Atoms and Elements • Structure of an atom • Protons • Electrons • Neutrons • Mass • Charge • Nucleus • Electron orbitals • Elements • Essential

& trace elements
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Figure 2-1: Atomic structure

All the Elements

Figure 2-2: Periodic table of the elements
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Inc... publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.Ions and Isotopes • Ions have charge • Cations + • Anions - • Isotopes vary mass • Neutrons • Radioisotopes • Unstable nuclei • Emit energy -radiation • Medical uses as tracers Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

. and atoms Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.Ions and Isotopes Figure 2-3: A map showing the relationship between elements. ions. Inc. isotopes.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.Molecules and Compounds • Common in biosystems • Carbon (C) • Oxygen (O) • Hydrogen (H) Figure 2-6: Electron configuration of the three most common elements in the body Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Molecules and Compounds • Bonds capture energy • Bonds link atoms • Molecules • Molecular weight • Chemical formula Figure 2-7b: Chemical structures and formulas of some biological molecules Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education..

Types of Chemical Bonds • Covalent bonds • Common in biosystems • Share a pair of electrons • Ionic Bonds • Transfer an electron • Opposite charges attract Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2-9a: Ions and ionic bonds ...

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Types of Chemical Bonds • Hydrogen bonds • Weak partial bonds • Water surface tension • Van der Waals forces . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10a: Hydrogen bonds of water .. Inc.. Inc.weak Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

Inc..Functional Groups • Direct reactivity of a molecule • Common examples in biosystems Table 2-1: Common Functional Groups Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

. e. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2-8: Water is a polar molecule . H2O) • Non polar molecules • No regional partial charges • Do not dissolve easily in water (i.• Polarity of Molecules • Partial charges on regions of molecule • Soluble in polar solvents ( i.e.. Inc. Inc. lipids) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

Ionic Bonds and Ions • Ionic Bonds and Ions • Gain 1 positive charge for each electron lost • Gain 1 negative charge for each electron gained • Dissolve and disassociate in polar solutions • Important ions of the body Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2-9a : Ions and ionic bonds .. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ...Ionic Bonds and Ions Table 2-2: Important Ions of the Body Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Hydrogen Bonds (H-bonds) Figure 2-10: Hydrogen bonds of water Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc. ease of dissolving • Hydrophobic • Hydrophilic Figure 2-11: Sodium chloride dissolves in water Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education..Solutions: Water is the main Solvent in Biosystems • Solutes dissolve in liquids • Solvents dissolve solutes • Solution: solute dissolves in solvent • Solubility . Inc.

Inc..Concentrations • Amount of solute in a solution • Mole defined • Molarity–1 mole in 1 liter • Equivalents–charge • Weight /volume • Grams solute/ml solvent • Volume/volume • Percent solution Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .

. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. Inc.decreases H+ in solution ( NH3 + H2O <=> NH4+ OH-) • Buffer minimizes changes of pH Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.contributes H+ to solution (CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3.) • Base . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH) in Biosystems • Acid .

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH) in Biosystems Figure 2-12: pH scale Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Carbohydrate Biomolecules: Carbon.. Inc. ribose) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Hydrogen & Oxygen • Complex carbohydrates: polymers (polysccharides) • "Simple sugars" monosccharides (glucose. Inc..

Carbohydrate Biomolecules: Carbon. Inc.. Hydrogen & Oxygen Figure 2-13-1: Carbohydrates Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education...Carbohydrate Biomolecules: Carbon. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Hydrogen & Oxygen Figure 2-13-2: Carbohydrates Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings . little Oxygen • Triglycerides: Glycerol. Steroids & Phospholipids Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Fatty acid chains • Eicosanoids.. Inc. Inc..Lipids: Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen.

Inc.. little Oxygen Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2-14: Lipids and lipid-related molecules .Lipids: Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen.

primary quaternary Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Proteins: Amino acid polymers • Amino Acids: essential. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. acid group • Protein structure: polypeptides. amino group.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2-15: Amino acid structure .. Inc.

Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Combination Biomolecules • Lipoproteins (blood transport molecules) • Glycoproteins (membrane structure) • Glycolipids (membrane receptors) Figure 2-19: Chemistry summary Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. Inc.

. DNA and RNA • Composition • Base • Sugar • Phosphate • Transmit and store • Information (genetic code) • Energy transfer molecules • ATP • Cyclic AMP • NAD & FAD Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education.Nucleotides. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education...Nucleotides. DNA. and RNA Figure 2-18: RNA and DNA Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc. Inc.

ionic. concentrations • pH: hydrogen ions. solvents. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . charge & orbitals • Bonds: covalent. Inc. bases & buffering • Biomolecules: carbohydrates. proteins & nucleic acids Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. acids. hydrogen • Solutions: solutes. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education. Inc.Summary • Atoms: structure.. mass.. lipids.