –2 b.75. The high school tennis coach bought canisters of both brands of balls. 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls b. At Zides Sport Shop. y = d. line parallel to y = 3x + 8 and passing through the point (4. Which of the following lines must be perpen- balls costs $3.50 and a canister of Longline tennis balls costs $2. 40 feet c. Which of the following is the equation of the line perpendicular to y = – 13 x + 5 and passing 18 through the origin? a. y = – 18 x 13 b.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 277. and the third piece must be 10 feet longer than three times the length of the second piece. both a and b d. neither a nor b 281. spending exactly $40. 43 feet d. y = c. y = 3x – 8 c. both a and b d. y = – 4 x + 12 9 –9x + 2 4 9 x + 12 4 The second piece must be 1 foot shorter in length than twice the first piece. A 60-foot piece of rope is cut into three pieces. y = 4 x + 12 9 b.

Lori is twice as old as her sister.500 at 11% interest d.500 at 11% interest 287. How long would it take a girl bicycling at 17 $1. 32 nickels and 33 dimes b. d.000 at 11% interest c. $2. One essential step to ensure the success of a 286. c.33 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 6. 2.67 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 3.000 at 10% interest and $3. How much did she invest at each rate? a. assuming that her instructor had a 3-hour head start? a. 3.33 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution d. Kari invested some money at 10% interest and microgravity bean seed germination project is that 10 gallons of a 70% concentrated nutrient solution be administered to the bean seeds. Lisa. 7. Lisa is 12 years old and Lori is 24 years old.500 more than that amount at 11% interest.50 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 2.50 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 7. $4.000 at 10% interest and $5.50 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution b. $2.50 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution c. 44 . 6. Lisa is 20 years old and Lori is 40 years old. What are their current ages? a. 28 nickels and 37 dimes d. In 5 years. how many gallons (accurate to 2 decimal places) of each should she mix in order to obtain the desired solution? a. 25 nickels and 40 dimes 288. If mph to overtake her instructor bicycling at 7 mph along the same path.000 at 10% interest and $4.500 at 10% interest and $4.67 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution 285. 3 hours 12 minutes the bank contains 65 coins with a total value of 5 dollars. If the payload specialist has some 90% nitrogen and some 30% nitrogen. Lisa will be the same age as her sister was 10 years ago.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 284. Her total yearly interest was $795. 30 nickels and 35 dimes c. b.500 at 11% interest b. how many nickels and how many dimes are in the bank? a. 2 hours 15 minutes c. Lisa is 15 years old and Lori is 30 years old. 3 hours d. A piggy bank is full of just nickels and dimes. Lisa is 23 years old and Lori is 46 years old. 2 hours 6 minutes b. $3.

b. c. y y y y 4x – 3 –4x – 3 –4x – 3 4x – 3 45 . d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– Set 19 (Answers begin on page 180) 290. c. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 10 8 6 4 2 graph? 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 2 –2 –4 –6 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –8 –10 y a. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? The problems in this set consist of graphing linear inequalities in the Cartesian plane. y y y y –2 –2 –2 –2 291. c. y y y y 2x + 7 2x + 7 –2x + 7 –2x + 7 y a. d. b. b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x y a. 289. d.

b. c. y–x x–y y–x x–y 0 0 0 0 graph? y 10 8 295. d. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 294. + 2y –1 x +2y –3 x + 6y –1 1 –1 3x + 2 1 3x 46 .–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 292. Which inequality is illustrated by the following a. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 6 8 4 6 2 4 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –4 –8 –6 –10 –8 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 x 2 x a. c. c. x+y x–y x–y x+y 2 2 –2 –2 –10 a. d. c. b. y y x x 8 8 8 8 293. b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 8 6 4 graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 2 –9 –6 –3 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 3 6 9 12 15 18 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. d. b. d.

3x + y +2 0 3x – y + 2 0 3x – y –2 0 3x + y – 2 0 a. Which inequality is illustrated by the following graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. c. b. b. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 298. d. Which inequality is illustrated by the following 299. b. d. y y y y 3x + 1 3x + 1 3x + 1 3x + 1 297. c. c. Which of the inequalities is illustrated by the graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 following graph? y 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x a. c. 3x + y 3x – y 3x + y 3x – y 7x + y – 8 7x + y + 8 7x + y – 8 7x + y – 8 47 . b. 2y + 6x 2y – 6x 2y + 6x 2y – 6x 8 8 8 8 a. d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 296. d.

2y –x 1 x+y 5 3y –3x 9x – 1 y 4? y 10 301. –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b.–2) a solution? a. y 10 y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 48 . 10 d. Which of the following graphs illustrates the inequality y a. c. For which of the following inequalities is the point (3. d. 10 y c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 300. b.

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 302. y 10 y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 49 . Which of the following graphs illustrates the inequality x 4? y 10 a. y 10 c. 10 d. –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b.

28y –2x – 14(y + 10) –28y 2x – 14(y + 10) 28y 2x – 14(y + 10) –28y 2x – 14(y – 10) 50 . Which of the inequalities is illustrated by the following graph? y 18 15 12 9 6 3 x –20 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –3 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 –3 –6 –9 –12 –15 –18 a. c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 303. b. d.

y = –4 51 . d. 2x + y =6 y 2 + 4x = 12 a. b. c. e. 2x). Points of the form (x. The solution set of a linear inequality can intersect all four quadrants. c. c. use the elimination method to determine the value of b. where x 0. y 4x + 6 = –3y –2x + 3 = y + 9 a. are in the solution set of the linear inequality y x. Given that both of the following equations must Set 20 (Answers begin on page 103) Systems of 2 2 linear equations are solved using the elimination method in this problem set. –6 –4 6 12 13 309. c. b. y = 4 x =1. d. Which of the following describes a possible 307. –6 –1 0 1 6 306. y) satisfy the linear inequality x 8. b. Given that both of the following equations must scenario? a. 5a +3b = –2 5a – 3b = –38 a. d. b. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. –2 0 1 3 6 be satisfied simultaneously. use the elimination method to determine the value of x . use the elimination method to determine the value of x. d. e. c. d. e. y = –4 x = –23. The solution set of a linear inequality y – 2x < –1 includes points on the line y = 2x –1. be satisfied simultaneously. Use the elimination method to determine the solution of the following system of linear equations: –x + 3y = 11 x – 5y = –3 a. x = 17. c. 3(x +4) – 2y = 5 2y – 4x =8 a. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. –2 –1 1 13 15 308.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 304. Points of the form (8. 305. d. use the elimination method to determine the value of x. y = 4 x = 1. b. d.

b. 2 3 4 5 6 312. e. b. c. –5 –4 –2 4 6 be satisfied simultaneously. Given that both of the following equations must 315. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. b. 1 2 (a + 3) – b = –6 3a – 2b = –5 a.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 310. use the elimination method to determine the value of a. b. use the elimination method to determine the value of a + b. use the elimination method to determine the value of b. 5 15 20 25 45 52 . 2(m + n) + m =9 3m –3n = 24 a. Given that both of the following equations must 313. e. –3 4 12 13 16 311. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. d. use the elimination method to determine the value of a + b. d. 7(2a + 3b) =56 b + 2a = –4 a. –10 –1 2 2 5 6 a. e. d. c. c. d. use the elimination method to determine the value of y. e. c. 1 2 x + 6y = 7 –4x – 15y = 10 a. c. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. –5 –3 3 5 8 be satisfied simultaneously. b. d. 4a + 6b = 24 6a –12b = –6 a. e. d. b –7a + 4 = 25 b + a = 13 be satisfied simultaneously. e. Given that both of the following equations must 314. c. use the elimination method to determine the value of n.

–2=0 c – 6d = 0 a. Given that both of the following equations must Set 21 (Answers begin on page 185) be satisfied simultaneously. b. c. 321. y = –4 x = –5. b. y = 1 53 . c. b. Use the elimination method to determine be satisfied simultaneously. d. 9(x – 1) = 2 –4y 2y + 7x = 3 a. 4 5 25 49 81 317. use the elimination method to determine the value of xy. –27 –18 –12 –6 –3 the solution of the following system of linear equations: 4x – 3y = 10 5x + 2y = 1 a. Given that both of the following equations must 319. b. x = 4. c. d. Given that both of the following equations must 320. 8q + 15p = 26 –5p + 2q = 24 a. use the substitution method to solve the following system: x = –5y 2x –2y = 16 a. e. y = –2 x = –1. use the elimination method to determine the value of (y – x)2. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. y = – 2 3 318. d. 1 4 16 25 36 Systems of 2 2 linear equations are solved using the substitution method and graphical techniques in this problem set. use the elimination method to determine the value of (p + q)2. e. d. y = –3 x = 1. c. y = – 1 3 x = 2. y = 10 x = 20. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. y = –2 x = –2.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 316. e. use the elimination c method to determine the value of d . d. b. –5x + 2y = –51 –x –y = –6 a. c. c. x = 10. b. d. e. 2 6 8 12 14 c–d 5 be satisfied simultaneously.

Given that both of the following equations 325. use the substitution method to determine the value c of d . c. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. d. b. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. e. b. b. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. b. c. b. 2x + y = 6 y 2 +4x = 12 a. 7(2a + 3b) = 56 b + 2a = –4 a. Given that both of the following equations must be satisfied simultaneously. –3 4 12 13 16 54 . –2=0 c – 6d = 0 a. 4 9 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 a 2 326. –27 –18 –12 –6 –3 a. e. use the substitution method to determine the value of x. d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 322. use the substitution method to determine the value of b. e. –5 –4 –2 4 6 323. d. d. –2 0 1 3 must be satisfied simultaneously. b –7a + 4 = 25 b + a = 13 327. e. e. c. c. b =b+1 3(a – b) = –21 a. –5x + 2y = –51 –x – y = –6 a. d. use the substitution method to determine the value of a. d. 2 6 8 12 14 c–d 5 324. c. use the substitution method to determine the value of xy. c. use the substitution method to determine the value of √a .

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

328. Given that both of the following equations must

331. How many solutions are there to the system of

be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of ab. 10b – 9a = 6 b–a=1 a. b. c. d. e. –12 –7 1 7 12

**equations shown in the following graph?
**

y

x

329. Given that both of the following equations must

**be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of x – y. =8 2x – y = 9 a. b. c. d. e. –24 –2 0 1 2
**

x+y 3

a. b. c. d.

0 1 2 infinitely many

332. Determine the number of solutions of the

following system of equations: y = 3x + 2 y – 3x = –2 a. b. c. d. 1 0 infinitely many none of the above

330. Which of the following linear systems contains

two parallel lines? a. x = 5, y = 5 b. y = –x, y = x – 1 c. x – y = 7, 2 – y = –x d. y = 3x + 4, 2x + 4 = y

55

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

333. Given that both of the following equations

335. Determine the number of solutions of the linear

**must be satisfied simultaneously, use the substitution method to determine the value of 2yx . 3x – y = 2 2y – 3x = 8 a. 4 3 b. 4 5 c. 5 d. 8 e. 12
**

334. Determine the number of solutions of the linear

**system that has the following graphical depiction:
**

y

10

x

–10 10

**system that has the following graphical depiction:
**

y

10 –10

a. b. c. d.

x

–10 10

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

336. Determine the number of solutions of the

**following system of equations: y = 3x + 2 – 3y + 9x = –6
**

–10

a. b. c. d.

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

a. b. c. d.

1 0 infinitely many none of the above

56

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

Set 22

(Answers begin on page 188)

**The problems in this set consist of graphing systems of linear inequalities.
**

337. The graphs of the lines y = 4 and y = x

2 form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

14 12 10 8 6 4 2

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14

2

4

6

8

10

x x

a. b. c. d.

y y y y

4, y 4, y 4, y 4, y

x+2 x +2 x+2 x+2

57

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

338. The graphs of the lines y = 5 and x = 2 form

339. The graphs of the lines y = –x + 4 and y = x + 2

the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

–10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

x

a. b. c. d.

y 5, x 2 y ≤ 5, x ≤ 2 y 5, x 2 y 5, x 2

a. b. c. d.

y y y y

x +2, y x +2, y x +2, y x +2, y

–x + 4 –x + 4 –x + 4 –x + 4

58

–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES–

340. The graphs of the lines y = 1 x and y = –4x form 4

**341. The graphs of the lines 2y – 3x = –6 and y =
**

5 5 – 2 x form the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

the boundaries of the shaded region. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region?

y

10 8 6 4 2

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

–10

–8

–6

–4

–2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10

2

4

6

8

10

x

a. y b. y c. y d. y

1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y 1 4 x, y

–4x –4x –4x –4x

a. b. c. d.

2y – 3x 2y – 3x 2y – 3x 2y – 3x

–6, y –6, y –6, y –6, y

5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2 5 – 5x 2

59

y –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 b. y 10 –10 10 x –10 10 x –10 –10 60 . y 10 10 2 2x + 1 c. y 10 d.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 342. Which of the following graphs depicts the solution set for the following system of linear inequalities? y y a.

The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 2 4 6 8 10 x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –14 2 4 6 8 10 x x –6 –8 –10 a. 5y 5y 5y 5y 8(x + 5). The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y the boundaries of the shaded region. c.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 343. c. 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). The graphs of the lines y = 3x and y = –5 form 12(5 – x) = 5y form the boundaries of the shaded region. y 3x. y –5 –5 –5 –5 a. d. 12(5 – x) 5y 5y 5y 5y 61 . 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). y 3x. y y y y 3x. y 3x. d. 12(5 – x) 8(x + 5). b. The graphs of the lines 5y = 8(x + 5) and 344. b.

11y 6. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 12 x –10 a. y–x y–x y–x y–x 6. b. –9y 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) 2(x + 9) a. –9y 4x. 11y –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) –2(x + 11) 62 . d. c. –9y 4x. –9y 4x. The graphs of the lines 9(y – 4) = 4x and –9y = 346. The graphs of the lines y – x = 6 and 11y = 2(x + 9) form the boundaries of the shaded region. d. 11y 6.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 345. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 8 6 4 2 –2(x + 11) form the boundaries of the shaded region. 11y 6. 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 9(y – 4) 4x. b. c.

The graphs of the lines 5x– 2(y + 10) = 0 and 348. –3 –5x. 2x + y –3 –3 –3 –3 a. –3 –5x. d. d. c. 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 5x – 2(y + 10) 0. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 9 8 6 6 3 4 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 2 4 6 8 10 12 x 2 –3 –10 –6 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 2 4 6 8 10 x –9 –4 –6 –8 –10 –12 –15 –18 a. 7(y–5) 7(y–5) 7(y–5) 7(y–5) –5x. 2x + y 0. The graphs of the lines 7(y – 5) = –5x and 2x + y = –3 form the boundaries of the shaded region. c. –3 –5x. b. 2x + y 0. 2x + y 0.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 347. b. The solution set of which of the following systems of linear inequalities is given by the shaded region? y 10 –3 = 1 (2x – 3y) form the boundaries of the 4 shaded region below. –3 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x 1 4 (2x – 3y) – 3y) – 3y) – 3y) 63 .

y ≥ x d. y x – 3. y 2 + 3x c. y x + 3. y 2 – 3x b. y 0 b. For which of the following systems of linear 351. y 3x +6 inequalities does the solution set consist of the points on a single line? a. 2y – 6x 4. y 0 d. x 0. 2y – 6x ≤ 4. For which of the following systems of linear inequalities is the solution set the empty set? a. y x + 3. not including either axis? a. 2y – 6x 4. For which of the following system of linear inequalities is the solution set the entire Cartesian plane? a. y 3x + 4. y x. y 2 + 3x 64 . For which of the following systems of linear inequalities does the solution set consist precisely of the points in Quadrant III. 2y – 6x 4. y 2 + 3x c. y x – 1 b. y x – 1 b. none of the above 350. y 0 c. x 0. x 0.–LINEAR EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES– 349. y 2 + 3x d. y x. y 2x d. x 0. y 0 352. y x – 1 c. 2y – 6x 4.

65 . These topics are the focus of the following seven problem sets.3 A S E C T I O N POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS lgebraic expressions consisting of sums of constant multiples of nonnegative powers of the variable are called polynomials. Simplyfying polynomials and understanding their graphical properties rely heavily on the use of factoring.

d. 9 1 10 x – 6 – 1 x2 – 1 x – 7 3 2 6 9 1 2 – 3 x – 10 x + 1 6 9 1 2 1 3 x – 10 x + 6 – 3 x + 5x4 –2x2 + 12? 2 a. Compute (9a2b + 2ab – 5a2) – (–2ab – 3a2 + 4a2b). 2 2 – 3x – x2 x – 3x–2 1 – [1 – x2 – (2 – x)] ( 7 + 3x + 1 x2). c. c. b.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – Set 23 (Answers begin on page 190) 358. none of the above a. 1 361. Compute (x2 – 3x + 2) = (x3 – 2x2 + 11). c. The problems in this set focus on the basic definition of and addition/subtraction of polynomials. c. 2 360. d. 8 c. c. What is the degree of the polynomial 354. Compute (2 – 3x3) – [(3x3 + 1) – (1 – 2x3)]. 9 d. 5a2b + 8a2 13a2b + 4ab – 8a2 5a2b + 4ab – 2a2 13a2b – 4ab –8a2 362. What is the degree of the constant polynomial 4? 356. d. b. Which of the following is not a polynomial? 3 2 + +5x + 3 3 2 2 + 5x + 3 –x 3 2 a. d. 0 1 A constant polynomial does not have a degree. – 3 2 c. b. Compute (3x2 – 5x + 4) – (– 2 x + 5). 3x2 – c. c. 3x2 – 13 3x–1 7 3x – 1 13 3x–9 7 3x – 9 –5x8 + 9x4 – 7x3 –x2 ? a. 66 . a. d. b. What is the degree of the polynomial 355. 3x2 – d. d. Compute ( 1 x2 – 1 x – 2 ) – ( 2 x2 – 170 x + 1 ). 5 b. 3 a. 4 d. – 4 x2 3 –x2 + 5 3x 363. 2 + 8x3 –2 + 8x3 –2 – 8x3 2 – 8x3 a. –x2 – 1 x + 3 b. –2–2x – 3–1 (2x0)–3 + 5–2x2 – 3–1x (–2x)–1 – 2 All of the choices are polynomials. c. –5 b. d. d. x3 + x2 + 3x + 13 x3 – x2 + 3x + 13 x3 + x2 – 3x + 13 x3 – x2 – 3x + 13 359. b. 3 5 3 3 2 a. b. 2 2 3 2 a. Compute ( 1 x2 + 2 x + 1) + (2x – 2 x2 + 4) – 6 3 3 a. c. a. – 1 x2 – 3 b. 353. Which of the following is not a polynomial? 357. 3x2 – b.

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

364. Which of the following statements is always

Set 24

(Answers begin on page 192)

true? a. The difference of two polynomials is a polynomial. b. The sum of three polynomials is a polynomial. c. A trinomial minus a binomial is a polynomial. d. All of the above statements are true.

365. Which of the following statements is not true?

**The problems in this set focus on the multiplication of polynomials.
**

369. Compute 3x3

7x2.

a. b. c. d.

21x5 21x6 10x5 10x6

a. The quotient of two polynomials is a polynomial. b. The product of a constant and a polynomial is a polynomial. c. The degree of the polynomial, in simplified form, is the highest power to which the variable is raised in the expression. d. The degree of a constant polynomial is zero.

366. Write the expression –(–2x0)–3 + 4–2x2 – 3–1x –2

370. 2x(5x2 + 3y) is equivalent to which of the

**following expressions? a. 5x3 + 6xy b. 10x2 + 6xy c. 10x3 + 6xy d. 10x3 + 6y
**

371. Which of the following expressions is equiva-

**in simplified form. a. 1 x2 – 1 x – 185 8 3 b. c. d.
**

1 2 1 15 16 x – 3 x – 8 – 1 x2 – 1 x – 8 8 3 – 1 x2 + 1 x – 185 8 3

lent to x3 + 6x? a. x (x2 + 6) b. x (x + 6) c. x (x2 + 6x) d. x 2(x + 6)

372. Compute 2x2(3x + 4xy – 2xy3).

367. Compute –(2 – (1 – 2x2 –(2x2 – 1))) –

**(3x2 – (1– 2x2)). a. –9x2 – 1 b. 9x2 – 1 c. 9x2 + 1 d. –9x2 + 1
**

368. Compute –22(2–3 – 2–2x2) + 33(3–2 – 3–3x3).

a. b. c. d.

6x3 +8x2y – 4x3y3 6x3 +8x3y – 4x3y3 6x3 +8x3y – 4x2y3 6x2 +8x2y – 4x3y3

373. Compute 7x5(x8 + 2x4 – 7x – 9).

a. x3 + x2 +

5 2 5 2 5 2

a. b. c. d.

7x 13 + 9x9 – 14x6 – 16x5 7x 40 + 14x20 – 49x5 – 63 7x 13 + 2x4 – 7x – 9 7x 13 + 14x9 – 49x6 – 63x5

b. –x3 + x2 + c. –x3 – x2 + d. x3 – x2 –

5 2

67

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

374. Compute 4x2z(3xz3 – 4z2 + 7x5).

379. What is the product of (2x + 6)(3x – 9)?

**a. – + 2z3 – 16x2z2 + 28x10z b. 12x c. 12x3z4 – 16x2z3 + 28x7z d. 12x3z4 – 4z2 + 7x5
**

375. What is the product of (x – 3)(x + 7)?

12x3z4

8x2z3

28x7z

a. b. c. d. e.

5x2 – 54 6x2 – 54 6x2 + 18x – 15 6x2 – 18x – 15 6x2 + 36x – 54

a. b. c. d. e.

x2 – 21 x2 – 3x –21 x2 + 4x – 21 x2 + 7x – 21 x2 – 21x – 21

380.Compute –3x(x + 6)(x – 9).

a. b. c. d. e.

–3x3 + 6x – 54 -x3 + 3x2 + 24x -3x3 – 3x2 – 54 –3x2 + 6x – 72 –3x3 + 9x2 + 162x

376. What is the product of (x – 6)(x – 6)?

a. b. c. d. e.

x2 + 36 x2 – 36 x2 – 12x – 36 x2 – 12x + 36 x2 – 36x + 36

381. Compute (x – 4)(3x2 + 7x –2).

a. b. c. d.

3x3 + 5x2 – 30x – 8 3x3 + 5x2 – 30x + 8 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x + 8 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x – 8

377. What is the product of (x –1)(x + 1)?

382. Compute (x – 6)(x – 3)(x – 1).

a. b. c. d. e.

–1 2 +1 x x2 – x – 1 x2 – x +1 x2 – 2x –1

x2

a. b. c. d. e.

x3 – 18 x3 – 9x – 18 x3 – 8x2 + 27x – 18 x3 – 10x2 – 9x – 18 x3 – 10x2 + 27x – 18

378. What is the value of (x + c)2?

383. Which of the following equations is equivalent

a. b. c. d. e.

x2

2

+c x + cx + c2 x2 + c2x2 + c2 x2 + cx2 + c2x + c2 x2 + 2cx + c2

2

**to (5x + 1)(2y +2) = 10xy + 12? a. 10x + 2y + 2 = 10 b. 10x + y = 10 c. 5x + y = 5 d. 5x – y = 5
**

384. Compute (2x3 – 2x2 + 1)(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9).

a. b. c. d.

12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x – 9 12x6 – 2x5 – 24x4 + 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x – 9 12x6 – 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 – 25x2 + 5x – 9 12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 + 2x3 – 25x2 + 5x – 9

68

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

Set 25

(Answers begin on page 193)

391. Factor out the GCF: 125x3 – 405x2

The method of factoring out the greatest common factor (GCF) from a polynomial is the focus of this problem set.

385. Factor out the GCF: 15x – 10

a. b. c. d.

–5x 2(25x – 81) 5x(25x2 – 81) 5x 2 (25x – 81) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. b. c. d.

–5(3x – 2) 5(3x + 2) –5(3x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

392. Factor out the GCF: 73x3 – 72x2 + 7x – 49

a. b. c. d.

–7(49x3 + 7x2 + x – 7) 7(14x3 – 7x2 – x + 7) 7(49x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

386. Factor out the GCF: 9x5 + 24x2 – 6x

a. b. c. d.

3(3x 5 + 8x2 – 2x) 3x(3x 4 + 8x – 2) x(9x 4 + 24x – 6) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

393. Factor out the GCF: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3)

a. b. c. d.

(2x + 3)(7 – 5x) (2x + 3)(5x – 7) (2x + 3)(5x + 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

387. Factor out the GCF: 36x4 – 90x3 – 18x

a. b. c. d.

9x(4x3 – 10x2 – 2) 18(2x4 – 5x3 – x) 18x(2x3 – 5x2 – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

394. Factor out the GCF: 5x(6x – 5) + 7(5 – 6x)

a. b. c. d.

(5x – 7)(5 – 6x) (5x + 7)(6x– 5) (5x – 7)(6x– 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

388. Factor out the GCF: x3 – x

a. b. c. d.

x(x2 –1) –x(x2 + 1) –x(x2 – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

395. Factor out the GCF:

389. Factor out the GCF: 5x2 + 49

**6(4x + 1) – 3y(1 + 4x) + 7z(4x + 1) a. (6 – 3y + 7z)(4x + 1) b. (6 – 3y – 7z)(4x + 1) c. (–6 + 3y – 7z)(1 + 4x ) d. This polynomial cannot be factored further.
**

396. Factor out the GCF: 5x ( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) 3 3

a. b. c. d.

5(x2 + 49) 5(x2 + 44) 5x(x + 49) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. 5x( 2 x + 7) 3

b. (5x – 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 c. (5x + 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 d. This polynomial cannot be factored further.

390. Factor out the GCF: 36 – 81x2

a. b. c. d.

9(4 – 9x2) 9(4 – x2) 9(x2 – 4) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

69

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

397. Factor out the GCF: 3x(x + 5)2 – 8y(x + 5)3 + 7z(x + 5)2

a. b. c. d.

(x + 5)(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) (x + 5)2(–3x + 8yx + 40y – 7z) (x + 5)2(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

398. Factor out the GCF: 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 + 12 x5y3(9 – x)

a. b. c. d.

4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3x – 324y3 – 3x2y] 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x + 4y3x2 – 72y3x +324y3 – 3x2y] 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 + 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3x – 324y3 + 3x2y] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

399. Factor out the GCF: 8x4y2z(2w – 1)3 – 16x2y4z3(2w – 1)3 + 12x4y4z(2w – 1)4

a. b. c. d.

4xyz(2w – 1)2[2x3 –4y3z3 + 6x3y3w – 3x3y3] 4x2y2z(2w – 1)2[2x2 –4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 –4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

400. Factor out the GCF: –22a3bc2(d –2)3(1 – e)2 + 55a2b2c2(d – 2)2(1 – e) – 44a2bc4(d – 2)(1 – e)

a. b. c. d.

11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) + 4c2] 11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) – 4c2] 11a2bc2(d –2)(1– e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1 – e) + 5b(d – 2) + 4c2] This polynomial cannot be factored further.

70

–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS –

Set 26

(Answers begin on page 194)

407. Factor completely: 32x5 – 162x

The problems in this set focus on factoring polynomials that can be viewed as the difference of squares or as perfect trinomials squared.

401. Factor completely x2 – 36

a. b. c. d.

2x(4x2 + 9) 2x(2x – 3)2(2x +3)2 2x(2x – 3)(2x + 3)(4x2 + 9) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

a. b. c. d.

(x – 6)2 (x – 6)(x + 6) (x + 6)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

408. Factor completely: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x)

a. b. c. d.

7x(x – 2)(x + 2)(5 – x) 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) 7x(5 – x)(x2 + 4) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

402. Factor completely: 144 – y2

a. b. c. d.

(12 – y)(12 + y) (11 – y)(11 + y) (y – 12)(y + 12) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

409. Factor completely: x2(3x – 5) + 9(5 – 3x)

a. b. c. d.

(x – 3)(x + 3)(3x – 5) (x2 + 9 )(3x – 5) (x2 + 9 ) (5 – 3x) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

403. Factor completely: 4x2 + 1

a. b. c. d.

(2x + 1)2 (2x + 1)(2x – 1) (2x + 1)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

410. Factor completely: x(x2 + 7x) – 9x3(x2 + 7x)

a. b. c. d.

x2(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x)(x + 7) x2(x + 7)(1 + 9x2) x2(3x –1)(3x + 1)(x + 7) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

404. Factor completely: 9x2 – 25

a. b. c. d.

(3x – 5) (3x –5) (3x + 5) (5x – 3)(5x + 3) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

411. Factor completely: 1 + 2x + x2

a. b. c. d.

(x – 1)2 (x + 1)2 (x + 1)(x +2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

405. Factor completely: 121x4 – 49z2

a. b. c. d.

(11x2 – 7z)(11x2 + 7z) (12x2 – 7z)(12x2 + 7z) (7z – 11x2 )(7z + 11x2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

412. Factor completely: 4x2 – 12x + 9

a. b. c. d.

(2x – 3)(2x + 3) (2x + 3)2 (2x – 3)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further.

406. Factor completely: 6x2 – 24

a. b. c. d.

(6x – 2)(x + 2) 6(x –2)2 6(x – 2)(x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further.

71

b. b. d. Factor completely: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x Set 27 a. Factor completely: 9 – 7x – 2x2 416. 72 . This polynomial cannot be factored further. 414. (7x –1)(x – 5) (7x +1)(x + 5) (7x –5)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 3x 2(5x + 1)(5x – 1) 3x 2(5x – 1)2 3x 2(5x + 1)2 This polynomial cannot be factored further. a. b. c. Factor completely: 7x2 – 12x + 5 a. Factor completely: 12x2 – 37x – 10 + 16(3 + 10x) a. d. c. c. Factor completely: x2 – 9x + 20 a. This polynomial cannot be factored further. Factor completely: 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 419. d. Factor completely: x2 + 2x – 8 2x(2x3 3)2 a. b. 415. Factor completely: –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 a. b. b. (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)(3x + 4) c. 423. (3 + 10x)(3x + 4)2 d. d. d. 2x(2x c. c. Factor completely: 1 – 6x2 + 9x4 a. c. (9 + 2x)(1 – x) (3 + 2x)(3 – x) (3 + x)(3 – 2x) This polynomial cannot be factored further. (x – 4)(x – 5) (x + 2)(x – 10) –(x + 4)(x + 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further. d. a. 8x2 – 24x4 + 18x a. –3x2(3x + 1)(3x + 2) –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 425. + 3 – 3)2 b. 2(x + 2)(x2 + 1) 2(x2 + 2)(x + 1) 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. d. c.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 413. Factor completely: a. (Answers begin on page 194) Factoring polynomials using the trinomial method is the focus of this problem set. (4x – 10)(3x + 1) (3x – 10)(4x + 1) (3x – 2)(4x + 5) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. 4x3(5 – x)(1 – x) 4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) –4x3(x –5)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 418. 417. d. c. (1 + 3x2)2 (1 – 3x2)2 (1 – 3x2)(1 + 3x2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. 421. 2x(2x3 – 3)(2x3 + 3) d. (x + 4)(x – 2) (x – 4)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x – 8) This polynomial cannot be factored further. b. b. Factor completely: 6x2 + 11x – 2 a. c. (2x + 2)(3x – 1) (3x + 2)(2x – 1) (x + 2)(6x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. c. 422. (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)2 b. d. d. d. 424. c. Factor completely: 9x2(3 + 10x) –24x(10x + 3) 420. b. Factor completely: –27x4 + 27x3 – 6x2 a. c.

–2 and 2 c. (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x – 1)(x + 1) (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x – 1)(x – 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. (Answers begin on page 196) This problem set focuses on finding roots of polynomials using factoring techniques and the Zero Factor Property. –2 and 0 d. c. c. –3 and 3 c. (x + 1)2(x – 2)(x – 3) (x – 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) (x + 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) This polynomial cannot be factored further. 6x2(1 –x4) + 13x(1 – x4) + 6(1 – x4) a. (1 – x)2(1 + x)2(2x + 3)(3x + 2) c. d. 436. zeroes for the polynomial 9x2 – 36? a. d. c. Factor completely: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) a. 73 . Which of the following is a complete list of 429. b. b. c. 433. – 3 and 3 5 5 d. –6 c. b. 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) 2(x + 2)(x – 4)(x – 3)(x + 3) 2(x – 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) This polynomial cannot be factored further. –2 and 4 b. Which of the following is a complete list of 428. c. Factor completely: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 +6x + 8) a. –1 and 0 c. 427. zeroes for the polynomial 5x2 + 49? a. 0 b. Factor completely: Set 28 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) a. There are no zeroes for this polynomial. 6 b. –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x + 9) –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x –9) (x – 3)(x + 3)(x –9) This polynomial cannot be factored further. (x + 1)(x + 3)(x – 2) ( x + 1)(x – 3)(x – 2) (x – 1)(x – 3)(x + 2) This polynomial cannot be factored further. There are no zeroes for this polynomial. zeroes for the polynomial 6x2 – 24? a.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 426. b. (1 – x)2(1 + x)2(2x + 3)(3x + 2) b. 2 and –4 d. Factor completely: 27(x – 3) + 6x (x – 3) – x2 (x – 3) a. zeroes for the polynomial 9x2 – 25? a. (1 – x)(1 + x)(1 + x2)(3x + 2)(2x + 3) d. Which of the following is a complete list of 431. b. 4 and 9 434. Factor completely: x2(x + 1) – 5x(x + 1) + 432. Factor completely: 6(x + 1) a. d. d. – 5 and 5 3 3 b. Which of the following is a complete list of 430. b. d. –3 and 5 435. –6 and 6 d. c. d. This polynomial cannot be factored further. (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) (4 + x2)(4 – x2)(2x + 1)(x + 1) (4 + x2)(2 – x2)(2 + x )(2x + 1)(x + 1) This polynomial cannot be factored further. Factor completely: (x2 + 4x + 3)x2 + (x2 + 4x + 3) 3x + 2(x2 + 4x + 3) a.

4 and 5 b. 4 and –5 d. 1. Which of the following is a complete list of 442. Which of the following is a complete list of 441. –1. and 5 c. – 9 and –1 2 d. –2. Which of the following is a complete list of 443. and 4 b. 0 and – 1 5 and – 1 5 zeros for the polynomial –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3? a. –2. 130 and –4 b. – 2 and 1 9 c. Which of the following is a complete list of 440. 1 and – 1 5 5 b. –2. 1. 0. 3 1 10 and – 4 10 1 3 and – 4 – 130 and –4 and 7 5 7 5 7 5 c. 2. 0. 1. – 9 and 1 2 444. –2 and – 1 2 b. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 28x(5 – x) – a. – 1 and – 221 5 and – 221 439. 1. –2 and 2 d. 1 5 1 5 75x4 + 30x + 3x ? 3 2 c. 2. – 2 and 3 d. d. 1. 2. 2. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7)? 3 3 a. 0. –2. –1. 0. and 5 b. d. 2. 2 and – 5 3 7 b.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 437. and –5 7x3 (5 – x)? zeros for the polynomial 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x? a. – 3 and 2 438. and 0 c. –2. 1 5 1 5 zeros for the polynomial 9 – 7x – 2x2? a. and 5 446. –1 and 2 d. – 1 and – 221 5 b. –2. –2 and 4 c. Which of the following is a complete list of and 21 2 c. c. and 2 c. –4 and 5 c. and 5 d. 0. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial x2 – 9x + 20? a. 0. –2. 2. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial a. and 2 74 . – 2 and –1 9 b. 2. 2 3 zeros for the polynomial 12x2 – 37x – 10? a. 0 and d. and –5 d. 0. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3)? a. –4 and –5 zeros for the polynomial 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2)? a. and 2 b. 1 and 2 445.

–4.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 447.∞) d. 2.– 3 )∪( 7 . the set of all real numbers 75 .–2]∪[2.–6)∪(6. 7 ) 2 5 d. Which of the following is the solution set for 9x2 – 25 0? a. and 4 d. (–∞.2]∪[5. Which of the following is the solution set for 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 a.0} 5 d. (–∞.∞) c.–2]∪[0. and 4 5x(2x + 3) – 7 (2x + 3) a.– 5 )∪( 5 . 3.∞) 3 3 d. [–2. (–∞. – 1 . 5 ) 3 3 b. [– 3 . the empty set d. –1 and 448.0) b. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for x2 – 36 0? a.∞) 2 5 b. Which of the following is the solution set for Set 29 (Answers begin on page 197) 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) 3 3 a. (2. Which of the following is a complete list of zeros for the polynomial 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8)? a. Which of the following is the solution set for 455. the set of all real numbers 456.2] 453.0]∪[5.∞) b.∞) 5 0? This problem set focuses on solving polynomial inequalities.–2]∪[–2.∞) 5 c. [–2. (6.0]∪[2. (–∞. the set of all real numbers 450.–2)∪(2. –3. the empty set 451. –1. (– 3 . (– 1 . Which of the following is a complete list of 452.∞) d. –2. (–∞. 1 ) 5 b. c.– 459 ) b.–6]∪[6. (–∞. –3.0) 5 c. (–∞. –2. 2. and –2 2 b. (–∞. and 3 c. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for zeros for the polynomial 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4)? a. 7 ] 2 5 0? 454.∞) d. –1 and 1 2 1 and – 1 2 –1 2 2x2 (16 + x ) + 4 6x2 – 24 0? a. [ 1 . (– 5 .– 3 ]∪[ 7 . –2. (– 221 . and 4 b. {– 1 .5] c. 5 ] 3 3 c.∞) c. (–∞. 1 ] 5 d.0) c. (–∞.∞) 2 5 c. [– 221 . –3. 449.∞) b.– 221 )∪( 1 . (–∞.∞) b. [– 5 . the empty set 0? 5x2 + 49 0? a. Which of the following is the solution set for 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) 0? a. Which of the following is the solution set for d.

Which of the following is the solution set for 464.4)∪(5.2) 2 c.∞) 2 c.– 1 )∪(2. the set of all real numbers except – 9 and 1 2 d.4]∪[5. (–∞. –2.– 1 ] 2 d. (–∞.2) 0? a. (– 1 . (–∞. the set of all real numbers 462.–3]∪[–2. (–∞. [– 9 . (4.0]∪[1.∞) –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 a. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for 463. (–2.–4)∪(–2. (– 1 . Which of the following is the solution set for 461.∞) c. Which of the following is the solution set for x2 –9x + 20 0? a.∞) 0? b.1]∪[5. [–2.– 1 ) 2 0? b. [– 1 . (–∞.–1]∪[0.–POLYNOMIAL EXPRESSIONS – 457.∞) b.– 1 )∪(1. –3.∞) 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) 0? a. [–2. (–∞. [–4.–1]∪[– 1 .5] b. (–∞.3) c.5] d. (–∞.–3)∪(–2. [0.–1]∪[0.– 9 )∪(1.∞) 2 d.∞) 2 b.∞) 4 b. (–∞.1] 2 0? 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) a. (– 9 .–2)∪(1. the set of all real numbers except –4. (–∞. 130 ] 4 d.1)∪(1. Which of the following is the solution set for d.∞) 4 c.∞) 2 c. Which of the following is the solution set for 2x3 + 6x2 +4x 0? a.3] d. and 3 76 .–2]∪[–1.– 1 ]∪[ 130 . (–4.∞) c. [–1.5) 458.– 1 )∪( 130 . (–∞.∞) d.1] c.2) 2 b.1) 2 460. (–∞.0] b. Which of the following is the solution set for 12x2 – 37x – 10 0? 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 –4) + (4 – x2) a. (–1. (–∞. Which of the following is the solution set for 9 – 7x –2x2 a. (–∞. 130 ) 4 459.–1)∪(– 1 .

Simplifying and understanding the graphical properties of both polynomials and rational expressions relies heavily on the use of factoring. 77 .The arithmetic of rational expressions closely resembles that of fractions.4 Q S E C T I O N RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS uotients of polynomials are called rational expressions. This is the focus of the following six problem sets.

b. d. d. –y + 8 –(y + 8) –(y – 8) y+8 x2 + 8x 16 e. c. 0. = (y – 8)(y + 8) –(y – 8) 4 x+5 x+4 x x+4 x+5 x+4 x2 + 5x = (y – 8)(y + 8) 8–y = –(y + 8) b. Simplify: x3 – 64x 474. 1 x–8 x x–8 x+8 x–8 a.2)∪(2. d. 465.20 d.∞) 2 x 16 473. e. d. Simplify: 4x3 – 16x24x 48x – 2 This problem set focuses on basic properties and simplification of rational expressions. The domain of the expression x3 2x4x is – 3 467. –6 –4 –3 –2 –1 472. b.∞) (–∞.2)∪(2. a. c. x + 8 78 . Which of the following makes the fraction x2 + 11x + 30 4x3 + 44x2 + 120x undefined? 466. d.2)∪(2. c. – x3 – 20x 469. d. b. Simplify: y2 – 64 8–y a. x+2 x–6 a. x – 8 e. – 1 x b. – 1 4 b. c.0)∪(0.∞) (–. d. b. b. c. c. 2z – 5 z–5 2z + 5 z–5 2z – 5 z+5 2z + 5 z+5 25(–x)4 x (x + 2)(x + 6) 1 2x – 12 x+2 4x(x – 6) 2x(x + 2) x–6 471. 5 2x – 25x 1 x a. 0 4 4 12 5 20 c. b.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– Set 30 (Answers begin on page 202) 2x + 470. d. Which of the following could be equal to 4xx ? a. e. b. c. c. Simplify: z8z – 16z – 32 a. c. z(z + 4) 8 z(z – 4) 8 –z(z + 4) 8 –z(z – 4) 8 a. Simplify: x3 + x– – 20x 2 468. Simplify: z2 + 2z – 15 2z2 – z – 15 a.–2)∪(2. e. Simplify: x(5x2)2 a.-2)∪(2.∞) (–∞. d. (–∞.∞-2)∪(¬2.

e. x+1 2x + 1 x–1 2x + 1 x–1 2x – 1 x+1 2x – 1 6x3 – 12x 24x2 3x – 55 x–9 3x – 53 x–9 3x – 55 3x – 27 3x – 53 3x – 27 5a 2a 482. d. 0 –1.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 475. d. 7b3 c. Which of the following values make the expression x – 16 x2 – 16 undefined? 480. b. –4. – x 4– 2 x d. 7 b3 478. Compute and simplify: (x + 2)(x – 1) – (x –1 )(x +2) a. Simplify: 8a2 + 2a – 1 4ab2 – b2 2 483. c. 1 –4. – x 4+ 2 x 479. c. – x – 2 d. 5x2 477. x2 + 2 4x x2 – 2 4x 2 c. b. b. 1. –16 –4 –1 1 16 a. d. –1. Simplify: 10x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) –2(x ––1) (x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x 1) a. Which of the following lists of values makes the expression a. b. – x+ 481. d. Compute and simplify: ab3 + ab3 a. (2x – 5)(x +4)( ––(2x – 5)(x + 1) = 9(2x 5) a. b. d. 4 undefined? Set 31 (Answers begin on page 203) This problem set focuses on adding and subtracting rational expressions. c. b.4 0. x2 + 7x + 12 x3 + 3x2 – 4x 1 3(2x – 5) 1 9(2x – 5) 1 3 1 9 476. b2 2a + 1 2 – 2ab+ 1 b2 2a – 1 2 – 2ab– 1 1 c. 0 . Compute and simplify: 4x – 45 + 2xx– 99 – 3x – 91 x–9 a. e. c. b. b. Simplify: b. – x 1 +2 79 . d. 0 1 –4. –1 (x – 1)(x + 2) 1 (x – 1)(x +2) a. c. d. c. 7 ab3 7a b3 3 – 2x 2–x a.

2 c. c. Compute and simplify: s43 + r22 r s 489.2) – 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) y+4 (y – 1)2 y+4 (y – 1)(y +1) –1 a. Compute and simplify: x(x + 1) – (x + 1)(x + 2) + x a. –2t t+2 –2 t+2 2 t+2 2t t+2 1 2x b. d. x–6 x+4 x+6 x+4 x–6 x–4 x+6 x–4 488. Compute and simplify: x – 3 + x + x 3– 1 a. – (x x(5)+ 9+5) – (x d. – (x x(5)– 9+5) – (x –x2 + 5x a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 484. x2 + 10x – 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x + 10x + 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x2 – 10x + 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x2 – 10x – 8 x(x +1)(x +2) x 1 2x2 2 3 492. – 1 2 4 5 491. b. d. Compute and simplify: t(t + 2) – 2 t a. b. Compute and simplify: (x – 5)2 + x + 1 x+5 x ) a. – (y – 1)(y4+ 1)2 c. b. Compute and simplify: x(x2. b. – (y –y1)(y +1) y+ b. d. d. Compute and simplify: 64zz+ 132 + 4z + 6 + 3 a. x(x – 9) (x – 5)(x +5) 80 . x+1 x–3 x–1 x–3 x 3 487. – x + 1 x+3 c. Compute and simplify: x2 – 10x + 24 – x – 6 + 1 a. b. x( x + 9 ) (x – 5)(x +5) x ) c. 4(s + r2) s2r3 2s + r2 s2r3 4s + r2 s2r3 2(2s + r2) s2r3 – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y +1) + 5 y+1 +4 a. 485. c. c. –2 d. b. c. 1 2 b. (4x – 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x + 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x – 1)(x + 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) b. d. d. c. c. – x + 3 x– 4 486. 2z – 490. Compute and simplify: 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 a. 2x – 3x +1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 + 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 – 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2x2 + 3x + 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2 d. d. Compute and simplify: 2x + 1 – 2x – 1 + 4x2 – 1 493.

(x – 3)2 8x3 2 x3 (x – 3) x3 a. b. 2x + 1 x +3 x+ – 2(x +31) 2(x + 1) x +3 2x + 1 – x +3 a. d. d. b. 2a3 3(3 – a) 2a3 3(3 + a) 2a3 –3(3 + a) 2a3 –3(3 – a) x–8 3(x + 3) x+8 3(x + 3) x–8 3x(x + 3) x–8 3x(x + 3) –(5 +x) 4(x –6) x – 6)2 504. c. 497. 498. d. c. 2 x +1 2 a. d. c. Compute and simplify: 9x––42 8 x 10 – 5x 2 – 9x a. Compute and simplify: 4x3y2 z3 y3z4 2x3 – 3) a. Compute and simplify: 2x3 ÷ x 4x3x This problem set focuses on multiplying and dividing rational expressions. c. b. x+3 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) (x – 4)2(x + 3) (x – 1) x+3 (3x + 2)(x – 1)2 (x + 3)2 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) Set 32 (Answers begin on page 204) 2 x –3 – 502. c. – (x8x3 2 b. Compute and simplify: 3x2 – x –2 ÷ (3x2 – 10x – 8) a. 2y 6z2 x2 2y 6z x3 2y 5z x2 2y z x2 8a4 5a2 + 13a – 6 24a – 60a2 6 2 2 8x 503.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 494. d. c. –(x – 6) 2 (x – 6) 2 –x – 6 2 x + 6) 2 81 . c. d. Compute and simplify: 1 + x – 1 – x2 + 3x x 501. b. b. – (x – 1)(x + 1) 495. c. Compute and simplify: –18xy y a. Compute and simplify: 2(x + 5 a. – x – 2 x b. 5 –4 2 2 – (x – 1)(x + 1) c. c. Compute and simplify: 9 – a2 a. – 5(2 – x)) (9x – 2 b. c. d. d. d. Compute and simplify: x – 2 – x2 – 2x x–1 3x – 4 12x2 500. – x2 2 1 + b. d. – 29(2 ––x) )2 0(9x 2 9(2 – x)2 20(9x – 2)2 –24xy3 56y3 2 2 d. b. Compute and simplify: xx2– 694 ÷ 6x x+ 46 – 2 – a. b. Compute and simplify: x4 – 1 – x2 – 1 + x2 + 1 2x2 1 1 499. a. x+2 x x–2 x – x –x+ 2 2x2 7y 2x 7y 2x2 7y2 2x 7y2 x2 – x – 12 3x – 3 496.

d. Compute and simplify: a. 9x 4y 3x 4y 3x 16y 9x 16y3 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x a. c. 5x3y3 2(x + 1) 25x3y3 4(x + 1) 5x2y2 4(x – 1) 25x2y3 4(x – 1) 507. b. c. d. b. d. Compute and simplify: 1 – 3 4 9 16 1 4 + 5 2 – 1 2 4 509. a. Compute and simplify: x 4– x y ÷ 3x2 + 3x 15x2y2 a. 2x + 1 c. 2x + 1 2x – 5 This problem set focuses on simplifying complex fractions and performing multiple operations involving rational expressions. Compute and simplify: x2 +x 512. –(2x + 1) d. x + c. ÷ ab – 3b2 a2 + 2ab + b2 b. Compute and simplify: a2 – b2 2a2 – 3ab + b2 2a2 – 7ab + 3b2 a2 +ab a. ÷ 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 – 2x x x+6 x x–3 (x –3)2(x + 6) x x–3 x+6 10xy2 2x – 2 506. 2x + 1 – (2x – 5) –(x – 3) x+1 2x2 – 3x – 5 x –3 Set 33 (Answers begin on page 205) b. d. c. Compute and simplify: (x – 3) ÷ x +3x – 18 a. x + 2 x –x + 2 b. Compute and simplify: (4x2 – 8x – 5) ÷ a. 2(x + 2) x2 –2(x + 2) x2 2x + 2 x2 –2x + 2 x2 508. (a + b)2 ab a2 + b2 ab 2(a + b) ab a – 3b ab 275 36 275 45 245 48 245 36 82 . c. x x2 2 – d. c. b. b. (2x + 1)(x + 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x2 + 1) (2x – 1)(x – 2) 2(x2 + 1) x2 – 1 2x + 2 1 – x2 x2 + x – 2 x2 – x 2 511. b. 513. c. Compute and simplify: 914x 21y 15xy2 10x 12y3 2 x 510. d. d. c. d. Compute and simplify: x+2 x2 + 5x +6 a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– x2y3 505. x x2 2 2x2 + 7x +3 4x2 + 4x + 1 6x2 + 5x + 1 3x2 + x x2 – 4 x2 + 2x a. b.

Compute and simplify: 4 4 – x 2 –1 1 1 x+2 + x–2 518. d. 517. c. –x 2 x 2 x c. (x + 2)(x + 5) b. 1 (x – 1) 1– 1+ x 5 x 5 515. 2x +h x2(x +h) –(2x +h) x2(x +h) 2 2x +h x2(x +h)2 –(2x +h) x2(x +h)2 a. d. –(x + 2)(x + 5) c. 0 h 521. ab ab + 1 ba – 1 a b 522. Compute and simplify: a. – x – 4 d. 16 3 17 3 17 6 15 4 2 3 3+4 3 1 4–2 519. (x + 2)(x – 5) 1 1 516. Compute and simplify: (x + h)2 – x2 a. c.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 514. –(x – 1) d. d. c. Compute and simplify: a. b. 2(6 – x) 3 6–x 3 – –6 3 x 6+x 6 3 1 x–2 5 1 4x – 2x a. 5 x+5 1 x+5 c. 1 d. –(x – 2)(x + 5) d. Compute and simplify: 5 2 (x – 1)3 – (x –1)2 2 5 (x –1)3 – (x –1)4 a. Compute and simplify: a–2 a+2 a+2 – a–2 a–2 a+2 a+2 + a–2 a. b. (x – 1) c. a ab +1 4a2 (a +2)(a – 2) –4a (a +2)(a – 2) 4a a2 +4 –4a a2 +4 b. d. 1 a+ b 1 b+ a b. d. c. Compute and simplify: a. –(x + 1) b. b. Compute and simplify: 3x2 + 6x x–5 + 2+x 5–x 3x – 1 25 –x2 520. b. x+4 x–4 83 . Compute and simplify: a. c. b.

84 x+2 x x–2 x 3x + 2 3x 3x – 2 3x . b. c. d. a + b x –1 – –1 524.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 523. –3 and 1 –3 only 1 only There are no solutions. x 2 – 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) x2 + 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) x 2 – 5x – 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) 2 – (xx+–15xx+ 82) )( + a. d. d. d. x+3 3x + 10 3x + 10 x–2 3x + 10 x+3 x+3 x–2 533. b. Compute and simplify: x + 3 – x x– 12 532. b. 0 b. Solve: x – 3 + x = x – 3 a. d. 1 525. ab d. d. 530. 1 x –3 7 5 5 7 5 526. Compute and simplify: x –1 + y –1 y a. Solve: 3 = 2 + x x c. 18 1 531. b. Compute and simplify: [3 + x + 3 ] a. b. c. –2 b. c. Compute and simplify: x2 + 4x –5 2x2 + x – 3 2x + 3 x +1 a. –18 d. (x + 5)(x – 1) (x – 5)(x + 1) –(x – 5)(x + 1) –(x + 5)(x + 1) x+3 x–2 a. c. d. 2 c. d. c. 529. Compute and simplify: (a –1 + b –1)–1 Set 34 (Answers begin on page 207) a. –4 4 –4 and –2 4 and –2 x 2 3 1 527. c. b. Solve: 2 – 3 = 1 3 x 2 d. y–x y +x y+x y–x a. b. c. ab b+a b+a ab This problem set focuses on solving rational equations. c. Solve: t 2t7 + t – 1 = 2 – 7 18 18 7 a. c. Solve: x + 8 + x2 + 2x = 2 x+2 x a. – 2 x +2 b. Compute and simplify: 1 – 2 – 2x – 6x x a. 3 2 and 3 –2 –2 and 3 3 1 528. b.

d. b. d. c. 1 + x – 3 = x2 – 4x – 3 a. c. v1 = b. d. c. – 9 c. – 7 d. b. 22 3 2 a. 7 9 7 9 1 2x2 + x – 21 = b. d. –4 and 1 1 and 4 –1 and 4 –4 and –1 10 3 a. 3 –5 5 There are no solutions. d. –5 and 1 –5 5 There are no solutions. q = d. –1 and –3 1 –3 –1 v1 +v2 1+ v1v2 c2 544. –3 and –2 2 and 3 –3 and 2 –2 and 3 2 4 535. b. b. v1 = c. Solve: x – 5 = x – 5 a.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 534. c. x+1 x3 – 9x d. c. Solve: x + 2 + 1 = ( 2 – x)(2 + x) 3 6 540. Solve: x + 1 – x + 4 = x2 + 5x + 4 x 3 3 a. d. q = c. 2 and 4 4 0 0 and 4 t+1 4 543. Solve: (2x – 1)2 = 4 + 2x – 1 a. d. v1 = c2(v2 – v) vv2 – c2 c2(v – v2) vv2 – c2 c2(v – v2) c2 – vv2 2 a. 85 . – b. Solve: t – 1 = t2 – 1 537. q = b. b. c. b. b. Solve: x + 2 = x – 2 a. Solve for v1: v = 538. v1 = – c (v2 + v2) 2 1 2x2 + 13x + 21 c – vv2 539. Solve for q: = (k – 1) + 542. 1 pq 1 q –1 and 1 3 –1 –1 and 3 3 x–3 536. c. q = f (k – 1) p f (k – 1)(1 + p) p f (k + 1)(1 + p) p f (k + 1) p x–1 4 a. d. Solve: – a. Solve: 2p2 – 9p – 5 – 2p + 1 = p – 5 a. 9 8 9 –1 2 and 8 1 9 2 and 8 1 9 2 and – 8 1 f 541. c. There are no solutions.

