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Technical Development Manager CRANE BS&U
Crane Co founded in 1855 by Richard Teller Crane who made the following resolution -
“I am resolved to conduct my business in the strictest honesty and fairness; to avoid all deception and trickery; to deal fairly with both customers and competitors; to be liberal and just towards employees; and to put my whole mind upon the business”
Crane Limited founded in Ipswich in 1919
Crane Building Services & Utilities created 2009
CRANE BS&U 2008 sales £102m Gas Utilities Building Services Water Utilities .
PROPORTIONAL BALANCING Written by Andy Lucas Technical Development Manager CRANE BS&U .
Title PROPORTIONAL BALANCING Objective To give an overview of Proportional Balancing within the commission process This process applies to both constant & variable flow heating and chilled water systems .
Commissioning Definition: The advancement of an installation from the state of static completion to full working order to specified requirements. CIBSE Commissioning Code W .
Commissioning Why commission? Requirement L1 of Part L of the Building Regulations in England and Wales requires that “reasonable provision shall be made for the conservation of fuel and power in buildings by providing and commissioning energy efficient fixed building services with effective controls” .
Commissioning Why Balance? Waters lazy – will take shortest route! • nearest terminal hottest • furthest terminal coldest Balancing forces design flow rates to all areas .
Commissioning Preparation for Commissioning Installation must be • Installed in accordance with specification • successfully pressure tested • flushed & cleaned • filled. treated & vented • safe & ready to set to work • all valves fully open .
Commissioning Pump shut-off (closed) head test • measure closed head • check against pump curve • draw parallel curve • pressure at full flow – check against graph • if flow and pressure co-inside with graph – pump performance OK Flow Rate Pressure closed head from manufacturer measured closed head corrected pump curve pump curve .
Commissioning Preliminary flow rate check • measure flow .will result in final balance being less than 100% variable flow systems may have „diversity‟ designed in • set to 110% pump design flow rate .all valves open • if less than 100% .
Commissioning Full system scan • measure all flow rates • highlights problems .
in their correct proportions and within tolerances specified by the designer.Proportional Balancing What is it? The systematic process of bringing the fluid flow rates throughout a distribution system into balance with one another. CIBSE Commissioning Code W .
Proportional Balancing Constant volume flow systems • fixed speed pumps – no energy saving for part load • constant volume of water is pumped around the system • 3 or 4 port control valve diverts water through by-pass • commissioned by proportional balancing or by the use of constant flow regulators – ABV (Automatic Balancing Valves) .
proportional balancing DPCV – Differential Pressure Control Valves PICV – Pressure Independent Combination Valve .Proportional Balancing Variable volume flow systems • variable speed pumps – energy saving for part load • variable volume of water to match demand • 2 port control valve • commissioned by combination of.
Proportional Balancing Terms • %DFR – Percentage Design Flow Rate • Least Favoured/Index Circuit • Reference Circuit .
10kg/s x 100 = 70% x 100 .07kg/s 0.Proportional Balancing Terms %DFR – Percentage Design Flow Rate %DFR = eg %DFR = measured flow design flow 0.
having the highest pressure drop relative to all other circuits – ie lowest %DFR .Proportional Balancing Terms . when system is unbalanced.Least Favoured & Index circuit A? B? C? Least favoured & index circuit are same the least favoured/index circuit is the circuit.
Proportional Balancing Terms . that all other circuits will be balanced against For proportional balancing. ie closing double regulating valve . If this is not the same as the least favoured.Reference circuit A? B? C? Reference add resistance The reference circuit is the circuit. when system is unbalanced. it must be made into the least favoured by adding resistance. the furthest circuit or terminal unit must be the reference.
Δp (differential High pressure) is measured Net system pressure loss water Δp orifice .Proportional Balancing Regulate Flow measurement valve Low Signal .
Proportional Balancing To allow us to measure Δp generally we use 1 of 2 instruments • U tube manometer fluorocarbon mercury • electronic equipment up to 250kPa 0 .65kPa .4.6kPa 0 .
Proportional Balancing high low Δp measurement – U tube manometer • zero Δp (differential pressure) • measure Δp – „signal‟ • equate to flow rate Q = Kvs Δp 36 from graph 2 Kvs Δp Δp 1 0 0 1 2 3 Flow rate 4 5 .
Proportional Balancing Δp measurement . directly display • differential pressure • flow rate • %DFR .electronic Electronic flow measurement meters are pre-programmed with valve data. therefore.
Complete test sheet . Regulate flow 4.Proportional Balancing Procedure follows 4 stages 1. Measure (scan) each unregulated terminal to establish „least favoured‟ & „reference‟ 2. Proportional Balance 3.
Proportional balancing Proportional Balancing STAGE 1 Measure each terminal Measure each terminal Adjust to 110%DFR Design (kg/s) Actual (kg/s) %DFR 0.10 0.04 100% 40% least favoured/index Identify least favoured/index .10 40% 100% 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.16 160% 0.04 0.10 0.160 0.13 130% 0.
04 if furthest is reference/index then %DFR 40% regulating valve always fully open Always remains index 40% . ie adding resistance 0.Proportional balancing Proportional Balancing Make furthest Measure each terminal equal to least favoured • add resistance to make furthest (the reference) equal to least favoured • if total flow rate drops bring back to 110% made least favoured by regulating.
10 0.10 0.092 92% 0.09 0.Proportional Balancing reference STAGE 2 Proportional Balance Design (kg/s) Actual (kg/s) %DFR 0.10 0.092 91% 92% 0.091 0.10 0.092 90% 91% 92% 0.092 92% Each terminal is Proportionally Balanced against each other working towards pump .091 0.
92 0.10 0.10 92% 100% Adjust circuit commissioning valve to obtain 100% .10 92% 100% 0.10 92% 100% 0.10 0.10 92% 100% 0.92 0.10 0.92 0.92 0.10 0.Proportional Balancing STAGE 3 Regulate flow Design (kg/s) Actual (kg/s) %DFR 0.
Proportional Balancing Larger circuit • 2 floors • each with commissioning valve • divided into 2 subcircuits • each with commissioning valve • sub-circuit divided into 4 terminal branches • each with commissioning valve .
ie same %DFR • sub-circuits can be balanced in any order • proportionally balance each sub-circuit to reference sub-circuit.Proportional Balancing Looking at each floor • proportional balance each sub-circuit to reference. ie same %DFR reference .
Proportional Balancing Having proportionally balanced the floor sub-circuits • Proportionally Balance floors to reference floor. ie same %DFR • Regulate flow to 100% at pump constant flow – by regulation variable flow – by pump speed .
111 101 3.24 4.110 2.128 116 3.28 0.2 3.2 valve data design data initial scan %DFRmeasured results Sample from BSRIA Commissioning Water Systems applications guide .4 0.Proportional Balancing L001 D931 15 lower 0.
%DFR identify index add resistance same as reference? yes proportional balance complete test sheet regulate flow .Proportional Balancing Steps to Proportional Balancing no scan .
Variable flow CPD • understanding variable flow systems • commissioning variable flow systems proportional balancing adjusting DPCV setting PICV .
PROPORTIONAL BALANCING Andy Lucas Technical Development Manager CRANE BS&U .
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