Determine the solution set for the inequality 25(–x)4 x (5x2) 2 0.∞) 553. d.–∞) (–∞. [–5. d. d. Determine the solution set for the inequality 2z 2 – z – 15 z 2 + 2z – 15 This problem set focuses on solving rational inequalities.–5]∪[– 5 .–2]∪[1.3) (–∞.∞) 2 b. 3 ) 1 2 b. b.∞) 1 2 d.∞) (–1. 546. (– 2 . (–3. c.) 2 d. Determine the solution set for the inequality (x – 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)2 0. b.∞) 2 550. c.–5)∪[– 5 . (8. Determine the solution set for the inequality 2 1 2 – x x–1 ≥ 0. c.–2)∪(1. 548.8)∪(8. (–∞. (–2.0)∪(0. 1 4 – 2 x+3 x a. (–∞. the empty set the set of all real numbers (0.– 2 ]∪[ 3 . 545.∞) (–8.–2]∪[1.6] d.6) c.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– Set 35 (Answers begin on page 211) 549.–1)∪(3.∞) 0. 547.∞) [8.–2] [–3. [–3.0) 551. a. Determine the solution set for the inequality –x –1 0. c. 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 1 2 a.8) (–8. a.3) a.–2]∪[1. [–3. (4. b.∞) d.4) b. d. (–1. b.–4) c.∞) (8.6) b. b. a.1] [–3. Determine the solution set for the inequality x2 + 8x x 3 – 64x > 0.–2)∪[1.∞) (–∞. (– 2 .– 5 ] 2 c.0) 552.6) a. c. [– 5 . [–3.8] 86 . Determine the solution set for the inequality x2 + 9 x2 – 2x – 3 0. (–∞. Determine the solution set for the inequality z3 – 16z 8z – 32 0. a. d. (0. Determine the solution set for the inequality y2 – 64 8–y 0. 3 ] 1 2 c. (–∞. (–4. [–8.∞) (–∞.8] [–8. 3 ) 2 a. [– 2 .8)∪(8.1) [–2.

d. [– 1 .– 1 ]∪(– 2 . Determine the solution set for the inequality (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) 0. a.1] 2 5 5 b.1] 2 5 5 c.∞) 2 5 555.5) (–1.0)∪[2.1] 2 4 2 560. Determine the solution set for the inequality x+5 x–3 –x 1 x–3 0. (–∞.3)∪(3.– 1 ]∪( 1 .∞) [0. d. (–∞.1] 2 5 d.1] 2 4 2 b.∞) [–2.–4] (–∞. 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) 558. a. b. 3)∪(3.∞) 2 (–∞. d.– 1 ]∪[ 1 . [– 1 . c. d. b.3)∪(3. [– 1 . [– 1 . Determine the solution set for the inequality 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 556.1] (–∞. (–1.5) 559.–RATIONAL EXPRESSIONS– 554 Determine the solution set for the inequality 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) – 2(x – 1) 0.– 2 )∪(– 2 . c. (– 1 . 5 ) 2 the empty set the set of all real numbers a. b.∞) (–∞.4] (–∞.– 1 ] 2 4 c.–2] (–∞.– 2 )∪(– 2 . Determine the solution set for the inequality x 2x + 1 0. Determine the solution set for the inequality 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x –1) – 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) 0.0]∪[2.–2) [–2. b.2] a.1] 87 .∞) (–∞. – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) + 5 y+1 0. b. ( 5 . a. c. (–∞. [–2. c.4) (–∞. – 1 2x – 1 + 2x 2 4x 2 – 1 0. Determine the solution set for the inequality 6x – 24x 24 x 2 3 a.0]∪[2.– 1 ]∪[– 2 . (– 1 . (–∞.– 1 ]∪( 1 . c.–4) 557. a.1] 2 4 2 d.5) (–∞. d.

.

raising a negative real number to a fractional exponent results in a complex number of the form a + bi. Various methods can be used to solve quadratic equations. S E C T I O N RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 89 .5 A n algebraic expression involving a term raised to a fractional exponent is a radical expression. These topics are reviewed in the seven problem sets in this section. and the solutions often involve radical terms. the arithmetic of complex numbers resembles the algebra of binomials. The arithmetic of such expressions is really a direct application of the familiar exponent rules. Sometimes. where a and b are real numbers and i = –1.

Simplify: 81 –3 4 565. none of the above 563 Which of the following is the principal fourth (2b)4 = 8 2 3 4 There is no such value of b. 4 c. Simplify: 49 2 5 6 a. 2 2 5 –2 2 2 –2 5 a. Simplify: 4 312 The definition of fractional powers and the simplification of expressions involving radicals are the focus of this problem set. b. 25 c. none of the above –32 570. c. Simplify: 64 6 a. 5 b. 3 567. root of 625? a. 27 d. Which of the following are second roots (ie. Simplify: 515 a. 561. –25 564. –125 d. d. 16.. 664 d. 2 2 b. 1 a. b. 343 c.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– Set 36 (Answers begin on page 217) 566. 245 2 b. 16 d. –5 b. b. c. –5 c.807 571. –5 is a third root of what real number? a. Find a number b that satisfies the following: 4 square roots) of 49? a. 35 d. none of the above 3 a. 7 and –7 d. c. d. Simplify: 5 569. –625 562. d. 27 9 81 243 5 a. b. 2 c. Which of the following is a value of b that satis- fies the equation b = 4? a. c. b. –7 only c. d. c. 7 only b. 5 15 125 625 568. 25 d. 9 1 27 – 243 4 90 . 64 3 b.

x2 b. x36 4x72 4x36 2x72 a. d. c. Simplify. Simplify: x144 a. –81 578. 4 c. 64 573. Simplify:(–64) a. –3 3 c. b. x b. Simplify:(4x –4) –1 2 –1 4 d. –16 d. –4 c. c.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 572. 2 g g e. x 2 d. 2x2 2 c. d. x2 579. 2x –2 576. b. y 3 91 . 4 9 9 4 3 2 –1 3 a. –12 3 d. 2 b. b. Simplify: 32 5 3 Set 37 (Answers begin on page 217) a. b. – 11365 b. 8 d. Simplify: 3 9 3 –3 a. c. b. e. assuming x 0: x5 x7 a. y 3 3 3 y 3 3 e. Simplify: 27y3 27y2 a. a4 a a5 a5 a a6 a9 4 g 4g 580. 1 x 1 x2 574. 3 b. Simplify: a3 a3 a. c. d. 2 g 3 581. c. Simplify: 4 a. c. Simplify: 8 27 –2 3 96 5 1 8 The simplification of more complicated radical expressions is the focus of this problem set. 577. – 116 575. d. g d.

Simplify: 125 9 a. 5 b. 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 9 5 592. c. Simplify: a. d. c. Simplify: 54x2 c. (x + 20) x x x + 2x 10 + 20 x x x + 20 This radical expression cannot be simplified further. Simplify: a. what is the value of n+5 n n 2 590.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 582. 3 3 4 c. 8g3 8g4 8g5 8g10 8g12 9pr 3 (pr) 2 a. x4 x5 x4 x3 4 4 4 4 x x x3 x3 3 a. 5 5 e. If n = 20. 9 4 b. Simplify: a. 10 d. x + 2 x + 2 d. ab d. c. ab ab e. a2b2 583. 3 588. d. b. b. ab ab b. 25 586. d. x +2 x + 1 c. b. 2x 3x2 3 3x 2x2 3 3x2 2x 3 2x2 3x x3 + 40x2 + 400x 3 a. 3p2r2 585. 92 . 3 pr d. ab c. Simplify: 4 3 x2 + 4x + 4 (4g2)3 (g4) a. d. d. c. c. 5 2 5 591. b. x + 2 589. x + 2 b. 3pr 3 pr a. 3 d. b. Simplify: 4 32x8 584. b. x2 8 4 x2 4 4 2x 4 4 2x2 2 4 4 c. Simplify: 243 4 a. e. c. b. 3pr e. d. Simplify: a2b ab ab2 4 587. Simplify: x21 5 ? a.

c. b. Simplify: (4 + 2i)2 a. b. c. 24 + 4 24 – 4 24 + 4 24 + 4 15 + 6 15 + 6 15 – 6 15 – 6 –10 + –25 5 a. c. Simplify: (5 – 3)(7 + 3) This problem set focuses on the arithmetic of radical expressions. b. Simplify: (2 + 23 2 15 29 2 15 32 2 15 a. – 8 –4 3 + 4 5 4 3–3 5 –5 3 + 4 5 8xy2 + 3y 2 18x3 603. 12 16 20 20i a. 29 5 2 605. b. Simplify: –25 a. Simplify: (4 + 2i)(4 – 2i) 596. b. b. Simplify: 3 a. b. c.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– Set 38 (Answers begin on page 218) 599. d. d. including those involving complex numbers. d. c. d. c. Simplify: 595. 593. c. Simplify: (4 + 594. 4 3x + 7x 4 3x + 7 + x 4 + 4 3x + x 3 4 + 4 3x + 3x 93 . 32 – 2 32 + 2 16 – 4 16 + 4 3 3 3 3 6)(6 – 6–3 6 –3 6 –3 6+3 15) 10 10 10 10 a. b. b. Simplify: a. c. Simplify: + 7 3 598. d. 5 5i –5 –5i –32 600. d. c. d. c. Simplify: xy a. b. 10 10 10 10 3 7 21 3x)2 a. –3 3 –3 5 5 3 –5 5 3+4 5–8 3 602. 12 – 16i 16 + 16i 16 – 16i 12 + 16i 21 3 7 597. d. –2 + i 2+i 2–i –2 – i a. Simplify: – a. Simplify: + 32 9 a. b. 4i 2 –4i 2 –3i 2 3i 2 48 + 2 27 – 75 601. d. c. c. b. c. d. d. d. b. d. 11y 2x 11xy 2xy 11x2y2 2 11xy2 2x 18 25 604.

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

606. Simplify: (

a. b. c. d.

–29 – 3 –29 + 3 29 – 3 –29 – 3

3+ 21 21 21 21

7)(2 3 – 5

7)

611. If a 3 =6, then a 3 =

2

4

607. Simplify:

1 3–5 2

a. 3 b. 6 c. 3 6 d. 6 6 e. 36

612. If

a.

3 –5 2 41 2

p

4

= q–2 = – 1 , which of the following is 3

5 b. – 3 –41

a possible value of p? a. – 1 3 b. c. d. 3 e. 9

613. Solve:

3

c. d.

3+5 2 41 5 – 3 +41 2 2x 2 –3 x

1 9 1 3

**608. Simplify by rationalizing the denominator:
**

+6x a. – 2 4 2x9x +

5x – 8 = 3

b. c. d.

2 2

2x + 2x 2 – 3x 2x – 6x 4 – 9x 2x + 6x 4 – 9x

a. b. c. d.

49 –7 7i –7

3

614. Solve:

7 – 3x = –2

Set 39

(Answers begin on page 219)

**This problem set focuses on solving equations involving radicals.
**

609. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

–5 5 5i –5i

7 + 3x = 4

615. Solve: (x –3)2 = –28

a. b. c. d.

3 –3 3i There is no solution. 4x + 33 = 2x – 1

a. b. c. d.

3 2i 7 –3 2i 7 2 3i 7 –2 3i 7 10 – 3x = x – 2 –2 –2 and –3 3 There is no solution.

610. Solve:

616. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

4 –2 –2 and 4 There is no solution.

a. b. c. d.

94

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

617. Solve:

a. b. c. d.

3x + 4 + x = 8 4 and 15 15 –4 and 15 4

624. Solve: x2 + 81= 0

a. 9 b. 9i c. –9,–9i d. 9,9i

618. Solve: (x – 1)2 + 16 = 0

a. b. c. d.

1 2i 1 4i –1 4i –1 2i

Set 40

(Answers begin on page 221)

**Solving quadratic equations using the quadratic formula is the topic of this problem set.
**

625. Solve using the quadratic formula: x2 – 7 = 0

619. Solve: x3 = –27

a. b. c. d.

3i –3 –3i 3

a. b. c. d.

7i 7 i 7 7

620. Solve: x2 = 225

626. Solve using the quadratic formula: 2x2 – 1 =0

a. 15i b. –15i c. 15 d. 5 5

621. Solve: x3 = – 125

a. b. c. d.

2 2 i 2 2

2 i 2

a. b. c. d.

–5 5 5i –5i

627. Solve using the quadratic formula: 4x2 + 3x = 0

a. 0,– 3 4 b. – 3 4 c. – 4 3 d.

3 4

622. Solve: (x + 4)2 = 81

a. b. c. d.

–13 5 –13, 5 There is no solution.

628. Solve using the quadratic formula: 5x 2 + 20x = 0

623. Solve: x2 + 1 = 0

a. b. c. d.

–4 0,4 4,–4 0,–4

a. 1 b. –1,–i c. 1,i d. i

95

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

629. Solve using the quadratic formula:

634. Solve using the quadratic formula:

x2 a. b. c. d.

+ 4x + 4 = 0 2 2i 2 –2i

x2 + 2 2x + 3 = 0 a. 2 b. 2 c. 1 i d. i i 1 2 2

630. Solve using the quadratic formula:

635. Solve using the quadratic formula: x2 = –2x

x2 + 5x – 6 = 0 a. b. c. d. –2, –3 1,–6 –1,6 3,2

a. b. c. d.

2,0 –2,0 2i,–2i 0

636. Solve using the quadratic formula: (3x –8)2 = 45 631. Solve using the quadratic formula:

a. b. c. d.

3x2

+ 5x + 2 = 0

–3 8 3 –3 8 –8 3 3 –8 3

5 5 5 5

a. –1, 2 3 b. –1, – 2 3 c. 1, – 2 3 d. 1, 2 3

632. Solve using the quadratic formula: 5x – 24 = 0

2

637. Solve using the quadratic formula:

0.20x2 – 2.20x + 2 + 0 a. b. c. d. 0.01, 0.1 10, 100 0.1, 1 1, 10

a. b. c. d.

2 5

30

2i 30 5

2

6

2i 6

638. Solve using the quadratic formula:

633. Solve using the quadratic formula:

x2 – 3x – 3 = 0 a. b. c. d.

3 3 7 2 3 7 3 2 –3 2 3 2 21 21

2x2 = –5x – 4 a. b. c. d.

–5 4 5 –5 –7 4 i 7 4 i 7 –4 i 5 i 7

96

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

**639. Solve using the quadratic formula:
**

1 2 6x

644. Solve using radical methods: (3x – 8)2 = 45

– 5 x +1 = 0 3

a. b. c. d.

a. b. c. d.

–5 19 5 19 5 i 19 –5 i 19

–8 3i 5 3 –8 3 3 8 3 5 3 –8 3i 5 3 5

640. Solve using the quadratic formula:

(x – 3)(2x + 1) = x(x – 4) a. b. c. d.

–1 2 1 2 1 i 13 2 –1 i 13 2 13 13

645. Solve using radical methods: (–2x + 1)2 – 50 =0

a. b. c. d.

–1 5 2

2

1 5i 2 2 1 5 2 2 –1 5i 2 2

646. Solve using radical methods: –(1 – 4x)2 – 121 = 0

Set 41

(Answers begin on page 222)

a. b. c.

**Solving quadratic equations using radical and graphical methods is the focus of this problem set.
**

641. Solve using radical methods: 4x = 3

2

–1 11i 4 1 11i 4 1 i 11 4 –1 i 11 4

d.

a. b. c. d. i i

3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

647. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

**tion, if they exist, using graphical methods: 5x2 – 24 = 0 a. ≈ 2.191 b. 4.8 c. ≈ 2.191 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

648. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

642. Solve using radical methods: –3x2 = –9

a. b. c. d.

3i 3 3 i 3

643. Solve using radical methods: (4x + 5)2 = –49

a. b. c. d.

5 7i 4 –5 7i 4 –7 5i 4 7 5i 4

tion, if they exist: 2x2 = –5x – 4 a. 0.5, 1.5 b. –1.5, 0 c. –0.5, 0.5 d. The solutions are imaginary.

97

–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS–

649. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

655. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

tion, if they exist: a. 2, 3 b. 16, 36 c. –2, –3 d. 16, –36

4x2

= 20x – 24

**tion, if they exist: 1 x2 – 5 x + 1 = 0 6 3 a. ≈ 0.51, 10.51 b. ≈ 0.641, 9.359 c. 1, 4.2 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

656. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

650. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

**tion, if they exist: 12x – =0 a. 0, –1.25 b. –1.25, –1.25 c. 0, 1.25 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

651. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

15x2

tion, if they exist: (2x + 1)2 – 2(2x + 1) – 3 = 0 a. –11, –1 b. 1, 11 c. –1, 11 d. The solutions are imaginary.

Set 42

(Answers begin on page 227)

**tion, if they exist: (3x 45 a. ≈ –3.875, 3.875 b. –3, 5 c. ≈ 3.875, 4.903 d. The solution are imaginary.
**

652. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

–8)2

Solving equations that can be put in quadratic form via substitution is the focus of this problem set.

657. Solve: b4 – 7b2 + 12 = 0

**tion, if they exist: 0.20x2 – 2.20x + 2 = 0 a. –10, –1 b. 1, 10 c. –1, 10 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

653. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

a. b. c. d.

2, 2, 3 2, 3 2, 3

3

658. Solve: (3b2 – 1)(1 – 2b2) = 0

a. b. c. d.

2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3

,

3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3

, , ,

**tion, if they exist: x2 – 3x – 3 = 0 a. ≈ –0.791, 3.791 b. 1, 3 c. –1, –3 d. The solutions are imaginary.
**

654. Find the real solutions of the following equa-

659. Solve: 4b4 + 20b2 + 25 = 0

a. b. c. d.

i

10 3 10 3 10 2

tion, if they exist: x2 = –2x a. 0, 2 b. –2, 0 c. –2, 2 d. The solutions are imaginary.

i

10 2

98

Solve: 3 + x– 4 + x 1 –1 2 =0 13)4 a. b. 9 –9 16 –16 1 1 668. . Solve: x + 21 = 10x 2 a. –2. Solve: 2x 6 – x 3 = 1 a. –49. 3 3 1. b.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 660. d. 1. Solve: 16b4 – 1 = 0 665. 1 2 1 2 c. 3 w 2 669. b. 1 661. b. –2. Solve: 2 1 + = 13 1 + w –6 a. d. d. 2. 25 16 36 –16 99 . c. . . –1.49 –9. . 2. Solve: (x3 + 5)2 – 5(x3 + 5) + 6 0 a. c. 16 49 49 16 – 16 49 – 49 16 667. 1. c. Solve: 4x6 + 1 = 5x3 a. Solve: x2 + x + 12 = 8 x2 + x 664. b. c. c. b. 2 –3. 2. d. d. 3 –3 3 3 –3 3 3 3 662.–9 –49.49 x + 49x = 0 666. 1 2 –16 (1 + 16 (1 + 13)4 –16i (1 + 13)4 –16i (1 + 13)4 13)4 . 1 4 1 . c. i i i i 1. b. x=6 d.9 9. –1 4 2 663. –16 (1 – 16 (1 – 13)4 –16i (1 – (1 – 13)4 16i 13)4 . 3 –3. 2 1 2 1 2 1. d. c. – 3 1 . –1 4 b. 3 3 3 3 2. –1 i 1 –i a. c. Solve: x – 3 a. 2 1 2 a. –2. 2 –3. d. 1. Solve: 16 –56 a. 1 4 1. – c. –2. d. b. b. d.

b. – 16 . 1. c. 287 d. –3. 3 2 3 2 3 21 21 i 21 2 21 2 4 a. –3. Solve: 2a 3 – 11a 3 + 12 2 1 0 a. d. 64. –64. 1. 16 16 81 100 . 81 81 16 – 81 . 3. – 27 8 27 8 d. Solve: (r – r )2 – (r – r ) – 6 = 0 3 3 672.–RADICAL EXPRESSIONS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS– 670. –3. 1. –1. c. 287 c. –64. 64. – 81 81 16 16 81 81 . – b. Solve: 6 x – 13 x+6 0 a. –3 671. b. 16 – 16 .

101 . such as f or g. it is convenient to view the domain as the set of all values of x that can be substituted into the expression and yield a meaningful output. When an algebraic expression is used to describe a function y = f(x).6 S E C T I O N ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS T he first functions to which you are typically exposed are those described by sets of ordered pairs that can be visualized in the Cartesian plane. The domain of a function can be thought of as the set of all possible x-values for which there corresponds an output y. an x-value belongs to the domain of f if an ordered pair with that x-value belongs to the graph of f. Basic functions and their properties are reviewed in the ten problem sets that make up this section. Such functions are generally described using either algebraic expressions or graphs. When we want to emphasize the inputoutput defining relationship of a function. The arithmetic of realvalued functions is performed using the arithmetic of real numbers and algebraic expressions. The range of a function is the set of all possible y-values attained at some member of the domain. an expression of the form y = f(x) is often used. From the graphical viewpoint. and are denoted using letters.

In the following graph of f(x). 0 1 2 3 4 675. In the following graph of f(x). c. 0 2 4 5 8 102 . e. c. d.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 43 (Answers begin on page 231) 674. b. b. In the following graph of f(x). 2 3 4 5 8 a. d. for how many y values of x does f(x) = 3? y x x a. e. c. for how many values of x does f(x) = 0? The problems in this set focus on the notions of domain and range and the basic arithmetic of elementary functions. for how many values of x does f(x) = 10? y x a. e. d. b. 673.

4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5.2]∪{3} (–2.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5.–1]∪[0. e. d. d.4] none of the above 103 . What is the range of the function f(x) = x2 – 4? 677.4] [–4. Which of the following is true of f(x) = – 2 x 2 ? 1 a. c. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 d. the set of all real numbers excluding 0 b. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –4 a. For questions 678–680. d.1]∪(1.2)∪{3} [–2.3] (–2.5]. the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 4 e. The range of g is which of the following? a. The range of the function is the set of all real numbers less than 0. b. c.4] [–4. refer to the functions f and g. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5. the set of all real numbers excluding 2 and –2 c.3) 4 3 2 1 (2. both defined on [–5. The domain of the function is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 2. [–4. d. b. The domain of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0.2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2. 2 f(0) + [f(2) g(4)]2 = a.–1) (5. b. c. The range of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0.–1]∪[0. whose graphs are shown here. [–2. c.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 676.–4) 678. The range of f is which of the following? 680. b. The range of the function is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 0. 18 10 8 16 679.2)∪{3} a.2]∪(2.

[–4.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– For questions 681–684.–1) of the following? a.2)∪(2.4] 683. b.∞) b. Which of the following is the solution set for y 4 3 2 1 x y =p(x) the inequality –1 p(x) a. The zeros of p(x) are x = a. use the following functions: f(x) = –(2x –(–1 –x2)) g(x) = 3(1 + x) h(x) = 1 + x2 9f(x) 1 681. [–1. 3 –3. Which of the following is the domain of p(x)? 687. c. –2(5x2 + 6x + 2) c. d.∞) d. [–1.∞) c. Which of the following is the range of p(x)? a. 0. b. (1. c.–1)∪(–1. d. 0.3]∪{–3} c. b.1)∪(1. (–∞.∞) (–∞. 2 –3.∞) d. 684.∞) (–∞.– 1 )∪(– 1 .4] c.3) d. [–4. –3. What is the domain of the function 2g(x)h(x)? a.∞) the set of all real numbers a. Which of the following is equivalent to 3f(x) – 2xg(x) – h(1x) ? a.3]∪{–3} 0? 685.4] c.3) b. 2(5x +2)(x + 1) 104 . d. (1. –g(x) g(x) –3g(x) 3g(x) 682. [–1.∞) 2 2 d. Which of the following is equivalent to g(x) ? a. 1. 2. [–1. 3 none of the above 686.–1)∪(–1. [1.1)∪(1. For questions 686–688. 1. The range of the function f(x) = 1 – x is which 2x + 1 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 1 2 3 4 (2. (–∞. b.–2)∪( –2. c. b. (–∞. (–∞. [1.4] 688.2)∪(2. 10x2 + 12x + 4 d. –10x2 + 6x + 2 b. refer to the graphs of the following fourth-degree polynomial function y = p(x).–1)∪(1.

B c. C d. A and D y= √x 105 . the simplification involved therein. use the following diagrams: y y A x D x x2 + y 2 = 4 y y= x 1 B x y E x y= |x | –3 y y=(x – 3)2 + 1 C x 689. and the general principles of the graph of a function.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 44 (Answers begin on page 233) This problem set focuses on compositions of functions. A b. Which of the coordinate planes shows the graph of an equation that is not a function? a. D e. For questions 689–693.

D and E 693. B. –4 e. and D 691. E 694. c. Simplify (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) when f(x) = –x2. B and C b. B and D e. 4 x. which of the a. b. a. B and D e. B and E e. –3 699. 11 700. 7 e. 1 b. B and E 692. 4y2 + 2y – 4 4y2 + 6y – 2 4y2 + 6y – 3 2y2 + 6y – 4 following is equivalent to g(f(x))? a. d. Which of the coordinate planes shows the graph of a. E d. A b. A. c. 6x3 + 4x2 – 6x – 4 106 . d. B c. Of the equations graphed on the coordinate 698. 36x2 + 48x + 16 e. –19 b. Which of the coordinate planes shows the h(x) = x – 2 a. c. –1 d. B b. 36x2 + 48x + 15 d. D d. B c. 5 d. –7 d. Which of the coordinate planes shows the 695. B and D d. value of f(g(f(3)))? a. d. Simplify f(2y – 1) when f(x) = x2 + 3x –2. 16x –16x 64x8 –256x8 graph of a function that has the same range as its domain? a. Simplify f(x + h) – f(x) when f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3. 6x2 – 2 b. –11 c. b. A b. D e. Compute (g ˚ h)(4) when g(x) = 2x2 – x – 1 and a function that has a domain of all real numbers? a. 697. what is the value of g(f(–2))? a. C and D c. 3 c. If f(x) = 3x + 2 and g(x) = 2x – 3. what is the planes. C d. which function has the smallest range? a. 0 b. b. D c. If f(x) = 6x + 4 and g(x) = x2 – 1. 36x2 + 16 c. If f(x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = x – 2.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 690. 1 c. h f(h) h(h – 2x + 2) –2hx + h2 – 2h 696. graph of a function that has a range that contains negative values? a.

0] b. none of the above 2x2 + 18. then the ( ) a.4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5.5].–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– For questions 701–702. b. d. [0.0] c. (0. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5. x2 – 4x + 2 x2 – 4x –4 c. whose graphs are shown here.0) d.∞) 107 . (–∞. c. [0. (–∞. 2 d. 0 –1 3 undefined x2 – 4x.–1) (5.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5. Determine the domain of the function 703.∞) c. undefined 702. 705. If f(x) = a. (f ˚ g)(0) = 704. f (f ( f (f(5)))) = –3x and g(x) = domain of g ˚ f is a. both defined on [–5.∞) b. d.3) 4 3 2 1 (2. |x – 2| f(x) = –x. –1 c. x2 –4 d. a. 1 2 b.–4) 701. then f(x + 2) = Set 45 (Answers begin on page 236) This problem set explores some basic features of common elementary functions. If f(x) = a. (–∞. refer to the functions f and g. b.2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2.

It has a range of 2. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than 1 and the range is all real 4 numbers greater than 0. b. 4 e. b. for all real numbers x. for any real number a. The range of both f and g is [0. Which of the following is the domain of the function f(x) = a. It has one y-intercept and one x-intercept. d. The graphs of both f and g are increasing on their entire domains. for all real numbers x. The graph of y = f(x) is decreasing on the interval (0. d. c. Determine the domain of the function 711. d.2) (2.–1) (–∞. How many x-intercepts does the function f(x) = 1 – |2x–1| have? a. d. c. Which of the following is true of g(x) = a. It has one y-intercept and two x-intercepts. Which of the following is true about the func- f(x) = 4x – 1? a. It has no y-intercept.∞) none of the above 714. Which of the following is true of the function f(x) = 2? a. c.∞) (–∞. b. d. f(x) 0. 708. c. It has no domain. for all real numbers x. 709. b.∞). The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 and the range 4 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. f(x) 0. The graph has one x-intercept. The range is [0. The graphs of y = f(x) and y = g(x) do not intersect. b. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 and the range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 4 . c. The range is (0. the set of all real numbers (–1. 1 (2 – x)5 2 ? tion f(x) = 1 ? x a. b. 712. Which of the following is true about the function f(x) = |x|? a. tion f(x) = x3? a. It has a slope of 2. c. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 and the range 4 is all real numbers greater than 0. d. The domain of the function is all real numbers greater than 0 and the range is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 . more than 2 108 .∞). c. 1 c. There exists precisely one x-value for which f(x) = 1. The graph of y = f(x) is decreasing on its domain. b. (–∞. Consider the graphs of f(x) = x2 and g(x) = x4.2)∪(2. d.∞) (–∞.–1)∪(–1.∞). It is not a function. d. 1 3 –1–x . 0 b. b.∞) 707. c. 713. 2 d. Which of the following is true about the func- Which of the following statements is true? a. The graph of y = f(x) crosses the line y = a precisely once.∞).–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 706. 710. e. f(x) 0. f(x) g(x). for all real numbers x.

2 d. –2 –|2 – 3x| 722. What is the y-intercept of the function f(x) = 4 – 2x2 |–x| ? a. The graph has neither an x-intercept nor a y-intercept.2)∪(2.2)∪(2. and the existence of inverse functions. c. x = 4. There is not enough information to conclude anything about the graph of f. The domain of f(x) = x3 – 4x is 2x the graphs of f(x) = 3 x 2 and g(x) = 4 a. Which of the following are the vertical and hor- izontal asymptotes for the function f(x) = a.How many points of intersection are there of 720.∞) (–∞. more than 2 x2 and g(x) = x ? 4 716. What can you conclude about the graph of x = –3. b. 2 d.–2)∪(–2. (–∞. What can you conclude about the graph the graphs of f(x) = a. x = 4 x = –3. d. Set 46 (Answers begin on page 238) This problem set focuses on properties of more sophisticated functions. y = 1 y=1 y = f(x) if you know that the equation f(x) = 0 does not have a solution? a. b. 1 c. 1 c. 0 b. The graph of the function cannot be defined for x-values larger than 3. c. (0.–2)∪(–2. b. more than 2 717. The graph has no y-intercept. asymptotes.0)∪(0. The graph has no x-intercept. 0 b. (x – 3)(x2 – 16) ? (x2 + 9)(x – 4) 719.∞) (–∞. d. including monotonicity. 721. c. more than 2 5 2 16 x ? a. 0) There is no y-intercept. 109 . d. 3 is not in the range of f. y = 1 x = 4. How many points of intersection are there of of y = f(x) if you know that the equation f(x) = 3 does not have a solution? a. 2 d. –1) (–1. d.2)∪(2. 3 is not in the domain of f.∞) 718.–2)∪(2.∞) (–∞.0) (0. c. b. b. c. 1 c. The graph of the function cannot have y-values larger than 3. 0 b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 715. d. How many points of intersection are there of the graphs of f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 4x3? a.

whose graphs are shown here. g does not have an inverse on the interval (–5.1) (–∞. d.–1) a.–2) –3 –4 –5 (5.–3)∪(0.–4) Which of the following statements is true? a. Consider the functions f and g.0)∪(3.–3)∪(0. both defined on [–5. 5).∞) (–∞.4) 5 4 3 y =g(x) (–5. 5].2) 724. –1).0)∪(2. b. d. All of the above statements are false. y 5 y y =f(x) (–5. 2).–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 723. b. c. f has an inverse on the interval (0. f has an inverse on the interval (–5. 110 .2) 2 1 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 1 2 3 4 5 x (2.∞) (–3. c.3) 4 3 2 1 (2. On what intervals is the graph of the following fourth degree polynomial function y = p(x) increasing? y 4 3 2 1 x y =p(x) –4 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 1 2 3 4 (2.–1) (5. (–3.

no horizontal asymptote. Which of the following are characteristics of for f(x) = x–1 5x + 2 . Which of the following statements is true? a. f –1(y) = d. a. f(x) = 2x + 5 c. III. f –1(y) = ≠ –2? 5 1 2y–1 5y +1 . All of the statements are true. Which of the following functions is increasing f(x) = x3 + 2? a. f(x) = |x| d. d. I and III only I and II only I only none of these choices ≠ –5 726. y the graph of f(x) = (2 – x)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 ? ≠ 1 5 1 5 1 c. The function is equivalent to the linear function g(x) = 2 – (x + 1) with a hole at x = 1. The point (4. f –1(y) = –52yy––11 . y ≠ – 5 2y + 1 5y – 1 . y I. f –1(y) = b. Which of the following functions is decreasing on (–∞. f –1(y) = b. and an oblique asymptote. b. I only II only II and III only I and III only a. f(x) = 2x + 5 c. and the point (1. If the range of f-1 is [1. The graph has a hole at x = 2. f(x) = 3 731. All of the above statements are true.0)? a. There exists a rational function whose domain is the set of all real numbers.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 725.∞). f (y) = –1 –1 3 3 3 3 y–2 y–2 2–y 2– 3 on (0. Which of the following is the inverse of 730. II. f(x) = x3 b. then f(0) is not defined. III. II. f(x) = x3 b. c.∞)? a. f –1(4) = 1 c. 4) is on the graph of y = f(x). y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote and x = 0 is a vertical asymptote. all of the above y 732. c. c. y ≠ d. f (y) = c. d. 1) must lie on the graph of y = f –1(x). f –1(y) = 2y + 1 5y +1 . The domain of any polynomial function is the set of all real numbers. b. There is one x-intercept and one y-intercept. b. d. A rational function must have both a vertical and a horizontal asymptote. There is one x-intercept and one y-intercept. 111 . b. Which of the following statements is false? 728. 727. Assume that the function f has an inverse f -1. Which of the following is the inverse function 729. x a. There is one vertical asymptote. Which of the following are characteristics of the graph of f(x) = 2 – x2 +1 x–1? I. f(x) = 1 x d. a. d.

b. 0. y = –(x + 1)2 + 1 e. 734. There exists a rational function whose graph intersects both Quadrants I and II. There exists a polynomial whose graph is increasing everywhere. All of the statements are true. c. A polynomial must have at least one turning point. All quadratic functions are decreasing on one side of the vertex and increasing on the other side of the vertex.3 d. Compared to the graph of y = x2. Determine the x-values of the points of inter- point in the second quadrant of the coordinate plane? a. y = (x–1)2 – 2 c. y = (x–2)2 – 2 is a. c. Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then right two units. 0 b. Determine the x-values of the points of inter- would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x +2)3 – 3 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. 735. y = (x + 1)2 – 2 b. shifted 2 units left and 2 units up e. shifted 2 units left and 2 units down c. shifted 4 units left and 2 units down 112 . Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then left two units. b. The graphs do not intersect. d. d. Which of the following parabolas has its turning section of the graphs of f(x) =–4x and g(x) = 2 x. Linear functions with positive slopes are increasing. Which of the following statements is true? This problem set focuses on translations and refelctions of known graphs. 1 4 c. 4 b. b. c. 737. a.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 733. 2 d. Which of the following sequence of shifts a. y = (x–2)2 + 1 739. shifted 2 units right and 2 units down b. 0. y = –(x + 1)2 – 2 d.9 c. d. a. All of the statements are true. shifted 2 units right and 2 units up d. the graph of section of the graphs of f(x) = x and g(x) = 3 x. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then right two units. 1 2 736. There exists a polynomial whose graph remains below the x-axis on its entire domain. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then left two units. 0. 738. Which of the following statements is false? Set 47 (Answers begin on page xx) a. 0.

Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 2)2– 4 from the graph of g(x) = x 2? a. c. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then left 5 units. Shift the graph of g up 3 units and then left 5 units. 741. Shift the graph of g down 1 unit and then right 4 units. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 6 units. d. Which of the following sequence of shifts would 743. Shift the graph of g down 2 units and then left 1 unit. c. d. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then right 4 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 2)3 –1 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. b. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 2 units. d. 745. 113 . d. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = 2 x+3 from the graph of g(x) = 2 x? a. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then left 2 units. d. c. Shift the graph of g down 3 units. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then left 6 units.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 740. b. b. Shift the graph of g right 3 units. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then left 2 units. b. Which of the following sequence of shifts would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = (x – 4)3 + 1 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = |x + 6| + 4 from the graph of g(x) = |x|? a. c. b. Shift the graph of g down 5 units and then left 3 units. c. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then left 2 units. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then left 4 units. Shift the graph of g down 6 units and then left 4 units. Shift the graph of g up 6 units and then right 4 units. c. Shift the graph of g left 3 units. Shift the graph of g up 1 unit and then right 2 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = x – 5 – 3 from the graph of g(x) = x ? a. Shift the graph of g up 3 units. Shift the graph of g down 3 units and then right 5 units. Shift the graph of g down 4 units and then right 1 unit. 744. Shift the graph of g up 4 units and then right 2 units. Shift the graph of g down 1 unit and then right 2 units. b. 742. d.

f(x) = – (x +2)2 1 b. f(x) d. Shift the graph of g right 1 unit. f(x) = – x2 +2 1 c. and then up 5 units. c. b. then reflect over the x-axis. and then down 5 units. Shift the graph of g left 3 units then reflect over the x-axis. and then shifting it up 2 units? a. d. d. f(x) = –x4 + 5 b. b. f(x) = –x4–5 c. then reflect over the x-axis. Shift the graph of g left 3 units. 747. Shift the graph of g left 1 unit. f(x) = – x2 – 2 1 d. then reflecting it over the x-axis. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = 2 + b. c.Which of the following functions’ graphs can be you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = –|x – 1| + 5 from the graph of g(x) = |x|? a. Shift the graph of g left 1 unit. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = –(x–5)4 752. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = right 2 units and then reflecting it over the x-axis? 1 a. f(x) 1 x 1 =2– x 1 = –x+2 1 =– x – 2 be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = x4 right 5 units and then reflecting it over the x-axis? a. then reflect over the x-axis. and then up 5 units. c. f(x) = –|x–2| + 3 751. f(x) = –|x + 3| –2 d. Shift the graph of g right 3 units. f(x) = –(x + 5)4 d. Shift the graph of g right 3 units. and then down 5 units. then reflect over the x-axis. f(x) = – (x – 2)2 1 x2 114 . and then up 5 units. Which of the following sequence of shifts obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = right 5 units and then up 2 units? a. and then up 5 units. Which of the following functions’ graphs can would you perform in order to obtain the graph of f(x) = –(x + 3)3 + 5 from the graph of g(x) = x3? a. d. f(x)= x – 5 + 2 f(x) = x + 5 + 2 f(x) = x – 2 + 5 f(x) = x + 2 – 5 x 750. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by shifting the graph of g(x) = |x | left 3 units. b. and then shifting it down 2 units? a. f(x) = –|x + 2| –3 c. f(x) = –|x–3| + 2 b. Which of the following sequence of shifts would 749. and then down 5 units.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 746. Shift the graph of g right 1 unit. and then down 5 units. f(x) c. then reflect over the x-axis. Which of the following functions’ graphs can be obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = 1 x over the x-axis. 748.

If ex = 2 and ey = 3. 22x + 1 c. as well as application of the exponent rules. If b 1. c. e2x + e–2x e2x + e–2x + 2 2 2 e x + e–x 2 2 e x + e–x + 2 (53x – 1)3 5x – 1 52x a. c. c. b. b. b. 2x2 2– x 2–x2 2x 2 759.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– Set 48 (Answers begin on page 243) 757. –1 754. d. Simplify: a. 1 d. c. Simplify: e x(e x – 1) – e–x (ex – 1) a. d. then e3x – 2y = a. c. c. b. d. 42x + 2 4x 42x 4–2x 54x 52x – 6 1 2 a. Which of the following statements is true? a. d. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. If b 1. b. 5 53x 5x + 3 5–3x x–3 a. d. c. If b 1. e2x – e x – 1 + e–x e2x + e x – 1 + e–x e2x + 2e x – 1 e2x + 1 – 2e–x e x(e x – e –x) + e–x (ex + e –x) e–2x 755. 58x – 1 1253x – 2 254x – 1 6252x – 1 a. Simplify: 2x 2 x+1 9 8 8 9 758. b. If b 1. d. 2x +x b. Simplify: 761. d. Simplify: (4x – 1)2 16 760. Simplify: (ex + e–x)2 This problem set focuses on the basic computations and graphs involving exponentials. b. the y-values associated with the graph of y = bx grow very rapidly as the xvalues move to the right. b. the graph of y = bx grows without bound as the x-values move to the left. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left. 753. d. Simplify: a. 115 . e 2x + 1 e 4x + 1 e –4x + 1 e –2x + 1 756. c.

c. If 0 b 1f. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right.0) (–∞. The graph is decreasing as the x-values move from left to right. The graph has one x-intercept and one y-intercept. (–∞.1] b. If b 0. [1. (–∞.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 762. Which of the following statements is true? bx a. for any real number x. What is the solution set for – 3 2 2x ≤0? a. 2x b.0] the empty set the set of all real numbers 767. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. If b 1. The graph is increasing as the x-values move from left to right. If 0 b 1. the set of all real numbers 116 . c. . Set 49 (Answers begin on page 245) a.∞) d. The graph has one x-intercept and one y-intercept.1) c. All of the above statements are true. then the equation bx = 1 has two solutions. The graph is increasing as the x-values move from left to right. b. of the following? a. 764. the graph of y = get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left. Which of the following statements is true? bx 15 7 3x ? a. There exists an x-value for which f(x) = 1. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. then the equation =–1 has a solution.∞) c. Which of the following statements is true? 766. (–∞. 769. 1 2 x 3x. the empty set d. c.∞) d. for all x This problem set focuses on more advanced features of exponential functions. There exists an x-value for which f(x) = 1. 768. d. c. then only negative x-values can be solutions to the equation bx = 0. [0. If 0 b 1. c. If b 0. 765. b. The range of the function f(x) = 1– 2ex is which 1 –x 2 0. c. then the equation bx = 0 has no solution. b. b. The graph is decreasing as the x-values move from left to right. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. d. What is the solution set for the inequality 1–3x ≤ 0? a. If 0 b 1. (1. [1. d. 763. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the right. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the right. d. b.∞) b. for all x 1 x x 0. Which of the following is a true characterization of the graph of f(x) = – a. the graph of y = bx get very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. 0. including solving equations involving exponential expressions. d. If 0 b 1. Which of the following is a true characterization of the graph of f(x) = – 3 4 x ? a.

–5 and –2 –2 and 5 –5 and 2 2 and 5 778. x = c. b. Solve: 163x – 1 = 42x + 3 a. Solve: x 3x + 5 3x = 0 a. Solve: 42x – 3 = 4x a. 1 0 –1 none of the above 1 a. 2 3 37 14 1 =– 7 and x = 1 = 1 and x =–1 7 777. b. if any. x d. that satisfy the equation 5 x + 1 = a. – 5 4 b. 4 5 5 4 1 2x 772. c. Solve: 2x – 5 = 8 779. Solve: 32x = 9 3x – 1 a. Solve: 4x + 1 = 2 a. – 2 3 d. – 1 2 d. d. c. c. b. The graph of f lies below the x-axis. Determine the values of x. –3 3 2 8 774. Which of the following are characteristics of the graph of f(x) = –e2 – x –3? a. b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 770. y = –3 is the horizontal asymptote for the graph of f. –2 780. 37 a. c. a. – 1 3 117 . Solve: 125x = 25 tion 27x a. 3 b. d. Solve: (e x) x – 3 = e10 771. –5 5 0 0 and –5 2x 781. d. c. c. x 2 –1 = 43x. all of the above 773. b. – 4 5 c. –2–2 b. b. b. d. d. no solution 1 25 . Determine the values of x that satisfy the equa- 776. – 3 2 c. –1 0 1 none of the above c. 3 2 –3 14 3 b. d. –1 2 1 3 1 3 5 775. x = b. d. d. The domain is . log5 3 d. –3 c. 1 4 c. Solve: 10x + 1 = 100 a.

and 0 a. log3(34 93) = 786. 0 b. 16 8 4 2 a. –2 2 –3 3 1 792. b. – 2 3 c. c. d. c. c. –2. 4 d. 0 b. b. 8 10 6 12 a. c. d. c. loga 5 + 2 loga a d. b. d. 6 12 36 –36 a = x .–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 782. 1 d. d. b. then x = This problem set focuses on basic computations involving logarithms. d. 1 2 d. 3 2 Set 50 (Answers begin on page 247) 791. 1 c. 16 3 –3 4 118 . then loga x = 1 2 loga a + 1 loga a 2 a. b. c. d. 2 3 b. If log6 x = 2. b. log5 1 = 783. ex – 7x ex + 6 ex = 0 a. Solve: e2x +5ex– 6 = 0 a. loga 5 – b. 2 –2 3 –3 787. – 1 5 790. log3 9 = a. d. log16 64 = 784. c. b. log3 27 = a. 2 and 3 0 –3 and –2 –3. log7 7= a. loga 5 – 2 loga a 793. log 1 8 = 2 a. loga 5 c. If 5 a. b. d. Solve: 2 x 2=8 788. c. 2 3 3 2 3 2 and 2 and –2 and 2 and 2 –2 3 a. Solve: 2x2 . 1 5 c. 785. –1 789.

ln [y3x4] c.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 794. – 3 3 a. ln [y3] + ln [x4] 802. d. c. 5 2 d. If 53x – 1 = 7. c. 2 5 b. b. – 2 5 c. Which of the following is equivalent to 3 3 3 ln 18x3 – ln 6x? a. Simplify: log8 2 + log8 4 4 y3 797. – 1 2 d. c. ln 3x2 b. b. loga(ax) = a. c. d. 7) b. b. If ln x = 3 and ln y = 2. c. Which of the following is equivalent to 796. Simplify: 4 log9 3 = 3 3 3 a. – 1 (1–log5 7) 3 d. – 5 2 e2y x = a. then x = a. ln (108x4) 119 . –2 799. ln [ x4 ] b. then x = a. 2 c. 1 (1 + log5 7) 3 795. 801. If loga x = 2 and loga y = –3. b. d. d. and simplifying logarithmic expressions using the logarithm rules. 2 1 0 –1 3 ln (xy2) – 4 ln(x2y) + ln(xy)? a. ln (3x)2 d. then ln a. e – 1 ln 3 2 803. c. –3(1 + log5 7) c. 8 –8 2 –2 804. If 3 ln x = ln 8. ln [ x3 ] y d. d. –2 3 11 –3 2 8 2 Set 51 (Answers begin on page 249) This problem set focuses on basic features of logarithmic functions. 2 ln 3x c. 1 –1 2 log8 2 3 b. 3log 3 = a. d. – b. then loga y3 = x 1 3 (1–log5 800. 1 2 a. ax 0 x xa 1 798. b.

– 429 806. the y-values increase very slowly. 2 log3 (x) c. – 2 3 b. c. Which of the following is equivalent to log2 4 – a. As the x-values decrease toward zero. Which of the following is equivalent to (2x + 1) log (2x3)? a.∞) [0. 814. –1 c. Which of the following is equivalent to 813. –2 d. log 2 – 3 log x b. d.∞) the set of all real numbers 120 . 1 2 x + 1)(x2 + 3)4]? 1 2 2 ln (x + 1) – 4 ln (x + 3) + 1 ln (x + 1) + 4 ln (x2 + 3) 2 ln 2(x + 1) – 4 ln (x2 + 3) b. –logbx c. d. As the x-values move to the right. the y-values plunge downward very sharply. c. b.∞) the set of all real numbers 815. Which of the following is equivalent to a. c. Which of the following is a true characteriza- log3 a. Simplify: 3 log4 3 + log4 27 2 ln[(2 a. 1 2 ln 2(x + 1) + 4 ln (x2 + 3) a. 2 log3 (x) d. –log 2 + 3 log x c. 2 3 812. What is the domain of k(x) = log3(–x)? 809. d. Simplify: log7 49 – log7 7 2 2 811. d. As the x-values decrease toward zero. c. 2 b.∞) [0. (–∞. (–∞. 429 d. ln 2 d. b. 2 3 2 2 3 log2 8 + log2 2? a. logbx(x + 3) d.0) (0. log 2 + 3 log x d. b. the y-values decrease very slowly. What is the domain of b(x) = log5(x2 + 1)? 810. Which of the following is equivalent to –3 2 3 2 log3 x2 2x – 1 3 ? (2x + 1) 2 1 2 log3 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 3 – 2 log3 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) + 1 log3 (2x – 1) – 3 log3 2 2 2x – – 3 log3 2x + 1 1 2 a. the y-values shoot upward very sharply. d. As the x-values move to the left. ln 2 – c. 8yz4 x2 ? 3 + log2 y – 4 log2 z – 2 log2 x 3 – log2 y – 4 log2 z + 2 log2 x 3 + log2 y + 4 log2 z + 2 log2 x 3 + log2 y + 4 log2 z – 2 log2 x tion of the graph of f(x) = ln x? a. –log 2 – 3 log x 808. c. 2 log3 (x) 807. logb 1 x2 a. 2 logbx b. Which of the following is equivalent to 3 logb (x + 3)–1– 2 logb x + logb (x + 3)3 ? a.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 805. b.0) (0. log2 2 b. 2 log3 (x) + b. –1 c.

f(x) = e2x and g(x) = ln x. f(x) = e2x and g(x) = ln c. b. 0) (0. The range of the function f(x) = ln(2x – 1) is a. Which of the following choices for f and g are a. b. f(x) = e–x and g(x) = ln d. 3 2 – ln 2 2 3 . c. 817. b. y = 1 is a horizontal asymptote. The y-intercept is (e. (1.1) d.x>0 –x . 4e2 – 3x + 1 2 – ln 2 e–2 3 . both a and b d. (–∞.∞) d. 818. 3 3e + 2 e+1 3(e + 2) e+1 which of the following? a. There is no x-intercept. Determine the solution set for the inequality 5 a. 1 (–∞. [–1.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 816. (–∞. (–1.3 2 –2 + ln 2 3.0) (0. (–∞. x > 0 2x . 0) c.∞) b. The domain of the function f(x) = ln (x2 – 4x + 4) 824. are x-intercepts of the functionf(x) ln (x2–4x + 4)? a.∞) 1 ( 2 . d. c.∞) 823. 0) This function does not have an x-intercept. (2. d. b. c. Which of the following. (–1. Determine the solution set for the inequality is which of the following? a. 1) (1. Which of the following is a characteristic of the ln(1–x2) 0. Solve: log x + log(x + 3) = 1 a.1) b.x>0 x. 3 e–2 –2 + ln 2 3 . c. c. 1). neither a nor b 819.– 2 ) 1 [ 2 . 121 . x = –1 is a vertical asymptote of f. if any. What is the x-intercept of f(x) = log2 x? 821.∞) c. 0) b. –2 and 5 2 and 5 –5 and 2 2 graph of f(x) = ln(x + 1) + 1? a. f(x) = e–x and g(x) = ln b. b. 2 d. a.2) c. (3. x > 0 Set 52 (Answers begin on page 250) 822. d. c.1] 825. d.–1) ((1. inverses? a. d. 820. 2) (2. b. (2. 3 9. Solve: ln(x – 2) – ln(3 – x) = 1 This problem set focuses on more advanced features of logarithmic functions and solving equations and inequalities involving logarithms.

2 d. x = a (ab–ln y) d. y = 4 e3 (ln B + ln A) c. Solve for: 3 ln 4y + ln A = ln B: a. t = – k ln ( P ) 0 1 P b. 3 c. t = –k ln 1 P (P ) 0 P 0 829. b. 828. b b2 0 1 –a(b + c) 832. c. c. c. x = –ab + ln y a 1 ln ( P0 P ) 122 . t = k ln (– P ) d. x = – a (ab + ln y) b. There is no solution to this equation. y = 4 e3 (ln B–ln A) b. x = –b + ln y c. Assuming that b 302 831. solve: b3 logbx = 1 a. b. Solve for t: P = Poe–kt a. 0 1 0 and 1 none of the above a. b. 99 b.–ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS– 826. d. x = e ln z + ln y–1 x = e ln z–ln y + 1 x = e ln z–ln y–1 x = e –(ln z + ln y–1) 1. d. Solve for x: y = e 1 c. t 1 = –k a. Solve: log(x – 2) = 2 + log(x +3) a. Solve: log2 (2x – 1) + log2 (x + 2) = 2 830. d. Solve for x: l + ln (x y) = In z a. y =– 4 e3 (ln AB) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B 827. y =– 4 e3 (ln A) d.

computing determinants and inverse. which involves the use of matrices. are reviewed in the seven problem sets in this section. Matrix operations. and applying back substitution and Cramer’s rule to solve systems of linear equations. 123 .7 S E C T I O N MATRIX ALGEBRA S ystems of linear equations can also be solved using Cramer’s rule. including matrix arithmetic.

none of the above d. What are the dimensions of the matrix R V S 0 –2 W S0 1 W S 0 –2 W ? S W S0 0 W T X a. > 0 c. Compute. > –12 1 H –6 –4 3 3 H 3 3 d. R V S1W S0W 837. > –3 –3 0 H 0 –9 –3 –3 3 0 H 0 9 3 3 3 0 H 0 9 –3 [1 2 a. > V 1W 5W 0W X –1 0 H –3 1 V 1W 0W 0W W 0W X d. This computation is not well-defined. 833. S –1 W S W S –3 W T X R –1 –2 S 1 S 0 0 0 S 1 0 0 c. if possible: –3 > Basic features of matrices and the arithmetic of matrices are explored in this problem set. What are the dimensions of the matrix –1 –1 0 H 0 –3 1 a. 4 d.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– Set 53 (Answers begin on page 252) 836. > –4 –6 H 1 –12 b. This computation is not well-defined. > b. S 3 S2 T –1 b. 124 . 1 c. Compute. Which of the following matrices has dimen- sions 3 2? R S2 a. 4 4 d. if possible: 2 > –3 –1 H –3 > 2 0 1 2 –1 H 2 a. > 12 –1 H 6 4 c. S S –5 0 0 T 835. 2 4 b. 838. Compute. 4 2 c. This computation is not well-defined. 2 2 d. 9 2 –1 –1 –3 C T X R V S2W S –1 W b. > c. 4 b. 1 – 1 0 ]? 4 4 1 1 834. if possible: 9 1 –1 –2 2 C + S W S1W S –5 W a.

if possible: S 1 0 5S S 0 1 T V R S 2 0 –2W 5W S 5 S– 2 0 – 2 W a. infinitely many 843. Determine the values of x. 1) (0. 125 . if any exist. 1. Compute. that makes the following equality true: > x –2 1 6 –4 H= > H 2 0 4 0 2 3 –3 6 There is no such x-value. b. How many ordered pairs x. (2.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– R S –1 0 2 839. This computation is not well-defined. Determine an ordered pair (x. c. 1) (0. All of the above statements are true. b. d. 3 ) 844. that make the following equality true: > exists. z) if one 8 8 8 d. A constant multiple of a 3 1 matrix need not be a 3 1 matrix. 840. The sum of two 4 2 matrices must be a 4 2 matrix. b. 1 c. c. d. b. 0) a.(–2. 3 ) d. 841. if any exist. 2 d. 0 b. S 5 5W S 0 –2 2 W S 5 5 W X T R V S2 0 2W 5W S5 S2 0 2W b. c. 0. (–2. x 2y 2x 3y 3x 4y H–> H=> H 3z 4 4z 4 –2z 0 (1. Determine the values of x. d. a. S 5 5 W S 0 2 –2W S 5W 5 X T V 1 W 1 W W –1 W X 842. y) that makes the following equality true: –4 > 2x 10 6 3 x – 2 0 –2 4x + 2 1 –5 H H –2 > H=> 4 y 6 2 y –1 2 4 – 3 y –1 –2 8 a.– 3 ) c. y. Which of the following statements is true? –1 4 –1 x 2 H=> H 6 –1 3x –1 –1 and 1 –2 and 2 –2 2 a. (2. The sum of a 4 2 matrix and a 2 4 matrix is well-defined. that make the following equality true: > 845. Determine an ordered triple (x. 1. d. a. c. y make the follow- ing equality true: R R V V S0 2 W S 0 –6 W 3 S 1 1 W = –1 S –3 –3 W? S S W W S1 x W S –3 6y W T T X X a. 1. S5 5W S0 2 2W S 5 5W T X V R S– 2 0 2 W 5 W S 5 S 2 0 2 W c. 0) (0.– 3 ) b.

847. z) (where x. Which of the following statements is true? a. 0 126 . and z are real numbers) make the following equation true: R V R V 2 S 1 x – 2 –1 –1 W S 1 –x –1 –1 W S –3 –1 2 y 1 W S –3 –1 y 2 1 W = S –2 1 1 4z 2 W S –2 1 1 8z W ? S W S W S0 –3 –4 0 W S 0 –3 –4 0 W T X T X a. y. > R SX S0 b. 0> –1 2 H= 0 2 –1 b. –1 –1 0 0 H+ 1 = > H –1 –1 0 0 1 X 0 0 0 1 X 0 V R V 0 W S 15 1 0 0 W 0 W S 0 15 1 0 W = 1 W S 0 0 15 1 W W S W X W S 0 0 0 15 W X T X 848. 4 c. All of the above statements are false. 8 b. 2 d. All of the above statements are false.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 846. Which of the following statements is true? a. 3 9 –1 0 0 C –2 9 0 1 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = – 9 3 2 1 C d. > 2 –1 2 –1 H+> H = > H –1 3 –1 3 c. y. > 1 1 0 0 d. How many ordered triples (x. There is an X-value that makes the following equation true: –3 S S0 S0 T 1 1 0 0 H–9 1 1 C–9 1 1 C = > H c.

9 0 0 C 0 b. 1 0 H 0 1 d. use the following matrices: R–1 2 V W S A=S0 2W S –1 –1 W X T 1 –2 –1 B => H 3 5 0 C => 0 1 H 1 –4 0 F=> H 0 R–2 –1 0 1 V S W G = S –1 –2 –1 0 W S 1 –1 –2 –1 W T X R V S 3 1 –1 W S 1 –2 1 W H=S W S 0 0 –2 W S –2 1 0 W T X R2 V S W I = S2 W S1 W T X 850. > 0 0 H 0 0 R V S –1 1 0 W a. not possible 127 . Express as a single matrix. S 0 1 0 W S W S 1 0 1W T X b. if possible: CF a. if possible: (2G)(–3E) V R S 3 2 1W D = S 0 1 2W W S S –1 –1 0 W X T E = 9 –4 –2 0 C 849.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– Set 54 (Answers begin on page 254) The multiplication of matrices and matrix computations involving multiple operations are the focus of this problem set. For questions 849–864. Express as a single matrix. > H 0 c. not possible 9 –1 –1 1 C d. > c.

d. > b. > –3 –7 –3 H –52 18 8 V R S –3 –52 W b. S W S –4 –3 1 W T X d. R V S –48 –42 –42 W S 12 6 –12 W S W S 18 18 18 W T X V R S –6 –7 –7 W S 2 1 –2 W W S S3 3 3W X T R V S 48 42 42 W S –12 –6 12 W S W S –18 –18 –18 W T X not possible 856.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 851. S 7 –18 W S W S 3 –8 W T X d. not possible 852. Express as a single matrix. if possible: 4BA 0 0 a. not possible 128 . 5 12 > H 6 10 12 1 b. c. not possible 855. c. > –3 1 H R V S 5 12 1 W S 6 10 0 W c. d. if possible: (BG)H a. Express as a single matrix. if possible: IE + D a. S –7 18 W W S S –3 8 W X T R V S 3 52 W c. > c. > 0 0 H 0 b. 9 0 0 C d. > H 0 c. 853. Express as a single matrix. Express as a single matrix. if possible: FF a. if possible: AB 854. not possible d. > 64 –4 H –12 0 0 4 H 12 –64 0 –4 H –12 64 a. b. Express as a single matrix. if possible: (–2D)(3D) R V S 5 2 –1 W S 8 3 –2 W S W S5 3 0 W T X V R S –5 –2 1 W S –8 –3 2 W W S S –3 –3 0 W X T R V S 1 –2 5 W S –8 –3 2 W S W S 1 –3 –5 W T X not possible a. Express as a single matrix. b.

9 –36 164 C c. c. if possible: E(G + A) 1 0 a. not possible 863. Express as a single matrix. not possible 129 . > 0 0 H 0 0 d. S –17 –14 7 W W S 5 0W S 9 X T R V S –10 –17 –2 W c. Express as a single matrix. > H 0 d. not possible 862. Express as a single matrix. not possible 3D – 2AB + GH R V S 10 17 –2 W a. not possible 860. > 36 H –164 c. S –1 1 W S 2 –2 W X T c. Express as a single matrix. S –17 –14 –7 W S W S –9 –5 0 W T X d. 22 33 66 not possible (2C)(2C)(2C)F 0 a. > 0 0 H 0 0 d. Express as a single matrix.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 857. if possible: c. not possible 859. > 2 –1 2 H 1 1 –2 R2 1 V W S b. if possible: 4B – 3FE a. d. > –2 H 1 b. > H 1 0 b. Express as a single matrix. –1 d. if possible: (EAF)(CF) a. if possible: a. 9 0 0 C 858. 9 0 0 C 0 c. Express as a single matrix. S 17 14 –7 W S W S –9 –5 0 W T X V R S –10 –17 2 W b. > 0 0 H 0 0 d. 9 36 –164 C b. > H 0 b. if possible: (ED)(AC) a. if possible: (EG)(HI) 861. b.

b. Compute the determinant: > 3 2 c. b. c. 0 a ab b 873. c. d. –1 1 –3 3 874. > b. > H 1 5 d. c. d. –10 –6 6 0 –1 2 H 2 –4 870. –38 –26 22 –22 –3 7 H 1 5 872. d. c. 2 3 H 1 1 24 36 –6 –24 –2 0 H –12 3 868. –5 5 1 –1 875. Compute the determinant: > a. d. c. 865. Compute the determinant: > a. > 2 1 H –1 0 –2 –5 H 4 2 a. c. b. b. Compute the determinant: > a. d. Compute the determinant: > a. 9 0 16 –16 6 3 H 2 1 871. Compute the determinant: > a. b. b. b. d. if possible: 869. Compute the determinant: > Set 55 (Answers begin on page 257) This problem set is focused on computing determinants of square matrices. –20 20 –22 22 –3 4 H 4 2 a. c. c. not possible a. –2 2 1 –1 0 1 H –2 –1 130 . d. b.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 864. d. d. d. b. Compute the determinant: > a. a 0 H 0 b 25 –25 –4 4 1 –4 H 0 25 866. Compute the determinant: > a. b. d. Compute the determinant: > (2F)(–2E) + 2B a. c. Compute the determinant: > a. c. Express as a single matrix. b. c. 1 2 H 2 3 1 –1 –5 5 3 –1 H 1 –2 867.

> d. > d. > b. 881. c. Compute the determinant: > a. b. > b. d. 48 d. 0 5 12 –12 3 2 H 3 2 a. d. > c. b. Compute the determinant: > a. > 3 2 x 4 H > H=> H 2 1 y 2 1 2 x 4 H > H=> H 2 3 y 2 1 2 x 2 H > H=> H 2 3 y 4 3 2 x 2 H > H=> H 2 1 y 4 131 . > b. > d. Compute the determinant: > 9 –6 a. > 1 0 x a H > H=> H 0 1 y b 1 1 x a H > H=> H 0 0 y b 0 0 x a H > H=> H 1 1 y b 1 0 x b H > H=> H 0 1 y a x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 880. c. Compute the determinant: > a. Write this system in matrix form: * y = b a. 1 0 –1 2 –1 –1 H –1 0 a. b. c. d. > 3 –7 x 2 H > H=> H 1 5 y 8 –3 7 x 2 H > H=> H –1 –5 y 8 –3 1 x 2 H > H=> H 7 5 y 8 –3 7 x 2 H > H=> H 1 5 y 8 x=a 3 –2 H 878. > c. 2 –2 8 –8 0 2 H 4 0 c. > 883. d. –15 879. c. b.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 876. 2 1 –2 0 –1 0 H 2 –1 Set 56 (Answers begin on page 257) This problem set is focused on writing systems in matrix form. Write this system in matrix form: * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 877. 15 c. 0 b. Write this system in matrix form: * a. Compute the determinant: > 882.

> d. Write this system in matrix form: ] 5y = 5 \ –2 1 –4 x H > H=> 1 H a. 4 –3 –x + 2y = 3 885. Write this system in matrix form: * 2x – 4y = –6 –4 2 x 3 a. > b. > b. > 2 1 x –2 H > H=> H 3 1 y 1 c. > 132 . > 0 5 y 5 b. > d. > c. Write this system in matrix form: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2y + 3 = –4x a. > b. > d. Write this system in matrix form: * 889. > H > H=> H 1 1 y –2 d. > –2 1 0 x H > H=> 1 H –4 5 y 5 1 1 0 x H > H=> 5 H –4 5 y –2 1 1 –4 x H > H=> 5 H 0 5 y –2 886. > > 2 4 x 1 H > H=> H 4 –3 y –3 –3 4 x –3 H > H=> H 4 2 y 1 3 4 x 1 H > H=> H 4 2 y –3 H > H=> H y 1 2 3 x 1 c. > d. > H > H=> H 2 –1 y –6 b. > b.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 884. Write this system in matrix form: a. > d. > 6 3 x 3 H > H=> H 2 1 y 8 6 2 x 3 H > H=> H 3 1 y 8 6 2 x 8 H > H=> H 3 1 y 3 6 3 x 8 H > H=> H 2 1 y 3 * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2 y = –3 – x –2 1 x 5 H > H=> H 1 –3 y –9 –3 1 x 5 H > H=> H 1 –2 y –9 –3 1 x –9 H > H=> H 1 –2 y 5 –2 1 x –9 H > H=> H 1 –3 y 5 a. > 2 1 x 1 H > H=> H 3 1 y –2 2 3 x –2 H > H=> H 1 1 y 1 a. > c. Write this system in matrix form: * 2x + 3y = 1 x + y = –2 887. > c. > c. > –1 2 x –6 H > H=> H 2 –4 y 3 –1 2 x 3 H > H=> H 2 –4 y –6 –4 2 x –6 H > H=> H 2 –1 y 3 6x + 3y = 8 2x + y = 3 Z ] –2 = x – 4y 1 [ 888.

* 891. > b. * * 2x − 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x − 4y 3 − x − 2y = –y + x + 3 893. * b. > H > H=> H 1 –1 y 0 3 2 x −2 H > H = > H? 3 2 y 1 2 x – 3 y = –2 2x – 3y = 1 2x + 3y = –2 2x + 3y = 1 3x – 2y = –2 3x – 2y = 1 3x + 2y = –2 3x + 2y = 1 a. > –1 0 x −2 H > H = > H? 2 –1 y 1 –x = –2 –2x + y = 1 x = –2 2x – y = 1 –x = –2 2x – y = 1 –x = –2 2x + y = 1 a. > c. * 133 . * b. * d. Write this system in matrix form: 892. > H > H=> H –2 –1 y 0 –1 1 x –4 b. > d. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form > 0 1 x −4 a. > H > H=> H –2 0 y 0 0 1 x 0 c. * c. * c. Which of the following systems can be written * –1 = –3 – 2x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) –3 0 x –2 H > H=> H 12 2 y 4 2 0 x –2 H > H=> H 12 –3 y 4 2 12 x –2 H > H=> H 0 –3 y 4 2 12 x 4 H > H=> H 0 –3 y –2 in the matrix form > a. Write this system in matrix form: d. > H > H=> H –2 − 1 y –4 0 –2 x –4 d.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 890.

> c. if it exists: > a. 134 . * b. 897. The inverse does not exist.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 894. * b. * b. > b. * –3 7 H 1 5 a. * 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6x = 12 3x – 2x = 4 9y – 6x = 12 895. * a. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form > in the matrix form > 3 –2 x 4 H > H=> H? 9 –6 y 12 –3y + 2x = 4 –9y + 6x = 12 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H? 4 0 y –20 2x = 14 4y =− 20 2y = 14 4x = –20 2y = 14 4y = –20 2y = 14 4x = –20 a. Which of the following systems can be written 896. * d. > – 5 22 1 22 7 – 22 3 H – 22 5 – 22 1 22 7 22 3 22 H –y + x = –1 d. Which of the following systems can be written in the matrix form ? > Set 57 (Answers begin on page 261) – 1 –1 x –1 H > H = > H? –1 0 y 1 x – y = –1 x=1 –x – y = –1 –x = 1 –x + y = –1 x=1 This problem set is focused on computing inverse matrices. * c. * c. Compute the inverse. * d. * –y = 1 5 –7 H –1 –3 d. * 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6y = 12 c.

> 1 – 11 2 11 2 11 3 22 H –1 3 a. The inverse does not exist. > 2 6 H b. > c. > 2 –1 H 3 –2 H b. The inverse does not exist. Assume that a and b are not zero. > 6 –3 H –2 1 1 –3 H –2 6 d. 135 . > –2 1 d. d. > 1 –2 H 1 –3 b. if it exists: > d. Compute the inverse. > 1 H b 1 –2 H –2 4 1 2 H 2 4 –4 2 H 2 –1 a a. 900. if it exists: > 6 3 H 2 1 1 3 a. Compute the inverse. Compute the inverse. > 0 0 b. if it exists: > 2 3 –3 2 a. > –2 1 3 –2 H c.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 898. 903. > c. Compute the inverse. > H 0 –b d. if it exists: > 901. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse. > c. 1 2 H 899. > a H 0 –1 b –a 0 c. The inverse does not exist. The inverse does not exist. if it exists: > –1 2 H 2 –4 a 0 H 0 b 1 a. > –1 0 b. The inverse does not exist. > b. if it exists: > –3 4 H 4 2 2 3 H 1 1 a. > H –1 2 > 2 4 H 4 –3 2 –4 H –4 –3 c. Compute the inverse. 1 2 H d. 902.

> c. if it exists: > d. > b. > 2 1 H b. > c. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse. > 3 3 H b. if it exists: > –1 0 H 2 –1 a. > c. > 0 H 2 –1 3 3 0 H 12 –2 1 2 2 2 a. 905. > 1 2 H 0 1 –1 0 H –2 –1 – 1 5 –1 5 H –3 5 d. 906. if it exists: > 1 –4 H 0 25 907. d. Compute the inverse. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse. > c. > –1 1 H –2 0 1 0 H –4 25 25 4 H 0 1 –1 –1 c. 136 . The inverse does not exist. The inverse does not exist. > 2 –2 H –3 3 2 –3 H –2 3 d.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 904. if it exists: > 3 2 H 3 2 3 0 a. –2 0 H –12 3 909. if it exists: > d. if it exists: > 0 1 H –2 –1 1 a. Compute the inverse. Compute the inverse. > –12 –2 H b. The inverse does not exist. > –2 –1 H 1 3 –2 1 H –1 3 2 5 1 0 a. > 2 0 H d. > c. > 0 b. 1 0 H b. 3 –1 H 1 –2 908. > 4 25 1 25 H –1 –1 2 > 2 a. The inverse does not exist. Compute the inverse.

> –1 H 0 equivalent matrix equation: * x=a y=b There is no solution. Compute the inverse. 914. y = 6 There is no solution. 913. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 0 –2 a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 910. There are infinitely many solutions. > –4 0 H b. > 9 3 H –6 9 H b. Compute the inverse. > –2 3 c. > –1 1 H 1 b. x = a. y = – 13 11 11 a. 0 – 41 H –1 0 2 d. c. There are infinitely many solutions. 137 . if it exists: > 3 –2 H 9 –6 Set 58 (Answers begin on page 264) –6 –2 a. 911. > c. There is no solution. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 23 13 11 . 0 2 H 4 0 d. b. The inverse does not exist. if it exists: > –1 –1 H c. x = b. y = a 1 1 H 1 0 a. > –6 2 H –9 3 This problem set is focused on solving matrix equations of the form Ax = b. x = d. The inverse does not exist. d. 912. Compute the inverse. 0 H a. y = 11 – 23 . y = b x = b. Solve this system by first converting to an –1 0 0 –1 a. There are infinitely many solutions. b. y = –6 x = –8. c. d. d. The inverse does not exist. > 0 1 2 1 4 x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 x = 8. if it exists: > 915. > –1 c.

x = –1. y = 2 x = 2.y=–7 – 179 . There are infinitely many solutions. –1 = –3 – 2 x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) There is no solution. b. x = – 46 . equivalent matrix equation: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2 y + 3 = –4 x – 171 . y = –6 x = 4. x = 2. x = 2x – 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x – 4y 3 – x – 2y = –y + x + 3 There is no solution. y = 136 919. a. y = 22 923. 922. b. d. x = b. b. y = – 215 c. y = – 252 7 5 11 . There are infinitely many solutions. d. y = – 136 x = 1. x = b. 138 . y = 4 c. equivalent matrix equation: Z ] –2 = x – 4y [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ a. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * a. b. There is no solution. a. x = –3. c. 918. y = –6 There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 6x + 3y = 8 2x + y = 3 x = –4. x = 46 25 . y = –4 x = –2. b. c. equivalent matrix equation: * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2y = –3 – x 19 22 7. d. There is no solution. y = 272 a. d. y = –3 There is no solution. y = 5 There is no solution. Solve this system by first converting to an 920. c. Solve this system by first converting to an a.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 916. There is no solution. y = 215 25 b. Solve this system by first converting to an d. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: –x + 2y = 3 * 2x – 4y = –6 a. d. c. d. 921. x = c. equivalent matrix equation: * a. c. There are infinitely many solutions. There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. y = –5 x = –7. Solve this system by first converting to an 917. Solve this system by first converting to an equivalent matrix equation: * 2x + 3y = 1 x + y = –2 x = 1. There are infinitely many solutions. d. There are infinitely many solutions. There are infinitely many solutions.

c. c. 3 –2 x 4 a. 3 2 x –2 H > H=> H 3 2 y 1 This problem set is focused on solving matrix equations of the form Ax = b using Cramer’s rule. y = – 13 11 11 930. b. There are infinitely many solutions. –1 –1 x –1 H > H=> H –1 0 y 1 x=a y=b x = b. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * 2x + 3y = 1 x+y= — 2 x = –7. c. d. d. x = –1. a. c. d. y = b There is no solution. y = –2 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H 4 0 y –20 931. x = 9. Solve this system: > 9 –9 H > y H = > 12 H tem using Cramer’s rule: * a. c. There are infinitely many solutions. y = –6 x = –8. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 925. d. d.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 924. There is no solution. 929. There is no solution. c. d. There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. d. y = 6 There is no solution. y = –5 There is no solution. y = –3 x = 2. x = –2. y = 13 11 11 d. b. There is no solution. y = 5 x = 7. There are infinitely many solutions. y = 7 x = 5. y = 2 There is no solution. b. d. 932. Solve this system: > a. x = – 23 . y = a x = a. b. b. b. y = –1 There are infinitely many solutions. y = 3 There is no solution. There are infinitely many solutions. c. 928. y = –1 x = 2. 927. Solve this system: > * –3x + 7y = 2 x + 5y = 8 a. There are infinitely many solutions. x = 23 . x = –5. y = –7 a. y = –2 x = –9. b. x = –2. Solve this system: > a. There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system: > 2 –1 0 x –2 H > H=> H –1 y 1 Set 59 (Answers begin on page 270) a. There are infinitely many solutions. a. y = 2 x = 1. b. c. c. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * x + 2y = 4 2x + 3y = 2 x = 8. Solve this sys- 926. b. Assume that a and b are nonzero. 139 .

–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 933. a. There are infinitely many solutions. y 5 22 a. b. x = 46 25 . y = –4 There are infinitely many solutions. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –1 = –3 – 2 x 2 – 3y = 6 (1 – 2x) 16 3 = 136 a. * x – 2 = 4x – y + 3 6 – 2y = –3 –x a. c. 936. b. x = 1. y = 4 There is no solution. b. There are infinitely many solutions. y c. There are infinitely many solutions. c. x = – 1 . y = 5 x = –2. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 937. 939. x = – 171 . x = – 46 . d. There are infinitely many solutions. x = 1 . y = 3 There is no solution. d. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –3x = 1 – 4y 2 y + 3 = –4 x 7 11 . = a. y = 5 22 5 – 252 934. a. There are infinitely many solutions. y = –4 x = –2. y = 5 d. x = = c. b. x = –12. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 935. There are infinitely many solutions. There is no solution. b. There is no solution. y 1 25 – 215 940. c. There is no solution. y = 4 x = 12. 140 . Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * 2x – 3y + 5 = 1 + 2x – 4y 3 – x – 2y = –y + x + 3 x = 2. d. There is no solution. y = b. x = –1. d. c. y = – 252 b. b. There are infinitely many solutions. Z ] –2 = x – 4y [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ a. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 6x + 3y = 8 * 2x + y = 3 a. y = –3 x = 2. d. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: * –x + 2y = 3 2x – 4y = –6 x = 2. y = 25 d. d. 938. c. y = –5 There is no solution. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > –1 0 x –2 H > H=> H 2 –1 y 1 x = –2. There is no solution. c.

a. c. > –1 –1 x –1 H > H=> H –1 0 y 1 x = 1. c. b. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 944. y = –2 x = –1. y = –7 x = –5. a. c. d. a. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > 3 2 x –2 H > H=> H 3 2 y 1 x = –5. d. d. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: > 3 –2 x 4 H > H=> H 9 –6 y 12 x = –1. b. a. y = 4 x = 1. There are infinitely many solutions. d.–MATRIX ALGEBRA– 941. Solve this system using Cramer’s rule: 943. y = 3 There are infinitely many solutions. y = 7 There is no solution. y = –4 There is no solution. 942. There are infinitely many solutions. b. b. There are infinitely many solutions. c. y = 2 There is no solution. 141 . > 0 2 x 14 H > H=> H 4 0 y –20 x = 5. y = –3 x = 5. There is no solution.

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8 COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS I t is common and expected for those who are learning algebra for the first time or reviewing the subject after having been away from it for a while to make errors. identify the choice that best describes the error. S E C T I O N 143 . if any. made in each scenario. Several of the most typical errors made are explored in the four sets in this section. For all of the questions in this section.

There is no such quantity as “200%. Some common arithmetic and pre-algebra errors are explored in this problem set. You must first get a common denominator before you add two fractions. The answer should be –1 because (– 2 )0 = 3 –( 2 )0 = –1.50 times 10 to get 5. a. 4 4 8 b. 945. 4 4 4 c. 948. a+2 a = 2. The answer should be zero because you should multiply the base and exponent. The answer should be 16 because –42 = (–4)(–4) = 16. –42 = –16 a.05. b. not 0. There is no error. The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a .00013. The statement should be 0.00013 = 1. 0. b. This is incorrect because you cannot cancel members of a sum.” You cannot exceed 100%. The answer should be 1 because (–3)–2 = 9 1 =1.50% of 10 is 0. You must first get a common denominator before you add two fractions. 144 . The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a . There is no error. The placement of the quantities is incorrect. 0.3 104 because the decimal point must move four places to the left in order to yield 0. b. 951. not 0. you should multiply 50.00013 = 1. 3 b. a a c. A correct statement would be “200% of 4 is 8. 4 + 2 = 6 . 104 a. The statement should be0.0 times 10 to get 500. b. 4 is 200% of 8. for any nonzero value of a.3 a. The answer should be –8 because 42 = 8. c. There is no error. In order to compute this percentage.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – Set 61 (Answers begin on page 274) 949. you should multiply 0. The correct result should be 3 because a = 1 a and a + 2 = a + 2 = 1 + 2 = 3. for any real number a. There is no error. b. c. you can cancel only factors that are common to the numerator and denominator.00013 = 1. There is no error. 946. There is no error. 952. 3 a 3+a (– 2 )0 3 =1 a.” c.05. (–3) (–3) 9 c. c. c. 950. a. b.3 10–3 because there are three zeros before the decimal point. The answer should be –9 because (–3)–2 = –3 3. and this is then multiplied by –1. There is no error. In order to compute this percentage.05. There is no error. a. 947. (–3)–2 = 6 a.

a. There is no error. (e4x)2 = e4x+2 b. The correct denominator should be 22+2 3 + number x. The correct answer should be e8x because 2 (e4x) = e4x 2 = e8x. a. not added. The correct answer should be x36 because x12 x–3 x12 x–3 ( 3) 2 = x12x3 = x12 3 = x36. 3 27x3 = 3 27 3 x3 = 3x. the fifth root of a negative number is not defined. 3 4 8 5 = 3 4 8 5 = 6 5 955. The third equality is incorrect because the binomial was not squared correctly. c. The second equality is wrong because the fraction on the far right should be 24 . The first equality is wrong because multiplying by changes the value of the expression. There is no error. b. There is no error. The correct answer should be e16x because 2 2 2 2 2 (e4x) = e(4x) = e4 x = e16x . There is no error. b. = 7 + 2 3. for any real number x. c. x. b. 6 + –38 = (2+3) 6 – 38 = –32 = –2 a. c. The calculation is correct until the last line. c. The second equality holds only if x is not negative because you can only take the cube root of a non-negative real number. a. = x12x3 = x12 + 3 = x15. 960. 3 = 2 3. 1 2+ 3 2+ 22 + ( 3 5 957. which 20 cannot be simplified further. There is no error. You must first simplify 6 as 6 = 2 . The exponents should be multiplied. The correct answer should be x25 because 2 2 (x5) = x5 . for any real number 954. The sum 3 + 6 cannot be simplified further because the radicands are different. 2 b. so that the correct answer should be x10. There is no error.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 953. There is no error. The first equality is wrong because the radical of a product is not the product of the radicals. The first equality is wrong because you must multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. c. 956. There is no error. and then combine with 3 to conclude that 3 + 6 = 3 3. 3+ 6= 3+6= 9=3 a. 145 . b. 959. 958. b. c. x–3 = x –3 x12 12 = 2+ 3 4+3 = 2+ 3 7 = x–4. c. The correct answer should be x15 because c. 2+ 2+ 3 3 b. The first equality is incorrect: the radicals cannot be combined since their indices are different. 2 a. The rest of the equalities are correct. = 3 3)2 1 2+ 3 2+ 2+ 3 3 = 2+ 3 (2 + 3)2 = a. for any non-negative real a. (x5) = x7.

There are two solutions of this equation. x = –1 cannot because negative inputs into a logarithm are not allowed. not divide by –6. The denominator in the quadratic formula is 2a.–4). The correct solution set should be (∞. The real statement should read log30 = 1. c. The solution set for the inequality –6x 24 is (–4. The inequality sign must be switched when multiplying both sides by a negative real number. namely x = –1 and x = 3. the complex solutions should be x = i 5. There is no error. 1 5 . There is no error. a. b. There are no complex solutions to this equation because the graph of y = x2 + 5 does not cross the x–axis. There is no error.∞). a. Both solutions should be divided by that is. a. c. While x = 1 satisfies the original equation. b. The solution of – x + 7 = x + 7 is x = –7.∞). 966. b. log31 = 0 obtained using the quadratic formula are given by x = 0 02 – 4(1)(5) 1 = 2i 5. c. b. The complex solutions of the equation x2 + 5 = 0 962. c. The solution of an absolute value equation cannot be negative. 961. the solutions should be x = 5. The signs used to define the binomials on the right side should be switched. which is not the left side listed above. which in this case is 2. As such. The correct solution should be x = 1. The solution set for the equation |x – 1| = 2 is {–1}. You should multiply both sides by –6. The correct solution set should be (–144. The equation obtained after multiplying both sides by x + 7 was not solved correctly. c. The solutions of the equation log5x + log5(5x3) = 1 are x = –1 and x = 1. 965. There is no error. There is no error. b. c. as well as simplifying algebraic expressions. a. As such. x2 – 4x – 21 = (x + 7)(x – 3) a. not 1. are explored in this problem set. The input and output are backward. There is no error. There is no error. the quantity log3 is undefined. 1 is an invalid input for a logarithm. x = –7 cannot be the solution because it makes the terms in the original equation undefined—you cannot divide by zero. a. b. c.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – Set 62 (Answers begin on page 274) 964. As such. b. The correct factorization is (x – 7)(x + 3). This is incorrect because multiplying the binomials on the right side of the equality yields x2 – 21. The only solution is x = 3. 4 x+3 Some common errors in solving equations and inequalities. a. 963. 967. this equation has no solution. 146 .

It cannot be factored further. the solution set should be (–∞. The left side must be expanded by FOILing. There is no error. b. In fact. The complex fraction must first be simplified before any cancelation can occur. factor (if possible). 5 971. (x – y)2 = x2 – y2 a. 970. determine the values that make the factored expression equal to zero. the statement should be ln(ex + e2y) = ln(ex) ln(e2y) = 2xy. The interval (–∞. 973. Since both statements must be satisfied simultaneously. c.∞) c. the solution set is (–∞.2]. 147 . 4 2 x–1 b. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is not the sum of the natural logarithms. The –1 must be squared.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 968. so that the solution set is (–∞. The correct solution set should be [–2. So. When taking the square root of both sides of an equation. b. You must move all terms to one side of the inequality. b. a. c. The left side is not a difference of squares. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is the product of the natural logarithms. Since taking the square root of both sides of the 972. The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 + y2. The correct solution is x = –4 because when you square both sides of the equation. the expression on the extreme left side of the string of equalities cannot be simplified further. 969.∞). as seen by squaring both sides of the equation. not 1. You must include the values that make the left side equal to 5. The solution of the equation = = 2 x 1 x – + 1 y 4 y = 2y xy y xy – + x xy 4x xy = 2y – x xy y + 4x xy = 2y – x xy 2y – x y + 4x c. and construct a sign chart to solve such an inequality. You can only cancel factors common to both. As such. There is no error. There is no error. x2 + 25 = (x – 5)(x + 5) inequality x2 4 yields the statement x 2. you do not square the –1.2]. Cancelling the terms x–1 and y–1 leaves 0 each time. The solution set of the inequality |x + 2| is (–∞. b. There is no error. –7)∪(3. c. As such. c. The correct factorization of the left side is x2 + 25 = x2 + 52 = (x + 5)2. You cannot cancel terms of a sum in the numerator and denominator. a. the correct statement should be x 2. c. the correct statement –1 – y–1 should be 2x +4y–1 = 2 = 1 . This equation has no real solutions because the output of an even–indexed radical must be nonnegative. The correct statement is: 2x–1 – y–1 x –1 + 4y–1 xy y + 4x a. So. –2]. a. you use only the principal root. ln(ex + e2y) = ln(ex) + ln(e2y) = x + 2y x = –2 is x = 4. There is no error. a. The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2. There is no error. –7) should be deleted because an absolute value inequality cannot have negative solutions. b. There is no error. x–1 + 4y–1 = 1 + 4 = 5 2x–1 – y–1 2–1 1 a. b. –7]∪[3. 974.

The slope of a line passing through the points (a. There is no error. a. The slope is actually equal to the quantity m a–c = b – d . The line x = a has a slope of zero. b. a–c a. 977. The other equalities are correct. The point (–2. c. c. b. The lines cannot be perpendicular since the product of their slopes is not 1. c. The expression should be factored and sim1 plified to obtain f(x) = x – 2 . b. The lines are parallel since their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other. a. The correct statement should be ln(4x2 – 1) = ln(4x2) – ln(1) = ln(4x2) – 0 =ln(4x2). 980. The first equality is incorrect because 2log5(5x) = log5(5x2) = log5(25x2). so the expression is not well–defined. In such case. There is no error. +4 a. The domain of f must be restricted to [0. 1) lies in Quadrant IV. The vertical asymptote for the graph of x f(x) = x2 + 2 is y = 0. f cannot have an inverse because it doesn’t pass the vertical line test. 148 . ln(2x + 1) a. There is no error. c. is the function f –1(x) = x. a. Then. log5(5x2) = 2log5(5x) = 2[log5(5) + log5(x)] = 978. d) is m = b – d . b. There is no error. where x is any real number. b. so its slope is undefined. b. computing with. 982.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 975. There is no error. Using the fact that the natural logarithm of a difference is the quotient of the natural logarithms. ln(4x – 1) = ln[(2x – 1)(2x + 1)] + ln(2x – 1) + 2 number a. b) and (c. we can conclude that the vertical asymptote for f is x = 2. The statement is true except when a = 0. The other equalities are correct. b.) This problem set highlights common errors made in graphing. The “natural logarithm of a difference rule” was not applied correctly. for any real 2[1 + log5(x)] a. There is no error. a. The lines y = 3x + 2 and y = – 3 x + 2 are 1 Set 63 (Answers begin on page 275. The slope is actually equal to the quantity m = b – a . 976. 979.∞) in order for f to have an inverse. d–c c. The point is actually in Quadrant III. The very last equality is incorrect because log5 5 = 0. c. The inverse of the function f(x) = x2. provided that c ≠ d. perpendicular. 981. b. The line is vertical. The last expression in this string of equalities cannot be simplified because the exponent 2 does not apply to the entire input of the logarithm. we see that the expression ln(4x2 – 1) 4x2 4x2 = lnl(n1 ) = ln(0 ) . There is no error. provided that a ≠ c. c. and interpreting functions. The point is actually in Quadrant II. The y–axis cannot be described by such an equation. c. There is no error. provided that b ≠ d. the given function f –1(x) = x is indeed its inverse. The line y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote for f.

b. –2 is not in the domain of g. There are no x–intercepts for this function because x3 + 1 is always positive. a. it follows that (f ˚ g)(–2) = 5. a. There is no error. b. b. Since the range of g is [0. a. The graph of g is actually decreasing as x moves from left to right through the domain.1) is the y–intercept of f.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 983. There is no error. 984. The graph of g(x) = 2–x is increasing as x moves is [0. The given information is insufficient to make any conclusion about a point being on the graph of y = f(x). The composition was computed in the wrong order. a. There is no error. The graph of f is the graph of g(x) = x2 shifted vertically up one unit.5). c. from left to right through the domain. graph of y = f(x). 989. so that the composition is not defined at –2. c. b. 1). b. not the x–intercept. The graph of the function f(x) = x2 – 64 has an 8–x 986. The point (0.∞). 2) must be on the x. There is no error. If f(2) = 5. The range of the function f(x) = (x – 1)2 a. The graph actually has a vertical asymptote at x = 8 because this value makes the denominator equal to zero. a. There is no error. The graph actually has a horizontal asymptote at x = 8 because this value makes the denominator equal to zero.∞). c. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 3 units. c. There is no error. it follows that the range of f must be [1. If f(x) = 5 and g(x) = open hole at x = 8. The correct output should be 5. then the point (5. a. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x)vertically up 3 units. There are intervals on which the graph of g is increasing and others on which it is decreasing. it should be (2. c. There is no error. The coordinates of the point that is known to lie on the graph of y = f(x) are reversed. it follows that the range of f must be [–1. c. b. 149 . The graph of y = f(x + 3) is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the right 3 units. b.∞).∞). 987. c. The graph of f is the graph of g(x) = x2 shifted vertically down one unit. Since the range of g is [0. The x–intercept of f(x) = x3 + 1 is (0. 985. 988.∞). All that can be said is that 2 is in the range of f.

There is no error. It is. As such. You cannot distribute a function across parts of a single input. The graph of y = 5 passes the vertical line test. b. since the range of a function must consist of more than a single value. 991. 4x – 10y = –2 a. 150 . Since multiplying the first equation by –2 and then adding the two equations results in the true statement 0 = 0. a. b. 993. c. the correct statement should be f(x – h) = (x – h)4. b. The fact that y = 5 does not pass the horizontal line test does not imply it is not a function. 994. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the right 2 units. there are infinitely many solutions of this system. the correct statement should be f(x – h) = f(x) – f(h) = x4 + h4 .–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 990. c. f(x) = x4. a. The graph of y = 5 does not represent a function the graph of y = f(x)down 2 units. However. b. The system * 2x + 3y = 6 has infinitely many solutions. If. There is no error. The slopes of the two lines comprising the system are negatives of each other. the lines are perpendicular. The two lines comprising the system intersect. because it does not pass the horizontal line test. There is no error. As such. c. then f(x – h) = f(x) – f(h) = x4 – h4. There is no error. not invertible. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 2 units. Set 64 (Answers begin on page 276) This problem set highlights common errors made when dealing with linear systems of equations and matrix algebra. we conclude that it y = 5 cannot represent a function. however. The graph of y = f(x) – 2 is obtained by shifting 992. so the system has a unique solution. c. so the system has a unique solution. b. Since adding the two equations results in the false statement 0 = 8. The second equality is incorrect because you must also square the –1. As such. There is no error. –2x – 3y = 2 a. so it represents a function. a. there can be no solution of this system. The system * 2x – 5y = –1 has no solutions. c.

As such. Since the determinant of the coefficient matrix > x 2 1 –2 b. The constant multiple on the right side of the first equality should be 1. 999. det > –2 1 H 4 –2 4 2 H= (2)(1) – (4)(–1) = 6 1 –1 a. b. –2 –1 a. The correct statement 4 2 should be det > H= (4)(2) – (1)(–1) = 9. The system has a unique solution given by > H = > H > H. their sum is undefined. The two matrices on the left side of the equality do not have the same dimension. the inverse 0 –1 H. 9 –1 2 C . 151 . b. Therefore. c. 997. There is no error. The difference is computed in the wrong order. There is no error. The right side should be > 1 0 0 c. > H + > 0 1 0 1 0 1 H=> H 0 0 1 0 a. the system has no solution. The product should be a real number. c. > 1 1 0 –1 0 1 H = –> H=> H 1 0 –1 1 1 –1 should be > –1 a. There is no error. The wrong pairs of entries are being multiplied to form the determinant. There is no error. y –4 –2 4 c. The matrices were added incorrectly. There is no error. c. As such.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 995. –4 –2 y 4 2 –4 1 H is zero. The matrix equation > 2 1 x –2 H> H = > H has infinitely many solutions. The inverse does not exist because several of the entries are the same real number. 9 2 1 C = (–1) (2) + (2) (–1) = –4 . –1 1 b. they cannot be multiplied. 9 2 –1 C = > a. 1 –1 4 2 b. The correct statement should be det > H = (4)(–1) 1 –1 – (2)(1) = –6. not –1. 996. 998. 0 0 1 H. namely 9 –1 2 C . The inner dimension of the two matrices on the left side are not the same.

c. 1001. Therefore. The product is not well–defined because the matrices must have the same dimensions in order to be multiplied. > –1 1 1 1 1 H . > 1 –2 2 –1 H+ 1 = > H 2 3 3 4 a. 2 3 2 4 c. b. b. the sum is not well–defined. 152 . The correct product should be 9 1 1 1 1 C . The 1 should be added only to the diagonal entries. You cannot add a 2 2 matrix and a real number because their dimensions are different.–COMMON ALGEBRA ERRORS – 1000. There is no error. There is no error. 9 –1 –1 –1 –1 C = > H –1 1 1 1 1 a. so that the correct statement should be 1 –2 2 –2 > H+ 1 = > H.

7. multiply the resulting products: (15 + 32)(56 – 39) = (47)(17) = 799 2. Since the hundreds place is not 5 or greater.715 by 4 results in 16. Using the order of operations. Multiply the contents of each set of paren- Then.400 74 = 100 is a good approximation of the quotient 7. multiply left to right as such products arise.428 with a 60. Rounding 162 to the nearest hundred yields 7.404 by 7.802. The quotient 7= 16 and 112 8 = 14. Multiplying 200 times 800 yields a product of 160. compute sums and differences from left to right as they arise. 3.000. b. rounding the quotient to the nearest thousand yields 16. Finally. 200 (since the tens place is greater than 5). 6. c. compute the quantities within each set of parentheses first. b.000.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS Section 1—Pre-Algebra Fundamentals Set 1 (Page 2) 1. Computing the sum 60. d.400 74. as follows: 12(84 – 5) – (3 54) = 12(79) – (162) = 948 – 162 = 786 5. which is an estimation of the product of 162 and 849. Since 112 remainder of 3. we conclude that 112 is divisible by both 7 and 8. Dividing 65. Then. and rounding 849 to the nearest hundred yields 800 (since the tens place is less than 5). c. 153 .400. Approximate 7. a.000 + 800 + 2 yields theses first. a. 4.

The factors of 12 are 1. first sim- plify the quantity enclosed in parentheses. d. divide left to right: – 25 |4 – 9| = – 25 |–5| = –25 5 = –5. c. Applying the order of operations. 36 + 48 = 84 14. b. Applying the order of operations. d. The sum of 13 and 12 is 25. c. 174. 156. the product will be negative. 15. –11. 180 Of these. both exponentiated quantities first. 3. First. The only choice that is divisible by only 1 23. 78. So. By the definition of an exponent. 12. a. 22. substituting 4 in for p results in the positive number 1. we have quantity. 150. then subtract from left to right to obtain 9 – 22 = 9 – 4 = 5. and finally compute the resulting difference: 5– (–17 + 7)2 3 = 5 – (–10)2 3 = 5 – 100 3 = 5 – 300 = –295 20. a. compute the resulting difference: –2(–2)2 – 22 = –2(4) – 4 = –8 – 4 = –12 154 . However. Begin by simplifying the absolute value tiplying this product by 5 results in 125. Finally.3}. compute the difference from left to right: –(5 3) +(12 –15 – 3 = –18 ( – 4)) = –(15) + (–3) = perform exponentiation. 102. 162. then multiply left to right. 18. Then. 96. 144. The only choice that is a product of prime signs. of the choices listed. 36. multiply from left to right as products arise. 37 + 47 = 84. respectively. c. first com- numbers equaling 90 is 2 3 3 5. Multiplying 5 times 5 yields 25. Each of the other choices has factors other than 1 and itself. compute and itself is 11. Each of the other operations produces an even number: 20 8 = 160. 9. Applying the order of operations. 126. Thus. Of these. Applying the order of operations. Then. we first pute the quantities enclosed in parentheses. 24. and 3 number. Then. 30. 12. 5 5 5= 125. c. compute the resulting difference: (49 7) – (48 (–4)) = (7) – (–12) = 7 + 12 = 19 21. 54. 35 = 3 3 3 3 3 = 243. the following are the multiples of 6 between 0 and 180: 6. 11. 4. Then. first com- 2 2 2 = 16. By the definition of an exponent. 16. 138. the least value of p for which y is positive is 4. e. the following are also factors of 180: 6. 90. c. 114. Since there are an odd number of negative 10. 180 There are eight possibilities for the whole number p. Applying the order of operations. 90. Note that substituting the values 1. Computing this product yields –4 –2 –6 3 = –144 19. 120. 30. b. 6. 60. 132. 60. c. 2. 66. the set of positive factors of 12 that are NOT multiples of 2 is {1. 84. c. Then. 42. 12. 12. 24 = 2 in for p in the equation y = 6p – 23 yields –17. 36. 72. Thus. then square it. c. which is an odd pute the quantities enclosed in parentheses. 168. 2. 108. 48. 13. only 1 and 3 are not multiples of 2. b. 18. 7 12 = 84.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 8. mul- Set 2 (Page 3) 17. and –5. 18.

Next. Repeat this until all such quantities are simplified. first per- 28. a. a. Thus. Since h < 0. Applying the order of operations. it follows that both g and – g2 are negative. it follows that g + h < 0. so –(g + h) is positive. d. compute the quantities enclosed with parentheses. first com- lows that g + h must be negative. 32. 155 . First. we conclude that (–g)2 is the largest of the four expressions provided. Observe that –g – h = –(g + h). c. Here we have an expression consisting of terms within parentheses which are. it follows that –h > 0. 29. Finally. its values cannot exceed that of –g – h since this sum consists of two positive integers. –g is an integer larger than 2 (which follows by multiplying both sides of the given inequality by –1). enclosed within parentheses. we see that g – h = g + (–h) is the sum of two positive numbers and hence. note that since g < 0 and h < 0. 31. Then. we know that –(g + h) is larger than g + h. As such. Moreover. –g – h = –(g + h) is positive. c. Applying the order of operations. it fol- since we have an expression consisting of terms within parentheses which are.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 24. As such. Since g < 0 25. each of the sums –g + h and –g – h consists of one positive integer and one negative integer. so –g – h = –(g + h) is positive. enclosed within parentheses. in turn. while it is possible for one of them to be positive. we conclude that g + h is the smallest of the four expressions provided. its values cannot be smaller than g + h since this sum consists of two negative integers. Then. As such. Next. and the whole thing is raised to a power. compute the resulting quotient: (32 + 6) ( – 24 (15) ( –3) = –5 8) = (9 + 6) ( –3) = are also given that g > 0. we know that –(g + h) is larger than g + h. Since we form the exponentiation. This one is somewhat more complicated and h < 0. note that since g < 0 and h < 0. each of the sums –(g + h) and g – h consists of one positive integer and one negative integer. Finally. Proceed as follows: –(–2 – ( –11 – (– 32 – 5) – 2)) = –(–2 – (–11 – (–9 – 5) – 2)) = –(–2 –( –11 – (–14) – 2)) = –(–2 –(–11 + 14 – 2)) = –(–2 –(1)) = –(– 3) =3 lows that g + h must be negative and so. First. Thus. First. note that since we are given that g < –2. c. while it is possible for one of them to be negative. d. compute the resulting difference: 3(5 – 3)2 – 3(52 – 32) = 3(2)2 – 3(25 – 9) = 3(4) – 3(16) = 12 – 48 = –36 27. it fol- pute quantities enclosed within parentheses and exponentiated terms on the same level from left to right. is itself positive. As such. Squaring an integer larger than 2 produces an even larger integer. As such. 30. multiply from left to right. Proceed as follows: (–2[1 – 2(4 – 7)])2 = (–2[1 – 2( – 3)])2 = (–2[1 – (–6)])2 = (–2[7])2 = (–14)2 = 196 26. b. while both –g and (–g)2 are positive. d. we conclude that – g – h is the largest of the four expressions provided. in turn.

which is equiva- the fractions. a. Then. Thus. 3 of which are shaded. 43. Discard whichever is smaller and compare the remaining one with the next in the list. This implies that 8 11 = is larger. 3 of the 8 figure is shaded. b. so the original inequality is true. 5 44. c. which is 30. and then multiply: 18 5 9 20 numerator and denominator. 42 3 3 14 156 . rewrite both fractions using the least the true statement 8 < 20. Doing so results in the following three comparisons: Cross multiplying yields the false statement 15 > 16. d. The remaining 28 (of 42) envelopes need to be addressed. First. which is 60. so the original inequality is true. The fact that 4 < 8 < 3 is evident from the following two comparisons: Comparison 1: ? 1<5 4 8 35. b. Rewrite this as a multiplication problem. Then. 1 5 is the largest of the 39. then multiply: 5 8 4 7 = 18 5 20 9 = 9 2 5 4. 36. 41. c. The square is divided into 8 congruent Cross multiplying yields parts. the fraction of envelopes that needs to be addressed is 28 = 2 14 = 2 . Comparison 2: 5 ? 2 8 > 3 Cross multiplying yields common denominator. The reciprocal of 42 is 21 .5 9 = =8 5 4 2 4 7 = 5 14 21 42 38. subtract: 17 20 the true statement 15 < 16. and compare it to the next 8 one in the list. c. c. Cancel factors that are common to the 37. 40. we conclude that choices. Observe that 1 is 5 times the 4 4 value of 1 . Express both fractions using the least com- Comparison 2: 1 4 2 ? 8 3 > 11 Cross multiplying yields mon denominator. Thus. say 5 . then add: 5 – 9 5 4 – 1 9 = 20 – 396 = 203– 9 = 11 9 4 4 9 36 6 36 the false statement 22 > 24. rewrite all fractions using the least yields the true statement 80 > 44. Two real numbers are in a ratio of 4:5 if the second number is 5 times the value of the 4 first number. This implies is larger. Repeat this until you reach the end of the list. cancel factors that are common to the numerator and denominator. 8 ? 4 11 > 10 Comparison 3: that 8 11 Cross multiplying 34. add: 2 15 = = = = + + + 130 = 125 22 4 6 5 9 30 + 30 + 30 + 30 4+6+5+9 30 24 30 4 5 1 5 1 6 + 1 6 5 6 + 1 5 6 5 + 3 3 10 3 Thus. Since 5 (360) = 5 (5 72) = 216. 2 This implies that 3 is larger. a. a. d. 8 11 2 common denominator. we conclude 3 3 – 5 6 = 17 3 20 3 – 5 10 6 10 = 51 60 – 50 60 = 51 – 50 60 = 1 60 that Irma has read 216 pages. Comparison 1: 5 ? 2 8 > 3 lent to 2. a. A reasonable strategy is to begin with one of 42.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 3 (Page 5) 33. First.

Finally.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 45. So. ) 51. we have 5(40) = 5(1) = 5. First. 52. the one closest to 1 is 3 . = (–2)2 –8 = (–2) –8 (–2) = 4 –8 = –1 2 there must be n – m women in the class. 50. d. Applying the exponent rules yields: (22)–3 = 2(2x – 3) = 2–6 = 1 26 = 1 64 53. So. Applying the order of operations and the and each of the four choices. the ratio of men to women in the class is n mm . Applying the order of operations and the definition of an exponent yields: (1 – 3)2 –8 46. First. b. apply the definition of a negative exponent to simplify the first term within the brackets. The exponent applies only to 5. Of the four choices. c. compare the absolute values of these differences. simplify: – –3 2 – –1 –2 = –1 5 – 2 3 2 3 2 2 = – –2 3 2 3 2 2 – 2 2 3 2 = 2 2 – =– 2 3 – 2 3 =0 The smallest absolute value of these four differences is 110 .” Then. not to the 7 (5 5 2 3 ) ( – 2) 1+ – 170 7 (5 10 3)=1+ 10 3 – 170 –1 multiplied in front. –53 = –(5 = –125. (–11)2 = (–11) 5 5) =1+ =1+ =1– =1 =1 =1 2 7 3 7 –3 –1 2 10 3 10 3 (– 170 ) (– 170 ) 14 3 3 14 (7 5 ( 134 ) 5 2 3 (–11) = 121. Compute the difference between 54. compute the resulting difference by first rewriting both fractions using the least common denominator. c. a. By definition. rewrite the resulting first term using the fact that “a product raised to a power is the product of the powers. which is 12: 7 5 6 = –[(–2)(–2)(–2)] – = –[–8] – =8– 1 9 =8–9 =–1 1 9 1 81 1 9 1 9 –3 – 1 2 2 =7 5 6 9 12 –3 = 61 12 1 4 = 35 6 – 3 4 = 81 1 35 2 6 2 3 3 4 3 = 70 – 12 157 . 2 5 48. Since there are m men in a class of n students. – 47. Applying the order of operations. b. Next. a. the choice that produces the smallest difference is the one closest to 1 . d. Then. apply the definition of a negative exponent to simplify the two terms to which it applies. Then. Apply the order of operations: – 5 3 Set 4 (Page 7) 49. b. apply the order of operations: –(– 1 )–3 – 2 (– 1 )2 3 9–2 = –(–2)3 – –1 –1 3 3 (– 1 )2 3 ( 1 )2 9 plify the exponentiated term. Then. e. c. c. multiply left to right. Using the fact that any nonzero base raised to the zero power is 1. The differences are as follows: 2 2 1 4 3 1 3 – 2 = 6 – 6 = 6 3 3 5 2 1 10 – 2 = 10 – 10 = – 10 5 1 5 3 2 1 6 – 2 = 6 – 6 = 6 = 3 6 5 3 1 1 5 – 2 = 10 – 10 = 10 1 2 definition of an exponent yields: –5(–1 – 5– 2) = –5(–1 – 215 ) = –5(– 25 – 25 26 –5(– 26 ) = 5( 5 5 = 256 25 1 25 ) = 55. first sim- 56.

) As such. 63. Finally. Since squaring a negative fraction results in a positive 1.55(48) = 74. Therefore. of the four expressions provided. Apply the order of operations and exponent all negative since it is assumed that p is a fraction between –1 and 0. The reciprocal of a fraction p strictly 100.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 57. So. we conclude that the smallest of the four expressions is p–2. The result of increasing 48 by 55% is given between 0 and 1 is necessarily larger than 1. In particular. Raising a fraction strictly between 1 and 2 to rules: –2 – 2 + –1 4 + (–13 +(–1)3) – 2 –2 2 1 = – 22 + 1 (–2)2 (– 1 + (–1))–2 –4 = (–2)–2 –4 1 16 = –1 4 + –4 = –1 4 + 1 4 –4 = –1 – 4 = – 156 60. (To see this. we know that 1 p p2. raising a fraction p strictly between 0 and 1to a positive integer power results in a fraction with a smaller value. The quantity n% means “n parts out of Hence. 158 . d.) We know that 0 p3 2 p2 p 1. 2 Set 5 (Page 8) 65. d. Apply the order of operations and exponent 1 42 between 0 and 1 is necessarily larger than 1. d. the reciprocals of fractions larger than 1 are necessarily less than 1. which shows that p–1 is smaller than both p and p2. d. c. Raising a fraction p strictly between 0 and 1 to a positive integer power results in a fraction with a smaller value. c. 62. both p2 2 3 are less than p and are not larger than and p by 48 + 0. Also.75 $250 and (1 – 0. (Try this out with p = 1 . Thus. The price resulting from discounting $250 by 25% is given by $250 – 0. Note that the expressions p. the largest of the four choices. This quantity is equivalent to both 0. c. Simplify each expression: (– 1 )–1 = (–4)1 = –4 4 3 = – –32 = 3 2 1 8(– 4 ) 4(– 1 ) + 3 = –1 + 3 = 4 –(– 1 )0 = –(1) = –1 4 – a positive integer power results in a larger fraction. and p–1 are 1–2 = 1 –1 3 –2 = – 2( – 1))– 2 = 1 122 1 –2 16 (3) 1 1 16 32 = = = 12–2 59. Apply the order of operations and exponent rules: –( 2 )0 (–32 + 2– 3)–1 = –1 ( – 9 + 5 = –1 = –1 = –1 = –1 = rules: 4– 2(1 – 2(–1)– 3)– 2 = 1 16 (1 1 144 8 71 1 –1 23 ) ( – 9 + 1 )–1 8 72 1 –1 (– 8 + 8 ) (– 781 )–1 (– 781 ) 1. of the four expressions provided. the one with the largest value is p–1. p–1 1 by p–1 shows that p–2 = p–1 p–1 p–1. therefore.25) $250.01. Moreover. a. try it out with p = 1 . 66. d.” It can be written as 1n or equivalently as 00 n 0.4. c. p3.25($250). p– 1 1. b. So. multiplying both sides of the inequality . Applying this to 40 yields the equivalent expressions I and II. 67. the one with the smallest value is p3. the expression with the largest value is 4(– 1 ) + 3. So. 64. The reciprocal of a fraction p strictly 58. we conclude that p2 is positive and is. Therefore. p–1 1. 4 61. p–1 1.

Note that 5 = 0.01.5 just after the first nonzero digit. 80. So. 5 76. we compare these two fractions. as follows: 3 = 1 3 1 3 3 = 8 3 300 8 = 8 ? = n = 100 = 37. you could first rewrite 3.33. The phrase “400% of 30” is equivalent to the = 1. Observe that (3. 75. Therefore. We must determine the value of n for which n 100 n 100 n 100 8 9 8 9 9 8 = 1 . resulting in 117.005 is clearly less than 1. So. Doing so in 0. each place moved contributes an additional –1 power of 10. ? Comparison 2: 3 290 Cross multiplying yields 8 the true statement 60 < 72. 7 is 2 3 3 –2(–3)2 + 3(–3) – 7 = –2(9) –9 – 7 = –18 – 9 –7 = –34 82.0000321 is equivalent to 3.5. Cross multiplying in the latter inequal200 ity yields the true statement 200 > 100. c.000 and divide by 3 to obtain 1. To see that – 0. so the inequality is true.42857.005.000. b. Since –0. Since the digit in the thousandths place is 8. its value is –2.000. so that 0.005 = – 10500 = – 21 00 00 159 . 69. therefore. so the original inequality is true. The value of n that satisfies this equation is 133 1 . we conclude that 3 133 1 % of 300 results in 400. 3 30. 3. It also satisfies the condition 156 < x < 290 .5% is equivalent to 100 . Alternatively. 22. Starting with 0. we conclude that –0.0000321 requires that we move the decimal place 5 units to the right. Note that x = 8 = 0.01 = – 11 – 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 68.34 < x < 0.052.5 8 9 Thus. We must determine the value of n for which Next.40 and 7 ≈ 0.225. 74. d. moving the decimal n 100 place to the left one unit to obtain 0. we conclude that 37.000. To this end.090. so the original inequality is true. Apply the order of operations as follows: to 0. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7(–2) (–2)2 + (–2) not less than 2 . b. b. a. b.000. Solve for n. which is seen by performing the following two comparisons using cross multiplication: Comparison 1: 156 3 Cross multiplying yields 8 the true statement 40 < 48.052.052 by 10.03 1012.01 and 1. 79.5% of is 1 . b. 70. Simplifying 73. which is equivalent to 1.21 10–5. 0. Observe that 8 – 5 = 40 – 40 = 40 = 0. 72.03 1012.0052 is equivalent to dividing 0. which is equal 22. 77. first convert = –14 4–2 = – 14 = –7 2 both to their equivalent fractional form: –0. d.09 1012 as 3. c. 3 71. c. c.225. c. The point A is exactly halfway between –2 and –3 on the number line. 3 Set 6 (Page 10) 81. we round the digit in the hundredths place up by 1.0052 is smaller than 0.01. Move the decimal place to the right until mathematical expression 400 100 this expression yields 120.09 1012) 3 = 3 1012 5 2 25 16 9 300 = 400.005 is between –0. b.40.375.030. note that – 11 – 21 is equivalent to 11 00 00 00 1 . which satisfies the condition 0.09 78.000.01 < – 0. b.

3x 2y(2x 3y 2) = 6x5y3 106. 104. (ab)3 b 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 100. a. a. Apply the order of operations as follows: 1 6 2 [( 2 1 1 – 3) – 4(3)] = 2 [(3 – 3) – 12] = 2 [–12] = – 6 2(3)(6) – ( – 8) = 36 + 8 = 44 84. c. c. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: 94. 109. y ( x )2( x )–2 y xy 2a b = xy = xy = xy = x4 y4(xy) = x3 y5 90. b. (4w9)3 = 43w27 = 64w 27 99. d. d. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7(6) + 12 6 – (–8) = 42 + 2 + 8 = 52 = 89. a. then y = –2. a. d. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: 1 2 (–8)2 – 4(3)2( 1 ) = 64 – 4(9)( 1 )= 64 – 18 = 46 2 2 96. Apply the order of operations as follows: y = –(– 3)3 + 3(–3) – 3 = –(–27) –9 – 3 = 27 – 9 – 3 = 15 85.8 103. Apply the order of operations as follows: = –30 – 8 (–5)(6) + (–8) –30 –8 2 = –30 – 16 = –46 62 3 (1) 2 = 3(6)2(–5)(5(3) – 3(–5)) = 3(36)(–5)(15 = 3(36)(–5)(30) = –16. Apply the order of operations as follows: = 42b2x –2 22a2b 4x2 = 16b2 22a 2b 4x 2x 2 = 16b2 4a2b4x4 (1)(–1) + –11 + (1)2 – (–1)2 = –1 – 1 + 1 – 1 = –2 93. (3xy5) – 11x2y2(4y4) = 32x2y10 – 11x2y2 42y8 = 9x2y10 – 176x2y10 = 167x2y10 108. ( b )2( a )–2( a )–1 = 2 b 2 – 3 –2 20 = 4 20 = = 52 = 25 a b 1 a2 a 1 = a2 b2 a2 b2 a 1 = a5 b4 91. Apply the order of operations as follows: a3b3 b x2 y2 y–2 x–2 4 = (a3b2)4 = a12b8 x2 y2 x2 y2 x4 y4 (3(2)(5) + 2) 2 5 =(32) 2 5 = 64 5 = 12. Note that the power –2 does not apply to the 6 3x2 3 – 4(6) + 10 = = –2 36 3 33x6 – 4(6) + 10 = 12 – 24 + 10 87. Apply the order of operations as follows: 4(2–2 )(2(2) )(3( – 2) )=4 =6 –2 2 1 4 2 1 4 (3 4) = since it is not enclosed in the parentheses to which the exponent applies. c. Note that if x = 2. d. (–45a4b9c5) –45a4b9c5 88. 4(3x3)2 = 4(32x6) = 36x6 102. b. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: Set 7 (Page 12) 97. d. Apply the order of operations as follows: 7 5(–2)2 7 20 + 3 10(–2) –2 = –2 7 5. b. b. Apply the order of operations as follows: 95. d. 6(e– 2)– 2 =6e4. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 83.4 + 1 5 3 10(–2) –2 –2 a–1 (2b)–1 = 2a b 2b a = 4baab = 4 b–2 a–2 2 = 105. c. (9ab3c3) = 9ab3c3 = –5a3b6c2 101. c. “The product of 6x2 and 4xy2 is divided by 3x3y” can be expressed symbolically as which is simplified as follows: (6x2)(4xy2) 3x3y 24x3y2 3x3y (6x2)(4xy2) 3x3y . Apply the order of operations as follows: 6(2)2 2(3)2 24 18 107. a. Therefore. the order of operations as follows: (((2)(–2)–2)2 = ((–4)– 2)2 = (–4)– 2 = 1 (–4)4 1 = 256 2 = (–4)–4 = = 8y 160 . apply 110. e. b. a. 2(3x2y)2(xy)3 3(xy)2 (4b)2x –2 (2ab2x)2 + 16 18 4(2) 3(3) = 40 18 6 4 2 9 + 4(2) 3(3) = 24 18 + 8 9 = = + = = 20 9 2(32x4y2)(x3y3) 3(x2y2) = 18x7y5 3x2y2 =6x5y3 = 4 a2b2x4 92. c.200 15) 86. Now. x2x4 = x6 = 33 = 27 98.

4zx3 2y6 3zx3 2y6 5x4 (2x)2 5x4 4x2 2y6 zx3 zx3 2y6 –1 –1 (9h + 2h) = –15g6 + 11h 119. – 7g + 9h + 2h – 8g =(–7g – 8g ) + 6 6 6 6 = 4z((x–3y6) + (x – 3y6))–1 – = 4z(2(x–3y6))–1 – = 4z(2–1x3y – 6))–1 – = = 128. b. which is simplified as follows: (3x2)(2x3y)4 = (3x2)(24x12y4) =48x14y4 112. Gather like terms. a. The expression described by the phrase “3x2 is multiplied by the quantity 2x y raised to the fourth power” can be expressed symbolically as (3x2)(2x3y)4. c. (5a2 3ab) + 2a3b = 15a3b + 2a3b = 17a3b 121. d. as follows: 3x + 4ax – 8a 2 = 127. a. c. (–3x–1)–2 x–2 (0. 5p – 6r” can be expressed symbolically as (–9p3r)(5p – 6r). b. (ab2)3 + 2b2 – (4a)3b6 = a3b6 + 2b2 – 43a3b6 = 2b – 63a b 123. 5ab4 – ab4 = 4ab4 114. So. a. b. The base expressions of the three terms used 4z((xy–2)–3 + (x–3y6))–1 – to form the sum 9m3n + 8mn3 + 2m3n3 are different. y10 16(4x + 1)10 1 2y6 z x3 2y6 zx3 –1 + 7x2 – 2ax + 7a2 = (3x2 + 7x2) + 4ax – 2ax) + (–8a2 + 7a2) = 10x2 + 2ax – a2 117. 118. c. 3(z + 1)2w3 – ((z + 1)w2)–1 2w(z + 1) = 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2w(z + 1) ((z + 1)w2) = 3(z + 1)2w3 – 2(z + 1)2w3 = (z + 1)2w3 126. “The product of –9p3r and the quantity 3 125.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 111. –2(4x +1)5y –5 – ((4x + 1)y–2)–3 = – = (– = – 2(4x +1)5 y5 2(4x +1)5 y5 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 – – 2y(4x + 1)2 –2 ((4x + 1)–3y 6 2(4x + 1)5 – 2 ) y5 Set 8 (Page 13) 113. d. b. (2x2)(4y2) + 6x2y2 = 8x2y2 + 6x2y2 = 14x2y2 120. a. they cannot be combined. b.2x–2)–1 + 2 x2 – 5 = 2 10 + 8 (x2)2 = 9 8x4 9 x2 (–3x–1)2 8x4 9 + 8x4 9 = x–2 –1 + 2 x2 – 5 x2 (–3)2x–2 + = –2 x4 9 + = x4 –2 = 5x2 + 2 x2 – 5 x2 5 4 = ( 12000 + = 83 2 20 x 8 20 124. c. b. a. which is simplified using the distributive property as follows: (–9p3r)(5p – 6r) = –45p4r + 54p3r2. –(–a–2bc–3) + 5 b a2c3 5a4c6 b2 = –(a4b–2c6) + 4a4c6 b2 – 25 2 20 )x 5 b–2 –4 –6 a c = – abc + 2 4 6 = 161 . 2x – 3 – x4 – (x3)–1 = x3 – x5 – x3 = 1 x3 3x–1 2 3 1 – zx3 2y6 – 2 3 x5 = x–3 –3x–5 3 6 122. 5c2 + 3c – 2c2 + 4 – 7c = (5c2 – 2c2) + 4(4x +1)5 –2 y5 y5 2 (3c – 7c) + 4 = 3c2 – 4c + 4 115. – 5(x – ( – 3y)) + 4(2y + x) = – 5(x + 3y) + = – 4(4x + 1)5 = 2 (–1)2y10 4 (4x + 1)10 2 4(2y + x) = – 5x – 15y + 8y + 4x = – x – 7y 116. b.

Since we are told that there are m months in one year. is xD.50d – 0. Now. a.75d This value is 75% of the original value d. Similarly. The phrase “40% of j” is expressed symboli- interpret parenthetical quantities and then multiply. we conclude that j is 25% larger than k. The sum of three numbers is represented by perform exponentiation first. Four times this quantity is 4x2. The square of a number x is x2. and finally nine less results in 3(x + 5) – 9. they are all correct choices. The total cost for a phone call lasting x min- utes is the cost for the first minute plus the cost for the remaining x – 1 minutes.40j = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 9 (Page 15) 129. The amount of money paid for the total “3 times a number. 162 .35. note that 25% of V is equal to 0.25V and V + 1 V. 133. and the number of weeks in a year is mw. and then subtract. b and 1 . we conclude that there are mwd days in one year. c 136. First. d. a. First. First. The quantity the sum of a number and 5 is (x + 5). then multiplication. This results in the equivalent expressions V + 0. since there are d days in one week.50d) = 1.50d. and then subtraction. Hence. b. 137. Next. According to the order of operations. The sum of these results in the total cost y = 0.50(1. So. d.15(x – 1).40 then results in the equivalent equality j = 0. a decrease of this quantity by 50% is described by the expression 1. increasing d by 50% is described by number hours of tutoring is $40h. 138.” Finally. we first the number of weeks in m months must be mw. and so. So. a. the total cost T is equal to xD + yE + zF. Thus.35 and the cost for the remaining x – 1 minutes is $0. 1 half of this difference is 2 (x – 5). interpret parenthetical quantities first. Dividing both sides by 0.50k. a. Adding the coefficient of V 4 in the first expression yields another equivalent expression 1. since there are w weeks in one month. the sum of 3x + 15 is described by the phrase “15 more than 3 times a number. b. c. The sum of the reciprocals is ( a c 1 + b + 1 ). The expression 3x is described by the phrase which is equivalent to 1 V. (a + b + c). we the expression d + 0. 0 40 This says that the value of j is 125% of k.25V. two less is 4x2 – 2. we 135. The cost for x desks.15(x – 1) + 0. the costs for the chairs and file cabinets are yE and zF. the quantity mw represents the number of weeks in one year.50d – 0.” So.” we conclude that the given equation is described by choice c.40j and the phrase “50% of k” is expressed symbolically as 0. 140. 131. Adding the one-time fee of $30 to this amount results in x = $30 + $40h.. The first minute costs $0. the product of these two c 1 1 sums is given by (a + b + c)( a + b + 1 ). Then. Since the original 4 volume of the tank is being increased by this quantity. three times this quantity is 3(x + 5). c. The reciprocals of these numbers 1 1 1 are a .75d = 0. 130. According to the order of operations. respectively.which is equal to 1. since the word “is” is interpreted as “equals. c.50 k = 1. each of which costs D dollars. The difference between a number and five is represented by the expression (x – 5). cally as 0. 139.50d. 132. 134.25k. it is 25% smaller than d. then multiply. and finally. Then. b.25V. we add it to the original volume V. According to the order of operations.50k. Equating these quantities yields the statement 0.

15(a + b + c). 0. 144. this is represented by choices b and c. The phrase “p percent” can be represented 146. A 15% discount on this amount is represented symbolically as 0. This latter value is added to the cost of the three meals to obtain the total cost of the dinner. + 13 = p – 2 + 13 – 13 = p – 2 – 13 = p – 15 – p = p – p – 15 – 56p = –15 –5 p – 6 = –15 – 6 6 5 5 Section 2—Linear Equations and Inequalities Set 10 (Page 18) 145. is represented by the sum W + X + Y + Z. symbolically as 0. and a 15% tip is represented by. The total cost of her orders.15(W + X + Y+ Z).15(a + b + c).15(a + b + c) = 1.85 (W + X + Y+ Z). the resulting quantity is represented by q – 1p . which is equivalent to 3 4 E. a.5 – 6 2. e.5 p= 151.5p + 6 = 18. d. her total cost is (W + X + Y+ Z).5p + 6 – 6 = 18. a. since we are decreasing q by this quantity. 2. The cost of the three meals is (a + b + c) p 100 . before the dis- 9a + 5 = –22 9a + 5 – 5 = –22 – 5 9a = –27 9a 1 9 = –27 1 9 a = –3 149. c.15(W + X + Y+ Z). which is equivalent to 0. a. a. splitting this cost evenly between the two brothers amounts to dividing this quantity by 2. namely (a + b + c) + 0.5p = 12. k 8 k 8 symbolically as such.75E. A 75% increase in enrollment E is represented –7k – 11 = 10 –7k – 11 + 11 = 10 + 11 –7k = 21 –7k – 1 = 21 – 1 7 7 k = –3 148. p = 18 150.5 2. 143. d. (W + X + Y+ Z) – 0.5 15 25 z – 7 = –9 z – 7 + 7 = –9 + 7 z = –2 =5 = 3x 10 10 ( 3 ) = 15 10 25 ( 3 ) x= 150 75 =2 163 . Adding this to the original enrollment E results in the sum E + 3 E. 3x 10 12. p 6 p 6 p 6 p 6 count is applied. So. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 141. As =8 8=8 8 k = 64 147. which is the new 4 enrollment.5 2. Now. 00 142. a.

2 – 1 = 1 – 1 + x 8. b. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 152.2 – 3x 1. b.4 x = –0. 1. we conclude that 33c – 21 = 3(8) = 24.2 5x = –2. d. since 11c – 7 = 8. c = 16 157.2 + 5x = –1. the correct choice is b. x 1 2 + 6x = 4 6x 2x 12 + 12 = 4 8x 12 = 4 8x 12 12 12 8 = 4 8 4(4v + 3) = 6v – 28 16v + 12 = 6v – 28 16v + 12 – 12 = 6v – 28 – 12 16v = 6v – 40 16v – 6v = 6v – 6v – 40 10v = –40 v = –4 160.2 – 7.1 = –1. d.3(4 – 3. b– b b b 156.2 – 3x – 1. So.1x) = 1 – 6. 158. 2a 3 = –54 –2a –3 = 3 2 –2(3v + 5) = 14 –6v – 10 = 14 –6v = 14 + 10 = 24 24 v = –6 = –4 –54 – 3 2 a = 81 164 .13x 9.4 – 3x 5x + 3x = –2. 153. b.13x + 7.2 = –1.2 + 5x – 1. d.2 – 7. 5 2 2 = –3 –5 + 5 = –2 2 2 3 4 15 = –6 + 6 = 161 + 5 2 13k + 3(3 – k) = –3(4 + 3k) – 2k 13k + 9 – 3k = – 12 – 9k – 2k 10k + 9 = –12 – 11k 10k + 9 – 9 = – 12 – 11k – 9 10k = – 21 – 11k 10k + 11k = – 21 – 11k + 11k 21k = – 21 21k 1 21 = –21 1 21 3c 4 –9=3 3c 4 –9 + 9 = 3 + 3c 4 = 12 3c 4 4 4 3 = 12 3 k = –1 9 Set 11 (Page 19) 161.13x = 1– 6.13x + 7.3 159. c. d. 154.3 + 5x – 0.13x = 1 – 6.2 = x Since 8.2 – 3x 1.13x 9.2 = 1 + x 9.2 = 41 5 .4 – 3x + 3x 8x = –2. x=6 155. 2.13x 9. a. An application of the distributive property shows that 33c – 21 = 3(11c – 7).

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

162. b.

5 2 (x – 2) + 3x = 3(x + 2) – 5 2 x – 5 + 3x = 3x + 6 – 10 11 2 x – 5 = 3x – 4 11 2 x – 3x – 5 = –4 5 2 x = –4 + 5 = 1 x= 2 5

166. b.

10

**0.8(x + 20) – 4.5 = 0.7(5 + x) – 0.9x 8(x +20) – 45 = 7(5 + x) – 9x 8x + 160 – 45 = 35 + 7x – 9x 8x + 115 = 35 – 2x 10x = –80 x=–8
**

167. e. First, we solve the equation 4x + 5 = 15 for x:

163. c. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

“Twice a number increased by 11 is equal to 32 less than three times the number” can be expressed symbolically as 2x + 11 = 3x – 32. We solve this equation for x, as follows: 2x + 11 = 3x – 32 2x = 3x – 32 – 11 2x – 3x = –43 –x = –43 x = 43

164. d.

4a + 4 7

**4x + 5 = 15 4x = 10 x = 140 = 2.5 Now, substitute x = 2.5 into the expression 10x + 5 to obtain 10(2.5) + 5 = 25 + 5 = 30.
**

168. d. Let x be the unknown number. 40% of this

= – 2 –43a

4a + 4

number is represented symbolically as 0.40x. Therefore, the sentence “Ten times 40% of a number is equal to 4 less than six times the number” can be expressed as the equation 10(0.40x) = 6x – 4. We solve this equation for x: 10(0.40x) = 6x –4 4x = 6x – 4 4x + 4 = 6x 4 = 2x x=2

169. b. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

7 “ 8 of nine times a number is equal to ten times the number minus 17” can be expressed as the equation 7 (9x) = 10(x – 17). Solve this equa8 tion for x: 7 8 (9x) = 10(x 8 7 (9x) = 8 8

**28 ( 7 ) = 28 (– 2 –43a ) 4(4a + 4) = –7(2 – 3a) 16a + 16 = –14 + 21a 16 = –14 + 21a – 16a 16 + 14 = 5a 30 = 5a a=6
**

165. a. Let x be the smaller of the two unknown

integers. The next consecutive even integer is then x + 2. The sentence “The sum of two consecutive even integers is 126” can be expressed symbolically as x + (x + 2) = 126. We solve this equation for x: x + (x + 2) = 126 2x + 2 = 126 2x = 124 x = 62 Thus, the two integers are 62 and 64.

– 17) 10(x – 17)

63x = 80(x – 17) 63x = 80x – 1360 –17x = –1360 x = 80

165

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

170. d.

**175. d. Let x be the unknown number. A 22.5%
**

7b – 4 4 7b – 4 4

a=

4a = 4

4a = 7b – 4 4a + 4 = 7b b=

171. b.

2x + 8 5x – 6 5 = 6 + 30 2x 5 8 = 30 5x – 6 6 4a + 4 7

decrease in its value can be expressed symbolically as x – 0.225x = 0.775x. We are given that this quantity equals 93, which can be expressed as 0.775x = 93. We solve this equation for x: 0.775x = 93 x=

93 0.775

= 120

176. c. The scenario described in this problem can

be expressed as the equation 4(x + 8) + 6x = 2x + 32. We solve this equation for x: 4(x + 8) + 6x = 2x + 32 4x + 32 + 6x = 2x + 32 10x + 32 = 2x + 32 8x = 0 x=0

**6(2x + 8) = 5(5x – 6) 12x + 48 = 25x –30 12x = 25x – 78 –13x = –78 x=6
**

172. b. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

“When ten is subtracted from the opposite of a number, the resulting difference is 5” can be expressed symbolically as the equation –x –10 = 5. We solve this equation for x as follows: –x – 10 = 5 –x = 15 x = –15

173. b.

Set 12 (Page 21)

177. c.

1 2x

–4 3

=

1 2x

x+8 5 –4 3

15

= 15

x+8 5

5 ( 1 x –4) = 3(x + 8) 2

5 2x

9x +

8 3

= 8x + 9 3

– 20 = 3x + 24

**3 (9x + 8 ) = 3 ( 8 x + 9) 3 3 27x + 8 = 8x + 27 27x – 8x + 8 = 27 19x = 27 – 8 = 19 x=1
**

174. c. Substitute F = 50˚ into the formula F =

9 5C

2 ( 5 x – 20) = 2(3x + 24) 2 5x – 40 = 6x + 48 5x – 88 = 6x –88 = x

178. a.

**+ 32 and then solve the resulting equation for C, as follows: 50 = 9 C + 32 5 5 50 = 5 ( 9 C + 32) 5 250 = 9C + 160 90 = C C = 10
**

166

5x – 2[x – 3(7 – x)] = 3 – 2(x – 8) 5x – 2x + 6(7 – x) = 3 – 2(x – 8) 5x – 2x + 42 – 6x) = 3 – 2x – 16 –3x + 42 = 19 – 2x 23 = x

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

179. d.

183. b. 30% of r is represented symbolically as 0.30r,

ax + b = cx + d ax – cx =d – b (a – c)x = (d – b)

(d – b) (a – c)x (a – c) = (a – c) d–b x = a–c

and 75% of s is represented symbolically as 0.75s. The fact that these two quantities are equal is represented by the equation 0.30r = 0.75s. We are interested in 50% of s when r = 30. So, we substitute r = 30 into this equation, solve for s, and then multiply the result by 0.50: 0.30(30) = 0.75s 9 = 0.75s s = 0.9 = 12 75 So, 50% of s is equal to 0.50(12) = 6.

184. e. We must solve the given equation for g:

180. a. Let x be the smallest of the four whole num-

bers. The next three consecutive odd whole numbers are then x +2, x + 4, and x + 6. The sentence “The sum of four consecutive, odd whole numbers is 48” can be expressed as the equation x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) = 48. We solve this equation for x as follows: x + (x +2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) = 48 4x + 12 = 48 4x = 36 x=9 Thus, the smallest of the four whole numbers is 9.

181. a. In order to solve for T, we must simply

fg + 2f – g = 2 – (f + g) fg + 2f – g = 2 – ( f + g) fg + 2f – g = 2 – f – g fg = 2 – f – g– 2f + g fg = 2 – 3 f g = 2 –f 3f

185. b. Let x be the width of the room. Then,

**divide both sides of the equation by nR. This results in the equation T = PV\nR.
**

182. a.

B=

C+A D–A

the length of the room is equal to 2x + 3. The perimeter of the room is given by 2x + 2(2x + 3). Since this quantity is known to be 66, we must solve the equation 2x + 2(2x + 3) = 66 as follows: 2x + 2(2x + 3) = 66 2x + 4x + 6 = 66 6x + 6 + 66 6x = 60 x = 10 Thus, the length of the room is 2(10) + 3 = 23 feet.

B = (D – A) = C + A BD – BA = C + A BD – C = A + BA BD – C = A (1 + B) A=

BD – C 1+B

167

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

186. b.

4 – 2x 1–y 3 –1= 2 6 4 –32x – 6 1 1–y 2

Plugging this in for b in the expression a = –2b yields a = –2(–3) = 6. Finally, we substitute =6 these numerical values for a and b into obtain

–3 6

2

2(4 – 2x) – 6 = 3(1 – y) 8 – 4x – 6 = 3 – 3y 2 – 4x = 3 – 3y 3y = 1 + 4x y=

1 + 4x 3

= –1 2

2

b a

2

to

= 1. 4

189. d. Let x be the unknown number. The sentence

187. e. Let x be the smallest of five consecutive odd

“Three more than one-fourth of a number is three less than the number” can be expressed as the equation 1 x + 3 = x – 3. We must solve 4 this equation for x as follows: +3=x–3 4 ( 1 x + 3) = 4 (x – 3) 4 x + 12 = 4x – 12 x + 24 = 4x 24 = 3x x=8

190. c.

1 4x

integers. The next four consecutive odd integers are given by x +2, x + 4, x + 6, and x + 8. The average of these five integers is equal to their sum divided by 5, which is expressed symbolically by

x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) . Since 5 x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) 5

**this quantity is given as –21, we must solve the equation = –21, as follows:
**

x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) + (x + 6) + (x + 8) 5 5x + 20 5

= –21

= –21

**x + 4 = –21 x = –25 Thus, the least of the five integers is –25.
**

188. a. First, we solve b + 6 = 4 for a:

a a b a b

(2 – x) 2 – x = (2 – x) y 5x – 2 = y(2 – x) 5x – 2 = 2y – xy 5x + xy = 2 + 2y x(5 + y) = 2 + 2y x=

2 + 2y 5+y

5x – 2

191. b. Solve this problem by determining the

+6=4

weight of each portion. The sum of the weights of the initial corn is equal to the weight of the final mixture. Therefore,

56 pounds bushel 50 pounds bushel

= –2 a = –2b (20 bushels) Next, substitute this expression for a into the equation –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 and solve for b: –6b + 2a – 25 = 5 –6b + 2(–2b) – 25 = 5 –6b –4b – 25 = 5 –10b – 25 = 5 –10b = 30 b = –3 (x bushels)

+ =

[(20 + x) bushels]

54 pounds bushel

Suppressing units yields the equation 20 + 50x = (x + 20) 54.

56

168

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS–

192. d.

–5[x – (3 – 4x – 5) – 5x] = 4[2 –(x –3)] –5[x – 3 + 4x – 5) – 5x] – 4 = 4[2 – x + 3] –5[2] – 4 = 4[5 – x] –10 – 4 = 20 – 4x –14 = 20 – 4x –34 = –4x x = ––344 = 127 = 8.5

–22

**(Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)
**

199. c.

Set 13 (Page 22)

193. c.

**–4(x – 1) 2(x + 1) –4x + 4 2x + 2 4 6x + 2 2 6x 1 2 x 3 = 6 The answer can be written equivalently as x 1. 3
**

200. c.

3x + 2 3x 9 x 3

194. c.

11

5x x

195. a.

23 5

23 = 4.6

**x + 5 3x + 9 5 2x + 9 –4 2x –2 x The answer can be written equivalently as x –2.
**

201. d.

1 – 2 x –5 –2x –6 x 3 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)

196. d. All values to the right of and including –4

–6(x + 1) 60 –6x – 6 60 –6x 66 x –11 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number.)

202. b. The right side of the inequality 2x – 4

**are shaded. Thus, the inequality that depicts this situation is x –4.
**

197. b.

7

4x + 4 24 4x 20 x 5

198. a.

–8x + 11 8x 72 x –9

83

(x – 2) can be described as “the product of seven and the quantity two less than a number,” and the left side can be described as “four less than two times the number.” Reading from right to left, the quantity on the right side is greater than the one on the left. Hence, the correct choice is b.

169

When solving a compound inequality for b. which the only expression involving the variable is located between the two inequality signs and is linear. Using the same steps as in question 207.) 204. or equivalently |–x| = 8.3)(20) = –6 step is that when the coefficient of x is negative. c. 3(x – 16) – 2 9(x – 2) – 7x 3x – 48 – 2 9x – 18 – 7x 3x – 50 2x – 18 x – 50 –18 x 32 206. we see that solving the equation |–x| – 8 = 0. The caveat in the latter 170 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 203. b. both inequality signs are switched. –8(x + 3) 2(–2x + 10) –8x – 24 –4x + 20 –24 4x + 20 –44 4x –11 x 205. b. We solve these two equations separately: –x = 8 x = –8 –x = –8 x=8 So. and then to divide all three parts of the inequality by the coefficient of x. is equivalent to solving –x = 8. proceed as follows: 10 3(4 – 2x) –2 70 10 ( 12 – 6x – 2 70 10 10 – 6x 70 0 – 6x 60 0 x –10 The last compound inequality above can be written equivalently as –10 x 0. We proceed as follows: –4 –3 –1 3x – 1 11 3x 12 x≤4 (Note: Remember to reverse the inequality sign when dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number. and the right side is negative. –x 0. We rewrite the given equation as an equiva- lent one solved for |x|. so there can be no solution to this equation. the goal is to simplify the inequality by adding/subtracting the constant term in the middle portion of the inequality to/from all three parts of the inequality. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = –5[9 + (x – 4)] 2(13 – x) –5[5 + x] 2(13 – x) –25 – 5x 26 – 2x –51 – 5x –2x –51 3x –17 x The answer can be written equivalently as x – 17. 208. both –8 and 8 are solutions of this equation. as follows: 2|x| + 4 = 0 2|x| = –4 |x| = –2 The left side must be nonnegative for any value of x (since it is the absolute value of an expression). d. a. Set 14 (Page 24) 209.3 x 20 (–0. 210. b. a. 207. a.

First. there are two distinct values of x that satisfy the given equation. 7 27 are solutions to this b. First. we see that solving the equation |2x + 1| = |4x – 5| is equivalent to solving 2x + 1 = (4x – 5). there are two solutions to the original equation. We solve these two equations separately: 2x + 1 = (4x – 5) 6 = 2x 1 3 =x 2x + 1 = –(4x – 5) 2x + 1 = –4x + 5 6x = 4 x= 2 3 Thus. Thus. it follows that the two solutions of the equation 2 = |x| are x = 2. 216. We solve these two equations separately. b. Using this fact. we 2 conclude that there is only one value of x that satisfies this equation. So. the solutions to the equation are x = – 133 and x = 1. The solution of this equation is x = – 3 . there can be no value of x that satisfies this equation. 171 . b. using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = b. c. 213. We solve these two equations 3 9 separately: 2 1 3| – 9 lent form: 1 – (1 –(2 –|1 – 3x|)) = 5 1 – (1 – 2 + |1 – 3x|) = 5 1 – (–1 + |1 – 3x|) = 5 1 + 1 – |1 – 3x| = 5 2 – |1 – 3x| = 5 –|1 – 3x| = 3 1 –3x| = – 3 Since the left side is non-negative (being the absolute value of a quantity) and the right side is negative.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 211. both 257 and equation. we see that solving the equation |2x + 3| = 0 is equivalent to solving 2x + 3 = 0. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = we see that solving the equation |3x + 5 | = 8 is equivalent to solving 3x + 5 = 8. a. a. 2 1 or equivalently |3x – 3 | = 9 . b. 212. as follows: 3x + 5 = –8 3x = –13 x = – 133 3x + 5 = 8 3x = 3 x=1 Thus. is equivalent to solving 3x – 2 = 1 . 215. we rewrite the equation in an equiva- b. c. we see that solving the equation |3x – = 0. Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = lent form: –6(4 – |2x + 3|) = –24 –24 + 6|2x + 3| = – 24 6|2x + 3| = 0 |2x + 3| = 0 Now. We rewrite the given equation as an equiva- 214. Note that |a| =|b| if and only if a = 3x – 2 1 3 =– 9 3x = 2 – 1 = 5 3 9 9 5 x = 27 2 1 3 = 9 3x = 2 + 1 3 9 7 x = 27 3x – = 7 9 So. we rewrite the equation in an equiva- lent one solved for |x|: –3|x| + 2 = 5|x| – 14 –3|x| + 16 = 5|x| 16 = 8|x| 2 = |x| Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = b.

First.∞)∪(–∞. –5 –2 –1 2x –3 5 2x 8 x 4 Thus. c. |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c).4). We solve this compound inequality: –9 –10 5 x 1 – 2x –2x –4 9 8 0 is equivalent to |–x – 1| 0. the solution set is (–∞. The only way that it can be less than or equal to zero is if it actually equals zero. c. Moreover. note that |–2x| = |–1| |2x| = |2x|. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |1 –2x| 9 are precisely those values of x that satisfy –9 1 – 2x 9. This happens only when x + 1 = 0. We solve this compound inequality as follows: The last inequality is equivalent to |1 – 4x| 7. So. The left side must be nonnegative since it is the absolute value of a quantity. this inequality is also equivalent to |x + 1| 0. note that the inequality –|–x – 1| equivalent form: 2 – (1 – (2 – |1 – 2x|)) –6 2 – (1 – 2 + |1 – 2x|) –6 2 – (–1 + |1 – 2x|) –6 2 + 1 – |1 – 2x| –6 3 – |1 –2x| –6 –|1 – 2x| –9 |1 – 2x| 9 Now. Dividing both of these inequalities by 2 yields x 0 or x 0. First. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |1 – 4x| 7 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either 1 – 4x 7 172 .– 3 ] 4 221. d. So. First.∞). we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |8x + 3| 3 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either 8x + 3 3 or 8x + 3 –3. a. Note that |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c).∞).0)∪(0. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |x| 3 are precisely those values of x that satisfy either x 3 or x –3.–3)∪(3. since |–x – 1| = |–(x + 1)| = |–1| |x + 1| = |x + 1|.5). We solve these two inequalities separately: 8x + 3 8x 0 x 0 3 8x + 3 –3 8x –6 x –6 = –3 8 4 220. the solution set is (–∞. the solution set is [0. Using this fact. note that |a| c if and only if if –c a c. we rewrite the given inequality in an 218. the solution set is (–4. we rewrite the given inequality in an equivalent form: –7|1 – 4x| + 20 –7|1 – 4x| + 35 35 5|1–4x| 7 |1 – 4x| –2|1 – 4x| – 15 –2|1 – 4x| Thus. Note that |a| c if and only if –c a c. Now. Using this fact. Also. First. 223. we see that the values of x that satisfy the inequality |2x –3| 5 are precisely those values of x that satisfy –5 2x – 3 5. d. Using this fact. c. 222. Using this fact. The values of x that satisfy the inequality |2x| 0 are those that satisfy either 2x 0 or 2x 0. |a| c if and only if (a c or a –c). Using this fact. the solution set is (–1. Note that |a| So. 219. c if and only if (a c or a –c). a. which occurs when x = –1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 217.

d. the coordinates of D are (6. So. the solution set is the set of all real numbers. 224.a). so the correct choice is c. which is 6. c. The choice that lies in Quadrant III is (a. the choice that lies in Quadrant IV is (–a. Since the left and right sides of the inequality are identical. Since ABCD is a square. Points in Quadrant IV have positive x- coordinates and negative y-coordinates. 230. the x-coordinate of positive x-coordinate and negative y-coordinate. b. we conclude that |–x – 2| 0 and –|–x –1| 0. note that the left side of the last inequality is equivalent to |5 – 3x| = |–1(3x – 5)| = |–1| |3x – 5)| = |3x – 5| Thus. Since ABCD is a square. –|–x–1|) must lie in Quadrant IV. 173 . We need to choose the selection that has a of B will be the same as the x-coordinate of A. c. J is identified as the point (–3. So. The point can also be on the y-axis if it is the origin. namely –1. 235. these expressions are positive.y). d. and |–x – 1| = 0 when x = –1. e. 4). –2] the y-coordinate of A. 229. First. however. 231. b. For all nonzero real numbers.–3). so points of the form (x2. e. d. the solution set is (– equivalent form: [2. the Set 15 (Page 26) 225. or be on the x-axis.y). the correct choice is b. a. 232. lie in Quadrants I or IV. and the y-coordinate of D is the same as coordinate and negative y-coordinate.–a2). or be on the y-axis. Hence. The fact that x can be any real number does not further restrict the location of (x. so it cannot lie in Quadrants III or IV. the original inequality is actually equivalent to |3x – 5| |3x –5|. every real number x satisfies the inequality.y) lie to the right of the y-axis. the x-coordinate point (x. (2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– or 1 – 4x –7. points whose coordinates are given by (|–x –2|. which is –3. First. ). It can. 226.(–y)2) must lie in Quadrant I. and the y-coordinate of B will be the same as the y-coordinate of C. a. For all real numbers x –2. 233. 228. The correct selection will have a negative x- D is the same as the x-coordinate of C. Therefore. So.–5) lies in Quadrant IV. b. Therefore.y) must lie on or above the x-axis. that –a2 0 and (–a)2 0. both x2 and So. The fact that y can be any real number does not further restrict the location of (x. it follows that –a 0. The fact that x is a positive real number requires that the point (x. For all other values of x. namely 4. the coordinates of B are (–1. Note that for any nonzero real number. note that |–x –2| = 0 only when x = –2 |1 – (–22 + x) – 2x | | 3x – 5 1 – (–4 + x) – 2x | | 3x – 5 |1 + 4 – x – 2x | | 3x – 5 |5 – 3x| |3x – 5| Now. we rewrite the given inequality in an (–y)2 are positive. Since a 0. Because y is a non-negative real number. 227. The coordinates of points in the third quadrant are both negative. so it cannot lie in Quadrants II or III. So. Thus.4). We solve these two inequalities separately: 1 – 4x 7 –4x 6 x –6 = –3 4 2 1 – 4x –7 –4x –8 x 2 3 . The x-coordinate of J is –3 and the y-coordinate is 4. 234.

10). 239.7) and (2. Next. So. Likewise. 2 244. the point lies in Quadrant II. The phrase “y is nonpositive” can be expressed tion y = 2 x – 1 yields the true statement 1 = 3 2 (3) – 1. So. so that it lies in Quadrant III.– 1 ). 240. a. Since a 0. 243. If x 0. and the slope m = 3 to write the equation of 174 . So.1) is 3 on this line. the x-coordinate of the point is negative. d.b) is y = mx + b. –y) is positive compute the slope.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 236. xy2 is negative (because it is a product of an odd number of negative integers). b. d. it follows that for any real number x. Look for the selection that has a negative x- coordinate and positive y-coordinate. the correct choice is c. the x-coordinate of (–x3. The slope-intercept form of a line with slope m and y-intercept (0. use one of the points. note that –x2 is negative. Any two distinct points on the line share the same y-value. 245. 246. Neither a nor b is true. d. As such. Convert the given equation 8y = 16x – 4 into slope-intercept form by solving for y: 8y = 16x – 4 y = 2x – 1 2 So. b. a. Since the y-coordinate of the point (–x. (–y)3 is positive (since –y is a positive integer and the cubes of positive integers are positive integers). namely 1 . We will use the first two 0 listed. since x and y are both negative integers. while it lies in Quadrant IV if x 0 and on the y-axis if x = 0. 2 1 To this end. a.7). as follows: 3y – x = 9 3y = x + 9 y= 1 x+3 3 The slope of this line is the coefficient of x. It can be on the x-axis if y = 0. –(x)(x)(x) must be positive (because it is a product of an even number of negative integers). the y-intercept is (0. 237. 3 242. The xcoordinate of the given point is therefore negative (since the numerator is negative and denominator is positive. Hence. Substituting x = 3 and y = 1 into the equa- is –2. First. (1. The line whose equation is y = –3 is hori- to be negative integers. xy2) is positive and its y-coordinate is negative. choose two of the five points listed and symbolically as y 0. and xy is positive (since it is a product of an even number of negative integers). c. the point must be in Quadrant I or on the x-axis. it follows that –a 0. 238. xy ). Convert the given equation 3y – x = 9 into slope-intercept form by solving for y. which implies that the point (3. b. but have different x-values. computing the slope as “change in y over change in x” results in 0. the point must lie somewhere strictly below the xaxis. Using the fact that x and y are both assumed Set 16 (Page 28) 241. a. So. The choice that lies in Quadrant II is (–a. such as (1. –y 0. –2) zontal. then –x3 = and the y-coordinate is not negative. Since the x-coordinate of the point (1. we must determine the –x signs of the coordinates of the point ( (–y)3 . So. no matter which two points are used. a). thereby creating a quotient involving an odd number of negative integers) and the y-coordinate is positive. the point lies in Quadrant IV. the equation of the line with slope –3 and y-intercept of (0.2) is y = 3x + 2. Note that if x is a negative integer. The slope is m = 12 ––17 = 3.

the slope of the line containing the slope-intercept form simply requires that we solve for y to obtain the equation y = –3x + 5. a. Consider the line whose equation is x = 2. or equivalently y = 3x + 4. Solving the equation 6y + x = 7 for y yields the line. such as (2. This yields the equation y – 3 = 2(x – 2). use one of the points. 6 –1 6 x+ 7 6 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x –x1). where. This yields the equation y – 3 = – 1 (x – 2).–1) and (2. All x– into standard form Ax + By = C. Therefore. 3 observe that substituting the point (–6.11). Using (–4. Now. and (3. 251.–10) into the equation yields the true statement –10 = 2 (–6) – 6. (x1 –y1) is the point on the line. or equivalently y = 2x – 1. We must solve the equation –3y =12x – 3 points on this line are of the form (2.y). 2 which simplifies to y – 3 = – 1 x + 1. Applying this yields the equation y – 7 = 3(x – 1). which simplifies to y – 7 = 3x – 3.3) is m = one of the points. First. the resulting value of y is equal to the missing value of z.15). b. which simplifies to y – 3 = 2x – 4. the point (–6.15) and (–2. c. as follows: x y= –15y = 2x + 9 0 = 2x + 15y + 9 2x + 15y = –9 – 125 –3 5 – 125 3 5 250. in order for this line to have a y-intercept. However. We transform the equation y = Next. Specifically. Next.3). b. d. The slope of a line containing the points –2. This yields y = –4x + 1.y). we simply substitute x = 2 into this equation.–1). 255. we see that 175 . c. 253. use the points. where y can be any real number. Now. Transforming the equation 3x + y = 5 into where (x1. The slope of this line is –4. where (x1. We must first determine the equation of the line. (–4.5) is m = – 1 . 3 – (–1) 2–0 = 4 2 = 2. a. at least one of the points on it must have an x-coordinate of 0. use 2 5–3 (–2)–2 = 2 –4 = points (0. which can be done by simply dividing both sides by –3.–10) 3 lies on this line. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = 2 x – 6. Applying this yields the equation y – 15 = –2(x – (–4)). c. The slope of the line is given by m = 0 – (–6) = 9–0 6 9 = 2 . To do so. to determine the missing value z. y1) is the point on the line.–1) and (3. or equiva2 lently y = – 1 x + 4. Since the y-intercept of the 3 line is given to be (0. and the slope m = –2 to write the equation of the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x – x1). we must determine the equation of for y. The substitution yields y = –2(2) + 7 = 3. a. and the slope m = 2 to write the equation of the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x – x1). or equivalently y = –2x + 7.y1) is the point on the line.–9) can be computed using any two pairs of these points. d. The 252. and the slope m = – 1 to write the equation of 2 the line using the point-slope formula y – y1 = m(x –x1). 247.3) and (–2. the slope is m = 15 – 11 (–4) – (–2) = 4 –2 = 256. such as (2. (0.3). where (x1. the slope of the line containing the points (2. 2 249. First. choose two of the five points listed and compute the slope. which is not the case. First. (–3. using (–3. A vertical line need not have a y-intercept. Next. y1) is the point on the line. which simplifies to y – 15 = –2x – 8. 248. the equivalent equation y = slope of this line is 1 .–9). –6). 254.

–1) on = –4 3 y + 1 = –4 y = –5 Set 17 (Page 31) 257. we 6 3 264. The slope is tical. b.5). 265. b. c. 262.4 0. Also. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the slope is m = (–1) – (–9) (–3) –3 = – 8 = – 4 . 3 261.7y + 1. The slope of this line segment is m = –3 – 0 0 – (–5) slope-intercept form: 2 3y 2 3y – 1x = 0 2 = 1x 2 3 2 1 2x = –5. The correct graph is shown in choice a. the slope of the line is –1 and its y-intercept is (0. 3 259.5) and (–9. The only graph that satisfies this criterion is choice a. d. The correct graph is shown in choice c. and it crosses the y-axis at the point (0. we observe that since the slope is 3 . a. we observe that the line rises from left to right at a rate of six vertical units up per nine horizontal units right.9). The y-intercept is the origin.–3). The points on the line y = –3 are of the form the line. its y= = 3x 4 slope is undefined.7). 268. –5 2 – 1. it crosses the y-axis at (0. 3 266. The slope is 2 (so that the graph of the line rises from left to right at a rate of two vertical units up per one horizontal unit right) and the y-intercept is (0.–5). The only line that rises from left to right is the one in choice b. convert the equation 3 y – 2 x = 0 into 2 1 (x. The correct graph is in choice d. 267. for all real numbers x. A line with an undefined slope must be ver- falls from left to right at the rate of two vertical units down per one horizontal unit right) and the y-intercept is (0.4 = 0.1x – 1. the equation of this line is y = 2 x + 5. Thus.–3).7y = 1. 4 the graph of the line rises from left to right at a rate of 3 vertical units up per 4 horizontal units right. convert the equation into slope-intercept form as follows: 0.1x = 0.1 0.y) to – 4 . The y-axis is a vertical line and hence. c. A line with a positive slope rises from left to right.–1) and (0. its slope is 6 2 9 = 3 . 260. and the correct graph is shown in choice c.3). b. a.7y y= 0.7).7 = 1x – 2 7 176 . 258.4 0. Its equation is therefore y = –x + 7. d. d. First. and solve for y: 3 y – (–1) 0 – (–3) y+1 3 = –4 3 one vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right. The slope is –2 (so that the graph of the line From this. First.7 x (so that the graph of the line falls from left to right at a rate of five vertical units down per two horizontal units right) and the y-intercept is (0. 263. d. So. The correct graph is given by choice d. 269. Now. This set of points forms a horizontal line containing the point (0. The line falls from left to right at a rate of equate the expression obtained by computing the slope of this line using the points (–3.1x – 0. Using the two points (0. d. Hence.4 0. The slope of this line segment is m= 2 –(–6) 10 –(–2) = 8 12 = 2.

the graph of the line rises 7 from left to right at a rate of one vertical unit up per seven horizontal units right. 278.4) must be on the line. we see that the equation of the line we seek is y – 4 = 3(x – 4). while if it lies below the x-axis. have a slope m = 2 .–2). A line perpendicular to the given line must (0. 271. The graph of y = c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the slope is 1 . the graph crosses into only Quadrant I and Quadrant II. Since the point (–6. 273. The line provided in choice b is equivalent to y = –2x +6. The have the same slope. a. 3 277. The slope of the line passing through the –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x two given points is m = –5 – 4 = – 9 . Two lines are parallel if and only if they 3 280. If it lies above the x-axis. Only vertical lines have undefined slopes. Since we want a line perpendicular to a line either above or below the x-axis. e. we see that the point-slope form of the equation of the line we seek is y – 0 = 18 13 (x – 0). Since this has the same slope as the given line. A line parallel to y = 3x + 8 must have 0. we see that the point-slope form of the 4 equation of the lines is y – 12 = – 9 (x – 0). The only vertical line among the choices provided is given by choice a. Using this slope with the point (0. it crosses into only Quadrant III and Quadrant IV. 270. A line perpendicular to the given line must 6–2 4 y have slope 18 13 . c. and must cross the y-axis. The yintercept is (0. b. e.4). only horizontal line among the choices provided is given by choice b. For instance. 279 c. which simplifies to y = 3x – 8. we conclude that the correct answer is b. d. is a horizontal line that lies either above or below the x-axis. 177 . 274. namely –2. b. which simplifies to y = 18 13 x. b. 281. So. Only horizontal lines have zero slopes. and the correct graph is given by choice d. The graph of y = c is a horizontal line that is 275. This is true for the line provided in choice e since the slopes of both this lineand the given one are 6. b.12). where c with slope m1 = 3 . Set 18 (Page 42) 276. This is actually the slope of the line we seek because the line parallel to the one containing the two given points. This is equivalent to the 3 equation y = – 4 x – 4. the line given in choice e is the correct choice. we must use m2 = – 4 1 3 4 = –4 3 as the slope. 272. the point-slope formula for the line is y – 4 = – 4 (x + 6). Using this slope with the point Observe that the graph does indeed cross into three of the four quadrants. a. b. consider the line whose equa- tion is y = –x – 1. Its graph is shown here: 10 8 6 4 2 slope 3. 4 which simplifies to y = – 9 x + 12. Using the point-slope formula for a line with the point (4.0).

30x + 0. Let x = the length of the first piece. The sum of the lengths of these three smaller pieces will be the length of the original piece of rope. We must solve an equation of the following form: amount of nitrogen contributed + amount of nitrogen contributed = total amount of nitrogen from the 30% solution from the 90% solution in the entire 10 gallons Using the information provided. Solving this equation gives us x = 6. 284. we must solve an equation of the form: amount spent on Ace balls + amount spent on Longline balls = total amount spent Using the information provided. as well as for the final 70% solution. Let x = number of canisters of Ace balls. which is solved as follows: 0. c. Therefore. the third piece is 43 feet long. So.33 gallons of the 30% nitrogen solution with 6. 283. the length of the first piece is 6 feet. it must be the case that 10 – x = the number of gallons needed of the 90% nitrogen. So.25.75(x + 1) = 40. The important observation is that multiplying the price of one canister of Ace balls by the number of canisters of Ace balls results in the portion of the total amount spent on Ace balls. rounding to two decimal places.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 282.75 from both sides and then dividing by 6. we conclude that he bought 6 canisters of Ace balls and 7 canisters of Longline balls. Let x = the number of gallons needed of the 30% nitrogen.70(10) 30x + 90(10 – x) = 70(10) 30x + 900 – 90x) = 700 –60x + 900 = 700 –60x = –200 x = ––26000 = 130 Thus. Then.70(10). 2x – 1 = the length of the second piece and 3(2x – 1) + 10 = the length of the third piece. the second piece is 11 feet.75 = 40. Then.25 yields the solution x = 6. Multiplying the number of gallons of 30% nitrogen by its concentration yields the amount of nitrogen contained within the 30% solution.25x + 2.50x + 2. Subtracting 2. since we are supposed to end up with 10 gallons.67 gallons of the 90% nitrogen solution to obtain the desired mixture.25. This is represented as the equation x + (2x – 1) + 3 (2x – 1) + 10 = 60. To solve this equation. and finally. Simplifying the left side of the equation yields 6. The same reasoning is true for the Longline balls. A similar situation holds for the 90% nitrogen. 178 . this equation becomes 3.90(10x – x) = 0. we conclude that she should mix approximately 3. d. So. we first simplify the left side to obtain 9x + 6 = 60. x + 1 = number of canisters of Longline balls. b. Then.90(10 – x) = 0. we conclude that the longest piece of rope is 43 feet long. this equation becomes 0.30x + 0.

and distance traveled. Let x = the amount invested at 10% interest. Now.11(1.10x.000 21 Hence.500 + x dollars at 11% interest.1 hours (or 2 hours 6 minutes) to overtake her instructor.1 Thus. The important concept in this problem is how rate.11x = 795 0. rates. we must determine expressions for the distances traveled by both the girl and her instructor.500 + x) = 795 0. write an equation for the girl. a.10x + 0.500 + x) = 795 This equation is solved as follows: 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 285. To this end. and the amount of interest earned in one year from the 11% investment is 0.10x + 165 + 0. 179 .500 + x). So. Then. Then. time.10x + 0. d.11(1. and one for the instructor that relates their respective times.21x = 630 6 x = 0. as follows: 17x = 2(3 + x) 17x = 21 + 7x 10x = 21 x = 2.11(1. then equate them. and distance interrelate. We need to determine the amount of time that the girl is bicycling. Since her total yearly interest earned is 795 dollars. let x = number of hours the girl has been bicycling when she intercepts her instructor. we must solve the equation 17x = 7(3 + x). the following equation describes this scenario: 0. she invested $3. 286. and at precisely what time the girl and the instructor meet and have therefore traveled the exact same distance from the starting point. The amount of interest she earns in one year from the 10% investment is 0.30 = 3.000 at 10% interest and $4. Let Rg Tg Dg RI TI DI = = = = = = rate of the girl = 17 mph time the girl is bicycling when she meets her instructor = x hours distance the girl has biked when she finally intercepts the instructor = 17x rate of the instructor = 7 mph time the instructor is bicycling when he meets the girl = 3 + x hours distance the instructor has biked when he is intercepted by the girl = 7(3 + x) Using the information provided. since the instructor had a 3-hour head start.500 at 11% interest. it takes the girl 2. she invested 1. the amount of time that he has been bicycling when the girl catches him must be 3 + x hours. It is known that distance = rate time.

291. Since the total in the bank is $5. Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement –4 –3. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of four vertical units down per one horizontal unit right. Finally. The graph of the line is dashed. The statement. 292. Next.7). since it crosses the yaxis at (0.10(65 – x) = 5. Lisa will be the same age as her sister was 10 years ago” can be expressed symbolically as the equation x + 5 = 2x – 10. 0. Set 19 (Page 45) 289. b. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement 0 7. the inequality illustrated by this graph is x 8. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of two vertical units up per one horizontal unit right. 180 .00 0. say (0. its slope is 2. Lori’s included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (either or ). The graph of the line is dashed. The amount contributed to the total by the nickels is 0.00 The equation is solved as follows: 0.055 = 30 Thus. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (that is. all points in the solution set have an x-value that is less than or equal to 8. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = 2x + 7. And. b. its slope is –4. Let x = the number of nickels in the piggy 290. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y – 2. Next. we must solve the following equation.05x + 6. The fact that the graph of the line is solid included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). b. This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region. This can be verified by choosing a point in the shaded region. so it is bank. Hence. which is solved as follows: x + 5 = 2x – 10 x = 15 Thus.05x and the amount contributed by the dimes is 0.05x + 0. Next. so it is not means that it is included in the solution set.–4). Hence. The graph of the line is solid. included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ).00. 288. c. since the shaded region is to the left of the vertical line x = 8. a.10(65 – x) = 5. it must be either or ).00 –0. “In 5 years. so it is not age is 2x. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 2x + 7.05x + 0. say (0. all points in the solution set have a y-value that is less than or equal to –2.10(65 – x). Next. so we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –4x – 3.10x = 5. since the shaded region is below the horizontal line y = –2. Finally. Lisa is currently 15 years old and Lori is 30 years old. b. Let x = Lisa’s current age (in years). since the shaded region is below the line y = 2x + 7.0).05x = –1.5 x = ––01..–3). Then there are 65 – x dimes in the bank.5 – 0. the shaded region is below the line y = –4x – 3. there are 30 nickels and 35 dimes in the piggy bank. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –4x – 3.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 287.

The shaded region is above the line y = x. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement 0 0. we means that it is included in the solution set.0). the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of three vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right. Next. Substituting a point from the shaded region. c. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of three vertical units up per one horizontal unit right. Next. Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. into the inequality. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ≤). c The fact that the graph of the line is solid 1 1 above the line y = – 6 x – 2 . since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right. so its slope is –3.1). so the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –3x + 4 Multiplying both sides of the inequality by 2 and moving the x-term to the left results in the equivalent inequality 2y + 6x 8. It crosses the 1 y-axis at (0. so we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y x. which results in the true statement 2 > –1. and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right. since the shaded region is above the line y = x + 2. The graph of the line is dashed. The graph of the line is solid. which is equivalent to x – y –2. And. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality ( it must be either or ≤). a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 293. Since it crosses the y-axis at (0. so it is included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ). Finally.3) into the inequality results in the true statement 3 0. Next. Multiplying both sides of this inequality by 2 and moving the x-term to the left results in the equivalent 1 inequality 3 x + 2y –1. we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 3x – 2. since the shaded region is included in the solution set and the inequality describing the shaded region must not include equality (it must be either or ). This can be further verified by choosing a point from the shaded region. c. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit down per six hori1 zontal units right. since the shaded region is above the line y = 3x – 2. its slope is – 6 . we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –3x + 4. so it is not included in the solution set. the equation of the line is y = x + 2. the equation of the line is y = x. such as (0. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. the equation of the line is y = 3x – 2. Because the graph of the line is solid. And. a. and observing that substituting it into the inequality results in the true statement –3 –2. 4). The shaded region is below the line y = –3x + 4. such as (0. Moving the y-term to the right results in the equivalent inequality 3x – y 181 . such as (0. its slope is 1.3). The graph of the line is dashed. which is equivalent to y – x 0.2). the inequality illus1 1 trated by this graph is y – 6 x – 2 . its slope is 3. so the equation of the line is y 1 1 = – 6 x – 2 . 294. 297. We can verify this by choosing any point in the shaded region. such as (0. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. its slope is 1.– 2 ).0). so it is not know that it is included in the solution set. 295. 296. Next. Finally. Finally.We can verify this by substituting any point from the shaded region.–2). Next. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y x + 2.

d. 1 since the shaded region is below the line y = – 7 x + 10.5). the vertical line x = 4 is not included in the solution set and should be dashed. a. its slope is –2. d. since the given inequality does not that it is included in the solution set.1). whose solution set intersects all four quadrants. Observe that simplifying –28y 2x – 14(y + 10) results in this inequality. so 1 the equation of the line is y = – 7 x + 10. Because y 4. since x 4. we conclude that the equation of the line is y = –2x + 4. such as (0. b. d. Finally. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of one vertical unit down per seven horizontal units right. such as (0. b. resulting in the true statement –2 0. so it is included means that it is included in the solution set. The graph of the line is solid. 304.–2) satisfies this inequality. First. any point in the solution set (the shaded region) must have a ycoordinate that is larger than 4. It crosses the y-axis at (0. Such points occur to the right of the line x = 4. the horizontal line y = 4 is not included in the solution set and should be dashed. such as (0. since the graph of the line rises from left to right at the rate of three vertical unit up per one horizontal unit right. 182 . so we know 300. and substituting it into the inequality to produce the true statement 5 10. since it crosses the y-axis at (0. and observing that we can verify this by substituting a point from the shaded region. the inequality illustrated by this graph is y 3x + 1.4).ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– – 2 0.10). The correct graph is shown in choice c. Next. since the shaded region is above the line y = 3x + 1. Such points occur only above the line y = 4. 1 its slope is – 7 . substituting it into the inequality to produce the true statement 5 4. The correct graph is given by choice d. and that the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (either or ). in the solution set.5). Observe that simplifying 3x – y 7x + y – 8 results in this inequality. 302. This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region. 301. since the shaded region is above the line y = –2x + 4. And. 298. such as (2. so the equation of the line is y = 3x + 1. which results in the true statement 2 1. c. Also.0). Substituting x = 3 and y = –2 into the inequality 9x – 1 y yields the true statement 26 –2. and the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (it must be either or ≤). This can be verified by choosing a point in the shaded region. Finally. The graph of the line is solid. so the inequality describing the shaded region must include equality (that is. its slope is 3. The following graph illustrates the inequal- ity y ( 2x + 7. any point in the solution set (the shaded region) must have an x-coordinate that is larger than 4. the inequality illustrated by this graph is 1 y – 7 x + 10. It crosses the y-axis at (0. since the graph of the line falls from left to right at the rate of two vertical unit down per one horizontal unit right.0). The fact that the graph of the line is solid include equality. Since the given inequality does not include equality. 299. say (0. Next. it must be either or ). we conclude that the inequality illustrated by this graph is y –2x + 4. This can be verified by choosing an arbitrary point in the shaded region.0) into the inequality. Next. Finally. and substituting it into the inequality. We can therefore conclude that (3. 303. This can be verified by choosing any point in the shaded region.

so b = 16. In the first equation. To find b. b First. b. adding these two equations together yields 14b = 84. Add the two equations together to get the = –1. a = –3. add the two equations together to obtain –x = 1. Simplifying the left side of the first equation equation –2y = 8. add this to the second equation to obtain 29a = –87. which simplifies to x = 3. the value of x = y –6 6 y Set 20 (Page 51) 305. so that the first equation becomes 3x – 2y = –7. simplify the second equation by sub2 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 x tracting 9 from both sides of the equation.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 10 8 6 4 2 308. Now. or x = –1. 309. Then. substitute –4 in for a in the first equation and solve for b: 5(–4) + 3b = –2 –20 + 3b = –2 3b = 18 b=6 306. Then. In the first equation. the solution of which is b = 6. which simplifies to y = –4. The second equation becomes –2x – 6 = y. the solution of which is y = 6. 311. d. Next. multiply the (m + n) term by 2 and add m to obtain 2(m + n) + m = 2m + 2n + m = 3m + 2n Now. multiply the first equation by –4 to obtain 28a – b = –100. substitute –4 for y in the second equation and solve for x: x – 5(–4) = –3 x + 20 = – 3 x = – 23 307. c. 310. Now. 312. multiply the (x + 4) term by 3 to obtain 3(x + 4) = 3x + 12. Adding the two equations together yields the equation 10a = –40. multiply the equation by 2 and add it to the first equation to obtain –6 = –y. e. subtract 12 from both sides of the equation. multiply the second equation by 2 to obtain y +8x = 24. d. Now. Now. Then. the solution of which is a = –4. 183 . substitute this value into the second equation to obtain b + (–3) = 13. a. First. subtract the first equation from this one to obtain 6x = 18. Multiplying the second equation by –7 yields –7b – 14a = 28. results in 14a + 21b = 56. Then. First. substitute the value of y into the first equation and solve for x: 4x + 6 = –3(6) 4x + 6 = –18 4x = –24 x = –6 Since x = –6 and y = 6. subtract the second equation from the first equation to obtain the equation 5n = –15. which simplifies to n = –3. b.

184 . a. 314. which simplifies to y = 2. substitute this into the second equation and solve for a: 6 + 2a = –4 2a = –10 a = –5 313. b. 317.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Finally. 316. Multiply the second equation by –2 and add it to the first equation to obtain –5x = 5 or x = –1. First. substitute this value into the second equation and solve for c: c – 6(2) = 0 c = 12 So. The first equation becomes 9x + 4y = 11. or b = 10. b. Now. substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: 2y + 7(–1) = 3 2y – 7 = 3 2y = 10 y= 5 Since y = 5 and x = –1. or d = 2. Multiply the second equation by 2. substitute the value of b into the second equation and solve for a: 3a – 2(10) = –5 3a – 20 = –5 3a = 15 a=5 plying (x – 1) by 9 to obtain 9(x – 1) = 9x – 9. subtract 3 2 2 2 from both sides to further obtain 1 a – b = – 125 . the value of a + b = 3 + 2 = 5. d. Multiply the first equation by 8 to obtain Since a = 5 and b = 10. the value of a + b = 5 + 10 = 15. the value of c d is 12 2 = 6. Divide the second equation by 2 and add it to obtain c – d = 10. First. Now. Then. the solution of which is a = 3. substitute this value into the second equation and solve for y: –9 – y = –6 –y = 3 y = –3 So. e. add 9 and 4y to both sides of the equation. Multiply the first equation to 5 and simplify the equivalent equation 4x + 48y = 56. then add to the first equation to obtain the equation 7a = 21. substitute the value of a into the first equation and solve for b: 4(3) + 6b = 24 12 + 6b = 24 6b = 12 b=2 Since a = 3 and b = 2. which simplifies x = 9. c. subtract the second equation from this to obtain 5d = 10. simplify the first equation by multi- plying (a + 3) by 1 to obtain the equivalent 2 equation 1 a + 3 – b = –6. 318. simplify the first equation by multi- to the first equation to obtain –7x = –63. Then. the value of (y – x)2 = (5 – (–1))2 = 62 = 36. Adding this to the second equation in the system results in the equation 33y = 66. Now. Then. Now. the value of xy is (9)(–3)= –27. multiply the equation by –6 and add it to the second equation to obtain the equation 4b = 40. 315. Now. 2 Next.

b. the value of a = –16 = 16 = 4 . by multiplying both sides of the equation by 2 to obtain a = 2b + 2. the solution of the system is x = 10. Now. which simplifies to q = 7. a. y = –2. the value of (p + q)2 = (–2 + 7)2 = 52 = 25. Hence. Now. Then. the solution of the system is x = 1. Now. add these equations to obtain 23x = 23. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 319. Solve the first equation for a in terms of b 6 – 2x 2 8x – 6y = 20 and the second equation by 3 to obtain 15x + 6y = 3. d. substitute this expression for a in the second equation to find b: 3(2b + 2 – b) = –21 3(b + 2) = –21 3b + 6 = –21 3b = –27 b = –9 Substitute the value of b into the first equation and solve for a: = –9 + 1 = –8 a = –16 Since a = –16 and b = –9. Since the first equation is already solved for x. substitute this into the first equation and solve for y: 4(1) – 3y = 10 –3y = 6 y = –2 So. y = –2. 185 . Multiply the first equation by 2 to obtain 2x + y = 6 y = 6 – 2x Substitute this expression for y in the second equation and solve for x: + 4x = 12 3 – x + 4x = 12 3x + 3 = 12 3x = 9 x=3 323. Solve the first equation for y in terms of x: it to the first equation to obtain 14q = 98. c. substitute the value of q into the second equation and solve for p: –5p + 2(7) = 24 –5p + 14 = 24 –5p = 10 p = –2 Since p = –2 and q = 7. b –9 9 3 a 2 a 2 Set 21 (Page 53) 321. substitute it directly into the second equation and solve for y: 2(–5y) + 2y = 16 –10y + 2y = 16 –8y = 16 y=–2 Now. substitute this value for y into the first equation to find the corresponding value of x: x = –5(–2) = 10. 320. which simplifies to x = 1. Multiply the second equation by 3 and add 322.

–7(13 – b) + 7b – 91 + 29b 4 b 4 = 25 327. Solve the second equation for b in terms of a: b + 2a = –4 b = –2a – 4 Substitute this expression for b in the first equation and solve for a: 7(2a + 3(–2a – 4)) = 56 7(2a – 6a – 12) = 56 7(–4a – 12) = 56 –28a – 84 = 56 –28a = 140 a = –5 326. b. Solve the second equation for b in terms of a: –x – y = –6 –y = x – 6 y = –x + 6 Substitute this expression for y in the first equation and solve for x: –5x + 2(–x + 6) = –51 –5x – 2x + 12 = –51 –7x + 12 = –51 –7x = –63 x=9 Substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: –9 – y = –6 –y = 3 y = –3 Since x = 9 and y = –3. e. a. 328. e. Solve the second equation for a in terms of b: b + a = 13 a = 13 – b Substitute this expression for a in the first equation and solve for b: –7a + b 4 Substitute the value of d into the second equation and solve for c: c – 6(2) = 0 c – 12 = 0 c = 12 Since c = 12 and d = 2. Solve the second equation for y in terms of x: = 25 = 116 29b = 464 b = 16 325. the value of c d = 25 b 4 = 12 2 = 6. the value of xy = (9)(–3) = –27. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 324. Solve the second equation for c in terms of d: c – 6d = 0 c = 6d Substitute this expression for c in the first equation and solve for d: c–d 5 –2=0 6d – d 5 –2=0 5d 5 –2=0 b–a=1 b=a+1 Substitute this expression for b in the first equation and solve for a: 10(a + 1) – 9a = 6 10a + 10 – 9a = 6 a + 10 = 6 a = –4 d–2=0 d=2 186 .

b. 4 334. 336. so. the system has infinitely many solutions. they never intersect. Since there are infinitely many such points. we conclude that the two equations that make up the system are exactly the same. the value of 2x y =8 =8 x–3=8 x = 11 Substitute the value of x into the second equation and solve for y: 2(11) – y = 9 22 – y = 9 –y = –13 y = 13 Since x = 11 and y = 13. 335. ond equation –3y + 9x = –6 by –3 and rearranging terms results in the first equation. b. Their graphs never intersect. substitute this value of x into the first equation to determine that the corresponding value of y is y = 3(4) – 2 = 10. c. 187 . as follows: 2(3x – 2) – 3x = 8 6x – 4 – 3x = 8 3x – 4 = 8 3x = 12 x=4 Next. 330. Observe that dividing both sides of the sec- have the same slope. so every point on the line is a solution of the system. so the system has no solution. The slope-intercept form of the line y – 3x = –2 is y = 3x – 2. Since the two lines intersect in exactly one point. the value of x – y = 11 – 13 = –2. c. Thus. The slope of each of these lines is 1. 329. b. Solve the first equation for y to obtain y = 2x – y = 9 –y = –2x + 9 y = 2x – 9 Substitute this expression for y in the first equation and solve for x: x + 2x – 9 3 3x – 9 3 3x – 2. substitute this into the second equation and solve for x. 332. There are no solutions of this system. and the slopeintercept form of the line 2 – y = –x is y = x + 2. Since the graph consists of a single line. Since the two lines are parallel. b. so any point that satisfies the first equation automatically satisfies the second. (3) is the same as the slope of the line given by the first equation. The slope-intercept form of the line x – y = 7 is y = x – 7. b. As such. the value of ab = (–4)(–3) = 12. There are infinitely many such points. since the slope of this line. we conclude that the system of equations represented by the graph has one solution. Now. c. 333. Solve the second equation for y in terms of x: 331. they are parallel. Two lines are parallel if and only if they is 2(4) 10 = 5. This means that the equations are identical. we conclude that the lines are parallel.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Substitute the value of a into the second equation and solve for b: b – (–4) = 1 b+4=1 b = –3 Since a = –4 and b = –3.

a. so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . 8 12 y = 5 x + 8 and y = – 5 x + 12. the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 5. Points in the shaded region lie below (or on) the line 5y = 8(x + 5) and below the line 12(5 – x) = 5y. The graph of the line y = 3x is dashed. First. Points that satisfy the inequality y 2 must be above the line y = 2. b. The slope-intercept forms of the lines 5y = + 4 and y = x + 2 are dashed. note that points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 5 and to the left of (or on) the line x = 2. which means that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities in the system are either or . Therefore. The slope-intercept form of the line 2y – 3x are dashed. 12(5 – x) 5y. This means that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 4.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 22 (Page 57) 337. This implies that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y x + 2. Next. Note that points in the shaded region lie 188 . note that points in the shaded region lie below the line y = x + 2 and below the line y = –x + 4. The graphs of this line and 5 y = 5 – 2 x are solid. First. y 5 – 2 x. Given that the first inequality does not 3 solid. 1 so the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . Next. Next. 8(x + 5) and 12(5 – x) = 5y are. 338. Points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line 2y – 3x = – 6 and above (or on) 5 the line y = 5 – 2 x. so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or . 342. The graph of 8 the line y = 5 x + 8 is solid (so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the 12 signs or ). note that points in the shaded region lie above the line y = 4 and below the line y = x + 2. so that the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs < or >. so that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities comprising the system are either or . The graph of y = –5 is solid. a. note that the graphs of the lines y = –x include equality. y x + 2. The graphs of the lines y = 5 and x = 2 are = –6 is y = 2 x – 3. respectively. which means that the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities are either or . The graph of y = – 5 x + 12 is dashed. the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded 1 region is the solution set is given by y 4 x. The graphs of the lines y = 4 and y = x + 2 341. c. but the second inequality does. d. This means that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 2y – 3x 5 –6. the graph of the line y = 4 x is dashed. 343. Therefore. 344. and those satisfying y 2x + 1 must lie below the line y = 2x + 1. so the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities are either or . we know that the graph of the line y = 2 is dashed and the graph of the line y = 2x + 1 is solid. d. The intersection of these two regions is given by the illustration in choice a. This implies that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 5y 8(x + 5). Points in the 1 shaded region lie above the line y = 4 x and below the line y = –4x. 339. x 2. y –4x. 340. y –x + 4. a. a. The graph of y = –4x is solid (so the corresponding inequality should involve one of the signs or ).

y – 9 x – 2. b. b. This system is equivalent to y – x 6. respectively. –9y 2(x + 9). –3 4 (2x – 3y). remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a reversing of the inequality sign. y = 4 2 9 x + 4 and y = – 9 x – 2. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slopeintercept forms of the lines in the first step. so the inequality signs used in both inequalities are either or . Next. The slope-intercept forms of the lines = 6 and 11y = –2(x + 11) are y = x + 6 and y = 2 – 11 x – 2. the solution sets of 189 . which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. y –5. The slope-intercept form of the lines 9(y – 4) = 4x and –9y = 2(x + 9) are. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. which means that both inequality signs are either or . 2x + y –3. remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a reversing of the inequality sign. so the inequality signs used in both inequalities are either or . Points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 5 2 x – 10 and below (or on) the line y = –2x – 3. This system is equivalent to 9(y – 4) 4x. 11y –2(x + 11). The solution set for the system in choice a is 1 2(y + 10) = 0 and 2x + y = 3 are. so the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 5 y 2 x – 10. y – 11 x – 2. The graphs of both the empty set. y 5 = 2 x – 10 and y = –2x 3.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– above the line y = 3x and below (or on) the line y = –5. This tells us that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution 4 2 set is given by y 9 x + 4. respectively. so the inequality signs used in both of the inequalities comprising the system are either or . The slope-intercept forms of the lines 5x – 7(y – 5) = –5x and –3 = 4 (2x – 3y) are. respectively. This system is equiva1 lent to 7(y – 5) –5x. remember that multiplying both sides of an inequality results in a switching of the inequality sign. 349. The graphs of both lines are solid. points in the shaded region lie above (or on) the line y = 2 x + 6 and above (or on) the line y = – 11 x – 2. note that points in the shaded region lie below the 4 2 line y = 9 x + 4 and above the line y = – 9 x – 2. The graphs of both lines are dashed. The system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 3x. The system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by 2 y x + 6. Points in the 5 shaded region lie below the line y = – 7 x + 5 2 and below the line y = 3 x + 4. y 3 x + 4. respec2 5 tively. The solution set for the system in choice b consists of only the points that lie on the line y = 3x + 2. 346. In doing so. which can be seen by reversing the simplification process used to obtain the slope-intercept forms of the lines in the first step. d. y –2x – 3 This system is equivalent to 5x – 2(y + 10) 0. This tells us that the system of linear inequalities for which the shaded region is the solution set is given by y 5 2 – 7 x + 5. The graphs of both lines are dashed. and the solution set of the system in choice c consists of only the points that lie on the line y = x. 347. The slope-intercept forms of the lines y – x lines are solid. c. 348. In doing so. c. In doing so. Next. So. y = – 7 x + 5 and y = 3 x + 4. 345.

We conclude that the system with this solution set is given by x 0. both inequalities comprising the system we seek must involve one of the signs or . it is impossible for such a system of linear inequalities to have a solution set that spans the entire Cartesian plane. (9a2b + 2ab – 5a2) – (–2ab – 3a2 + 4a2b) = 9a2b + 2ab – 5a2 + 2ab + 3a2 – 4a2b = 9a2b – 4a2b + 2ab + 2ab – 5a2 + 3a2 = 5a2b + 4ab – 2a2 357. Next. or y 2 + 3x. also above the line y = x – 1. ( 6 x2 + 3 x + 1) + (2x – 3 x2 + 4) – = 6 x2 + 3 x + 1 + 2x – 3 x2 + 4 – = 6 x2 – 3 x2 – = 6 x2 – = –x2 – 1 1 2 1 2 2 7 2 1 2 2 7 2 + 3x + 2 x2) 1 7 2 1 – 3x – 2 x2 1+4– 1 2 2 2 x + 3 x + 2x – 3x + 4 3 2 7 2 2 6x –6x + 3x – x + 5 – 2 1 3 3x + 2 190 . d. Note that the graphs of the lines y = x + 3 Section 3—Polynomial Expressions Set 23 (Page 66) 353. any point that it is in the solution set of the system to y x + 3. c. Observe that the first inequality in the system 2y – 6x 4. which is not possible. tion set consists of the points on a single line must be of the form y mx + b. In fact. note that the sign of both the x. is equivalent to y 2 + 3x. y 0. a. and therefore. where the graph of y = x + 3 lies strictly above the graph of y = x – 1. The boundaries of Quadrant III are the (x2 – 3x + 2) + (x3 – 2x2 + 11) = x3 + x2 – 2x2 – 3x + 2 + 11 = x3 – x2 + 3x + 13 354. a. (3x2 – 5x + 4) – (– 3 x + 5) = 3x2 – 5x + 4 + 3 x – 5 = 3x2 – 5x + 3 x + 4 – 5 = 3x2 – 3 x + 3 x – 1 = 3x2 – 3 x – 1 355.and y-coordinate of a point in Quadrant III is negative. and y = x – 1 are parallel. The solution set consists of those points on the line y = 3x + 2. by the previous observation. the equations of these axes are y = 0 and x = 0. However. 352. 350. the second inequality in the system requires that the point be below the line y = x – 1. so this system is of the form specified. d. 7 1 10 x + 2 ) 1 1 2 2 7 1 = 3 x2 – 5 x – 3 – 3 x2 + 10 x – 2 1 2 1 7 2 1 = 3 x2 – 3 x2 – 5 x + 10 x – 3 – 2 1 2 7 4 3 = – 3 x2 – 10 x + 10 x – 6 – 6 1 5 7 = – 3 x2 + 10 x – 6 1 1 7 = – 3 x2 + 2 x – 6 13 15 2 2 2 2 x-axis and y-axis. y mx + b. 351. assuming that the lines are not vertical. respectively. Using the first inequality specified in the system. b. Since points in the solution set are not to be on either axis. b. A system of linear inequalities whose solu- ( 3 x2 – 5 x – 3 ) – ( 3 x2 – 1 1 2 2 356. Hence. y x – 1 would necessarily be above the line y = x + 3. the solution set of this system is the empty set.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– none of these systems span the entire Cartesian plane. b.

A constant polynomial is of the form cx0 = true. Therefore. it cannot contain negative powers of the variable x. .. + a1x + a0 where a0. dividing one polynomial by c. where a0. –(2 – (1 – 2x2 – (2x2 – 1))) – (3x2 – (1 – 2x2)) = –(2 – (1 – 2x2 – 2x2 + 1)) – (3x2 – 1 + 2x2) = –(2 – (2 – 4x2)) – (5x2 – 1) = –(2 – 2 + 4x2) – (5x2 – 1) = –4x2 – 5x2 + 1 = –94x2 + 1 191 .. 362. b. c. Note that the 1 2 16 x – 3x – 15 8 367. Note also that. The statements in choices a. the degree of the constant polynomial 4 is zero. where c is a constant. For the polynomial –5x8 + 9x 4 – 7x 3 – x2. For instance.. a1. note that the first term is really just a constant since x0 = 1. which cannot be a polynomial 1 because of the term – 2 x–1. 361. b.. involve negative exponents. once the expression has been simplified. and c are all 359. 360. d.. That is. a. once the expression has been simplified. The expression in choice b is a polynomial for similar reasons. an are real numbers and n is a nonnegative integer. a.. the term involving the highest power of x is –5x8. By definition. the coefficients.. By this definition. –(–2x0)–3 + 4–2x2 – 3–1x – 2 = –(–2)–3 + =– =– = 1 (–2)3 1 –8 1 2 42 x 1 2 42 x 1 – 3x – 2 – 3x – 2 1 1 + + 1 1 16 x2 – 3x – 2 anxn + an–1x n–1 + . a polynomial is an expression of the form anxn + an–1x n–1 + . 365. so the degree of the polynomial is 8. the quotient of even 3 the very simple polynomials 3 and x2 is x2 = 3x–2. 364. not the variable.. For the polynomial – 2 x + 5x 4 – 2x2 + 12. A polynomial is an expression of the form another will result in an expression involving a term in which the variable is raised to a negative power. a trinomial is a polynomial with three terms and a binomial is a polynomial with two terms. so the degree of the polynomial is 4. 366. and follow from the fact that simplifying such arithmetic combinations of polynomials simply involves adding and subtracting the coefficients of like terms. which is not a polynomial. d. In general. (2 – )– + 1) – (1 – 3 – [3x3 + 1 – 1 + 2x3] = 2 – 3x = 2 – 3x3 – [5x3] = 2 – 3x3 – 5x3 = 2 – 8x3 3x3 [(3x3 2x3)] expression given in choice a is a polynomial.. + a1x + a0. by definition. Put simply. c. If we simplify the expression (–2x)–1 – 2 using the exponent rules. the expression x – 3x–2 is not a polynomial. 3 the term involving the highest power of x is 5x 4. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 358. The degree of a polynomial is the highest power to which the variable x is raised. . a1. b. we obtain 1 – 2 x–1 – 2. d. 363. it cannot contain negative powers of the variable x.. an are real numbers and n is a nonnegative integer.

and the last terms (FOIL). and the last terms. –3x2 – 18x and x – 9: (–3x2 – 18x)(x – 9) = –3x3 + 27x2 – 18x2 + 162x = –3x3 + 9x2 + 162x 381. e. add the products: (x – 3)(x + 7) = x2 + 7x – 3x – 21 = x2 + 4x – 21 (x – 4) (3x2 + 7x – 2) = x(3x2 + 7x – 2) – 4(3x2 + 7x – 2) = x(3x2) + x(7x) – x(2) – 4(3x2) –4(7x) – 4(–2) = 3x3 + 7x2 – 2x – 12x2 – 28x + 8 = 3x3 – 5x2 – 30x + 8 382. add the products: (x – 6)(x – 6) = x2 – 6x – 6x + 36 = x2 – 12x + 36 377. use FOIL to find the product of the two binomials. x3 + 6x = x x2 + 6 x = x(x2 + 6) 372. e. note that (x + c)2 = (x + c)(x + c). To find the product of two binomials. the inside terms. 376. the outside terms. Then. 2x (3x + 4xy – 2xy ) = 2x (3x) + 2x (4xy) 2 3 2 2 Then. mul- – 2x (2xy ) = 6x + 8x y – 4x y 373. Then. b. b. d. b. To find the product of two binomials. Then. e. 4x2z(3xz3 – 4z2 + 7x5) = 4x2z(3xz3) + 4x2z(–4z2) + 4x2z(7x5) = 12x3z4 – 16x2z3 + 28x7z 375. (3x3) (7x2) = (3 7) (x3x2) = 21(x3+2) = 21x5 370. the outside terms. Finally. multiply (x2 – 9x + 18) by (x – 1): (x2 – 9x + 18)(x – 1) = x3 – 9x2 + 18x – x2 + 9x – 18 = x3 – 10x2 + 27x – 18 192 . 2 3 3 3 3 3 tiply the first term of each binomial. Set 24 (Page 67) 369. the inside terms. Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 368. To find the product of two binomials. First. the outside terms. c. add the products: (x + c)(x + c) = x2 + cx + cx + c2 = x2 + 2cx + c2 379. Use FOIL to find the product of two bino- –22(2–3 = –4 = –4 1 1 23 1 8 – – 2–2x2) 1 2 22 x 1 + 33(3–2 1 32 – – 3–3x3) 1 3 33 x mials. add the products: (x – 1)(x + 1) = x2 + x – x – 1 = x2 – 1 378. and the last terms. d. c. Begin by multiplying the first two terms: 7x5(x8 + 2x4 – 7x –9) = 7x5(x8) + 7x5(2x4) – 7x5(7x) – 7x5(9) + (7 2) = (7) 5) (7 9) (x (x5x8) (x5x4) – (7 7) (x 5x) – –3x(x + 6) = –3x2 – 18x. the inside terms. c. mul- + 27 1 9 – 4 x2 + 27 – 1 3 27 x = – 2 + x2 + 3 – x3 = –x3 + x2 + 5 2 tiply the first term of each binomial. a. 2x(5x2 + 3y) = 2x(5x2) + 2x(3y) = 10x3 + 6xy 371. Begin by multiplying the first two terms: (x – 6)(x – 3) = x2 – 3x – 6x + 18 = x2 – 9x + 18 Then. = 7x13 + 14x9 – 49x6 – 63x5 374. a. mul- tiply the first term of each binomial. add the products: (2x + 6)(3x – 9) = 6x2 – 18x + 18x – 54 = 6x2 – 54 380. multiply the two binomials. c. a. Then.

5x( 3 x + 7) – ( 3 x + 7) = (5x – 1)( 3 x + 7) 397. 9x5 + 24x2 – 6x = 3x(3x4) + 3x(8x) – 3x(2) = 3x(3x4 + 8x – 2) 387. = 7(49x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) 393. a. c. Set 25 (Page 69) 385.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 383. x3 – x = x(x2) + x(–1) = x(x2 –1) 389. c. simplify the left side of the equation: 392. simplify the equation by rearranging and combining like terms: (5x + 1)(2y + 2) = 10xy + 12 10xy + 2y + 10x + 2 = 10xy + 12 2y + 10x + 2 = 12 10x + 2y = 10 5x + y = 5 384. 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x – 7) 394. b. 36 – 8x4y2z(2w – 1)3 – 16x2y4z3(2w – 1)3 + 12x4y4z(2w–1)4 = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2] + 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[–4y2z2] + 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[3x2y2(2w – 1)] = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 – 4y2z2 + 3x2y2(2w – 1)] = 4x2y2z(2w – 1)3[2x2 – 4y2z2 + 6x2y2w – 3x2y2] 81x2 = 9(4) – 9(9x2) = 9(4 – 9x2) 391. c. a. b. b. a. c. 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 + 12x5y3(9 – x) = 8x4y2(x – 9)2 – 16x3y5(x – 9)3 – 12x5y3(x – 9) = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x(x –9)] + 4x3y2(x – 9)[–4y3(x – 9)2]+ 4x3y2(x – 9)[–3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x(x –9) – 4y3(x – 9) – 3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3(x2 – 18x + 81) –3x2y] = 4x3y2(x – 9)[2x2 – 18x – 4y3x2 + 72y3 – 324y3 –3x2y] 399. First. 73x3 – 72x2 + 7x – 49 = 7(72x3 – 7x2 + x – 7) (5x + 1)(2y + 2) = 10xy + 2y + 10x + 2 Now. 15x – 10 = 5(3x) – 5(2) = 5(3x – 2) 386. 390. c. a. 2 2 2 (2x3 – 2x2 + 1)(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) = 2x3(6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) – 2x2 (6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) + (6x3 + 7x2 – 5x – 9) = 12x6 + 14x5 – 10x4 – 18x3 – 12x5 – 14x4 + 10x3 + 18x2 + 6x3 + 7x2 – 5x –9 = 12x6 + (14x5 – 12x5) + (–10x4 – 14x4) + (–18x3 + 10x3 + 6x3) + (18x2 + 7x2) – 5x –9 = 12x6 + 2x5 – 24x4 – 2x3 + 25x2 – 5x –9 3x(x + 5)2 – 8y(x + 5)3 + 7z(x + 5)2 = (x + 5)2(3x) + (x + 5)2 (–8y(x + 5)) + (x + 5)2(7z) = (x + 5)2(3x – 8y(x + 5) + 7z) = (x + 5)2(3x – 8yx – 40y + 7z) 398. 6(4x + 1) – 3y(1 + 4x) + 7z(4x + 1) = 6(4x + 1) – 3y(4x + 1) + 7z(4x + 1) = (6 – 3y + 7z)(4x + 1) 396. 5x(6x – 5) + 7(5 – 6x) = 5x(6x – 5) – 7(6x – 5) = (5x – 7)(6x – 5) 395. 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored further. 125x3 – 405x2 = 5x2(25x) + 5x2(–81) = 5x2(25x – 81) 193 . d. 36x 4 – 90x3 – 18x = 18x(2x3) + 18x(–5x2) + 18x(–1) = 18x(2x3 – 5x2 –1) 388. c. b. a. c.

a. 411. a. a. b. a. c. b. Set 26 (Page 71) 401. 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) 409. 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 –4) = 6((x)2 – (2)2) = 6(x – 2)(x + 2) 407. 121x4 – 49z2 = (11x2)2 – (7z)2 = (11x2 – 7z)(11x2 + 7z) 406. b. 32x5 – 162x = 2x(16x4 – 81) = 2x[(4x2)2 – 92] = 2x(4x2 – 9)(4x2 + 9) = 2x[(2x)2 – 32](4x2 + 9) = 2x(2x – 3)(2x + 3) (4x2 + 9) 408. Set 27 (Page 72) 417. 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x –5)(3x + 5) 405. –22a3bc2(d – 2)3(1 – e)2 + 55a2b2c2(d – 2)2(1 – e) – 44a2bc4(d – 2)(1 – e) = 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[–2a(d – 2)2(1– e)] + 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[5b(d – 2)] + 11a2bc2 (d – 2)(1 – e)[ –4c2] = 11a2bc2(d – 2)(1 – e)[ –2a(d – 2)2(1– e) + 5b(d – 2) –4c2] 1 + 2x + x2 = x2 + 2x + 1 = x2 + x + x + 1 = (x2 + x) + (x + 1) = x(x + 1) + (x + 1) = (x + 1)(x + 1) = (x + 1)2 412. 9x2(3 + 10x) – 24x(10x + 3) + 16(3 + 10x) = 9x2(3 + 10x) – 24x(3 + 10x) + 16(3 + 10x) = (3 + 10x)(9x2 – 24x + 16) = (3 + 10x)(9x2 – 12x – 12x + 16) = (3 + 10x)(3x(3x – 4) – 4(3x –4) = (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)(3x – 4) = (3 + 10x)(3x – 4)2 415. c. 144 – y2 = 122 – y2 = (12 – y)(12 + y) 403. b. x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x – 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) – 4(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) . d. c. c. b. x2 + 2x –8 = x2 + 4x – 2x – 8 = (x2 + 4x) – x(x2 + 7x) – 9x3(x2 + 7x) = (x – 9x3)(x2 + 7x) = [x(1 – 9x2)][x(x + 7)] = x(1 – (3x)2) x(x + 7) = x(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x) x(x + 7) = x2(1 – 3x)(1 + 3x)(x + 7) 194 (2x + 8) = x(x + 4) – 2(x + 4) = (x + 4)(x – 2) 418. x2 402. 4x2 + 1 cannot be factored further. 8x7 – 24x4 + 18x = 2x(4x6 – 12x3 + 9) = 2x[4x6 – 6x3 – 6x3 + 9] = 2x[2x3(2x3 – 3) – 3(2x3 – 3)] = [(2x3 – 3)(2x3 – 3)] = 2x(2x3 – 3)2 x2(3x – 5) + 9(5 – 3x) = x2(3x – 5) – 9(3x – 5) = (x2 – 9)(3x – 5) = (x – 3)(x + 3)(3x – 5) 410. 404. a. a. b. – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 414. 1 – 6x2 + 9x 4 = 1 – 3x2 – 3x2 + 9x 4 = (1 – 3x2) – 3x2(1 – 3x2) = (1 – 3x2)(1 – 3x2) = (1 – 3x2)2 416.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 400. 4x2 – 12x + 9 = 4x2 – 6x – 6x + 9 = (4x2 – 6x) – (6x – 9) = 2x(2x – 3) – 3(2x – 3) = 2x – 3)(2x – 3) = (2x – 3)2 413. b. a.

b. 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) = 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) 424. a. c. 7x2 – 12x + 5 = 7x2 – 5x – 7x + 5 = x(7x – 5) – (7x – 5) = (7x – 5)(x – 1) 422. a. 428. a. b. c. 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) = (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 2x + x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] = (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) 432. c. x2(x + 1) – 5x(x + 1) + 6(x + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 – 5x + 6) = (x + 1)(x2 – 2x – 3x + 6) = (x + 1)[x(x – 2) – 3(x – 2)] = (x + 1)(x – 3) (x – 2) 427. b. 12x2 – 37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) 421. = –3x2[(9x2 –6x) – (3x – 2)] = –3x2[3x(3x – 2) – (3x – 2)] = –3x2(3x – 1)(3x – 2) 426. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 419. –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = –4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 –x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x –1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x –1) 425. 6x2 420. a. 9 – 7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) – x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 – x) 423. (x2 + 4x + 3)x2 + (x2 + 4x + 3)3x + 2(x2 + 4x + 3) = (x2 + 4x + 3)[x2 + 3x + 2] = (x2 + 3x + x + 3)[x2 + x + 2x + 2] = (x(x + 3) + (x + 3))[x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1)] = ((x + 1)(x + 3))[(x + 2)(x + 1)] = (x + 1)2(x + 2)(x + 3) 430. c. c. 6x2(1 – x4) + 13x(1 – x4) + 6(1 – x4) = (1 – x4) [6x2 + 13x + 6] = (1 – x4)[6x2 + 4x + 9x + 6] = (12 – (x2)2)[2x(3x + 2) + 3(3x + 2)] = (1 – x2)(1 + x2)(2x + 3)(3x + 2) = (1 – x)(1 + x)(1 + x2)(2x + 3)(3x + 2) 2x2(x2– 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – x – 1] = (x2– 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x –1)] = (x2 – 4)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = (x– 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) 195 . b. + 11x – 2 = – x + 12x – 2 = – x) + (12x – 2) = x(6x – 1) + 2(6x – 1) = (x + 2)(6x – 1) 6x2 (6x2 27(x – 3) + 6x(x – 3) – x2(x – 3) = (x – 3)(27 + 6x – x2) = (x – 3)(27 + 6x + x2) = –(x – 3)(x2 – 6x – 27) = –(x – 3)(x2 – 9x + 3x – 27) = –(x – 3)(x(x – 9) + 3(x – 9)) = –(x – 3)(x + 3)(x – 9) 429. 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x+ 4) +2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) –27x4 + 27x3 –3x2(9x2 – = – 6x – 3x + 2) 6x2 –3x2(9x2 – 9x + 2) = 431.

note that 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 The factors are 3x2 and (5x + 1)2. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. the sum is positive. d. b. 435. c. 5 441. The 5 5 zeros of the polynomial are – 3 and 3 . 440. 438. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are 0 and – 1 . The zeros of the polynomial are 1 and – 221 . 2 – x. c. factor the polynomial: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) There are four factors: 7x. and x + 2. First. a. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2 and 2. factor the polynomial: 12x2 – 37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) The factors are 3x – 10 and 4x + 1. 5 196 . the polynomial: x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x– 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) Now. 2 + x. First. –2. and 5. Now. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 28 (Page 74) 433. Since both terms are positive. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x – 7) The factors are 2x + 3 and 5x – 7. First. set each of the factors equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –6 and 6. The zeros of the polynomial are 0. Begin by factoring the polynomial: x2 – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) Now. and 5 – x. First. 436. First. factor the polynomial: 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x – 5)(3x + 5) The factors are 3x – 5 and 3x + 5. so there is no x-value that makes the expression equal to zero. First. set each factor on the right side of the string of equalities equal to zero and solve for x. 437. Now. d. The zeros of the polynomial are 4 and 5. Now. 434. factor the polynomial: further. c. Now. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find that the zeros of the polynomial are 130 and – 1 . d. a. 4 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 x + 7) = (5x –1)( 2 x + 7) 3 3 3 The factors are 5x – 1 and 2 x + 7. 442. 2. set 3 each factor equal to zero and solve for x. factor the polynomial: 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 – 4) = 6((x)2) = 6(x – 2)(x + 2) The factors are 6. First. Begin by factoring. factor the polynomial: 439. Now. Now. x – 2. set each of these factors equal to zero and solve for x. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find 3 7 that the zeros of the polynomial are – 2 and 5 .

x + 2. and 3. –1. 2 444. Now. –2. 445. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. factor the polynomial: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) There are three factors: 2x. 2x + 1. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –6 and 6. –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = –4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 – x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x – 1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) The three factors are –4x3. d. 2 + –6 – 6 + 197 . choose a real number in each of the subintervals. and 5. First. The zeros of the polynomial are 1. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find that zeros of the polynomial: 0. c. factor the polynomial: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x + 4) + 2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) Set each of the four factors equal to zero and solve for x. b. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 9 –7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) –x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 – x) The factors are 9 + 2x and 1 – x. 446 a. we form a number line. The strategy is to determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. b. The zeros of the polynomial are –4. To this end. and record the sign of the expression above each: 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x – 1] = (x2 – 4) (2x +1)(x – 1) = (x– 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) Now. and x + 1. Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2. 1. 2. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 443. First. Solve for x to find that zeros of the polynomial: –1 and – 1 . Now. –2. set each factor equal to zero. The zeros of the polynomial are – 9 and 1. –3. 2 448. First. and x + 1. Begin by factoring the polynomial: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x(16 + x4) + (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 2x + x + 1] = (16 + x 4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] = (16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) The three factors are 16 + x4. First. Now. and 0. factor the polynomial: Set 29 (Page 75) 449. factor the polynomial: 447. and x – 1. set each of the four factors equal to zero and solve for x. Doing so requires that we first factor the polynomial: x2 – 36 = x2 – 62 = (x – 6)(x + 6) Next. and – 1 . d. x – 5.

since both terms are positive for any value of x. Next 2 5 assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 453. Now. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. Moreover. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are – 5 and 5 . Doing so requires that we first factor the polynomial: 5x(2x + 3) – 7(2x + 3) = (2x + 3)(5x + 7) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. Form a number line. factor the polynomials: 9x2 – 25 = (3x)2 – (5)2 = (3x – 5)(3x + 5) Next. 5 ]. Determine the x-values that make the 452. The solution set is (–∞. the solution set is the empty set. The zeros of the polynomial: – 3 and 7 . a. Now.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. 450.” we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. ∞). Solve for x to find that the zeros of the polynomial: –2 and 2. and record the sign of the expression above each: expression on the left side equal to zero.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the inequality does not include “equals. 3 3 451.” include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. The strategy is to determine the x-values Since the inequality includes “equals. note that 5x2 + 49 cannot be factored further. Therefore. assess the sign of the 3 3 expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. First. set each factor equal to zero. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. First. Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. form a number line. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. the solution set is (–∞. the sum is positive for every value of x. and record the sign of the expression above each: expression on the left side equal to zero. Therefore. However. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –2 – 2 + + –5 3 – 5 3 + Since the inequality includes “equals. factor the polynomial: 6x2 – 24 = 6(x2) – 6(4) = 6(x2 –4) = 6((x)2 – (2)2) = 6(x –2)(x + 2) Next. c. –2]∪[2. Begin by factoring the polynomial. ∞). To this end. The solution set is [– 5 . + –3 2 – 7 5 + 198 . if possible. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. b. a. Determine the x-values that make the that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. –6)∪(6. Form a number line.

∞). Now. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –2 – 0 + 2 – 5 + on the left side equal to zero. – 3 )∪( 7 . Form a number line. Determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. which are 0. First.” include the values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. then solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial: 0 and – 1 . The zeros of the polynomial are 1 and 5 – 221 . factor the polynomial: 5x( 2 x + 7) – ( 2 + 7) = (5x – 1)( 2 x + 7) 3 3 3 Next. The solution set is [– 221 . As such. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since the inequality does not include “equals. 456. To this end. ∞). choose a real number in each of the subintervals. 2. First. 2]∪(5. choose a real number in + –1 5 + 0 + The inequality includes “equals. the solution set consists of only the zeros of the polynomial. 5 455. the solution set is(–∞. and record the sign of the expression above each: + – 21 2 – 1 5 + The inequality includes “equals. Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Since every x-value that is not a zero of the polynomial results in a positive quantity. –2. choose a real number in each subinterval. –2)∪[0. To do this. we form a number line. c. Solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. 0}.” do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. 5 Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values: Form a number line. The solution set is(–∞. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. c. 1 ]. factor the polynomial: 28x(5 – x) – 7x3(5 – x) = (28x – 7x3)(5 – x) = 7x(4 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(22 – x2)(5 – x) = 7x(2 – x)(2 + x)(5 – x) Next. c. Doing so requires that we factor the polynomial: 75x4 + 30x3 + 3x2 = 3x2[25x2 + 10x + 1] = 3x2[25x2 + 5x + 5x + 1] = 3x2[5x(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2[(5x + 1) + (5x + 1)] = 3x2(5x + 1)2 Set each factor equal to zero.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. namely {– 1 . Find the x-values that make the expression each of the subintervals.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. set each factor equal to zero. 2 5 454. determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. 5 199 . and 5.

4 459. First. and record the sign of the expression above each.” we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. Determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. To do this. we first factor the polynomial: 9 – 7x – 2x2 = 9 + 2x – 9x – 2x2 = 1(9 + 2x) – x(9 + 2x) = (9 + 2x)(1 –x) Next. assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. form a number line. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are –2. 2 460. The solution set is(– 1 . as follows: The inequality does not include “equals. choose a real number in each subinterval. –1. and record the sign of the expression above each: + 4 – 5 + The inequality does not include “equals. The strategy is to determine the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero.” so we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. b. we assess the sign of 4 the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Doing so requires that we factor the polynomial: 12x2 –37x – 10 = 12x2 + 3x – 40x – 10 = 3x(4x + 1) – 10(4x + 1) = (3x – 10)(4x + 1) Next. choose a real number in each subinterval. and record the sign of the expression above each: Because the inequality does not include “equals. To this end. Therefore. d. which are 4 and 5. Begin by factoring the polynomial: x2 – 9x + 20 = x2 – 5x – 4x + 20 = (x2 – 5x) – (4x – 20) = x(x – 5) – 4(x – 5) = (x – 4)(x – 5) Set each factor equal to zero. First. Form a number line. Now. then solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial which are – 9 and 1. we form a number line. The solution set is (– 9 . we assess the sign of the 2 expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. choose a real number in each subinterval. 458. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to conclude that the zeros of the polynomial are 130 and – 1 . d. factor the polynomial: 2x3 + 6x2 + 4x = 2x(x2 + 3x + 2) = 2x(x2 + x + 2x + 2) = 2x(x(x + 1) + 2(x + 1)) = 2x(x + 2)(x + 1) Next.” so we do not include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. we form a number line. 130 ). d.1). Now.5). To this end. Now. the solution set is (4. and 0. find the x-values that make the expres- – –9 2 + 1 – sion on the left side equal to zero. choose a real + –1 4 – 10 3 + 200 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 457. To this end.

a. Determine the x-values that make the The inequality includes “equals. 1. 2. 2 Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these 201 . – 1 )∪(1. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. 2 463. ∞). Find the x-values that make the expression on the left side equal to zero. 0]∪[1. and – 1 . 461. and record the sign of the expression above each: 462. 5). a. factor the polynomial: –4x5 + 24x4 – 20x3 = 4x3(x2 – 6x + 5) = –4x3(x2 – x – 5x + 5) = –4x3(x(x – 1) – 5(x – 1)) = –4x3(x – 5)(x – 1) Next. First. The solution set is (–2. The zeros of the polynomial are – 1 and – 1 . –1]∪[0. This requires that we factor the polynomial: 2x2(x2 –4) – x(x2 – 4) + (4 – x2) = 2x2(x2 – 4) – x(x2 – 4) – (x2 – 4) = (x2 – 4)[2x2 –x –1] = (x2 – 4)[2x2 – 2x + x – 1] = (x2 – 4)[2x(x – 1) + (x – 1)] = (x2 – 4)(2x + 1)(x – 1) = (x – 2)(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x – 1) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial are 1.” so we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. First. –2. 2). determine the x-values that make the – –2 + –1 – 0 + expression on the left side equal to zero.” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. c. Assess the sign of the expression on 2 the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. choose a real number in each subinterval. To this end. The zeros of the polynomial are 0. expression on the left side equal to zero. Now. factor the polynomial: 2x2(16 + x4) + 3x)16 + x4) + (16 + x4) = (16 + x4)[2x2 + 3x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x2 +2x + x + 1] = (16 + x4)[2x(x + 1) + (x + 1)] =(16 + x4)(2x + 1)(x + 1) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x.” we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. First.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– number in each subinterval. and 5. The solution set is(–∞. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values: We form a number line. set each factor equal to zero and solve for x. The solution set is[–2. choose a real number in each subinterval. and record the sign of the expression above each: + 2 – –1 2 + 1 – 2 + + 0 – 1 + 5 – The inequality does not include “equals. form a number line.

25(–x)4 x(5x2)2 z3 – 16z 2z2 – z – 15 (2z + 5)(z – 3) 2z + 5 + –1 – – + 1 2 = 25x4 x 25x4 = 1 x 467. –3)∪(–2. d. the solution set is [–1. The domain of a rational expression is the – –4 + –3 – –2 + 3 – set of all real numbers that do not make the denominator equal to zero. and record the sign of the expression above each. which are –4.–2)∪(–2. Factoring the left side yields the equivalent equation x3 – 4x = x(x2 – 4) = x(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 The solutions are x = –2. 2 464. A rational expression is undefined at any value of x that makes the denominator equal to zero even if the corresponding factor cancels with one in the numerator. a. Because the inequality does not include “equals. z2 + 2z – 15 = (z + 5)(z – 3) = z + 5 466. and record the sign of the expression above each: 1 2x – 12 471. Observe that the denominator factors as 4x3 + 44x2 + 120x = 4x(x2 + 11x + 30) = 4x(x + 5)(x + 6). choose a real number in each subinterval. 8z – 32 = = 8(z – 4) 468. and –6. 470. choose a real number in each of the subinterval. 202 . 472. Find the x-values that make the expression z(z –4)(z + 4) + = z(z 8 4) 8(z – 4) (y – 8)(y + 8) (y – 8)(y + 8) = –(y – 8) = –(y + 8–y x(x + 8) x(x2 – 64) z(z2 – 16) 8) = = x(x + 8) x(x + 8)(x – 8) = 1 x–8 2x2 + 4x 4x3 – 16x2 – 48x 2x(x + 2) 4x(x – 6)(x + 2) = = 2x(x + 2) 4x(x2 – 4x – 12) 1 2(x – 6) = = on the left side equal to zero.” we exclude those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. factor the polynomial: 18(x2 + 6x + 8) – 2x2(x2 + 6x + 8) = (x2 + 6x + 8)[18 – 2x2] = (x2 + 6x + 8)[2(9 – x2)] = (x2 + 4x + 2x + 8)[2(32 – x2)] = (x(x + 4) + 2(x + 4))[2(3 – x)(3 + x)] = 2(x + 2)(x + 4)(3 – x)(3 + x) Set each factor equal to zero and solve for x to find the zeros of the polynomial. Assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. –2.0) ∪(0. Setting each factor equal to zero shows that the rational expression is undefined at x = 0. –3. c. b. To this end. and 3. x + 8x x3 – 64x 2 y2 – 64 The inequality includes “equals. The solution set is(–4. a. a. First. – 1 ].” so we include those values from the number line that make the polynomial equal to zero. form a number line. –5.∞). as follows: Section 4—Rational Expressions Set 30 (Page 78) 465.–2) ∪(2. b. Therefore. the values of x that must be excluded from the domain are the solutions of the equation x3 – 4x = 0. the expression is defined for any x in the set (–∞. 3). For this function. and 2. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– values: Form a number line. d. Hence. 0. 8 – y = 469.

b. b. d. To determine these values for the given expression. 483. even if it also makes the numerator equal to zero.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 473. a. e. 4x– 45 x–9 474. b. renders a rational expression undefined. b. and 1 all make the given expression undefined. d. For the given expression. 478. 485. 2x – 9 x–9 – 3x + 1 x–9 = = 475. renders a rational expression undefined. 5a ab3 + 2a ab3 = 5a + 2a ab3 = 7a ab3 = 7 b3 equal to zero. Any value of x that makes the denominator (4x – 45) + (2x – 9) – (3x + 1) x–9 4x – 45 + 2x – 9 – 3x – 1 x–9 equal to zero. we factor the denominator as x3 + 3x2 – 4x = x(x2 + 3x – 4) = x(x + 4) (x – 1). 0. a. d. b. c. a. 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x – 1) – 2(x – 1) 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x2 – 3x – 2) (x – 1)(10x2 + 9x + 2) x–1 2x + 1 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x – 1) 1–x ( x – 1)(x + 2) – = = 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) –(x – 1) (x – 1)(x + 2) 4s s2r3 = 3 – 2x – (2 – x) (x – 1)(x + 2) 1 x+ 2 = =– = 484. even if it also makes the numerator equal to zero. 476. b. x 2x + 1 1 2x –1 – 1 2x – 1 2x + 1 2x + 1 + + 2x2 4x2 – 1 2x2 4x2 – 1 = = x 2x + 1 2x –1 2x – 1 – x(2x – 1) – 1(2x + 1) + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 4x2 – 3x – 1 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = 2x2 – x – 2x – 1 + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = = (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 203 . 477. 8a2 + 2a – 1 = (4a – 1)(2a + 1) = 2a + 1 480. 6x3 – 12x 24x2 4ab2 – b2 = 6x(x2 – 2) 4 6 x x = x 4– 2 x b2 2 1 x(x + 1) – 2x (x + 1)(x + 2) x x + 3 x = 1 x(x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 2) 479. (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) (2x – 5)((x + 4) – (x + 1)) 9(2x – 5) b2(4a – 1) – 2x (x + 1)(x + 2) + 3 x (x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2) = = = 1 3 x + 2 – 2x2 + 3(x + 1)(x + 2) x(x + 1)(x + 2) = = x2 + 10x + 8 x(x + 1)(x + 2) = 3 9 x + 2 – 2x2 + 3x2 + 3x + 6x + 6 x(x + 1)(x + 2) 488. c. Note that the values –4. x 4x = 1 4 = 5 20 . t(t + 2) – t = t(t + 2) – t(t + 2) = –2t t(t + 2) 4 2 = = (x –1)(5x + 2)(x – 1) (x –1)(5x + 2)(2x + 1) = –2 t+2 487. x3 + x2 – 20x = x(x2 + x –20) = x(x + 5)(x – 4) = x+4 x2 + 5x x2 – 16 (x – 4)(x + 4) (x – 4)(x + 4) Set 31 (Page 79) 481. Any value of x that makes the denominator = 3x – 55 x–9 482. provided + that x is not zero. 4 sr3 + – 2 rs2 + 2r2 s2r3 4s + 2r2 s2r3 = 2(2s + r2) s2r3 2 x(x – 2) 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) x x 2 = 2 x(x – 2) (x – 1) (x – 1) – 5 – 2x (x – 2)(x – 1) 2x – 1 – 5x + 2x x(x – 1)(x – 2) = 2(x – 1) – x(5 – 2x) x(x – 1)(x – 2) 2 = = 2x – 3x – 1 x(x – 1)(x – 2) 4 2(t = 2) 4 – 2(t + 2) t(t + 2) = = 486. b. both 4 and –4 make the denominator equal to zero.

x x2 –10x + 24 – 3 x–6 +1= x (x – 6)(x – 4) – 3 x–6 +1 8a4 9 – a2 5a2 + 13a – 6 24a – 60a2 = 8a4 (3 – a)(3 + a) (5a –2)(a + 3) 12a(5a – 2) = x (x – 6)(x – 4) – 3(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) + (x – 6)(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) = (5a – 2)(a + 3) 12a(2 – 5a) 2a3 –3(3 – a) = 8a4 (3 – a)(3 + a) = x – 3(x – 4) + (x – 6)(x – 4) (x – 6)(x – 4) = x – 3x + 12 + x2 – 10x + 24 (x – 6)(x – 4) = 493. x2 – 12x + 36 (x – 6)(x – 4) = (x – 6)(x – 6) (x – 6)(x + 4) = x –6 x+4 499. b. 2(x 6)2 x+5 9x2y3 14x –(5 + x) 4(x – 6) 21y 15xy2 10x 12y3 = = 3x 4y 204 . 6z + 12 4z + 3 8z + 6 4z + 3 4 + –1 2z – 6 4z + 3 = 6z + 12 + 2z – 6 4z + 3 –1 = x(x + 3) + (x – 1)(x + 3) – (3x – 3) x(x + 3) x2 + 3x + x2 + 2x – 3 – 3x + 3 x(x + 3) 2x2 + 2x x(x + 3) = = = 2(4z + 3) 4z + 3 4 =2 = –1 1 2 4 x+5 = 2x(x + 1) x(x + 3) = 2(x + 1) x+3 491. a. 503. a. c. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 489. d. a. b. d. x2 – x – 12 3x2 – x – 2 1 3x2 – 10x – 8 + x+1 x+5 = –x(x + 5) (x – 5)(x + 5) (x + 1)(x – 5) (x + 5)(x 5) (3x2 – 10x – 8) = = (x – 4)(x + 3) (3x + 2)(x – 1) x2 x – 12 3x2 – x – 2 –x(x + 5) + (x + 1)(x – 5) (x – 5)(x + 5) x – 9x (x – 5)(x + 5) 2 = –x2 – 5x + x2 – 4x – 5 (x – 5)(x + 5) = x(x – 9) (x – 5)(x + 5) 1 (3x + 2)(x – 4) = 494. – 7y –3 (y – 1)(y + 1) (y – 1) (y – 1) + + 5 y+1 5 y+1 = 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 (y – 1) (y – 1)2 2 2 y+1 y+1 x–1 x– 2 – 3x – 4 x2 – 2x = x–1 x–2 – 3x – 4 x(x – 2) 2 = x(x – 1) x(x – 2) – = – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) = 3x – 4 x(x – 2) 2 = x(x – 1) – (3x – 4) x(x – 2) = x – x – 3x + 4 x(x – 2) (3y + 2)(y + 1) – ( 7y – 3)(y – 1) + 5(y – 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) = = = x – 4x + 4 x(x – 2) = (x – 2) x(x – 2) 2 – x–2 x 3y2 + 5y + 2 – (7y2 – 10y + 3) + 5(y2 – 2y + 1 (y – 1)2(y + 1) 3y2 + 5y + 2 – 7y2 + 10y – 3 + 5y2 – 10y + 5 (y – 1)2(y +1) y2 + 5y + 4 (y – 1)2(y + 1) 496. a. c. 2x2 x4 –1 1 x +1 2 x+3 (3x + 2)2(x – 1) 1 x2 –1 – = 1 x2 –1 2 + 1 x2 + 1 = – 2x2 (x2 –1)(x2 + 1) x2 + 1 (x – 1)(x2 + 1) 2 – + + 502. 4x 3y 2x5 = 2x5z3 = x2 z 498. c. c. –x2 + 5x (x – 5)2 –x x–5 + x+1 x+5 = –x(x – 5) (x – 5)2 + + x+1 x+5 12x2y –18xy –24xy2 56y3 = (12)(–24)x3y3 (–18)(56)xy4 = = = = 501. 2x2 (x – 1)(x2 + 1) x–3 2x3 x2 – 64 x2 –9 x2 – 3x 4x x–3 4x 2 = x3 2x3 x(x – 3) 6x2 + 48x x2 – 64 2x – 6 2x – 6 = x2 –9 6x2 + 48x = = x2 – 1 (x2 –1)(x2 + 1) 2x –2 (x2 – 1)(x2 + 1) 2 = = 2x2 – x2 –1 + x2 – 1 (x2 – 1)(x2 + 1) 2(x – 1) (x2 –1)(x2 +1) 2 = 2 x2 + 1 (x – 8)(x + 8) 2(x – 3) (x – 3)(x + 3) 6x(x +8) = = x –8 3x(x + 3) –(x – 6) 2 (9)(21)(10)x3y4 (14)(15)(12)x2y5 = 504. 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 495. a. 4 –(x + 5) x–3 x–1 = – x–3 = x+1 x–3 Set 32 (Page 81) 3 2 y3z4 4x3y5z4 2y5z 497. c. 9x – 2 8 – 4x 10 – 5x 2 – 9x = 9x – 2 4(2 – x) 5(2 – x) –(9x – 2) = 2x2 7y 5 –4 500. d. 505. a. 1+ x–1 x – 3x – 3 x2 + 3x =1+ – x–1 x – 3x – 3 x(x + 3) = = (y + 4)(y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) –1 = y+4 (y – 1)2 –1 x(x + 3) x(x + 3) + (x – 1)(x + 3 x(x + 3) 3x – 3 x(x + 3) = 490. x –3 + 3 – x = x – 3 + –(x – 3) = x – 3 – x – 3 x+5 x+5 = 492.

(x – 3) x + 3x – 18 x x (x – 3)(x + 6) = (x – 3) x x+6 x x + 3x –18 2 3x(x + 2) – (x + 2) x–5 = (3x – 1)(x + 2) x–5 = –(x + 2)(x + 5) –(5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 (x – 3) = 205 . b. + 81 16 =1– 1 = 275 48 17 3 1 4 = 2a2 – 7ab + 3b2 a2 +ab 2a – 7ab + 3b a2 +ab 2 2 + 3 4 1 2 = 8 12 3 4 48 – 16 + 243 48 + – 9 12 2 4 = 515. b. 2x + 1 – x2 x +x–2 x2 – x (x +2)(x – 1) x(x –1) 2 = = (x – 1)(x + 1) x(x + 1) (x – 1) x 2 –(x – 1) x+2 x2 + 5x + 6 x+2 (x + 2)(x + 3) (x – 2)(x + 2) x(x + 2) 2x2 + 7x + 3 4x2 + 4x + 1 6x2 + 5x + 1 3x2 + x x2 – 4 x2 + 2x = 2(x + 1) (1 –x)(1 + x) (x + 2) x (2x + 1)(x + 3) (2x + 1)(2x + 1) (3x + 1)(2x + 1) x(3x + 1) = –2(x + 2) x2 = x–2 x2 508.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 506. b. Set 33 (Page 82) –(x – 3) x+1 –(x –3) x+1 2x2 – 3x – 5 x–3 513. b. a. = 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x x2 – x 4y 15x2y2 3x2 + 3x 25x4y4 4xy(x +1) 10xy2 2x – 2 3x2 + 3x 15x2y2 10xy2 2(x – 1) = x2 – x 4y 15x2y2 3x(x + 1) 10xy2 2x – 2 = (2x + 1)2 4x(x – 1) 2x(2x – 2) (2x + 1)(x + 1) = = = x(x – 1) 4y 25 x3y3 4(x + 1) = (2x + 1)(x – 2) 2(x – 1)(x + 1) 507. a. a2 – b2 2a2 – 3ab + b2 a –b 2a2 – 3ab + b2 (a – b)(a + b) (2a – b)(a – b) (a + b) (2a – b) 2 2 = = 1– 1 4 (2x – 5)(x + 1) x–3 3 4 9 16 1 4 + 2 5 2 – 1 4 2 = 1 – (3 4 9 16 ) 1 4 9 16 ) + [–(2x – 5)] = (2x + 1) = –(2x + 1) ab – 3b2 a2 + 2ab + b2 a + 2ab + b ab – 3b2 2 2 2 10 – 1 4 3 4 1 3 16 9 81 16 = 1 – (3 4 1 4 + 4 3 81 16 = + 81 16 1 –(2x – 5) 1– 1– = 514. x –1 x2 + x 2 512. d. (4x2 – 8x – 5) (2x + 1)(2x – 5) (2x + 1)(2x – 5) (2x + 5) 509. b. b. 2 3 3 4 + – = = 17 12 1 4 4= (2a – b)(a – 3b) a(a + b) (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = 3x2 + 6x x–5 3x(x + 2) x–5 + – 2+x 5–x x+2 x–5 3x – 1 25 – x2 = = = (2a – b)(a – 3b) a(a + b) (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = (a – 3b) a (5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 –(5 – x)(5 + x) 3x – 1 (a + b)(a + b) b(a – 3b) = 2 (a + b)2 ab 510. c. 4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 – 4x 2x2 – 2x 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 + 3x + 1 2x2 – 2x 511.

a. d. c. b. d. a. 1 (x + h)2 1 (x + h)2 521. d. 518. 5 (x – 1)3 2 (x – 1)3 5 (x – 1)3 = 4 – x2 – – 2 (x – 1)2 5 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 2 (x – 1)3 = = = = = (x – 1)4 – – 5 (x – 1)4 (x – 1)4 – 4 – x2 x–2 x+2 (x + 2)( x – 2) + (x + 2)( x – 2) 4 – 4 + x2 4 – x2 x – 2 + x +2 (x + 2)(x – 2) 4 – x2 = (x – 1)4 5(x – 1) – 2(x – 1)2 2(x – 1) –5 –2x + 9x – 7 2x – 7 2 = 2 5x – 5 – 2x2 + 4x – 2 2x – 7 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 2x = –(2x –9x + 7) x–7 = –(2x – 7)(x – 1) 2x – 7 x2 4 – x2 = x2 4 – x2 x2 – 4 2 –1 (x + 2)(x – 2) 2x = – (x – 1) 520. – – 1 x2 x2 x2 h= – 1 x2 (x + h)2 (x + h)2 a–2 a+2 a–2 a+2 – + a+2 a–2 a+2 a–2 = (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) h= h= (a – 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a – 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) – + = x2 – (x + h)2 x2(x + h)2 –h(2x + h) x2(x + h)2 1 h h= = + + 3 x 5 4x 1 b 1 a x2 – x2 – 2hx – h2 x2(x +h)2 (a – 2)(a – 2) – (a + 2)(a – 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) (a – 2)(a – 2) + (a + 2)(a + 2) (a + 2)(a – 2) = –(2x + h) x2(x + h)2 517. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 516. x 5 x 5 5+x 5 x2 4 – x2 x2 – 4 2x = x –(x2 – 4) 1 1 =– x 2 523. a. (a–1 + b–1)–1= a + b 1+ x x+5 x 5 = b+a ab y–x xy –1 = = ab b+a y–x y+x 1– 1– =1– = x+5 x+5 x = 1 – (5 5 x + 5) = – x x+5 = 5 x+5 524. x–1 + y–1 = x–1 – y–1 1 x 1 x – + 1 y 1 y = y–x xy y+x xy = xy y+x 206 . 4 4–x2 – 1 1 1 x+2 + x–2 4a a2 + 4 519. 3 x 5 4x a+ b+ 1 b 1 a = ab b ba a = 1 2 1 2x ab + 1 b a ba + 1 = a b a2 – 4a + 4 – (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) = a2 – 4a + 4 + (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) – – 1 2 1 2x 3 x 4x – – = (a + 2)(a – 2) a2 – 4a + 4 + (a2 + 4a + 4) = – 4x – 4x 4x 1 2 1 2x = a2 – 4a + 4 – (a2 + 4a + 4) (a + 2)(a – 2) 2(6 – x) 3 4x 4x 5 4x = 12 – 2x 5–2 = = – 2a8a 8 = 2 + 522.

3+ 1 x+3 x+3 x–2 3 2x 3 2x x+3 x–2 + = [ 3(xx+ 33) + 1 x + 3] x+3 x –2 = Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. clear the fractions from all terms in the x+5 x+1 2 x+2 (x = 5)(x – 1) (2x + 3)(x – 1) (x + 5)(x + 2) (x + 1)(x + 2) 2x + 3 x+1 – = – = equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x – 2(x + 1) (x + 2)(x + 1) = = =2+x 3 x (x + 5)(x + 2) – 2(x + 1) (x +1)(x +2) x2 + 5x + 8 (x + 1)(x + 2) = x2 + 7x + 10 – 2x – 2 (x + 1)(x + 2) x = x (2 + x) 3 = 2x + x2 x2 + 2x – 3= 0 (x + 3)(x – 1) = 0 526. Then. 1– 1– 1– 1– 2 x 2 x – – – 1 6x = = 1 6x ) equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. b. x+5 x–3 –x 2 1 x–3 – x+5 x–3 – x(x – 3) x–3 1 x–3 x + 3 = 0 or x – 1 = 0 x = –3 or x = 1 = x + 5 – x + 3x x–3 2 (x – 3) = – (x – 4x – 5) – (x – 5)(x + 1 527. First. x2 + 4x – 5 2x2 + x – 3 2x + 3 x+1 Set 34 (Page 84) – 2 x+2 = 2 x+2 529. a. 530. Then. d. First. c. so we conclude that it is indeed a solution of the original equation. undefined. clear the fractions from all terms in the 3x + 10 x+3 = 3x + 10 x+3 528. or any subsequent step of the solution. d. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 2 3 2 3 + 1 6x – 3 x = (6 ( 26x) – 3(3) 6x 6x – + = 3x – 2 3x 1 2 3 x 6x = 1 2 6x 4x – 18 = 3x x = 18 This value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 525. c. 12 – 9 + 1 6x = 6x – 4 6x = 207 . or any subsequent step of the solution. undefined.

532. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x(x + 2) x+8 x+2 +1= 6 (2 – x)(2 + x) (2 – x)(2 + x) + 1 (2 – x )(2 + x) = (2 – x)(2 + x) + x(x + 2) 12 x2 + 2x = x(x + 2) 2 x 6 (2 – x)(2 + x) x(x + 8) + 12 = 2(x + 2) x2 + 8 + 12 = 2x + 4 x + 6x + 8 = 0 (x + 4)(x + 2) = 0 x = –4 or x = – 2 Note that x = –2 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. c. or any subsequent step of the solution. so we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. so it cannot be a solution of the equation. c. Thus. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –4. First. it cannot be a solution of the equation. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x x–3 x x–3 2 = 2 (t – 7)(t – 1) (t – 7)(t – 1) = + 2 x – 3 x–3 2 x (t – 7)(t – 1) + x(x – 3) + x(x – 3) = 3 x–3 x(x – 3) x + 2(x – 3) = 3x x2 – x – 6 = 0 (x – 3)( x + 2) = 0 x = 3. Thus. Then. or any subsequent step of the solution. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. it is indeed a solution of the original equation. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. Then. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x+2 3 x+2 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 2 3(2 – x) + 4 – x2 = 6 10 – 3x – x2 = 6 x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 (x + 4)(x – 1) = 0 x = –4. –2 Because x = 3 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. First. 208 . 1 Neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –2. clear the fractions from all terms in 533. 534. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: (t – 7)(t – 1) 2t t–7 2t t –7 1 +t – 1 1 (t – 1) the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 531. First. a. Then. undefined. undefined. clear the fractions from all terms in 2(t – 7)(t – 1) = 2t(t – 1) + (t – 7) = 2(t – 7)(t – 1) 2t2 – 2t + t – 7 = 2t2 – 16 + 14 –t – 7 = –16t + 14 15t =21 t= 21 15 = 7 5 Since this value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation. First. a. Then.

undefined. or any subsequent step of the solution. 538. 536. First. First. clear the fractions from all terms in 10 = 4(2x – 1) + 3(2x – 1) 10 = 16x2 – 16x + 4 + 6x – 3 10 = 16x2 – 10x + 1 16x2 – 10x – 9 = 0 (2x + 1)(8x – 9) = 0 x= –1 9 2. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques. so the equation has no solution. as follows: x–1 x–5 (2x – 1)2 = 4 (2x – 1)2 + = (2x – 1)2 2 (x – 5) 4 x–5 x–1 x–5 = (x – 5) 4 x–5 x–1=4 x=5 Because this value of x makes the expressions in the original equation undefined. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 535. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 10 (2x – 1)2 10 (2x – 1)2 =4+ 3 2x – 1 3 2x – 1 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. Then. b. d. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 22 2p2 – 9p – 5 Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. we conclude that the equation has no solution. clear the fractions from all terms in 537. Then. Then. 1 f(k – 1) 1 f(k – 1) + f(k – 1)pq = [ p1q + 1 ] f(k – 1)pq q pq = f(k – 1) + f)k – 1)p q= q= f(k –1) + f(k – 1)p p f(k –1)(1 + p) p 209 . b.8 the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 1 f – 3 2p + 1 = 2 p–5 22 (2p + 1)(p – 5) – 3 2p + 1 = 2 p–5 (2p +1)(p – 5) 22 (2p + 1)(p – 5) 3 2p + 1 – 2 p –5 (2p + 1)(p – 5) = (k – 1) = 1 pq 1 pq = (2p + 1)(p – 5) + 1 q 1 q 22 – 3(p – 5) = 2(2p + 1) 22 – 3p + 15 = 4p + 2 –3p + 37 = 4p + 2 35 = 7p p=5 This value of p makes the expressions in the original equation undefined. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. both of them are solutions to the original equation. First.

we conclude that the only solution of the equation is x = –1. Then. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x x+1 x x+1 – – 3 x+4 3 x+4 = = 3 x2 +5x + 4 3 (x + 1)( x + 4) 3 x + 4] x (x + 1)(x + 4) [ x + 1 – = the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). clear the fractions from all terms in (x – 3)(x – 1) (x – 3)(x – 1) 1+ 2 x–3 = 4 (x – 3)(x – 1) (x – 3)(x – 1) + 2(x – 1) = 4 x2 – 4x + 3 + 2x – 2 = 4 x2 – 2x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x + 1) = 0 x = 3 or x = –1 Because x = 3 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. Thus. Therefore. Then. it is indeed a solution of the original equation. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 539. Then. undefined. d. 540. clear the fractions from all terms in – 1 2x2+ x – 21 = 1 2x2 + 13x + 21 x+1 x(x – 3)(x + 3) – 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3) = 1 (2x + 7)(x + 3) the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. 542. 541. c. we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. c. First. undefined. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: x+1 x2 – 9x subsequent step of the solution. First. Then. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 3 x+2 3 (x + 1)(x + 4) [ (x + 1)(x + 4) ] = x–3 x–2 x–3 x–2 x(x + 4) – 3(x + 1) = 3 x2 + 4x – 3x – 3 = 3 x2 + x – 6 = 0 (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0 x = –3 or x = 2 Neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. First. First. it cannot be a solution of the equation. or any subsequent step of the solution. clear the fractions from all terms in the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator (LCD). solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: 1+ 1+ 2 x–3 2 x–3 x(x– 3)(x+ 3)(2x+ 7) x+1 (x – 3)(x + 3) – 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3) = = 4 x2 – 4x + 3 4 (x – 3)(x – 1) = x(x – 3)(x + 3)(2x + 7) 1 (2x + 7)(x – 3 ) (x + 1)(2x + 7) – x(x + 3) = x(x – 3) 2x2 + 9x + 7 – x2 – 3x = x2 – 3x x2 + 6x + 7 = x2 – 3x 6x + 7 = –3x 9x –7 x = –7 9 Since this value does not make any of the expressions in the original equation. or any 210 3 (x + 2)(x – 2) x + 2 = (x + 2)(x – 2) 3(x – 2) = (x + 2)(x – 3) 3x – 6 = x2 –x – 6 x2 –4x = 0 x(x – 4) = 0 x = 0 or x = 4 .

First. choose a real number in each of the subintervals. choose a real number in each subinterval. 1].” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. we form a number line. solve the resulting equation using factoring techniques: t+1 t–1 t+1 t–1 = = 4 t2 – 1 4 (t – 1)(t + 1) expression on the left side equal to zero or undefined. we must make certain that the numer- ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x2 + 9 x2 – 2x – 3 = x2 + 9 (x – 3)(x + 1) v= v1 + v2 1+ v1v2 c2 v[1 + v+ vv1v2 c2 v1v2 c2 ] = v1 + v2 Next. 546. determine the x-values that make the the equation by multiplying both sides by the least common denominator. we form a number line. The solution set is [–2.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. clear the fractions from all terms in Set 35 (Page 86) 545. Then. c. Now. and record the sign of the expression above each: vv1v2 c2 = v1 + v2 + –1 2 – 3 + –v1 = v2 –v 2 v1( c 2 – 1) = v2 – v v1 = vv2 2 c vv v2 – v –1 = v2 – v vv2 – c2 c2 = (v2 –v) c vv2 – c2 = c (v2 –v) vv2 – c2 2 Since the inequality does not include “equals. Thus. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. To this end. we conclude that both of them are solutions to the original equation. First. Therefore. Now. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. First. and 1. – 1)∪(3. ∞). c. 544. a. the solution set is (–∞.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Since neither of these values makes any of the expressions in the original equation. so it cannot be a solution of the equation. observe that these values are x = –3. 543. observe that these values are x = –1 and 3. 211 . b. To this end. Since the inequality includes “equals. –2. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. undefined. or any subsequent step of the solution. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –3 + –2 – 1 + 1 (t – 1)(t + 1) [ tt + 1 ] = (t – 1)(t + 1) – 4 (t + 1)(t – 1) (t + 1)(t + 1) = 4 t2 + 2t + 1 = 4 t2 + 2t – 3 = 0 (t + 3)(t – 1) = 0 t = –3 or t = 1 Note that t = 1 makes some of the terms in the original equation undefined. Then. Then. we conclude that the only solution of the equation is t = –3.

we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. we form a number line. The solution set is [–3. First. 2 3 So. a. Since none of these values make the numerator equal to zero. –2. Then. Then. we must simplify the complex fraction on the left side of the inequality: 1 2 – x–1 x2 1 4 x + 3 – x2 2(x – 1) – x2 x2(x – 1) x2 – 4(x + 3) x2(x + 3) = = –(x2 + 1) x2(6x2 – x – 2) = –(x2 + 1) x2(2x +1)(3x – 2) Next determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. 0)∪(0. and record the sign of the expression above each: = x2(x + 3) x2 – 4x – 12 –(x2 – 2x + 1) x2(x – 1) –(x – 1)2 (x2(x –1) = x2(x + 3) (x – 6)(x + 2) = – (x –1)(x + 3) (x – 6)(x + 2) – –3 2 + 0 + –2 3 – Since the inequality includes “equals. Determine the solution set for the inequal- 548. Now. we conclude that the solution set is (– 1 .” so we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. 0. To this end. or equivalently (upon multix+2 x –1 plication by –1 on both sides). and 2 . choose a real number in each subinterval. and 6. 0. observe that these values are x = – 1 . a. we determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. choose a real number in each subinterval.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 547. To this end. x+2 Next. we form a number 2 3 line. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. ((x – 6))((x + 3)) 0. 6). we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 2 ). ity First. Now. the original inequality can be written as x –1 – ((x – 6))((x + 3)) ≥ 0.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –3 – –2 + 0 + 1 – 6 + The inequality includes “equals. 1. Determine the solution set for the inequal- ity –x2 – 1 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 ≥ 0. including the values that make any factors common to both numerator and denominator equal to zero. –2)∪[1. observe that these values are x = –3. as follows: –x2 – 1 6x4 – x3 – 2x2 1 2 – x–1 x2 1 4 x + 3 – x2 0. 212 .

we form a number line. 0). we form a number line. Then. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. and record the sign of the expression above each: ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: z3 – 16z 8z – 32 = z(z2 – 16) 8(z – 4) = z(z – 4)(z + 4) 8(z – 4) = z(z + 4) 8 + –5 – –5 2 + Since. c. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. the inequality includes “equals. To this end. First. choose a real number in each subinterval. Next.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 549. observe that these values are z = –4. the solution set is (–∞. Then. 0). Next. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. –5)∪[– 5 . we form 2 a number line. as follows: – 0 + 213 . Since none of these values make the numerator equal to zero. d. – 5 .∞). Now. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. Then.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. the strategy is to determine the z-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. we must make certain that the numer- Now.” so include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Our first step is to make certain that the Next. 551. Therefore. The solution set is (–4. To this end. 2 550. and record the sign of the expression above each. 0. we must make certain that the numer- ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 2z2 – z – 15 z2 + 2 z – 15 = (2z + 5)(z – 3) (z + 5)(z – 3) = (2z + 5) z+5 Since. the inequality includes “equals. choose a real number in each subinterval. To this end. 4. we conclude that the solution set is (–∞. d. First. determine the z-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. observe that these values are z = –5. = 25x4 x 25x4 = 1 x Now. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –4 – 0 + 4 + numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 25(–x)4 x(5x2)2 Since the inequality does not include “equals. observe that the only value for which this is true is x = 0.

2 5 choose a real number in each subinterval. we form a number line. and record the sign of the expression above each: + –1 2 – –2 5 – 1 + ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x2 + 8x x2 – 64x = x(x + 8) x(x2 – 64) = x(x + 8) x(x + 8)(x– 8) = 1 x–8 The inequality includes “equals. we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: y2 – 64 8–y Since the inequality does not include “equals. To this end. 1]. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. First. – 2 )∪(– 2 . we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. Now. ∞). To this end. To begin. and record the sign of the expression above each. we must make certain that the = (y – 8)(y + 8) (8 – y) = (y – 8)(y + 8) –(y – 8) = –(y + 8) Now. To begin. ∞). 8)∪(8.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 552. 8.” we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. we must make certain that the numer- Next determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. We conclude that the solution set is [–8. 554. a. choose a real number in each subinterval. the solution set is (8. Now. 553. and record the sign of the expression above each: – –8 – 8 + 214 . Therefore. Then. a. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. observe that these values are x = – 1 .” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. 2 5 5 Next. We conclude that the solution set is (– 1 . Next. Then.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. b. Then. observe that these values are x = –8. 1. To this end. we form a number line. determine the y-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. observe that these values are y = –8. as follows: numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 5x2(x – 1) – 3x(x –1) – 2(x – 1) 10x2(x – 1) + 9x(x – 1 +2(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x + 2)(x – 1) (x – 1)(5x +2)(2x + 1) = (x – 1)(5x2 – 3x – 2) (x – 1)(10x2 + 9x +2) = = x–1 2x + 1 + –8 – 8 – The inequality includes “equals. we form a number line. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. – 2 . 8. choose a real number in each subinterval.

observe that the only value for which this is true is x = 5 . First. choose a real number in each subinterval. There are no such values. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality includes “equals. 556. choose a real number in each subinterval.”so we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. c. we must make certain that the numer- 1 = –x + 2 ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: (2x – 5)(x + 4) – (2x – 5)(x + 1) 9(2x – 5) (2x – 5)((x + 4) – (x + 1)) 9(2x – 5) = = 1 3 Next. 0. which are x = –2. we form a 2 number line. the expression is always positive. and record the sign of the expression above each: = 3 9 + –2 – 1 – Now. –2). we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. we must make certain that the numer- – 5 2 + ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 6x3 – 24x 24x2 = 6x(x2 – 4) 4 6 x x = x2 – 4 4x = (x – 2)(x + 2) 4x Now. The solution set is [–2. Then. 557. and record the sign of the expression above each: Since the inequality does not include “equals.” so we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Then.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 555. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Now. The solution set is (–∞. c. First. choose a real number in each of the duly formed subintervals. we form a number line. the solution set is the empty set. To this end. which are x = –2 and 1. Now.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. ∞). the strategy is to determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. First. determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. as follows: 3 – 2x (x + 2)(x – 1) 1–x (x – 1)(x + 2) – –2 + 0 – 2 + – = 2–x (x – 1)(x + 2) –(x – 1) (x – 1)(x + 2) = 3 – 2x – (2 – x) (x – 1)(x + 2) = Since the inequality includes “equals. Then. Next. and furthermore. make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. Therefore. 215 . c. 2. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. we form a number line. 0)∪(2. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values.

d. As such. b. as follows: 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 y +1 y+1 Since the inequality does not include “equals. the strategy is to determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or Now. Next. Then. 3. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 2 4 2 form a number line.” we would not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. 1 . Next. observe that these values are x = – 1 . To this end. we form a number line. – 1 . The solution set is (– 1 . and record the sign of the expression above each: + –1 2 – 1 4 + 1 2 + 1 – Since the inequality includes “equals. choose a real number in each subinterval. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. choose a real number in 216 . we conclude that the solution set is [–1.” we include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Now. Then. Then. observe that these values are y = –4. 3)∪(3. we must make certain that the numer- – –1 + 3 + 5 – ator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled. 1. 559. observe that these values are x = –1. First. we assess the sign of the expression on the left side on each subinterval formed using these values. 5). –1. 5. d. 1].ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 558. the strategy is to determine the y-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. – 1 ]∪( 1 . To begin. we must make certain that the numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: 5 [ x + 3 – x] x– x + 5 – x2 + 3x x–3 1 x–3 5 = [x + 3 – x– x(x – 3) x–3 ] 1 x–3 = (x – 3) = – (x2 – 4x – 5) = undefined. To this end. and 1. we form a number line. choose a real number in each subinterval. and record the sign of the expression above each: –(x –5)(x + 1) Determine the x-values that make this expression equal to zero or undefined. Our first step is to make certain that the – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) + 5 (y + 1) = 3y + 2 (y – 1)2 (y –1)2 (y – 1)2 – 7y – 3 (y – 1)(y + 1) y –1 y–1 + 5 y+1 = (3y + 2)(y + 1) – (7y –3)(y – 1) + 5(y –1)2 (y – 1)2(y +1) = = 3y2 + 5y + 2 – (7y2 – 10y + 3) + 5(y2 – 2y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) 3y2 + 5y + 2 – 7y2 + 10y – 3 + 5y2 – 10y + 5 (y – 1)2(y + 1) y2 + 5y + 4 (y – 1)2(y + 1) numerator and denominator are both completely factored and that all common terms are canceled: x 2x + 1 = = – 1 2x – 1 + 2x 4x2 – 1 2 = x 2x + 1 2x – 1 2x – 1 – 1 2x – 1 (y +4)(y + 1) (y – 1)2(y + 1) = y+4 (y – 1)2 2x + 1 2x + 1 + 2x2 4x2 – 1 = = x(2x – 1) – 1(2x + 1) + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) 4x2 – 3x – 1 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = 2x2 – x – 2x – 1 + 2x2 (2x – 1)(2x + 1) (4x + 1)(x – 1) (2x – 1)(2x + 1) = Now. 2 4 2 560. To this end.

The expression is now ab ab ab . a. 4 5 312 = 515 = 4 (33)4 = 33 = 27 (53)5 = 53 = 125 568. multiply the two radicals. 571. Since(–2)5 = –32. a. Factor roots) since (–7)2 = 49 and (7)2 = 49. c. Cancel 217 . 573. Factor each term in the numerator: a2b = b2 = a2 b b = a b and ab2 = a two separate exponents to obtain 81– 4 = (81 4 )–3 = 3–3 = 1 3 a. b = 3 satisfies the 1 equation. Since 1 (2b)4 = 2b. Cancel the 3y terms from the numeratorand denominator. 569. a. a. The cube root of 27y3 = 3y. Simplify the fraction by dividing the numerator by the and denominator. since (3y)(3y)(3y) 43 = 64. a. (4x–4) 576. b. 3 9 –3 = (–3)3 = –3 x5 x7 3 3 3 (9)(–3) = 1 x2 3 –27 = 1 x 578. c. We break up the fractional exponent into = 27y3. we write 565. the principal root of 625 is 5. Since 566. 4g into two radicals. We break up the fractional exponent into 5 1 two separate exponents to obtain 49 2 = (49 2 )5 = 75 = 16. Cancel the g terms from the numerator and denominator. ( 27 )– 3 = ( 3 )3 574. c. –7 and 7 are both second roots (square 577. so factor 4g into 4 g = 2 g. c. b = 64 satisfies the equation. 562. We break up the fractional exponent into – –4 + –1 + 1 + two separate exponents to obtain 32 5 = (32 5 )3 5 = ( 32)3 = (2)3 = 8. = [(–4)3]– 3 = (–4)–1 = = (2x–2) –2 1 –4 –1 = –4 1 2x–2 575. and record the sign of the expression above each: 572. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– each subinterval. The square root of 2 9y = 3y. The solution set is (–∞. a. the coefficients of each radical and multiply the radicands of each radical: (a b)(b a) = ab ab. = 9y2 3. Multiply 1 1 33 = 27 . b. c. a. Simplify the fraction by multiplying the 3 numeratorand denominatorby : 3 : 1 3 3 ( 3 )( 3 ) = 3 . leaving 1 . 4 5 5 –32 = –2. Note that 625 = 54. Factor the denominator into two radicals: 27y2. 563. –125 since (–5)3 = –125. (–64) –3 3 1 8 2 2 –3 2 = ( 3 )–2 = ( 2 )2 = 1 2 3 32 22 = 4. d. 579. c. b. 4 That leaves 2 = 2. 581. 64 6 = (26) 6 = 2 570.807. So. 4 is a perfect square. The expression y is now equal to 3y 3 . a. 564. since (3y)(3y) = 9y2. –4). a3 = x5 x7 = = 1 x 2 = a3 = a3 a2a = a3a a = a4 a 580.” so we do not include those values from the number line that make the numerator equal to zero. Next. c. b. 1 x2 9 1 The inequality does not include “equals. 582. 567. b. 4 –2 1 –1 2 = (2x–2) = =2 x144 = 4 (x72)2= 4x72 Set 37 (Page 91) Section 5—Radical Expressions and Quadratic Equations Set 36 (Page 90) 561.

(5 – 125 9 = = 4 = 4 5 3 5 – 3)(7 + 3) = 5(7) + 5( 3) – 7( 32 = 35 + (5 – 7) 3 – 3 = 32 – 2 3 3) 600. a. 592. d. (64g6)(g4) = 64g. since a value raised to the exponent is 3 2 1 2 because the variable/radical parts are alike. add the exponents. The denominator (pr) has a negative exponent. a. = –10 + 25 5 –1 = –10 + 5i 5 = (x2)4 4 5(–2 + i) 5 = –2 +i x21 = 4 (x5)4 x = 3 (x5)4 x = x5 3 x 602. 594. b. d. 4 4 243 243 = 3 = 4 3 x2 + 4x + 4 = 81= 34 = 3 4 6)(6 – 15) = 24 – 4 15 + 6 6 – 90 = 24 –4 15 + 6 6 – 3 10 –10 + –25 5 (x + 2)2 = x + 2 24 4 4 32x8 = = 2x2 4√4 4 3 4 24 2 (x2)4 = 4 2 4 601. First. a. Add the exponents of the g terms. we 585. (4 + 587. 588. 4 +4 2 + 20 15 29 2 15 = 50 2 = 25 52 5 32 599.10 Finally. The expression pr can be written as ( pr) 1 2 1 2 –5 3+4 5–8 3+4 5 3 = (3 – 8) 3+ 4 5 = 597. First. 583. 590. 589. d. c. (4 + 2i)(4 –2i) = 16 – (2i)2 = 16 – 22i2 = 54x5 = 2 33 x3 x2 = 3x 2x2 16 – (4)(–1) = 16 + 4= 20 603. –32 = 4i 2 595. The expression is now 3(pr) (pr) . First.10 584. We first simplify each fraction. d. Cube the constant 4 –25 = 25 (–1) = 2 5 i2 = 5i (32(–1) = 52 32 i2 = –1 = (4√2)(i) = and multiply the exponent of g by 3: (4g2) = 64g6. 2 + 3 2 1 } } Same Same = 4 2 = 2. 3 9 pr = 3 pr. multiply 64g6 by g4. 9pr = 3 2 – 48 + 2 27 – 75 = – 42 3 + 2 32 3 – 52 3 = –4 3 + 6 3 – 5 3 = (–4 + 6 – 5) 3 = –3 3 596. b. a. c. b. Then. To multiply the pr terms. e. so =3(pr) (pr) = 3(pr)2 = 3p2r2. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– the ab terms from the numerator and Set 38 (Page 93) 593. d. d. find the square root of 9pr. so it can be rewritten in the numerator with a positive exponent. 3 denominator. 20 + 5 20 3 2 1 2 598. leaving ab. a. (4 + 2i)2 = 16 +(4)(2i) + (2i)(4) + (2i)2 = x3 + 40x2 + 400x = x(x + 20)2 = (x + 20) x(x2 + 40x + 400) = x 16 + 16i + 22i2 = 16 +16i –4 = 12 + 16i 218 . 18 25 3 5 5 2 (10 5) = 5(10) 2 125 9 5 2 5 (10 5). c. 591. e. cube the 4g2 term. taking the square root of 64g10 yields 8g5. b. Next. Cancel the 5 2 + 3 3 32 9 = 2 3 18 25 5 5 + = 9 32 9 = 3 5 2 2 + = 4 3 2 = terms and multiply the fraction by 10: (10 5) = 586. since (8g5)(8g5) = 64g. we can add the coefficients: xy 8xy2 + 3y2 18x3 =xy(2y) 2x + 3y2(3x) 2x = 2xy2 2x + 9xy2 2x = 11xy2 2x another way of representing the square root of the value. Substitute 20 for n: 25 20 (2 20 5) = 5 find the LCD and add. simplify each radical expression. Then.

1 3–5 2 3)( 2 3) + 7)(5 7) = 5( 7)2 = 2 3 21 – 35 = 612. b. Take the square root of both sides and solve 3 solve for x: 4x + 33 = 2x – 1 ( 4x + 33)2 = (2x – 1)2 4x + 33 = 4x2 – 4x + 1 0 = 4x2 – 8x – 32 0 = 4(x2 – 2x – 8) 0 = 4(x – 4)(x + 2) x = 4. 21( 21( 3+7 21 3 7 + 7 3 ) = 21 3 3+ 7 7 7 3 = ) = 10 3x)(2) + 605. Square both sides of the equation and then sides to the third power and solve for x: 7 3x = –2 7 – 3x = (–2)3 = –8 –3x = –15 x=5 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement –2 = –2. Observe that (– 3 )–2 = (–1)–2 ( 3 )–2 = 1 1 1(–1)2 3 2 1 = 9. –2 for x: (x – 3)2 = –28 (x – 3)2 = ± –28 x – 3 = ±2i 7 x = 3 ±2i 7 219 . 615. Since. a 3 = (a 3 )2 = 62 = 36.(2 + ( 606. e. = = = 1 3–5 2 3+5 2 9 – 25(2) 2x 2–3 x 3+5 3+5 2 2 = 3+5 2 2 3 – (5 2) 2 = the solutions of which are –3 and 3. so it is indeed a solution. 2( 2x 2–3 x 2+3 2+3 = = 2 2x + 6x 4 – 9x 2x) + (3 x)( 2x) 22 – (3 x)2 = 2 2x + 3(2x) 4 – 32( x)2 Set 39 (Page 94) 609. only x = 4 is a solution to the original equation. 4 2 ( 3 + 7)(2 3 – 5 7) = ( ( 7)(2 3) – ( 3)(5 7) – ( 2( 3)2 = 2 7 3 – 5 3 7 – + 2 21 – 5 21 – 5 7 = 6 – 3 –29 – 3 21 607. d. 611. To eliminate the radical term.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 604. a. So. this equation is equivalent to p2 = 9. raise both 3+5 2 9 – 52( 2)2 =– 3+5 2 41 x x sides to the third power and solve for x: 5x – 8 = 3 5x – 8 = 33 = 27 5x = 35 x=7 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement 3 = 3. so it is indeed a solution. ( p)4 = (p 2 )4 = p2. raise both 3 608. d. Square both sides of the equation and then solve for x: 7 + 3x = 4 ( 7 + 3x)2 = (4)2 7 + 3x = 16 3x = 9 x=3 Substituting this value into the original equation yields the true statement 4 = 4. a. We must solve the equation 1 ( p)4 = 9 for p. but substituting x = –2 into the original equation results in the false statement 5 = –5. a. b. so we know that it is indeed a solution. d. 613. d. To eliminate the radical term. d. a. 3x)2 3x)2 = 4 + (2)( 3x) + ( = 4+4 3x + 3x Substituting x = 4 into the original equation yields the true statement 7 = 7. 610. 614.

617. but substituting x = 15 into the original equation results in the false statement 22 = 8. c. take the square root of both sides and solve for x: (x – 1)2 + 16 = 0 (x – 1)2 = – 16 (x – 1)2 = ± –16 x – 1 = ± 4i x = 1 ± 4i x2 + 81 = 0 x2 = –81 x2 = ± –81 x = ±9i 220 . solve for x: 10 – 3x = x – 2 ( 10 – 3x)2 = (x – 2)2 10 – 3x = x2 – 4x + 4 0 = x2 – x – 6 0 =(x – 3)( x + 2) x = 3. 81 x2 + 1 = 0 x2 = – 1 x2 = ± – 1 x = ± i2 x=±i 624. x2 = 225 x2= ± 225 x = ± 15 621. but substituting x = –2 into the original equation results in the false statement 4 = –4. Only x = 3 is a solution to the original equation. 618. solve for x: 3x + 4 +x = 8 3x + 4 = 8 – x ( 3x + 4)2 = (8 – x)2 3x + 4 = 64 – 16x + x2 0 = x2 – 19x + 60 0 = (x – 4)(x – 15) x = 4. only x = 4 is a solution to the original equation. d. b. –13 623. c. a. Isolate the squared expression on one side (x + 4)2 = 81 (x + 4)2 = ± x + 4 = ±9 x = – 4 ±9 x = 5. Square both sides of the equation and then 619. d. and then. Therefore. b. 15 Substituting x = 4 into the original equation yields the true statement 8 = 8. x3 = –125 3 3 x3= –125 x = –5 622.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 616. b. Square both sides of the equation and then x3 = – 27 3 3 x3 = –27 3 x = (–3)3 x=–3 620. –2 Substituting x = 3 into the original equation yields the true statement 1 = 1. c.

6 (2)2 –4(1)(0) 2(1) = –2 ± 4 2 = –2 ±2 2 = –2. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. c. b. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 3. b. and c = 2 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a and c = –7 to obtain: x= ± –b ± 28 2 b2 – 4ac 2a 2 7 2 = –(5) ± 2 (5)2 –4(3)(2) 2(3) = = –(0) ± (0)2 – 4(1)(–7) 2(1) = –5 ± 1 6 = –5 ± 1 6 = –1. 2) ± b = 4. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 2. a. put the equation into standard form =± =± 627. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 4.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 40 (Page 95) 625. First. –5 ±i 7 4 b = 20. b = 2. b. and c = 0 to obtain: x= = –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a = –(3)± (3)2 – 4(4)(0) 2(4) 3 by moving all terms to the left side of the equation to obtain the equivalent equation 2x2 +5x + 4 = 0. a. d. a. and c = 0 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–5) (–5)2 – 4(1)(–6) 2(1) = = 5±7 2 = –(2) ± = –1. a. First. 631. – 4 = –(5)± (5)2 –4(2)(4) 2(2) = –5 4 –7 628. and c = 3 to obtain: b2 –4ac 2a (–2 2(1) –20 ± 202 –10 = –20 ± 20 –10 = 0. b = 0. and c = 4 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a = 2 2 ± 8 –12 2 = = –(4)± (4)2 –4(1)(4) 2(1) 2 ± –4 2 = 2 = 2±i = 635. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. – 3 =± =± 7 632. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 5. 4 = 2)2–4(1)(3) 2 ±2i 2 629. put the equation into standard form –4 ± 0 2 = –2 (repeated solution) 630. b = 0. a. and c = 4 to obtain: x= = –b ± b2 –4ac 2a –3 ± 9 8 = –3 ± 3 8 = 0. and c = –1 to obtain: x= ± 4 –b ± 8 b2 – 4ac 2a 2 2 4 = –(0) ± (0)2 –4(5)(–24) 2(5) 30 5 = = –(0) ± 2 2 (0)2 – 4(2)(–1) 2(2) = ± =± 4 30 10 =± 2 633. Apply the quadratic formula with a = –5. 0 221 . b = –5. and c = 0 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 – 4ac 2a 634. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. (20)2 –4(–5)(0) 2(–5) = –(20)± b = –2 = x= –(–2 2 –b ± 2 . b = 0. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. and c = –24 to obtain: x= –b ± 480 10 b2 –4ac 2a 626. b = 3. b = 5. c. b = 5. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. apply the quadratic formula with a = 2. Now. Now. and c = –6 to obtain: x= 5± 2 –b ± 49 b2 – 4ac 2a by moving all terms to the left side of the equation to obtain the equivalent equation x2 + 2x = 0.

c. and c = 19 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a we first eliminate the fractions by multiplying 1 5 both sides of the equation 6 x2 – 3 x + 1 = 0 by 6. put the equation into standard form = –(–48) ± (–48)2 –4(9)(19) 2(9) –8 ±3 5 3 = –48 ± 1620 18 = –48 ±18 5 18 = by expanding the expression on the left side. and c = –3 to obtain: x= 3± 2 –b ± 21 b2 –4ac 2a = –(–3) ± (–3)2 –4(1)(3) 2(1) = take the square root of both sides. b = –10. d. Apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. Now. and c = –3 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a 637. Set 41 (Page 97) 641. 10 638. and c = 10 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–1) ± = –(–11) ± (–11)2 – 4(1)(–10) 2(1) (–1)2 –4(1)(–3) 2(1) = = 11 ± 81 2 = 11 ±9 2 1 ± 13 2 = 1. Now. d. The simplification process will be easier if by expanding the expression on the left side. then divide both sides by 20 in order to make the coefficients integers. put the equation into standard form 639. b. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. b = –48. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 636. First. First. as follows: 4x2 = 3 x2 = 3 4 3 4 x=± =± 3 4 =± 3 2 222 . apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. b = –3. and solve for x. We first multiply both sides of the equation by 100. Doing so yields the equivalent equation x2 – 11x + 10 = 0. b = –1. a. and then moving all terms to the left side of the equation: (x – 3)(2x + 1) =x(x – 4) 2x2 – 6x +x – 3 =x2 – 4x x2 –x – 3 = 0 Now. apply the quadratic formula with a = 1. b = –11. apply the quadratic formula with a = 9. Isolate the squared expression on one side. Doing so yields the equivalent equation x2 – 10x + 6 = 0. and c = 6 to obtain: x= –b ± b2 –4ac 2a = –(–10) ± (–10)2 –4(1)(6) 2(1) = 10 ± 76 2 = 10 ± 2 19 2 = 5 ± 19 640. this will help with the simplification process. and then moving all terms to the left side of the equation: (3x – 8)2 = 45 9x2 – 48x + 64 = 45 9x2 – 48x + 19 = 0 Now.

a. y2 = 0. c. d. the solutions are imaginary.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 642. Since the curves do not intersect. 648. Take the square root of both sides. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 9 6 3 –4 –3 –2 –1 –3 –6 –9 –12 –15 –18 –21 –24 1 2 3 4 y2 for x: (4x + 5)x2 = –49 4x + 5 = ± –49 = ±7i 4x = –5 ± 7i x= –5 ±7i 4 644. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y2 10 8 645. and solve = 5x2 – 24. let y1 take the square root of both sides. Isolate the squared expression on one side. take the square root of both sides. and solve for x: –3x2 = –9 x2 = 3 x=± 3 643. take the square root of both sides. b. and solve for x: (3x – 8)2 = 45 3x – 8 = ± 45 3x = 8 ± 45 x= 8± 3 45 8 ±3 5 3 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. c. and solve for x: (–2x + – 50 = 0 2 (–2x + 1) = 50 –2x + 1 = ± 50 –2x = –1 ± 50 x= –1 ± 50 –2 y1 1)2 6 4 2 = 1± 2 50 = 1 ±5 2 2 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –2 –4 –6 –8 1 2 3 4 5 646. Take the square root of both sides. Isolate the squared expression on one side. To solve the equation graphically. To solve the given equation graphically. Isolate the squared expression on one side. b.191. and solve for x: –(1 – –121 = 0 2 = –121 (1 – 4x) 1 – 4x = ± –121 –4x = –1 ± –121 x= –1 ± –121 –4 4x)2 –10 = 1± –121 4 = 1 ±11i 4 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. let y1 = 2x2. 647. 223 . c. We conclude that the solutions are approximately ±2. = y2 = –5x – 4.

The solutions are x = 2. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 649. let 651. c.5 2 2.5 4 4. 4. The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 60 50 40 30 20 10 –4 –3 –2 –1 –10 1 2 3 4 5 6 y2 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. let y1 = 4x2. a.875. 650.5 3 3.25. We conclude that the solutions are approximately x = 3. 224 . 1. y2 = 20x – 24. To solve the given equation graphically. let y1 = y1 = 12x – 15x . To solve the given equation graphically. To solve the equation graphically.5 1 1. y2 = 45. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 4 3 2 1 y2 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 –6 –7 –8 –9 –10 y1 1 2 2 (3x – 8)2. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 y2 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 0. 3.903. so the solutions are x = 0. y2 = 0.5 5 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 –6 –12 y1 60 54 48 42 36 30 24 18 12 6 1 2 3 4 y2 –6 5 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 652. y2 = 0. The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation: x = –2. To solve the equation graphically.791. 3. let y1 = 654. 10.20x2 – 2. b. To solve the given equation graphically. b.791. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 2 y2 –9 –6 –3 –2 3 6 9 12 15 18 –4 –6 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. a. y2 = 0. 0. To solve the given equation graphically. let y1 = 0. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 10 8 6 4 y1 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 2 4 6 8 10 y 2x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 2 1 2 3 4 5 –2 –4 –8 y2 –10 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation: approximately x = –0. let y1 – 3x – 3. 653. 225 . We conclude that the solutions are x = 1.20x + 2. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 x2 =x2 and y2 = –2x.

c. y2 = 0. The solutions are x = –1. To solve the equation graphically.359. 226 . 1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 655. y2 = 0. 656. To solve the equation graphically. let y1 = 6 x2 – 3 x + 1.641. 9. b. Graph these on the same set of axes and 1 5 identify the points of intersection: y1 10 8 6 4 2 y2 –9 –6 –3 –2 3 6 9 12 15 18 –4 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. We conclude that the solutions are approximately x = 0. Graph these on the same set of axes and identify the points of intersection: 10 8 6 4 2 y1 –4 –3 –2 –1 –2 –4 1 2 3 4 y2 The x-coordinates of the points of intersection are the solutions of the original equation. let y1 = (2x + 1)2 – 2(2x + 1) – 3.

which is quadratic. Solving this equation for u yields the solution u= ± 4 . Observe that (3b2 – 1)(1– 2b2) = 0 as 4(b2)2 + 20(b)2 + 25 = 0. which gives us b = ±2 u = 3 is the same as b2 = 3. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (2u + 5)2 = 0. which gives us 1 2 u= 1 4 is the same as b2 = 4 . Solving this equation for u 5 yields the solution u = – 2 . Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (4u– 1)(4u+ 1) = 0. ± 2 . which gives us b=± – 5 = ±i 2 5 2 5 5 = ±i( 10 2 ) Therefore. 2 660. Let u = b2. 227 . ± 3. Let u= b2 . which gives us b = ± – 1 = ±i 4 1 4 1 1 1 can be written as (3u– 1)(1– 2u) = 0. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= – 4 is the same as b2 = – 4 . Observe that 16b4 – 1 = 0 can be written as 16(b2)2 – 1 = 0. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= 1 3 is the same as b2 = 3 . 658. rewriting the previous equation yields the equation u2 – 7u+ 12 = 0. b. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation. which is quadratic. a. 4u2 + 20u+25 = 0. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u= – 2 is the same as b2 = – 2 . In order to solve the original equation. Observe that b4 – 7b2 + 12 = 0 can be written 659. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = 4 or u = 3. In order to solve the original equation. The solutions of the original equation are 1 1 b = ±i( 2 ). b. which gives us b=± 3 The solutions of the original equation are b = ±2. which gives us 1 4 b=± =± 2 2 b=± = ±2 1 The solutions of the original equation are b=± 2 2 . which is quadratic. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable b: u = 4 is the same as b2 = 4. which gives us 1 3 1 b=± u= 1 2 =± 3 3 1 ±i( 2 ) 1 1 is the same as b2 = 2 .± 3 3 . Then. Note that 4b4 + 20b2 +25 = 0 can be written as (b2)2 – 7(b)2 + 12 = 0. Solving this equation for u yields 1 1 the solutions u = 3 or u= 2 . Let u = b2. Let u= b2.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 42 (Page 98) 657. which is quadratic. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (u– 4)(u– 3) = 0. In order to solve the original equation. the solutions of the original equation are b = ±i( 10 ). Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 16u2 – 1 = 0. d.

Note that x – x = 6. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 16 – 56u+ 49u2 = 0. which gives x = 32 = 9 1 u = 7 is the same as x2 = 7. the solution of the original equation is x = 9. Note that. rewriting the original equation yields the equation u2 – 10u+ 21 = 0. let u = x6. c. rewriting the above equation yields the equation u2 – u– 6 = 0. In order to solve the original equation. Specifically. Next. x + 21 = 10x 2 or equivalently. Let u= x. Let u = x. or equivalently x – x – 6 = 0. We must first write the equation in the cor- rect form: 2x6 –x3 – 1 = 0 1 1 x3 – 2x6 + 1 = 0 1 1 (x6)2 – 2(x6) + 1 = 0 Next. we must go back to the actual substitution and solve the new equations obtained by substituting in this value of u. which does not have a solution u = 3 is the same as x = 3. a. Solving this equation 4 for u yields the solution u= 7 . 662. which gives x = 72 = 49 The solutions of the original equation are x = 9. which is quadratic. The result is that x = 1. we must solve the equation u2 – 2u+ 1 = 0. so that x = 9 Therefore. This is easily solved by raising both sides to the power 6. which is quadratic. 49. x + 49x = 0 can be written as 16 – 56 x+ 49( x)2 = 0. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = 7 is the same as 4 16 x = ( 7 )2 = 49 4 664. c. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u– 3)(u+ 2) = 0. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = 3 is the same as x2 = 3. u = 1. solution of the original equation is 16 x = 49 . Solving this equation for u yields the solution u = 3 or u = 7. can be written as ( x)2 – ( x) – 6 = 0. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = –2 or u= 3. In order to solve the original equation. which is quadratic. In order to solve the original equation. Observe that factoring this equation yields (u– 1)2 = 0. which gives us 4 Therefore. Then. 228 . Consequently. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (u– 3)(u– 7) = 0. Then. Factoring the left side results in the equivalent equation (4 – 7u)2 = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 1 661. 1 we must solve x6 = 1. x – 10x2 + 21 = 0 can be written as (x2)2 – 10(x2) + 1 21 = 0. Observe that 16 – 56 1 1 1 1 663. 1 1 1 x = 7 . we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u = –2 is the same as x = –2.Then. Let u=x2. a.

Solving this equation for u yields the solu1 tions u = 4 or u = 1. the two solutions to the original equation are x = 6 3 6 –2. d. Observe that 3 +x 4 –x 2 = 0 –1 –1 –x 2 +x 4 = 0 –1 –1 – (x 4 )2 + (x 4 ) + 3 = 0 Let u = x 4 . Factoring yields the equivalent equation (4u – 1)(u – 1) = 0. c. Then. or equivalently 4x – 5x + 1 = 0. Using the quadratic formula yields u= –1 ± 1 – 4(–1)(3) 2(–1) –1 –1 –1 = –1 ± 13 –2 = 1± 2 13 . 229 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 665. we must go back to the actual substitution and solve the following equations involving the original variable x: x4 = –1 –1 1+ 2 13 1+ 2 13 –4 ) 16 (1 + 13)4 x4 = –1 –1 1– 2 13 1– 2 13 13 –4 ) 16 (1 – 13)4 16 (1 + 13)4 (x 4 ) –4 = ( x = ( 1+ 2 (x 4 )–4 = ( x = ( 1– 2 13 )4 = )4 = So. we must solve the following equations obtained by going back to the actual substitution: x3 + 5 = 3 x3 = –2 1 1 (x3)3 = (–2)3 3 x = –2 x3 + 5 = 2 x3 = –3 1 1 (x3)3 = (–3)3 3 x = –3 3 So. which is quadratic. We must first rewrite the equation in a nicer form. 3 Let u = x3. solve the quadratic equation –u2 + u+ 3 = 0. so that x = 1 3 1 4 u = 1 is the same as x3 = 1. 2 667. Then. can be written as 4(x3) – 5(x3) + 1 = 0. the two solutions to the original equation are x = . Observe that 4x + 1 = 5x . Now. This factors as (u– 3)(u– 2) = 0. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 4|u|2 – 5|u| + 1 = 0. 666. b. so we conclude that u= 3. the equation (x3 + 5)2 – 5(x3 + 5) + 6 = 0 can be written equivalently as u2 – 5u+ 6 = 0. 3 –3. Next. 1. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u= 1 4 is the same as x3 = 4 . so that x = 1 The solutions of the original equation are x = 3 1 4 . Let u = x3 + 5. 2. 16 (1 – 13)4 .

which is quadratic. u= 2 is the same as 1 + w = 2 . Multiply both sides by r and solve for r: r– r = – 2 r2 – 3 = – 2r r2 + 2r– 3 = 0 (r + 3)(r– 1) = 0 r = –3. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u – 6)(u – 2) = 0. Isolating the radical term yields w = 5. Factoring yields the equation (x + 3)(x – 2) = 0. that must be solved: First. we must go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable r. u = 6 is the same as 1 + w = 6. that must be solved. this time in x. Therefore. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x. so that x = –3 or 2. First. which is quadratic. 1. Observe that 2 1 + w 2 = 13 1 + 2 1+ w w – 6. Similarly. Let u=x2 +x. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = – 2 or u= 3. Doing so yields two more equations involving rational expressions. Similarly. Doing so yields two more radical equations. a. which is quadratic. 1 Similarly.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 668. 3 u = –2 is the same as r– r = –2. u = 2 is the same as x2 +x = 2. Multiply both sides by r and solve for r: r– r = 3 r2 – 3 = 3r r2 – 3 r – 3 = 0 Using the quadratic formula then yields r = –(–3) ± (–3)2 –4(1)(–3) 2(1) 3 3 3 w. can be written as u2 – 8u + 12 = 0. or 2. 3± 2 21 . 1. Observe that (r– r )2 – (r– r ) – 3 3 3 8(x2 +x)or equivalently (x2 +x)2 – 8(x2 +x) + 12 = 0. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u– 1)(u– 6) = 0. so that w = 25. Let u = 1 + 6 = 0 can be written as u2 – u– 6 = 0. Solving this equation 1 for u yields the solutions u= 2 or u= 6. or equivalently 2 – 13 1 + w + 6 = 0. which has no solution. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (u – 3)(u + 2) = 0. b. or equivalently x2 +x – 2 = 0. –2. or equivalently x2 + x – 6 = 0. Factoring yields the equation (x + 2)(x – 1) = 0. Doing so yields two more quadratic equations. the solutions of the original equation are x = –3. u = 6 is the same as x2 + x = 6. Observe that (x2 +x)2 + 12 = 670. 1 Isolating the radical term yields w = – 2 . 669. First. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable w. this time in w. can be written as 2u2 – 13u + 6 = 0. 230 . To solve the original equation. this time in r. The solution of the original equation is w = 25. In order to solve the original equation. Solving this equation for u yields the solutions u = 2 or u= 6. Let u = r– r . a. u = 3 is the same as r– r = 3. The solutions of the original equation are r = –3. that must be 1 1 solved. = 3± 2 21 . so that x = – 2 or 1.

The arrowheads on the ends of the curve imply that the graph extends upward. 674. The domain of a real-valued function is 3 1 3 3 27 8 u= 4 is the same as a 3 = 4. 1 2 1 4 Section 6—Elementary Functions Set 43 (Page 102) 673. Solving this equation 2 3 for u yields the solutions u = 3 or u= 2 . when substituted for the variable. as x tends toward both positive and negative infinity. This line touches the graph of f(x) in 2 places. so the domain of the function is the set of all real numbers. Observe that f(0) = 02 – 4 = –4. b. the set of all values that. produce a meaningful output. 2 4 x = 3 . so that x = ( 2 )4 = 16 . 16 . The x-axis is the graph of the line f(x) = 0. Let u = a 3 . 8 . The graph of f(x) touches the x-axis in 5 places. Therefore. 675. so x = ( 2 )3 = 1 1 1 plane where f(x) = 10. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u – 3)(3u – 2) = 0. Observe that 6 x – 13 x + 6 = 0 can be 4 4 written as 6( x )2 – 13( x ) + 6 = 0. without bound. Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 2u2 – 11u + 12 = 0. there are 2 values for which f(x) = 10. 676. Factoring yields the equivalent equation (2u – 3)(u– 4) = 0. Solving the original equation requires that we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable x: u= 3 is the same as u= 2 is the same as 16 81 81 . Therefore. c. Let u = 4 x . x = 2 . All real numbers can be substituted for x in the function f(x) = x2 – 4. b. Draw a horizontal line across the coordinate Therefore. there are 5 values for which f(x) = 0. 3 3 81 2 2 16 3 4 so every time the graph touches the x-axis. so x = (4)3 = 64 The solutions of the original equation are 27 a = 64. the smallest value that this term can equal is 0 (when x = 0). Rewriting the original equation yields the equation 6u2 – 13u + 6 = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 671. the smallest value that f(x) can attain occurs when x = 0. which is quadratic. e. 231 . This line touches the graph of f(x) in exactly one place. there is one value for which f(x) = 3. so that x = ( 3 )4 = 81 . the solution of the original equation is x = 672. Observe that 2a 3 – 11a 3 + 12 = 0 can be written as 2(a 3 )2 – 11(a 3 ) + 12 = 0. Solving this equation 3 for u yields the solutions u = 2 or u= 4. which is quadratic. Therefore. Therefore. Since the x term is squared. we go back to the substitution and write u in terms of the original variable a: u = 2 is the same as a 3 = 2 . Draw a horizontal line across the coordinate plane where f(x) = 3. d. while the range of a function is the set of all possible outputs. In order to solve the original equation. The range of f(x) is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –4. b.

The lowest point on the graph of y = p(x) are attained within the graph of f. 679. the range is (– ∞. Hence. Hence. This yields the set [1. the range is (–2. 682. Next. with the only gap occurring in the form of a hole at (0. we exclude the x-values of the points where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the line y = –1 (because of the strict inequality). 1. f(2) = –1. 3]∪{–3}. d.–1]. The domain of the function is the set of all 680. 683. 684. 232 . –1). 2)∪(2.3). b. 685. and 3. the largest value that this term can equal is 0 (when x = 0). each of which contributes an interval of values to the range of f. You must identify all possible y-values that and g(4) = –4. ∞). All other values in the interval [–4. there are infinitely many other x-values in [–5. and there is no other xvalue in [–5.e.5] whose functional value is –2. The graph of f has a vertical asymptote at left to right. the range of f(x) is the set of all real numbers less than or equal to 0. Finally. beginning at the point (–5. every real number greater than –1 is also attained at some x-value. Since there is no x-value in [–5. even though there is a hole in the graph at (0. thereby requiring that it be included in the range. Every other x value will result in a negative value for f(x). the range is [–1. The graph of g is steadily decreasing from occurs at (2.–4) and ending at (5. The range of a function is the set of all possible outputs of the function. the x-axis). 678.–2) on the graph. so any real number can be substituted for x. ∞). – 2)∪(–2.5] whose functional value is 1. note that 2 is excluded from the range for the same reason –2 is excluded. then made negative. note that –2 is excluded due to the open hole at (5. the range is [–4.5] whose functional value is 3. The graph of f is comprised of three distinct components. Substituting these values into the given expression yields 2 f(0) + [f(2) g(4)]2 = 2(0) + [(–1)( –4)]2 = 0 + 42 = 16 681. Further. we conclude that the graph attains all y-values except –2. this value must be excluded from the range. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 677. and it does not cross the horizontal asymptote. b. –1]∪[0. which are –3. the horizontal segment contributes the singleton {3} to the range. the portion of the range corresponding to the middle segment is [0. c.. and we include those x-values of the points where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the line y = 0. real numbers. x = 1 and a horizontal asymptote at y = –2. Thus. Since the graph follows the vertical asymptote up to positive infinity as x approaches x = 1 from the left and down to negative infinity as x approaches x = 1 from the right.1). Thus.4] do belong to the range. d.–4). Once this is done. The domain of any polynomial function is because any real number can be substituted in for x in p(x) and yield another real number. 2)∪{3}. c. We must identify the x-values of the por- tion of the graph of y = p(x) that lies between the horizontal lines y = –1 and y = 0 (i. The zeros of a polynomial are precisely its x- intercepts. b. so the smallest possible yvalue attained is –1. The set of y-values corresponding to the bottommost segment is (–2. As such. 4].2). Since the x term is squared. Using the graphs yields f(0) = 0. b.1)∪(1.

the domain of this function is all real numbers excluding 0. These equations have negative y-values. b. there are two y-values (outputs). Therefore. The equation of the graph in diagram B is rational function. The equations graphed in diagrams B and D are functions whose ranges contain negative values. Therefore. There are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. If x = 0. and the x domain and range of the equation are the same. Since the square root of a negative number is imaginary. It fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. The equation of the graph in diagram B is y = |x| – 3. There is no real number x that satisfies the equation x2 + 1 = 0. The equation of the graph in diagram C is y Set 44 (Page 105) 689. b. g(x) = –9(x + 1) 2 3(x + 1) 9f(x) 9[ –(2x – (–1 – x2))] 3(1 + x) = –9(x2 + 2x + 1) 3(x + 1) = = –3(x + 1) = –g(x) 6(x + 1) 687. Therefore. 692. any real number can be substituted for x—there are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. the range of the equation y = 1 is all real numbers excluding 0. its domain is the set of all those x-values for which the denominator is not equal to zero. and the domain and range of the equation are the same. excluding 0. the graph of the equation in diagram = x. e. The range of a function is the set of possible outputs of the function. Dividing 1 by a real number (excluding 0) will yield real numbers. which means that the range of the equation contains negative values. The graph of the equation in diagram A is not a function. 691. d. A function is an equation in which each unique input yields no more than one output. Find the coordinate planes that show a graph that extends below the x-axis. Any real number can be substituted 233 . this function x will be undefined. Any real number can be substituted into this equation. 1 h(x) 1 1 3f(x) – 2xg(x) – = 3[– (2x – (–1 – x2))] – 2x[3(x + 1)] – x2 + 1 = –3(x2 + 2x + 1) – 6x(x + 1) – (x2 + 1) = –3x2 – 6x – 3 – 6x2 – 6x – x2– 1 = – 10x2 – 12x – 4 = – 2(5x2 + 6x + 2) y = |x| – 3. The graphs of the equations in diagrams A. In each of the five equations. b. the range of the equation y = x is all real numbers greater than 0. Since the function 2g(x)h(x) = x2 + 1 is a A is not a function. For each of these x-values (inputs). The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 . 690. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 686. and D extend below the x-axis. The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 . B. the set of possible y-values that can be generated for the equation is the range of the equation. The equation in diagram A fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. the domain of this equation is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. Only the functions in diagrams B and E have a domain of all real numbers with no exclusions. 688. the domain of this function is all real numbers excluding 0.With this equation as well. this x function will be undefined. The square roots of real numbers greater than or equal to 0 are also real numbers that are greater than or equal to 0. If x = 0. d. Therefore. However. Therefore. the domain is the set of all real numbers. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1.

in anticipation of simplifying f(x + h) – f(x). Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y-value that is greater than 1. Of the four equations that are functions. and then simplify: f(2y – 1) = (2y – 1)2 + 3(2y – 1) – 2 = 4y2 – 4y + 1 + 6y – 3 – 2 = 4y2 + 2y – 4 695. However. it is impossible to generate a y-value that is less than 1. and smaller than the set of all real numbers excluding 0 (D). we simplify the expression for f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3 in order to facilitate combining like terms: 234 . no values less than 1 can be generated by this equation. the range of the equation y = |x| –3 is all real numbers greater than or equal to –3. has the smallest range (fewest elements). excluding 0. it is impossible to generate a y-value that is less than –3. The graph of the equation in diagram A is excluding 0. no values less than –3 can be generated by this equation. smaller than the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 (C). The equation of the graph in diagram C is y = x. any real number can be substituted for x—there are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y-value. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1. b. 694. Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y value that is greater than 1. There are no x-values that will generate an undefined or imaginary y value. Therefore. 1 the range of the equation y = x is all real numbers the expression x + h for every occurrence of x in the definition of the function f(x). It fails the vertical line test for all x-values where –2 x 2. Therefore. The equation of the graph in diagram D is y = 1 x . The domain and range of y = |x| –3 are not the same. The domain and range of y = (x – 3)2 + 1 are not the same. the range of the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. Any xvalue greater than or less than 3 will generate a y-value that is greater than –3. The equation of the graph in diagram B is y = |x| – 3. Since the square roots of negative numbers are imaginary. Any x-value greater than or less than 3 will generate a y value that is greater than –3. There is no value for x that can make y = 0. 693. and then simplify: f(x + h) = –((x + h) –1)2 + 3 = –[(x + h)2 – 2(x + h)+ 1] + 3 = –[x2 + 2hx + h2 – 2x – 2h + 1] + 3 = –x2 – 2hx – h2+ 2x + 2h – 1 + 3 = –x2 – 2hx – h2+ 2x + 2h + 2 Next. However. Therefore. Therefore. The equation of the graph in diagram E is y = (x – 3)2 + 1. the range of this equation is all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. the range of the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 is all real numbers greater than or equal to 1. since the set of real numbers that are greater than or equal to 1 is smaller than the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to –3 (B). Therefore. the range of the equation y = |x| – 3 is all real numbers greater than or equal to –3.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– into this equation. the equation y = (x – 3)2 + 1 (E). Dividing 1 by a real number (excluding 0) will yield real numbers. e. Simplifying f(x + h) requires we substitute not a function. c. With this equation as well. Substitute the expression 2y – 1 for every occurrence of x in the definition of the function f(x).

The domain of g ˚ f consists of only those f(–2) by substituting –2 for x in the function f(x): f(–2) = 3(–2) + 2 = –6 + 2 = –4 Then. b. b. 698. By definition. Thus. Simplify the given expression: f(x + 2) = (x + 2)2 – 4(x + 2) = x2 + 4x + 4 – 4x – 8 = x2 – 4 704. which is equivalent to x 0. b. substitute that result for x in g(x). in fact. the domain of g ˚ f is (–∞. f(g(f(3))) = 11. we conclude that (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) = –256x8. 702. Therefore. substitute the result for x in g(x). Since g(0) = 2 and f(2) = –1. the domain of f consists of only those x-values for which –3x 0. Since f(5) = 0 and f(0) = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– f(x) = –(x – 1)2 + 3 = –(x2 – 2x + 1) + 3 = –x2 + 2x – 1 + 3 = –x2 – 2x + 2 Finally. and that. (f ˚ f ˚ f)(2x) = f(f(f(2x))). these are the only permissible inputs. Observe Finally. substitute this result for x in f(x): f(5) = 2(5) + 1 = 10 + 1 = 11 Thus. Since the domain of g(x) = 2x2 + 18 is the set of all real numbers. so g(h(4)) = g(0) = 2(0)2 – 0 – 1 = –1. f(f(2x)) = f(–4x2) = – (–4x2)2 = –16x4. we work from Working from the inside outward. Begin with the innermost function: find the inside outward to obtain f(f(f(f(5)))) = f(f(f(0))) = f(f(0)) = f(0) = 0 703. d. You are given the value of f(x): f(x) = 6x + 4. Finally. 235 . Begin with the innermost function. b. 697. e. it follows that all x-values in the interval (–∞. 701. we first note that f(2x) = –2(x)2 = –4x2. Substitute this expression for x in the equation g(x). For the present scenario. (g ˚ h)(4) = g(h(4)). c. simplify the original expression f(x + h) – f(x): f(x + h) – f(x) = (–x2 – 2hx – h2 + 2x + 2h + 2) – (–x2 + 2x + 2) = –x2 – 2hx – h2 + 2x + 2h + 2 + x2 – 2x –2 = –2hx – h2 + 2h = h(h – 2h + 2) 696. Begin with the innermost function: Find f(3) by substituting 3 for x in the function f(x): f(3) = 2(3) + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7 Next. and then simplify: g(6x + 4) = (6x + 4)2 – 1 = 36x2 + 24x + 24x + 16 – 1 = 36x2 + 48x + 15 Therefore. 700. 0] are permissible inputs in the composition function (g ˚ f)(x). we have that h(4) = 4 – 2 4 = 4 – 2(2) = 0. we conclude that (g ˚ h)(4) = –1. Thus. g(f(–2)) = –11 699. f(f(f(2x))) = f(–16x4) = – (–16x4)2 = –256x8. x belongs to the domain of f) and for which f(x) belongs to the domain of g. c. g(7) = 7 – 2 = 5 values of x for which the quantity f(x) is defined (that is. g(–4) = 2(–4) – 3 = –8 – 3 = –11 Thus. By definition. c. 0]. g(f(x)) = 36x2 + 48x + 15. Then. (f ˚ g)(0) = f(g)(0)) = f(2) = –1.

So... a function can have only one yintercept. decreasing on 1 its entire domain. The square root of a negative value is imagi- nary. Its graph is given here: 10 8 6 4 2 odd-indexed radical term (e. in fact. The intersection of the graph of f(x) = x3 term (e. The graph of f(x) = |x| has its lowest point 711. Hence. a square root) must be nonnegative if in the numerator of a fraction and strictly positive if in the denominator of a fraction. which upon multiplication on both sides by –1. which is both an x-intercept and a y-intercept. and its value is 4 at the origin. b. but all x-values yield the same y-value: 2. For the present function. ∞).–1)∪(–1.g. the 1 domain of the function g(x) = is –1 – x (–∞. Hence. 706. The radicand of an even-indexed radical 709. whereas the radicand of such a radical term must be nonzero if it occurs in the denominator of a fraction. not just (0. is equivalent to x 0. d. c. For the present function. since it passes the vertical line test: A vertical line can be drawn through the graph of y = 2 at any point and will cross the graphed function in only one place. b. √4( 14 ) – 1 = 0 = 0. ∞). which is meaningful for any real number a. we have: 4x – 1 0 4x 1 x 1 4 Hence. since if it had more than one. this restriction takes the form of the inequality –x 0. There is no restriction on the radicand of an and the graph of the horizontal line y = a can be found by solving the equation x3 = a. 708. Symbolically. the domain of the function f(x) = –x is (–∞. this restriction takes the form of the statement –1 – x ≠ 0. which is equivalent to x ≠ –1. it would not pass the vertical line test. a cube root) if it is in the numerator of a fraction. Taking the cube root of both sides yields the solution 3 x = a. so the value of 4x – 1 must be greater than or equal to 0. Therefore. b. it cannot have another x-intercept. Since f(x) 0 or any nonzero real number x.g. b. 0].ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 45 (Page 107) 705. 2). 236 . Horizontal lines have a slope of 0. This line is a function. 3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 707. Moreover. The equation y = 2 is the equation of hori- zontal line that crosses the y-axis at (0. c. 710. The graph of f(x) = x . the range of y = 2 is 2. The small4 est value of f(x) occurs at x = 1 . the range of the function is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0. the domain of f(x) is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 . The domain of the function is infinite.

Using the fact that |a| = b if and only if a = ±b. c. This equation is solved as follows: x4 = x2 x4 – x2 = 0 x2(x2 – 1) = 0 x2(x – 1)(x + 1) = 0 x = –1.. So. which occurs at (0.0). 714. 237 . This equation Thus. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 712. the points of intersection are (0. The x-intercepts of f are those values of x x =0. the graphs of both f and g intersect the horizontal line y = a twice. (0. The x-values of the points of intersection of = – x2 x2 = 0 =0 the graphs of f(x) = x2and g(x) = x4must satisfy the equation x4 = x2. –2√ 1 ). Also. (0. 2√ 1 ). The radicand of an odd-indexed radical the graphs of f(x) = 2x and g(x) = 4x3must satisfy the equation 4x3 = 2x. The x-values of the points of intersection of occurs at their vertex. 1 The points of intersection are (–1.0). there are two x-intercepts of the given function.2) (2. The y-intercept for a function y = f(x) is the point (0. for any positive real number a. and (–√ 1 . there is only one point of intersection. 718. and (1. 0. 715. f(0)).g. which is equivalent to |2x – 1| = 1. Thus. ∞). (3– 4 5 2 16 )x x2 = 0 x=0 Hence. 0). Therefore. There are 2 2 2 2 more than two points of intersection. ∞).1): there are more than two points of intersection. As such. 717. the y-intercept is (0. we solve the two equations 2x – 1 = ±b separately: 2x – 1 = – 1 2x = 0 x =0 2x – 1 = 1 2x = 2 x=1 So. This equation is solved as follows: 4x3 = 2x 4x3 – 2x = 0 2x(x2 – 1) = 0 4x(x2 – 1 ) = 0 2 4x(x – √ 1 )(x + √ 1 ) = 0 2 2 term (e. d. b. c. Observe that f(0) = = –2––02 = 4 –4 4 –2 –|2 – 3(0)| 4 – 2(0)2|–0| = –1. –1). b. The x-values of the points of intersection of the graphs of f(x) = 3 x2 and g(x) = 4 satisfy the equation 3 x2 = 4 is solved as follows: 3 2 4x 3 2 4x 5 16 5 16 5 16 5 2 16 x must x2. the restriction takes the form of the statement 2 – x ≠ 0. ±√ 1 ) 2 satisfying the equation 1 – |2x – 1| = 0.0).1). which is equivalent to x ≠ 2. d. which is presently the case. the range of both functions is [0. 713. (√ 1 . The minimum value for both functions 716. the domain is (–∞. a fifth root) must be nonzero if it occurs in the denominator of a fraction.

there is no x-value that makes the denominator of the simplified expression equal to zero. 0)∪(0. 720. d. If there is no x-value that satisfies the equa- 723. We must identify the intervals in the domain tion. 0. Therefore. 727. Hence. Factoring the left side yields the equivalent equation x3 – 4x = x(x2 – 4) = x(x – 2)(x + 2) = 0 The solutions of this equation are x = –2. This happens on the intervals (–3. so f(0) is undefined. or that f –1(4) = 1. Determining the inverse function for f requires that we solve for x in the expression y= y= x–1 5x + 2 x–1 5x + 2 Set 46 (Page 109) 721. b. The domain of a rational function is the set : of all real numbers that do not make the denominator equal to zero. b. b. the fact that (1. f(x) = 0 then the graph of y = f(x) does not cross the horizontal line y = 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 719. there is a horizontal asymptote given by y = 1 (since the quotient of the coefficients of the terms of highest degree in the numerator and denominator is 1 1 = 1). y ≠ 5 is the inverse function of f. Determining the inverse function for f While there is a hole in the graph of f at x = 4.–2)∪( –2. 722. Hence. 725. b. f(x) = 3 then there is no point on the graph of y = f(x) when y = 3. we conclude that the function f –1(y) = –2y –1 1 5y – 1 . c. this is equivalent to saying that (4. First. the values of x that must be excluded from the domain are the solutions of the equation x3 – 4x = 0. d. it does not belong to the domain of f. simplify the expression for f(x) as y(5x + 2) = x – 1 5xy + 2y = x – 1 5xy – x = –2y – 1 x(5y – 1) = –2y – 1 x= –2y – 1 5y – 1 Now. b. c. 3 is not in the range of f. it has an inverse. 2)∪(2. since 0 does not belong to the range of f –1. 726. the inverse is f –1(y) = 3 y – 2. Remember that the domain of f is equal to follows: (x – 3)(x2 – 16) (x2 + 9)(x – 4) (x – 3)(x + 4) (x2 + 9) = (x – 3)(x – 4)(x + 4) (x2 + 9)(x – 4) = = x2 + x – 12) x2 + 9 the range of f –1. the domain is (–∞. since the degrees of the numerator and denominator are equal. ∞). As such. 1) is on the graph of f –1. on this interval. ∞). Also. 238 . The graph of f passes the horizontal line test tion. 4) is on the graph of y = f(x) means that f(1) = 4. so. 724. requires that we solve for x in the expression y = x3 + 2: y = x3 + 2 y – 2 = x3 3 x= y–2 Hence. But. For this function. All three statements are true. there is no vertical asymptote. and 2. 0)∪( 2. which is the x-axis. If there is no x-value that satisfies the equa- of p(x) on which the graph of y = p(x) rises from left to right.

Finally. it is a vertical asymptote. Since the numerator does not factor. b. the graph of f cannot intersect it. there is a hole in the graph of f at this value. (0. To see this. but does not make the numerator equal to zero. and there is no yintercept. we know that (x – 1) is not a factor of it. The y-values of f(x) = x get smaller as x1 = 2(x – 1) – (x2 + 1) x–1 = –(x2 – 2x + 3) x–1 = 0. III is not a characteristic of the graph of f. we must consider the equation. since the degrees of the numerator and denominator are equal.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 728. c. 239 . we can conclude that the graph has no horizontal asymptote. 730. So. So. we conclude that there are no x-intercepts.3). f(x) = 0 which is equivalent to 2– x2 + 1 x–1 Next. 729. b. there is no x-intercept. x2 – 2x + 3 = 0. so we need only solve the equation. Using the quadratic formula yields x= –(–2) ± (–2)2 –4(1)(3) 2(1) values move from left to right. Hence. II is a characteristic of the graph of f. The expression for f can be simplified as follows: (2 – x)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 (x – 2)2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 = = (–(x – 2))2(x + 3) x(x – 2)2 x+3 x = Since x = 2 makes both the numerator and denominator of the unsimplified expression equal to zero. note that x2 + 1 does not factor. Next. so x = 1 is a vertical asymptote for the graph of f. So. while there is a y-intercept. First. statement II holds. The graph is as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 = 2± –8 2 =1±i 2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 Since the solutions are imaginary. statement I holds. statement III does not hold. Since the degree of the numerator of the fraction is exactly one more than that of the denominator. Because x = 0 makes the denominator equal to zero. since x = 0 is a vertical asymptote. The x-values that satisfy such an equation are those that make the numerator equal to zero and do not make the denominator equal to zero. there is a horizontal asymptote given by y = 1 (since the quotient of the coefficients of the terms of highest degree in the numerator and denominator is 1 1 = 1). Hence. but does have an oblique asymptote.

Their graphs are as follows: f(x) = x3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = 2x + 5 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = |x| –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 x 240 . ∞). d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 731. The y-values on all three graphs increase as 10 8 6 4 2 the x-values move from left to right in the interval (0.

and has the horizontal asymptote y = 1. d. And the func- tion g(x) = –1 – x2 illustrates the truth of statement c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 732. 733. The function f(x) = x2 + 3 has no vertical asymptote since no value of x makes the denominator equal to x2 + 1 zero. Their graphs are as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 f(x) = x3 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 10 8 6 4 2 g(x) = –1 – x2 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 241 . c. The function f(x) = x3 is an example that shows that both statements a and b are true.

k 0). which is Set 47 (Page 112) 737. left) h units if h 0 (resp. The x-values of the points of intersection of the graphs of f(x) = –4x and g(x) = 2 x must satisfy the equation–4x = 2 x. In order for the turning point of the parabola –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 to be in Quadrant II. The x-values of the points of intersection of positive slope of m means that the graph of the line rises vertically m units for every positive unit increase in x. 242 . 740. d. and up (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by 735. 1 4 shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. Statement a is true because. c. Here. Here. 10 8 6 4 2 the graphs of f(x) = satisfy the equation solved as follows: x=3 x x–3 x=0 –2 x = 0 x=0 x and g(x) = 3 x must x = 3 x. and up (resp. so the correct choice is d. illustrating the truth of statement b. so that the graph is indeed decreasing on one side of the vertex and increasing on the other side of the vertex. which is solved as follows: –4x = 2 x (–4x)2 = (2 x)2 16x2 = 4x 16x2 – 4x = 0 4x(4x – 1) = 0 x = 0. For example the graph of 1 the function f(x) = x2 intersects both Quadrants I and II. Note that the turning point of y = –(x + 2)2 + 1 is (–2. Therefore. d. We apply the general principle that the graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. while the turning point of y = x2 is (0. left) h units if h 0 (resp. we would shift the graph of y = x2 to the right 2 units and down 2 units. and up (resp. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 734. k 0). h 0). 739. down) k units if k 0 (resp. 738. h 0). a 736. k 0). The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. observe that f(x) = (x – 4)3 + 1 = g(x – 4) + 1. b. so that the correct choice is d. down) k units if k 0 (resp. –2).) Statement c is true because the vertex is the point at which the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function occurs. by definition. d. 741. observe that f(x) = (x – 2)2 – 4 = g(x – 2) – 4. The turning point of y = (x – 2)2 – 2 is (2. its x-coordinate must be negative and its y-coordinate must be positive. b. 1). so the correct choice is d.) down k units if k 0 (resp. so the correct choice is c. h 0). (See the following graph. These graphs resemble the letter U or an upside down U. observe that f(x) = (x + 2)3 – 3 = g(x + 2) – 3. d. left) h units if h 0 (resp. Here.0).

down) k units if k 0 (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. b. and up (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. h 0). Here. (4x–1)2 16 = 42(x–1) 16 = 42x–2 42 = 42x–2+2 = 8 by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. b. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. 749. b. c. Set 48 (Page 115) 753. down) k units if k > 0 (resp. the correct choice is d. left) h units if h 0 (resp. b. k 0). observe that f(x) = 2 x + 3 = g(x + 3). k 0). then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. left) h units if h 0 (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. 42x2 756. Hence. so that the correct choice is a. Here. c. b. observe that. left) h units if h 0 (resp. k 0). d. h 0). 751. h 0). b. Hence. down) k units if k 0 (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. the correct choice is a. 752. 54x 52x – 6 1 2 = (54x–(2x–6)) 2 = (52x+6)) 2 = 5 2 (2x+6) 1 1 1 = 5x+3 243 . then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. down) k units if k 0 (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. k 0). h > 0). k < 0). and up (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. f(x) = |x + 6| + 4 = g(x + 6) + 4. d. down) k units if k 0 (resp. e3x–2y = e3xe–2y = (ex)3(ey)–2 – 233–2 = 9 754. left) h units if h 0 (resp. Hence. 746. the correct choice is c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 742. h 0). The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by 748. so the correct choice is b. h 0). then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. observe that f(x) = –|x – 1| + 5 = –g(x – 1) + 5. b. left) h units if h < 0 (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. 2x 2x+1 = 2x+x+1 = 22x+1 755. the correct choice is d. and up (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. Hence. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. k 0). and finally shifting the graph up (resp. so the correct choice is d. k 0). The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. k 0). Hence. 743. and up (resp. 747. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. 750. observe that f(x) = x – 5 – 3 = g(x – 5) – 3. k 0). Here. 744. The graph of y = –g(x + h) + k is obtained by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. and up (resp. h 0). and finally shifting the graph up (resp. down) k units if k 0 (resp. the correct choice is b. down) k units if k 0 (resp. h 0). so the correct choice is d. d. c. k 0). Here. 745. d. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. Here. then reflecting the graph over the x-axis. h 0). left) h units if h 0 (resp. observe that f(x) = –(x + 3)3+ 5 = –g(x + 3) + 5. down) k units if k 0 (resp. and finally shifting the graph up (resp. left) h units if h 0 (resp. k 0). Here. The graph of y = g(x + h) + k is obtained by by shifting the graph of y = g(x) right (resp. so the correct choice is a. h 0). b. so the correct choice is b. h 0). observe that f(x) = (x – 2)3– 1 = g(x – 2) – 1.

c. A typical graph is as follows: 10 8 (e–x)(–1) = e2x – ex – 1+ e–x 760. d. c. If b 0. b. the solution set for the inequality – 2 3 empty set. Observe that 1 – 3x 2 4 6 8 10 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 0 is equivalent to 3x 1. b. Note that 2 = 2x. The graph of y = 3x is always increasing and is equal to 1 when x = 0. 3x 1. the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the right. so statement c is true. If b 1. (53x–1)3 5x–1 52x = 59x–35x–1 52x = 510x–4 52x = 58x–4 = (54)2x–1 = 6252x–1 759. b. Observe that – 3 = 4 x 9 . so the equation bx = 0 764. If 0 + 2 + e–2x = e2x + e–2x + 2 758. and the y-values grow very rapidly as the x-values move to the left. ex(ex – e–x) + e–x(ex + e–x) e–2x 6 4 2 = = = (ex)(ex) – (ex)(e–x) + (e–x)(ex) + (e–x)(e–x) e–2x e2x – 1 + 1 + e–2x e–2x e2x + e–2x e–2x –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 = e4x + 1 761. which is strictly positive. 2 2x 766. the solution set is [0. for any real number x. 2x 0 is the 244 . A typical graph is as follows: 10 8 6 4 2 763. The graph of y = 2x is always above the x-axis. Therefore. b. 765. 1 –x 0. d. b. c. ex(ex –1) – e–x(ex – 1) = (ex)2 – ex – (e–x)(ex) – b 1. ∞). the graph of y = bx gets very close to the x-axis as the x-values move to the left.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 757.Hence. then bx has no solution. (ex + e–x)2 = (ex)2 + 2(ex)(e–x) + (e–x)2 = e2x 762. so for all x thereafter.

Hence. the original horizontal asymptote y = 0 for g becomes y = 1. 4 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 2 4 6 8 10 2 –4 –3 –2 –1 –6 –8 1 2 3 –2 –4 –10 768. and the graph of f always stays below this asymptote. b. Since 25 = 5–2. The graph of f(x) = – 4 is always below the x-axis and increases as x moves from left to right.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 767. 1). as shown by its graph: 10 8 6 4 2 3 x Set 49 (Page 116) 769. The graph of f(x) = 1 – 2ex is obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = ex over the x-axis. scaling it by a factor of 2. In doing so. d. 245 . The graph of f(x) = – 7 is always below the x-axis and is decreasing as x moves from left to right. which is x+1 = –2. equate the exponents and solve for x: 7x2 – 1 = 6x 7x2 – 6x – 1 = 0 (7x + 1)(x – 1) = 0 The solutions are x = – 1 and x = 1. d. and substitute into the original equation 2 to obtain the equivalent equation 27x –1 = 26x. the equation has no solution. the range is (–∞. as 43x = (22)3x = 26x. 7 771. c. and then translating it up one unit. Hence. The x-values that satisfy this equation must satisfy the one obtained by equating the exponents of the expressions on both sides of the equation. as shown by its graph: 10 8 6 4 2 15 3x –6 –8 770. But the left side of this equation is nonnegative for any x-value that does not make the radicand negative. c. See the following graph. the original equation is 1 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 8 10 equivalent to 5 x+1 = 5–2. Rewrite the expression on the right side of the equation as a power of 2. Now.

773. The power to which 125 should be raised in 1 –6 –4 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 2 4 6 order to yield 25 is not obvious. Since 8 can be expressed as a power of 2. d. d. First. equate the –12 –14 It is evident that all three characteristics provided in choices. Then. and finally shifting it down 3 units. rewrite 9 as a power of 3. and then solve for x: 125x = 25 (53)x = 52 53x = 52 Equating exponents yields 3x = 2. 774. Multiply both sides by the denominator on obtained by reflecting the graph of g(x) = about the y-axis. Solving this equation yields x = 1. and c hold. Then. However. (ex)x–3 = e10 ex2–3x = e10 x2 – 3x = 10 x2 – 3x – 10 = 0 (x – 5)(x + 2) = 0 x = 5. sim- a power of 4. note that 125 and 25 are both powers of 5. Then. c. so x = 8 is the solution. as follows: 32x = 9 3x–1 32x = 32 3x–1 32x = 32+x–1 32x = 3x+1 Equating exponents yields 2x = x + 1. a. we conclude that the solution is x = 2 . Thus.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 772. then reflecting it over the x-axis. simplify the left side. observe that 1 = 40. b. d. 246 . We use this fact in order to first rewrite the equation in a more convenient form. x = –2 778. b. d. then equate the exponents and solve for x: 163x–1 = 42x+3 (42)3x–1 = 42x+3 42(3x–1) = 42x+3 2(3x – 1) = 2x + 3 6x – 2 = 2x + 3 4x = 5 x= 5 4 plify the right side. We rewrite the left side of the equation as can write the following: 2x–5 = 8 2x–5 = 23 Equating exponents yields x – 5 = 3. 42x–3 = 4x 1 42x–3 4x = 4x 4x 42x–3+x = 1 43x–3 = 40 3x – 3 = 0 x=1 776. then shifting it to the left 2 units. First. The graph of f(x) = –e2–x – 3 can be 775. b. we exponents and solve the resulting equation. The graph is as follows: 4 2 e–x the right side. 3 777.

the solution of which is –3. Finding x such that log 1 8 = x is equivalent 2 x 782. we conclude that the solutions are 3 and 2. and solve for x: e2x + 5ex – 6 = 0 (ex) 2 + 5(ex) – 6 = 0 (ex + 6)(ex – 1) = 0 ex + 6 = 0 or ex – 1 = 0 ex = – 6 = 0 or ex = 1 Since ex is always positive. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a power of 10. Since 1 = 3–2. b. then equate the exponents and solve for x using the quadratic formula: 2=8 x +1 = 23 x+1=3 x=2 x=4 2 2 x to finding x such that and 1 x 2 1 2 = 8. 2 247 . Factor the left side of the equation. c. we conclude that the solution of this equation is 1 . 787. set each factor equal to zero. 2 784. Finding x such that log327 = x is equivalent to finding x such that 3x = 27. then equate the exponents and solve for x: 4x+1 = ( 1 )2x 2 (22)x+1 = (2–1)2x 22(x+1) = 2–2x 2(x + 1) = –2x 2x + 2 = –2x 4x = –2 x = –1 2 780. Since 7= to finding x such that 7x = 1 2 7 . Since 27 = 33. set each power of 2. However. and solve for x: 2x2 ex – 7x ex + 6 ex = 0 ex (2x2 – 7x + 6) = 0 ex (2x – 3)(x – 2) = 0 ex = 0 or 2x – 3 = 0 or x – 2 = 0 Since ex = 0 has no solutions. b. and solve for x. Finding x such that log7 7 = x is equivalent 7. Finding x such that log3 9 = x is equivalent –1 ± 2 5 1 to finding x such that 3x = 1 . the first equation has no solution. we conclude that the only solution is x = –5.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 779. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a power of 2. Factor the left side of the equation. b. as follows: x 3x + 5 3x = 0 3x(x+ 5) = 0 3x = 0 or x + 5 = 0 Since 3x = 0 has no solutions. the solution of this equation is 3. factor equal to zero. d. c. then equate the exponents and solve for x using the quadratic formula: (10x+1)2x = 100 102x(x+1) = 102 2x(x + 1) = 2 2x2 + 2x = 2 2x2 + 2x – 2 = 0 x2 + x – 1 = 0 x = –1 ± 1 – 4(1)( –1) = 2(1) Set 50 (Page 118) 785. this equation is equiv- alent to 23 = 2–x. we 9 9 conclude that the solution of this equation is –2. Factor the left side of the equation. c. 786. b. c. set each factor equal to zero. We rewrite both sides of the equation as a 783. Since 8 = 23 = (2–1)x = 2–x. 781. 788. the second equation is satisfied when x = 0. c.

b. b. the solution is x = 2. write the expression on the left side as to finding x such that = 1. Finding x such that log1664 = x is equivalent 5x the ln of a single expression. The given expression can be written as one ln (e2) + ln y – ln(x 2 ) = 2ln(e) + ln y – 1 2 ln x = 2 + ln y – 1 ln x 2 Substituting ln x = 3 and ln y = 2 into this expression yields ln ( 4– e2y x 3 2 involving the terms logax and logay: loga x y3 ) = 2 + ln y – 5 2 1 2 ln x = 2 + 2 – 1 (3) = 2 = logax – loga(y3) = logax – 3logay = Substituting logax = 2 and logay = –3 into this expression yields loga x y3 = loga x – 3loga(y) = 2 – 3(–3) = 2 + 9 = 11 796. 4 2 791. The given expression can be written as one involving the terms ln x and ln y: ln e2y x 9 ) = log3(3 ) + log3(9 ) = 3 4log3 3 + 3log39 = 4(1) +3(2) = 10 794. d. observe that 16x = (24)x = 24x and 64 = 26. the solution is x = 36. which is x = 6 = 3 . b. 3ln ln 1 x 1 x 3 1 x 3 = ln8 = ln8 to finding x such that 16x = 64. We conclude that the solution of this equation is 0. Finding x such that log51 = x is equivalent 798. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 789. b. 790. e 1 2 –1 2 –1 3 =8 –1 3 x= 62 = 36. c. Hence. the value of x we seek is the solution of the equation 4x = 6. it follows by definition that f(g(x)) = loga(ax) = x. a) = loga5 + loga( a) = 4 3 1 ln3 792. b. Since f(x) = logax and g(x) = ax are inverses. The equation 3log32 = x is equivalent to log3x = log32. b. The equation log6x = 2 is equivalent to =8 x–3 = 8 (x–3) x= 799. First. c. c. log3(3 4 800. The equation 53x–1 = 7 is equivalent to = x) = 1 ln (e2y) – ln( log5 7 = 3 – 1. So. 797. We rewrite the expressions on both sides of the equation using the same base of 2. d. logax = loga(5 = e ln(3 –1 2 ) =32 = –1 1 3 = 3 3 loga5 + loga(a 2 ) = loga5 + 1 logaa 2 793. So. Indeed. This equation is solved as follows: log5 7 = 3x – 1 3x = 1 + log5 7 x = 1 (1 + log5 7) 3 795. 248 .

b. 3 log4 3 + log4 27 = log4 ( 3 )3 + log4 27 = log4 log3 (2x – 1) – 3 2 log3 (2x + 1) + log4 27 = log4 ( 287 27) = log4 8 = 813. then the inequality –x 0 must be satisfied. b. = 802. as can be seen in the following graph: 4 3 2 1 –3 –2 –1 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 809. The inputs for logarithmic functions must be positive. 249 . d. d. Clearly –x 0 = x < 0. log8 2 + log8 4 = log8(2. 0). 4 log9 3 = log9(34) = log9 81 = 2 804. b. ln (2 ln (2 ln (2 x + 1)(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + ln(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + 4ln(x2 + 3) = x + 1) + 4ln (x2 + 3) = 1 4 4 3ln(xy2) = – 4ln(x2y) + ln(xy) = ln(xy2) = – ln(x2y) + ln(xy) = ln ln ln ln (xy2)3 (x2y)4 3 4 + ln(xy) = ln 2 + ln ( = (xy2)3(xy) (x2y)4 x3y6xy x8y4 y3 x4 ln 2 + ln (x + 1) 2 + 4ln (x2 + 3) = ln 2 + 1 ln (x + 1) + 4ln (x2 + 3) 2 812. As the x-values decrease toward zero. ln18x3 – ln6x = ln( 6x ) = ln3x2 2 2 2 2 2 805. log7 49 – log7 7 = log7( 49 7 ) = log7( 49 18x3 2 7) log3 x2 2x – 1 3 (2x + 1)2 3 = log3 (x2 2x – 1) – log3 (2x + 1)2 = log3 (x2) + log3 ( 2x – 1) – log3 (2x + 1)2 = log3 (x2) + log3 (2x – 1) 2 – log3 (2x + 1)2 = 2log3 (x) + 1 2 1 3 3 = 8 27 log7 1 7 = –1 2 2 3 2 806. log (2x3) = log 2 + log x3 = log 2 + 3 logx 808. b. b. Using the logarithm rules yields 811. d. c.4) = log8 8 =1 803. c. yz log2 ( 8x2 ) = log2 (8yz4) – log2 x2 = log2 8 + log2 y + log2 z4 – log2 x2 = 3 + log2 y + 4log2 z – 2log2 x 4 y-values on the graph of f(x) = ln x plunge downward very sharply. c. the 807. b. 3 logb (x + 3)–1 – 2logb x + logb (x + 3)3 = –3 logb (x + 3) – 2logb x + 3logb (x + 3) = – 2logb x = logb x–2 = 1 logb ( x2 ) 814.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 51 (Page 119) 801. Thus the domain of k > is (–∞. c. 3 2 2 log2 4 – 3 log2 8 + log2 2 = 3 2 2 3 2 log2 2 – 3 log2 2 + log2 2 = 3 2 2 (2) – 3 (3) + 1 = x 3–2+1= 2 810. Since the input in this case is –x. d.

g(f(x)) = ln e2x = ln all real numbers x (ex)2 = ln(ex) = x. b. The domain of the function f(x) = ln(x2 – 4x Since x2 + 1 > 0 for any real number x. Using exponent and logarithm rules yields Set 52 (Page 121) 817. it follows that its domain is the set of all real numbers. b. for 1 1 Hence. This inequality is equivalent to (x – 2)2 0.0) and (3. 2)∪(2. The graph is provided here.0). The x-intercept is the point of the form + 4) is the set of x-values for which x2 – 4x + 4 0. namely x = –1. d. So.0). solved as follows: x2 – 4x + 4 = 1 x2 – 4x + 3 = 0 (x – 3)(x – 1) = 0 The solutions of this equation are x = 3 and x = 1. d. 821. The vertical asymptote for f(x) = ln(x + 1) (x. So. The range of the function g(x) = ln x is . The inputs of a logarithm must be positive. 820.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 815. Since log2 1 = 0. Apply the logarithm properties and then solve for x: ln(x – 2) –ln(3 – x) = 1 2 4 6 –2 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 ln x–2 3–x x–2 3–x =1 =e x – 2 = e(3 – x) x – 2 = 3e + ex ex + x = 3e + 2 (e + 1)x = 3e + 2 x= 3e + 2 e+1 818. the x-intercepts are (1.0). + 1 occurs at those x-values that make the input of the ln portion equal to zero. c. 250 . ∞). 816. b. c. (x2 Substituting this value for x in the original equation reveals that it is indeed a solution. which is satisfied by all real numbers x except 2. . 10 8 6 4 2 f(g(x)) = e2(ln x) = e2ln(x 2 ) = e2( 2 ) lnx = elnx = x. we conclude that the x-intercept is (1. the domain is (–∞. 819. the range of g is also . c. for all x > 0. 822. Since using 2x – 1 as the input for g for all x 1 2 covers the same set of inputs as g. The x-intercepts of the function f(x) = ln – 4x + 4) are those x-values that satisfy the equation x2 – 4x + 4 = 1. we conclude that these choices for f and g are inverses.

and then 5 +1<9 2–3x 4 4e <8 2–3x <2 1 e ln 1 2 – 3x ln 2 –2 + 0 ≤ –3x –2 + ln 2 2 3≥ 4e2–3x change to the equivalent exponential equation. x = 2 is the only solution. –2 We must exclude x = –2 because it is not in the domain of either logarithm in the original equation.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 823. note that the expression ln (1 – x2) is only defined when 1 – x2 0. 1). y = e–a(b+x) ln y = –a(b+x) ln y = –ab – ax ab + ln y = – ax – 1 (ab + ln y) = x a 251 . 827. So. Hence. However. or equivalently logb x = 0. x = 1 is the only solution. which is solved as follows: log (x – 2) = 2 + log (x + 3) log (x + 2) – log (x + 3) = 2 2 log ( x + 3 ) = 2 x– x+2 x–3 Then. convert the resulting equation to the equivalent exponential equation and solve: log x + log (x + 3) = 1 log (x(x + 3)) = 1 (x(x + 3)) = 101 x2 + 3x – 10 = 0 (x + 5)(x – 2) = 0 x = –5. d. that is true for every x in the interval (–1. 829. This equation can be written in the exponential form x = b0 = 1. 1). the solution is 1. b. which is solved as follows: log2 (2)x + log2 (x + 1) = 2 log2 (2x(x + 1)) = 2 2x(x + 1) = 22 2x2 + 2x = 4 2x2 + 2x – 4 = 0 2(x – 1)(2x + 2) = 0 x = 1. We combine the two logarithms. change to the equivalent exponential equation. We combine the two logarithms. b to a power is equal to zero if and only if the power is zero. 826. 825. b. b. Since the only values of y for which ln y 0 are 0 y 1. d. Beause. b. the solution set of the inequality ln (1 – x2) 0 is (–1. c. Thus. = 102 302 99 x + 2 = 100(x – 3) x = 828.2 . which is equivalent to –1 x 1. 3 824. we must determine the value of x such that 3logb x = 0. rewrite the left side as a single logarithm. 2 However. First. First. Thus. we must determine which of these values satisfies the more restrictive inequality 0 1 – x2 1. the solution set is . and then x> –2 + ln 2 –3 2 – ln 2 3 x≤ 2 3 2 – ln 2 3 So. x = – 5 cannot be a solution since – 5 is not in the domain of log x.

b. 3 ln 4y + ln A = ln B 3 ln 4y = ln B – ln A ln 4y = 1 (ln B – ln A) 3 4y = e y= 831. so its dimensions are 4 2. c.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 830. The matrix S Whas four rows and two columns. c. b. c. 1 3 1 3 P = P0e–kt P P0 = e–kt P P0 ln = –kt P P0 (ln B – ln A) 1 (ln B – ln A) 4e – 1 ln k =t 1 + ln (x y) = ln z 1 + ln x + ln y = ln z ln x = ln z –ln y – 1 x = eln z –ln y – 1 Section 7—Matrix Algebra Set 53 (Page 124) 833. The matrix 9 1 2 –1 0 C has one row and four columns. b. The matrix in choice a is the correct choice. –3 > 3 3 0 –1 –1 0 H=> H 0 –3 1 0 9 –3 837. a. b. 838. 2 > 2 –1 –3 –1 –6 –2 6 –3 –12 1 H –3 > H=> H–> H=> H 0 1 2 2 0 2 6 6 –6 –4 V V R 2 R 2 S –1 0 1 W S – 5 0 5 W 2 S 1 0 1 W= S 2 0 2 W 5 5 839. V R S 0 –2 W S0 1 W 834. 832. A matrix with dimensions 3 2 has three rows and two columns. 5 S 0 1 –1 W S 0 2 – 2 W W S S 5 5 W X X T T 252 . d. 836. These matrices cannot be added because they do not have the same dimensions. S 1 –2 W S0 0 W X T 835. c. so its dimensions are 1 4.

841. The sum of two matrices is defined only when both matrices have the same number of rows and columns (i. First. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries are the same. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries is the same. Hence. 843. Equating –z 0 –2z 0 corresponding entries reveals that the following equations must hold simultaneously: –x = 3x. the equation 0 2 2 0 4 is equivalent to 0 2 which occurs only when x = 3. Solving these equations. 253 . simplify the left side of the equation: –4 > 2x 10 6 3x – 2 0 –2 4x + 2 1 –5 H H –2 > H=> 4 y 6 2y –1 –2 2 4 – 3 y –1 > –12 + 8 0 8 –8x – 4 –10 2 2x 10 6 H– > H= > H 8 –8y 4 4 8 – 6 y –2 4 y 6 –4 + 12 10 6 2x 10 6 H=> H 4 –2y – 8 6 4 y 6 > Equating corresponding entries reveals that the following equations must hold simultaneously: –4x + 12 = 2x and –2y – 8 = y. the same dimensions). Since there are infinitely many possible values of x. Thus. and –z = –2z. but only x = 2 also satisfies the second equation. Hence. 0 2 . we conclude that infinitely many ordered pairs make this equality true. we conclude that the only x-value that makes the equality true is x = 2. a. the ordered pair that 3 makes the equality true is (2. Therefore. both x2 = 4 and 3x = 6 must hold simultaneously. d. d. Therefore. –y = 4y. c. 842.. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 840. – 8 ). we find that x = 2 and y = – 8 . we find that x = y = z = 0. the resulting matrix is one with the same number of rows and columns. Solving these equations. 3 –x –y 3x 4y 844. The solutions of the first equation are x = –2 and 2.0).e. b. Two matrices are equal if and only if each pair of corresponding entries are the same. Statement a is true.y) makes the 2 equality true. if we choose y = – 1 x.0. Note that x –2 3 –2 x –2 1 6 –4 = 3 –2 1 6 –4 > H=> H > H > H > H= > H 2 0 4 0 2 . Observe that R V R V V V R R S0 2 W S0 6 W S 0 –6 W S 0 6 W 3 S 1 1 W = S 3 3 W and –1 S –3 –3 W = S 3 3 W . S W S W W W S S S 1 x W S 3 3x W S –3 6y W S 3 –6y W T X T X X X T T This implies that for any given real value of x. the ordered pair (x. The two matrices are equal if and only if 3x = – 6y. the ordered triple that makes the equality true is (0. Simplifying the left side of the equation yields the equivalent equation > H=> H . 845.

The matrix 2G has dimensions 3 4 and the matrix –3E has dimensions. c. statement c is false since you cannot subtract two matrices that have different dimensions.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 846. (1. Equating corresponding entries reveals that the following three equations must hold simultaneously: x – 2 = – x2. (1. d. d. 0. AB = S 0 2 W> H = S 6 10 0 W W S S –1 –1 W 3 5 0 S –4 – 3 1 W X T X T 254 . c. CF = > 0 1 0 0 H> H = > H 1 –4 0 0 850. the entries to their immediate right are not equal. y. 0). (1. 1 3. and z values to form the ordered triples that make the equality true. 4 4z2 = 8z 4z2 – 8z = 0 4z(z – 2) = 0 z = 0. (–2. 2 x – 2 = –x2 x2 + x – 2 = 0 (x + 2)(x – 1) = 0 x = –2. b. 2 y = y2. There are eight such ordered pairs: (–2. 2) Set 54 (Page 127) 849. 2). solve each equation: 2 y = y2 4y = y4 y4 –4y y(y3 – 4) = 0 3 y = 0. 2) 4. 848. There is no X-value that makes these two matrices equal. Since the inner dimensions are not equal in the terms of the product. (2G) (–3E). 0). And finally. 3 3 4. Statement a is false because you cannot add a real number to a matrix. the product is not defined. (–2. simplifying the left side of the equation in choice b yields the equivalent equation. 3 9 –1 0 0 C –2 9 0 1 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = 9 –3 0 0 C + 9 0 –2 0 C + 9 0 0 –1 C = 9 –3 –2 –1 C = –9 3 2 1 C 847. 4. First. 0. As for statement b. a. 0. 0. R V R V 0 0 W S 15 1 0 0 W S –3x –3 S 0 –3x –3 0 W S 0 15 1 0 W = S 0 0 –3x –3 W S 0 0 15 1 W S W S W S 0 0 0 –3x W S 0 0 0 15 W T X T X While X = –5 makes the corresponding entries along the diagonals of the two matrices the same. 0). 3 3 4. 2). (1. V R R –1 2 V S 5 12 1 W W 1 –2 –1 S 851. and 4z2 = 8z. 0). (–2. 1 We must form all combinations of x.

S 1 –2 1 W => => H H –11 –13 –5 3 S 0 0 –2 W –52 18 8 S W S –2 1 0 W T X 857. R J S3 2 K K 9 –4 –2 0 C $. a. The product FF is not defined because the inner dimensions do not match. b. V R V R R V R V R2 V S 3 2 1 W S –8 –4 0 W S 3 2 1 W S –5 –2 1 W S W W W S S 855. (Note that a real number is indeed a matrix with dimensions 1 858. S –1 W = 66 S –2 W S W S –2 W T X 1. b. a. d. 3 1 –1 W R –2 –1 0 1 VN S J W S 1 –2 1 WO S K 1 –2 –1 S H . (–2D)(3D) = –6D D = –6 S 0 1 2 WS 0 1 2 W = –6 S –2 –1 2 W = S 12 W W S S S WS W S –3 –3 –3 W S 18 18 18 W S –1 –1 0 WS –1 –1 0 W X X T T T XT X 854. S 0 0 –2 W (BG)H = K > W 3 5 0 K S 1 –1 –2 –1 WO S –2 1 0 W W L T XP S X T R V 3 1 –1 W S –3 –7 –3 –1 4 4 2 . S –1 –2 –1 0 WO. 1E + D = S 2 W9 –4 –2 0 C + S 0 1 2 W = S –8 –4 0 W+ S 0 1 2 W = S –8 –3 2 W S W S W S1 W S –1 –1 0 W S –4 –2 0 W S –1 –1 0 W S –5 –3 0 W T X X T X T T X T X V R 856. > 1 –4 H O WO K S W O 0 WO L T –1 –1 X P XP 164 C 255 . S 0 1 (ED ) (AC) = S K K S –1 –1 L T V R S 2 –9 W C = 9 –12 –10 –8 C. c. S –1 –2 –1 0 WO . Note that the dimensions of the matrix F are 2 1. S 2 WO S 1 –1 –2 –1 WO K S 0 0 –2 W S WO K 1 L T XP K S –2 1 0 W T XO LT P X R V S7 W = 9 10 8 2 –4 C . K S 0 2 W. c. $ S 2 –8 W = 9 –36 W S S –1 3 W X T VN J R V N 1 WO K S –1 2 W 0 1 O 2 WO .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– R –1 2 V W 1 –2 –1 S 0 –1 0 –4 852. V JR N R –2 –1 0 1 VN K S 3 1 –1 W R VO J 2W S WO K S K WS O (EG) (HI) = K 9 –4 –2 0 C . K S 1 –2 1 W. 4BA = 4 > HS 0 2 W = 4 > H=> H 3 5 0 S –3 16 –12 64 –1 –1 W X T V V R R R VR V S 8 7 7 W S –48 –42 –42 W S 3 2 1 WS 3 2 1 W 6 –12 W 853.

> H O . 860. S = 3 S 0 1 2 W–2 S 0 2 W . 0 O 0 1 . > 1 –4 H. 0 0 0 –4 17 . 0 H> H > H p = 8 f> H > H p = 8> H = > H –4 17 1 –4 0 0 0 17 –72 0 862. > H = 0 0 0 S –1 –1 W T X N N 0 1 . > H = 9 4 –12 C . d. (2C) (2C) (2C) F = 8(C C C F) = 8 f > 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 H> H> H > Hp 1 –4 1 –4 1 –4 0 = 8 f> 1 –4 . > 3 5 0 S 0 0 –2 W S W S W 1 –1 –2 –1 W S S –1 –1 0 W –1 –1 W X S –2 1 0 W T T X T X X T R V R V R V S 9 6 3 W S 5 12 1 W S –9 1 1 W S W S W = S 0 3 6 W–2 S 6 10 0 W+ S –5 3 1 W S – 3 – 3 0 W S –4 –3 1 W S 4 2 2 W X T X T X T V R V R R V V R S 9 6 3 W S –10 –24 –2 W S –9 1 1 W S –10 –17 2 W = S 0 3 6 W+ S –12 –20 0 W+ S –5 3 1 W = S –17 –14 7 W W W S S S W 6 –2 W S 4 2 2 W S 9 S –3 –3 0 W S 8 5 0W X T X T X T T X N O O O O P N O O O P 256 N O O O O P . The sum G + A is not defined because G and A have different dimensions. S 0 2 W. The product FE is not defined because the inner dimensions of F and E are not the same. a. First. this entire computation is not well-defined. 3D – 2AB + GH V R R V R V S 3 1 –1 W R V S 3 2 1 W S –1 2 W 1 –2 –1 S –2 –1 0 1 W S 1 –2 1 W H+ S –1 –2 –1 0 W. d. we insert the actual matrices into the expression: R –1 2 V N N J S W 0 O 0 1 K 0 O (EAF) (CF) = K 9 –4 –2 0 C. 0 O 0 0 The original product becomes 0 > H > H O. > H O 0 O S –1 –1 W 0 O K P P L T X Note that both products enclosed by parentheses are well-defined when computed from left to right since the inner dimensions are the same for each product to be computed. b. 0 1 . So. Therefore. which is simplified as follows: 0 > H > H O= 0 > H = > H 1 –4 0 O 1 –4 0 O 0 0 P P 863. Moreover.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 859. this entire computation is not well-defined. S 0 2 W. 861. c. the product enclosed in the first set of parentheses results in a real number: R –1 2 V S W 0 0 9 –4 –2 0 C .

d. we can rewrite the system x=a as the following matrix equation: * y=b > 1 0 x a H> H = > H 0 1 y b 883. c. d. the entire computation is not well-defined. det > 878. det > 871. det > terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y –3 7 H = (–3) (5) – (1) (7) = –22 1 5 a 0 H = (a) (b) – (0) (0) = ab 0 b 1 2 H = ( 1 ) ( 3 ) – ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = –1 2 3 2 3 H = ( 2 ) ( 1 ) – ( 1 ) ( 3 ) = –1 1 1 –1 2 H = (–1) (–4) – (2) (2) = 0 2 –4 6 3 H = (6 ) (1 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 2 1 –3 4 H = (–3) (2) – (4) (4) = –14 4 2 1 –4 H = (1) (25) – (0) (–4) = 25 0 25 3 –1 H = (3) (–2) – (1) (–1) = –5 1 –2 2 coefficient matrix. b. this product is not defined. c. b. Multiplying this and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. we can rewrite the system –3x + 7y = 2 * as the following matrix x + 5y = 8 equation: > –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H 1 5 y 8 882. As such. a. Note that (2F)(–2E) = -4FE. c. d. det > 870. det > 872. det > 867. d. Extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 by x y 2 coefficient matrix. det > H = (0) (–1) – (–2) (1) = 2 –2 –1 876. c. Since the inner dimensions of F and E do not match. det > 873. det > 866. c. Multiand identifying the right side –1 0 H = (–1) (–1) – (2) (0) = 1 2 –2 3 2 H = (3 ) (2 ) – (3 ) (2 ) = 0 3 2 3 –2 H = (3) (–6) – (9) (–2) = 0 9 –6 –1 –1 H = (–1) (0) – (–1) (–1) = –1 –1 0 1 constant matrix. det > H = (–2) (3) – (–12) (0) = –6 –12 3 0 1 875. Begin by extracting the coefficients from –2 0 874. det > 877. det > 879. b. a. a. we can rewrite the x + 2y = 4 as the following matrix 2x + 3y = 2 equation: > 1 2 x 4 H> H = > H 2 3 y 2 257 . a. First. det > the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a 2 plying this by as a 2 system * x y 2 coefficient matrix. d. extract the coefficients from the variable Set 55 (Page 130) 865. b. det > 868. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. det > 869. det > 0 2 H = ( 0 ) ( 0 ) – ( 4 ) ( 2 ) = –8 4 0 Set 56 (Page 131) 881. d. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 864. 880.

c. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. Extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 by x y constant matrix. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: 2 coefficient matrix. we can rewrite the system 6x + 3y = 8 as the following matrix equation: * 2x + y = 3 6 3 x 8 > H> H = > H 2 1 y 3 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: constant matrix. Extract the coefficients from the variable 887. we can rewrite the system * * > 2x + 3y = 1 as the following matrix equation: x + y = –2 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H 1 1 y –2 –3x + 4y = 1 4x + 2y = –3 Now. we rewrite the system by moving all –1 2 x 3 > H> H = > H 2 –4 y –6 886.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 884. First. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. c. a. we rewrite the system by moving all terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 885. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y constant matrix. First. we can rewrite the system * > –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H 4 2 y –3 –x + 2y = 3 as the following matrix equation: 2x–4 = –6 888. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: Z ] x – 4y = –2 [ 5y = 1 ] 5 \ Now. Multiplying this and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > –2 1 –4 x H> H = > 1 H 0 5 y 5 258 . c. d. First.

Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y –2 –1 0 x H> H = > H 2 –1 y 1 –x –2 H=> H 2x – y 1 –x = –2 2x – y = 1 2 coefficient matrix. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > * 2x = –2 12x – 3y = 4 Now. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > * 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H 12 –3 y 4 259 . we rewrite the system by moving all 892.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 889. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y 2 coefficient matrix. First. a. we rewrite the system by moving all variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: * –3y + y = 5 x – 2y = –9 * y = –4 –2x – y = 0 Now. First. First. Compute the product on the left side to variable terms to the left sides of the equations and all constant terms to the right sides to obtain the following equivalent system: write it as a single matrix. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > constant matrix. extract the coefficients from the variable terms on the left sides of the equations to form a2 x y Now. c. we can rewrite this system as the following matrix equation: > –3 1 x 5 H> H = > H 1 –2 y –9 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H –2 –1 y 0 890. b. b. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 2 coefficient matrix. we rewrite the system by moving all 891. Multiplying this by and identifying the right side as a 2 1 constant matrix.

compute the product on the left side 895. First. compute the product on the left side to write it as a single matrix: then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > to write it as a single matrix. b. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 896. b. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 3 2 x –2 H> H = > H 3 2 y 1 –2 3x + 2y H=> H 3x + 2y 1 3x + 2y = –2 3x + 2y = 1 –1 –1 –1 x H> H = > H –1 0 y 1 –x – y –1 H=> H –x 1 –x – y = –1 –x = 1 * * 894. Compute the product on the left side to 3 –2 x 4 H> H = > H 9 –6 y 12 3x – 2y 4 H=> H 9x – 6y 12 3x – 2y = 4 9x – 6y = 12 write it as a single matrix. c. and then equate corresponding entries in the matrices on the left and right sides of the equation to obtain the desired system: > > 0 2 x 14 H> H = > H 4 0 y –20 2y 14 H=> H –20 4x 2y = 14 4x = –20 * * 260 .ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 893. Compute the product on the left side to write it as a single matrix. d. First.

It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 H. a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 57 (Page 134) 897. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > –1 2 H is zero. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. Applying det A –c a c d 899. 2 –4 261 . then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula withA = > a 0 H yields the following: 0 b V R S1 0W b 0 A –1 = 1 > H= S a 1 W ab 0 a W S0 S bW X T a b d –b H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = 1 > H. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. so the matrix does not have an inverse. It is known that if A = > a b d –b H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. Applying det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 2 3 H yields the following: 1 1 1 –3 –1 3 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 –1 2 1 –2 901. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > 1 2 H yields the following: 2 3 3 –2 –3 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 –2 1 2 –1 900. then A –1 = det A > –c a c d this formula with A = > –3 7 H yields the following: 1 5 7 22 3 22 5 5 –7 – 22 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 –22 –1 –3 22 H 898. d. a. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. b. a. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = 1 > H.

then A –1 = det A –c a c d 903. so the matrix does not have an inverse. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 2 0 H yields the following: 12 –3 1 –3 0 0 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –6 –12 2 2 –1 3 262 . It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. a. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. a. b. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 25 4 1 A –1 = 1 > H=> 25 0 1 0 1 –4 H yields the following: 0 25 4 25 1 25 H 905. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. d. 2 1 d –b a b 1 > H. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > –3 4 H yields the following: 4 2 2 11 3 22 1 2 –4 – 11 A –1 = 1 > H=> 2 –22 –4 3 11 H 904. c. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > –3 1 H yields the following: 1 –2 –2 –1 –2 –1 5 5 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 H 5 –1 –3 –5 –3 5 906. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > 6 3 H is zero.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 902. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0.

then A –1 = det A –c a c d 910. a. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. d. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. then A –1 = det A –c a c d 911. It is known that if A = > this formula with A = > –1 –1 H yields the following: –1 0 0 1 0 –1 A –1 = 1 > H=> H –1 1 –1 –1 1 912. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. a. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > –1 0 H yields the following: 2 –1 –1 0 –1 0 A –1 = 1 > H=> H 1 –2 –1 –2 –1 909. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. so the matrix does not have an inverse. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 0 1 H yields the following: –2 –1 –1 –1 –1 –1 2 A –1 = 1 > H=> 2 H 2 2 0 1 0 908. so the matrix does not have an inverse. 3 2 d –b a b 1 > H. d. 9 –6 d –b a b 1 > H. b. It is known that if A = > the determinant of A = > 3 –2 H is zero. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 907. Note that H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d this formula with A = > 0 2 H yields the following: 4 0 0 –2 0 1 4 A –1 = 1 > H=> 1 H –8 –4 0 0 2 263 . c. It is known that if A = > d –b a b 1 > H. Applying H is such that det A = ad – bc ≠ 0. then A –1 = det A –c a c d the determinant of A = > 3 2 H is zero.

a. c. From Problem 883. c. c. and f are real numbers. b.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 58 (Page 137) 913. the solution of the system is x = 23 . where a. d. 915. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 899 yields the y 2 3 2 following solution: x –3 2 4 –8 > H=> H> H = > H y 2 –1 2 6 So. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H. The solution is 1 5 y 8 x –3 7 2 H > H. e. e. the solution of the system is x = –8. b. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 897 yields the therefore given by > H = > y 1 5 8 following solution: R R V V R V 7 W S 46 W S 23 W S– 5 x 22 22 W> 2 H = S 22 W = S 11 W > H= S 1 3 W8 y S 26 W S 13 W S S 22 W S 11 W S 22 22 W T T X X T X So. is c d y f x a b e H > H. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. The solution is 2 3 y 2 x 1 2 4 therefore given by > H = > H > H . From Problem 881. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 13 11 . and f are real numbers. The solution of this system is clearly x = a. 914. y = 11 of solving the matrix equation. y = b. without needing to go through the formal procedure a b x e H> H = > H . 264 . is c d y f x a b e H > H . given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H. b. d. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 1 2 x 4 H> H = > H . where a. y = 6.

Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 900 yields y 1 1 –2 the following solution: x –1 3 1 –7 > H=> H> H = > H y 1 –2 –2 5 So. it follows that > 2 –4 2 –4 we must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). so we cannot apply this principle.The solution is 1 1 y –2 x 2 3 1 therefore given by > H = > H > H . b. c. b. d.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 916. 265 . The second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by –2. and f are real numbers. is c d y f x a b e H > H . e. and f are real numbers. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. the solution of the system is x = –7. Rather. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > det > –1 –1 2 x 3 H> H = > H. d. so the system has infinitely many solutions. b. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Note that since 2 –4 y –6 –1 2 –1 2 H does not exist. d. The two lines are identical. From Problem 885. From Problem 884. c. H = 0. y = 5. is c d y f x a b e H > H. 917. where a. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . e. where a.

given by > H = > y c d f –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. c. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e H > H . b. 920. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). c. From this. where a. y = – 252 . c. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H. a. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 903 yields therefore given by > H = > y 4 2 –3 the following solution: 1 x – 11 > H=> 2 y 11 2 11 3 22 –1 H> 7 1 – 11 H=> 5 H –3 – 22 So. 919. where a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 918. b. a. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . the solution of the system is x = – 171 . e. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e given by > y H = > c d H > f H . The solution is the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > 4 2 y –3 x –3 4 1 H > H. 266 . b. the system has no solution. so we cannot apply the above principle. Hence. d. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > det > –1 6 3 x 8 H> H = > H. d. and f are real numbers. it follows that > 2 1 2 1 must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). From Problem 888. is c d y f x a b e H > H. Subtracting this from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –1. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. where a. d. Rather. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . e. Note that since 2 1 y 3 6 3 6 3 H does not exist. d. e. From Problem 886. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Multiplying both sides of the second equation by 3 yields the equivalent equation 6x + 3y = 9. From Problem 887. we H = 0.

b. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 905 yields therefore given by > H = > y 1 –2 –9 the following solution: x –2 –1 5 –1 5 5 5 > H=> 1 H> H = > 22 H y – 5 – 3 –9 5 5 So. The solution is –1 x 1 –4 –2 > H=> H > H. and f are real numbers. b. the solution of the system is x = –1.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 1 –4 x –2 the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > 0 25 H> y H = > 1 H. is c d y f x a b e H > H . c. From Problem 890. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . a b x e H> H = > H . is c d y f x a b e H > H . Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 904 yields therefore given by y 0 25 1 the following solution: x 1 > H=> y 0 4 25 1 25 H> –2 – 46 25 H=> 1 H 1 25 1 25 . the solution of the system is x = – 179 . From Problem 889. and f are real numbers. The solution is. 12 –3 y 4 x 2 0 –2 H > H. given by > H = > y 12 –3 4 the following solution: 1 –1 x 0 –2 2 > H=> H> H = > 16 H –3 y 2 –1 4 3 So. e. b. y = 25 921. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. where a. y = – 136 . e. where a. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 –3 1 x 5 H> H = > H. given by > H = > y c d f the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –1 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H. y = 922. So. c. d. the solution of the system is x = – 46 . c. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 22 7. 267 . d. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 906 yields therefore. The solution is 1 –2 y –9 x –3 1 5 H > H.

b. where a. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e H > H. c. the system has no solution. y = 3. d. therefore. d. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . the given system can be written as the equivalent matrix equation > –2 –1 y 0 x 0 1 –4 H > H. y = –4. given by > H = > H > H. Using the calculation for the inverse from Problem 907 tion is. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). given by > H = > y c d f 2 –1 y 1 x –1 0 –2 The solution is. e. d. b. and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e –1 0 x –2 H > H . where a. Hence. 925. we cannot apply the principle. Note that since given by > H = > y c d f det > 3 2 3 2 H = 0. d. > H> H = > H. Subtracting the second equation from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –3. given by > H = > y –2 –1 0 yields the following solution: x 2 – 1 – 1 –4 2 > H=> 2 H> H = > H y 0 –4 1 0 So. the solution of the system is x = 2. e. 924. therefore. it follows that > H does not exist. From this. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 –1 a b x e H> H = > H . From Problem given by > H = > y c d f 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H. the solution of the system is x = 2. c. and f are real numbers. b. where a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 923. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 –1 a b x e H> H = > H . 268 . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. we 3 2 3 2 –1 must inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). The solu891. Using the calculation for the inverse from y 2 –1 1 Problem 908 yields the following solution: x –1 0 – 2 2 > H=> H> H = > H y –2 –1 1 3 So. b. is c d y f x a b e H > H . provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. Therefore. c. e. c. Rather.

and f are real numbers is c d y f x a b e –1 –1 x –1 H > H . Using the calculation for the inverse from y –1 0 1 Problem 911 yields the following solution: x 0 –1 –1 –1 > H=> H> H = > H y –1 1 1 2 So. c. y = 7. where a. d. e. we must H = 0. c. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . e. d. c. where a.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 926. 928. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. –1 269 . > given by > H = > H> H = > H. b. is c d y f x a b e H > H. c. H > H . y = 2. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. the solution of the system is x = –5. b. provided that the inverse matrix on the right side exists. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . and f are real numbers. d. c. and f are real numbers. > given by > H = > 4 0 y –20 y c d f x 0 2 14 The solution is therefore given by > H = > H > H. is c d y f –1 0 2 x 14 x a b e H> H = > H. e. Note that since given by > H = > y c d f det > 3 –2 3 –2 H does not exist. it follows that > 9 –6 9 –6 –1 inspect the system to determine whether there is no solution (which happens if the two lines are parallel) or if there are infinitely many solutions (which happens if the two lines are identical). b. the solution of the system is x = –1. 927. Rather. so we cannot apply this principle. d. The second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by 3. y c d f –1 0 y 1 x –1 –1 –1 The solution is therefore given by > H = > H > H. where a. so the system has infinitely many solutions. The solution to the matrix equation > –1 a b x e H> H = > H . Using the calculation for the inverse from Proby 4 0 –20 lem 912 yields the following solution: x –5 0 1 14 4 > H=> 1 H> H=> H y 7 0 –20 2 So. Therefore. the two lines are identical.

ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 59 (Page 139) 929. b. 270 . 1 5 y 8 1 2 x a H> H = > H . y = 5. First. 2 3 y b Next. from Cramer’s rule. y = 6. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = 1 2 = (1) (3) – (2) (2) = –1 2 3 2 = (4 ) (3 ) – (2 ) (2 ) = 8 3 4 = (1) (2) – (2) (4) = –6 3 8 = –8 –1 –6 = 6 –1 2 8 –3 Dy = 1 4 2 1 Dy = 2 So. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D So. 932. the solution is x = a. y = 13 11 . 0 1 y b Next. from Cramer’s rule. the solution is x = Thus. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D Thus. y = b. from Cramer’s rule. we have: x = D x = –46 = 23 D –22 11 D y –26 13 y= = = D –22 11 Thus. c. 1 1 y –2 Next. the solution is x = –8. First. the solution is x = –7. rewrite the system as the following 931. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D So. from Cramer’s rule. Thus. rewrite the system as the following 930. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 915: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 913: > –3 7 x 2 H> H = > H. First. 23 11 . identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = 2 3 = (2) (1) – (1) (3) = –1 1 1 3 = (1) (1) – (–2) (3) = 7 1 1 = (2) (–2) – (1) (1) = –5 –2 –7 = –7 –1 –5 = 5 –1 1 –2 2 Dy = 1 So. a. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 1 0 a Dx = b 1 Dy = 0 D= 0 = (1 ) (1 ) – (0 ) (0 ) = 1 1 0 = (a ) (1 ) – (b ) (0 ) = a 1 a = (1 ) (b ) – (0 ) (a ) = b b a =a 1 b =b 1 2 3 x 1 H> H = > H . b. First. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 916: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 882: 1 0 x a > H> H = > H . identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = –3 7 = (–3) (5) – (1) (7) = –22 1 5 7 = (2) (5) – (8) (7) = –46 5 2 = (–3) (8) – (1) (2) = –26 8 Next.

rewrite the system as the following Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. y = – 252 . We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = –3 4 = (–3) (2) – (4) (4) = –22 4 2 equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 918: > 1 4 = (1) (2) – (–3) (4) = 14 –3 2 –3 1 Dy = = (–3) (–3) – (4) (1) = 5 4 –3 So. d. we note that the second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by –2. a. from Cramer’s rule. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: D= Dx = Dy = –1 2 = ( –1 ) ( –4 ) – ( 2 ) ( 2 ) = 0 2 –4 3 2 = (3) (–4) – (–6) (2) = –24 –6 –4 –1 3 = (–1) (–6) – (2) (3) = 0 2 –6 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. 2 1 y 3 Next. To this end. From this. First. as in Problem 918.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 933. 934. 2 –4 y –6 Next. we can conclude only that the system either has zero or infinitely many solutions. 935. the two lines are identical. we have: x = D x = 14 = – 7 D –22 11 Dy y= = 5 =– 5 D –22 22 Thus. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 919: > –3 4 x 1 H> H = > H . we can only conclude that either the system has zero or infinitely many solutions. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). d. Subtracting this from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –1. the system has no solution. as in Problem 917. the solution is x = – 171 . Hence. First. 6 3 x 8 H> H = > H . First. 4 2 y –3 Next. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. Therefore. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 917: > –1 2 x 3 H> H = > H . identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 6 2 8 Dx = 3 D= Dy = 3 = (6 ) (1 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 1 3 = ( 8 ) ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) ( 3 ) = –1 1 6 8 = (6 ) (3 ) – (2 ) (8 ) = 2 2 3 271 . note that multiplying both sides of the second equation by 3 yields the equivalent equation 6x + 3y = 9. so the system has infinitely many solutions. To this end.

we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 4 =2 2 –8 = –4 2 22 5. rewrite the system as the following 937. First. from Cramer’s rule. 12 –3 y 4 Next. from Cramer’s rule.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 936. rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 920: > equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 922: > 1 –4 x –2 H> H = > H . identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: 2 0 D= = (2) (–3) – (12) (0) = –6 12 –3 –2 0 = (–2) (–3) – (4) (0) = 6 4 –3 2 –2 Dy = = (2) (4) – (12) (–2) = 32 12 4 Dx = So. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s Rule: 1 –4 = (1) (25) – (0) (–4) = 25 0 25 –2 – 4 Dx = = (–2) (25) – (1) (–4) = –46 1 25 D= Dy = 1 –2 = ( 1 ) ( 1 ) – ( 0 ) ( –2 ) = 1 0 1 Next. y = – 136 . b. from Cramer’s rule. rewrite the system as the following 938. First. 939. y = 25 1 25. y = 5 equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 923: > 0 1 x –4 H> H = > H . we have: x = D x = 46 D 25 Dy y= = 1 D 25 Thus. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 6 = –1 –6 32 = – 16 –6 3 So. First. c. the solution is x = – 46 . rewrite the system as the following equivalent matrix equation as in Problem 921: –3 1 x 5 > H> H = > H . a. Thus. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s Rule: 0 1 D= = (0) (–1) – (–2) (1) = 2 –2 –1 –4 1 = (–4) (–1) – (0) (1) = 4 0 –1 0 –4 Dy = = (0) (0) – (–2) (–4) = –8 –2 0 Dx = So. we have: x = Dx = – 1 D 5 D y 22 y= = D 5 Thus. c. the solution is x = – 1 . the solution is x = 2. 272 . from Cramer’s rule. the solution is x = –1. Thus. –2 –1 y 0 Next. identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule: –3 1 D= = ( –3 ) ( –2 ) – ( 1 ) ( 1 ) = 5 1 –2 5 1 Dx = = (5) (–2) – (–9) (1) = –1 –9 – 2 –3 5 Dy = = (–3) (–9) – (1) (5) = 22 1 –9 So. First. y = –4. 1 –2 y –9 Next. 0 25 y 1 2 0 x –2 H> H = > H .

–1 –1 = (–1) (0) – (–1) (–1) = –1 –1 0 –1 –1 = (–1) (0) – (1) (–1) = 1 1 0 –1 –1 Dy = = (–1) (1) – (–1) (–1) = –2 –1 1 So. The two lines are identical. Identify the following determinants to be 3 –2 = ( 3 ) ( – 6 ) – ( 9 ) ( –2 ) = 0 9 –6 4 –2 = (4) (–6) – (12) (–2) = 0 12 –6 3 3 = (3) (12) – (9) (3) = 9 9 12 used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the 3 2 x –2 H> H = > H : matrix equation > 3 2 y 1 3 2 D= = (3 ) (2 ) – (2 ) (3 ) = 0 3 2 Dx = –2 2 = (–2) (2) – (1) (2) = –6 1 2 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. the solution is x = –1. 943. d. subtracting the second equation from the first equation yields the false statement 0 = –3. the solution is x = 2. To this end.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 940. y = 2. b. from Cramer’s rule. we can only conclude that the system has either zero or infinitely many solutions. we conclude that the two lines must be parallel (which can also be checked by graphing them). we have: x = Dx = 2 = 2 D 1 Dy 3 y= = =3 D 1 Thus. From this. we can conclude only that the system has either zero or infinitely many solutions. from Cramer’s rule. To this end. so the system has infinitely many solutions. as in Problem 926. as in Problem 925. 273 . Identify the following determinants to be 942. d. Identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= Dx = –1 –1 x –1 H> H = > H : –1 0 y 1 3 –2 Dy = = ( 3 ) ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) ( –2 ) = 9 3 1 Since applying Cramer’s rule requires that we divide by D in order to determine x and y. 941. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. the second equation in the system is obtained by multiplying both sides of the first equation by 3. Hence. We must consider the equations directly and manipulate them to determine which is the case. the system has no solution. y = 3. b. Identify the following determinants to be used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > –1 0 x –2 H> H = > H: 2 –1 y 1 used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= Dx = Dy = 3 –2 x 4 H> H = > H : 9 –6 y 12 –1 0 D= = ( –1 ) ( –1 ) – ( 2 ) ( 0 ) = 1 2 –1 –2 0 Dx = = (–2) (–1) – (1) (0) = 2 1 –1 –1 –2 Dy = = (–1) (1) – (2) (–2) = 3 2 1 So. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 1 = –1 –1 –2 = 2 –1 Thus.

the radicals cannot be combined because their indices are different. 958. 964. from Cramer’s rule. The sum 3 + 6 cannot be simplified further because the radicands are different. The correct answer should be e8x because 10–4 because the decimal point must move to the left four places in order to yield 0. we have: x = Dx = D Dy y= = D 40 = –5 –8 –56 = 7 –8 of 10.3 = x12x3 = x12+3 = x15. The first equality is incorrect. There is no error. Any nonzero quantity raised to the zero power is 1. c. The exponents should be multiplied. x = –1 and x = 3. you can cancel only factors that are common to the numerator and denominator. the solution is x = – 5. binomial was not squared correctly. You must first get a common denominator used in the application of Cramer’s rule for the matrix equation > D= 0 2 x 14 H> H = > H: 4 0 y –20 before you add two fractions. a. 954.50% 14 2 Dx = = (14) (0) – (–20) (2) = 40 –20 0 0 14 Dy = = (0) (–20) – (4) (14) = –56 4 –20 So. 947. a. 0 2 = ( 0 ) ( 0 ) – ( 4 ) ( 2 ) = –8 4 0 A correct statement would be “200% of 4 is 8. There are two solutions of this equation. a. b. The answer should be 9 because (–3)–2 = 1 (–3) (–3) 1 added. The power doesn’t apply Set 62 (Page 146) 961. 959.00013 = 1. 948. not Section 8—Common Algebra Problems Set 61 (Page 144) 945. The placement of the quantities is incorrect. The value x = –7 cannot be the solution because it makes the terms in the original equation undefined—you cannot divide by zero. 956. a. you multiply 10 by 0. 4). 955. 957. The correct denominator should be 22 + 2 3 + ( 3)2 = 7 + 2 3. 960. Therefore. b.00013. The correct answer should be x15 because x12 x–3 946. c. Identify the following determinants to be 950. The third equality is incorrect because the Thus. 9 multiply the numerator by the reciprocal of the denominator. b. a. This is incorrect because you cannot cancel multiplying both sides by a negative real number. (e4x)2 = e4x 2 = e8x. The first equality is wrong because you must = 1. b. 949. b. y = 7. There is no error.0050 to get 0. There is no error. a. b. The correct a computation is: 3 + 2 = 3 + 24a = 3 + 2a 4 4 4 951. 963. There is no error. members of a sum.” 952.05. b. c. this equation has no solution. a. c. a. 953. The inequality sign must be switched when to the –1 in front of the 4. The correct solution set should be (–∞. 962. In order to compute 0. c. so the correct answer should be x10. There is no error.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 944. b. In order to square the entire –4. The statement should be 0. one must write (–4)2. 274 .

c. they should be (2. parts of a single input. a. factor (if possible). 979. b. 967. x 975. The first equality is incorrect because the natural logarithm of a sum is not the sum of the natural logarithms. 982. You can cancel only factors common to both. 970. the expression on the extreme left side of the string of equalities cannot be simplified further. 980. b. so its slope is undefined. a. 989. There is no error. As such. 969. It is. a. The point is actually in Quadrant II. determine the values that make the factored expression equal to zero. c. The denominator in the quadratic formula (5x) = log5(5x)2 = log5(25x2). the correct statement should be f(x – h) = (x – h)4. c. 987. There is no error. and construct a sign chart to solve such an inequality. 2]. There is no error. The graph of g is actually decreasing as x moves from left to right through the domain. The first equality is incorrect because 2 log5 = –1 cannot. 988. 976. 992. You cannot distribute a function across xy y +4x = 2y – x y + 4x 974. in order for f to have an inverse. ∞) inequality. b. The graph of y = f(x + 3) is actually obtained = 2 x 1 x – + 1 y 4 y = 2y xy y xy – + x xy 4x xy = 2y – x xy y + 4x xy = by shifting the graph of y = f(x) to the left 3 units. c. This equation has no real solutions because the output of an even-indexed radical must be nonnegative. is 2a. 971. The line is vertical. 968. not 1. so that the cannot be factored further. so it represents a function.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– 965. -2 is not in the domain of g. It to lie on the graph of y = f(x) are reversed. The graph of y = 5 passes the vertical line test. c. a. 983. In fact. In such case. The line y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote the right side should be switched. which in this case is 2. of f. c. 986. The coordinates of the point that is known The correct statement should be (x – y)2 = x2 – 2xy + y2. 978. There is no error.5). 990. The signs used to define the binomials on Set 63 (Page 148) 977. 981. b. b. a. b. There is no error. not the numerator and denominator. While x = 1 satisfies the original equation. The left side is not a difference of squares. 991. because negative inputs into a logarithm are not allowed. b. The point (0. 966. a. a. The other equalities are correct as written. b. There is no error. the given function f –1(x) = x is indeed its inverse. There is no error. The complex solutions should be x = i 5. 973. The correct factorization is (x – 7)(x + 3). The domain of f must be restricted to [0. a. The left side must be expanded by FOILing. a. The complex fraction must first be simplified before any cancellation can occur. The correct statement is: 2x–1 – y–1 x–1 + 4y–1 2y – x xy x-intercept. c. however. 972. The correct solution set should be [–2. You cannot cancel terms of a sum in the composition is not defined at –2. not invertible. a. a. a. You must move all terms to one side of the for f. 985. b. 275 .1) is the y-intercept. 984.

Since adding the two equations results in 997. 998. The sum is not well-defined. a. a. Therefore. 2 matrix and a real number because their dimensions are different. Since multiplying the first equation by –2 the left side are not the same. b. a. 1001. there can be no solution of this system. c. The difference is computed in the wrong order. There is no error. 1000. there are infinitely many solutions of this system. There is no error. 276 . c. The correct statement should be det > 4 2 H= (4)(–1) – (2)(1) = –6. You cannot add a 2 equality do not have the same dimension. 995. a. so their sum is undefined. The two matrices on the left side of the 999. The inner dimension of the two matrices on the false statement 0 = 8. 996.ANSWERS & EXPLANATIONS– Set 64 (Page 150) 993. they cannot be multiplied. 1 –1 and then adding the two equations results in the true statement 0 = 0. There is no error. c. b. 994.

of an algebraic term. An algebraic expression may or may not contain an operation (such as addition or multiplication). 277 . addend a quantity that is added to another quantity. and the degree of x3 + x2 +9 is 3. or . such as x + 4 = –1 algebraic expression one or more terms. x is the base. such as (2x + 1) the numerical multiplier. >. In the term 3x. . that never changes value an x-value and a y-value. in parentheses separated by a comma. but does not contain an equal sign. or factor. binomial coefficient constant an expression that contains two terms. containing ≠ . The degree of a polynomial is the highest degree of its terms. 2 is the base. In the term 3x. at least one of which contains a variable. additive inverse the negative of a quantity algebra the representation of quantities and relationships using symbols algebraic equation an algebraic expression equal to a number or another algebraic expression. such as x + 2 > 8 base a number or variable that is used as a building block within an expression.GLOSSARY absolute value the absolute value of a is the distance between a and 0. composite number coordinate pair coordinate plane cubic equation decreasing function a function whose graph falls vertically from left to right degree The degree of a variable is its exponent. The degree of x5 is 5. x and 3 are addends. a number that has at least one other positive factor besides itself and 1. 2) a two-dimensional surface with an x-axis and a y-axis an equation in which the highest degree is 3. such as 3. 3 is the coefficient. The equation y = x3 + x is cubic. such as (4. algebraic inequality an algebraic expression not equal to a number or another algebraic expression. <. In the term 24. In the equation x + 3 = 5. such as 4 or 10 a term.

6 is the dividend. or two unequal expressions that are compared using the symbol a whole number. (a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd function an equation that associates a unique y-value to every x-value in its domain greatest common factor (GCF) the largest monomial that can be factored out of every term in an expression imaginary number a number whose square is less than zero. like terms two or more terms that have the same variable bases raised to the same exponents. The graphs of inverse functions are reflections of each other over the line y = x. factor If two or more whole numbers multiplied together yield a product. such as the square root of –9. divisor the number by which the dividend is divided in a division problem (the denominator of a fraction). In the term 3x2. Inner. polynomial an expression that is the sum of one or more terms. or zero. such as 3x2 and 10x2 or 7xy and 10xy linear equation an equation that can contain constants and variables. but may have different coefficients. In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. 2 and 4 are factors of 8. Outer. In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. perpendicular lines is –1. which are the pairs of terms that must be multiplied in order to find the terms of the product of two binomials. Since 2 4 = 8. factoring breaking down a product into its factors FOIL an acronym that stands for First. which can be written as 3i. and the exponents of the variables are 1. such as 3 + 6 = 9 exponent a constant or variable that states the number of times a base must be multiplied by itself. each with whole numbered exponents 278 . such as x2 + 2x + 1. 2 is the divisor.–GLOSSARY– distributive law a term outside a set of parentheses that contains two terms should be multiplied by each term inside the parentheses: a(b + c) = ab + ac. the negative of a whole number. such as 3x2 an x-value and a y-value. those numbers are factors of that product. such as (4. . >. Last. inverse functions Two functions are inverses of each other if and only if each composed with the other yields the identity function (y = x). Examples of integers are 2 and –2. domain equation the set of all values that can be substituted for x in an equation or function two expressions separated by an equal sign. in parentheses separated by a comma. 2 is the exponent. dividend the number being divided in a division problem (the numerator of a fraction). increasing function inequality integer a function whose graph rises vertically from left to right . Parallel lines never intersect. The expression 36% is equal to 36 out of 100. lines that intersect at right angles. The equation y = 3x + 8 is linear.2) lines that have the same slope. The product of the slopes of two perpendicular lines monomial ordered pair parallel lines percent a number out of 100. <. matrix an array of real numbers composed of m rows and n columns an expression that consists of products of powers of variables.

then the equation is not a function. 3 is the quotient. 8 is the radicand. If a vertical line can be drawn anywhere through the graph of an equation such that it crosses the graph more than once. constant. with or without an exponent. subtraction. = 4 3 16 12 the result of multiplication. such as x. such as quadratic equation equation. or two or more terms with identical variables raised to different exponents. where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept system of equations a group of two or more equations for which the common variables in each equation have the same values quotient the result of division. In the number sentence 2 an equation that shows two equal ratios. or product of both. that is usually separated from another term by addition. term a variable. such as (6x2 + 11x + 4) a quantity whose value is not given. In the number sentence 6 2 = 3. usually represented by a letter unlike terms two or more terms that have different variable bases. such as 2x or 5 in the expression (2x + 5) trinomial unknown an expression that contains three terms. that takes the place of a number vertical line test the drawing of a vertical line through the graph of an equation to determine if the equation is a function. x-axis y-axis the horizontal line on a coordinate plane along which y = 0 the x-value of a point where a curve crosses the x-axis the vertical line on a coordinate plane along which x = 0 x-intercept y-intercept the y-value of the point where a curve crosses the y-axis 279 . such as 3x2 and 4x4 variable a symbol. The equation y = x2 + 1 is a quadratic a root of a quantity the quantity under a radical symbol. the set of all y-values that can be generated from x-values in an equation or function a relationship between two or more quantities. such as 3 or 7 4 = 8. the product of which is the original number prime number product proportion a number whose only positive factors are 1 and itself. 8 is the product. or an equal sign. such as 3:2 the quotient of two polynomials a value of x in the domain of a function for which f(x) is 0 rational expression slope a measurement of steepness of a line computed as follows: the change in the y-values between two points on a line divided by the change in the x-values of those points slope-intercept form y = mx + b. In 3 8. radical radicand range ratio root an equation in which the highest degree is 2.–GLOSSARY– prime factorization the writing of a number as a multiplication expression made up of only prime numbers.

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