Historical Dictionary

of Ancient Egyptian
Robert G. Morkot
Historical Dictionaries of War,
Revolution, and Civil Unrest, No. 26
The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
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Brit ish Library Cataloguing in Publicat ion Informat ion Available
Li hrary of Cnngress Da ta
Morkot, Rober t.
Il istor ical dict ionary of ancient Egyptian war fare I Robert G.
Mor kot. - lst cd.
p. eIIl. - (I listorical dictionaries of war , revo lution, and
ci vi l unrest ; no. 26)
I ncl udes bibliographical references.
ISBN O-XIOX-4X62-7 (alk. paper)
I. Egy pt- I1islOry. Mi litary-Dictionaries . 2. Egyp t - Histor y- To 640
A.D.-Dictio naries. I. Ti tle. II. Series .
DTXI .M67 2003
932' .03- de2 l 2UU3U 11816

e The paper used in this publication meets the mini mum requ ireme nts of
American Na tional Standard It)1" lnfo rmat io n Scicnces- Pennancnce of Paper
for Printed Libr ary Matcrials , ANS I/ NISO Z39.48- 1992.
Manufact ured in the United States of America.
Editor's Foreword Jail Worollojf
Reader 's Notes
Maps and Illustrations
Appendix: Dynastic Lisl
Bibliograp hy
About (he Author
Editor's Foreword
Although most of what we know about Ancient Egypt relat es to the art s
of peace , it must be obvious that to surv ive-and often thri ve-as long
as it did , Egypt must also have been well vers ed in the arts of war. Alas,
some of the conflicts were inte rna l, rebellions and civi l wars. But the
more not abl e accompanied its co ntinuing expansion into one of the
largest empires ever, with the conquest of lands and peo ples all along
the Ni le and someti mes fart her afie ld. The most vital were wars against
major rival s, some of them huge empires in their own right , others
smaller maraudi ng peoples. Indeed , while it won most of the endless
hostilit ies, it did not win them all. Thus, Egy pt had a success ion of
" foreign" rulers as we ll as indigenous ones. During thi s long per iod, it
crea ted a remarkable civilization, but it also forged an exceptional
fighting machine.
This Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egyptian \Vwf are is particu-
larly significant because it tell s us so much about the part of Egyptian
history we tend to neglect. The introduction already explains just how
warlike the Egyptians were, actually, had to be in order to survive and
thri ve. The chronology, admittedly patchy because our knowledge of
Egyptian history remai ns patchy, shows how often the empire was at
war, whet her engaged in relatively minor skir mishes or much large r op-
erations . The entries go into fur ther detail on these engagements and
also inform us about the organization of the army and navy, the role of
the various officers and leader s right up to the pharaoh himsel f, the
stratagems and strategy, and especi ally the weaponry. Thi s blend s into
Egyptian histor y per se with a presentat ion of the countless allies and
enemies (so metimes one and the same) , conquered and conquero rs
<again so metimes identica l but at different per iods), including the As-
syr ians, Romans and succes sors of Alexande r the Great , Hyksos,
Libyans ancl Sea Peopl es, and many other s.
viii • 1Il1l0WS 10 1{1 WORD
In some ways it is eve n harder to wri te about Ancient Egypt at war
than at peace. The archaeo logical and written remains are fewe r, and , to
compound the problem. most of what there is may be harder to interp ret
and, for reasons that will become obvious on reading , far from trustwor-
thy. Despi te these difficulties, Robert Morkot has done an job
of sor ting things out and making them reaso nably clear, summmg
what is relative ly certain, dis pelling some of the abiding myths and mrs-
takes, and treating with due caution what we think we now know but
may be proven wrong at some later dat e. Dr. Morkot has spent more than
two decades study ing and then lecturing on Ancient Egypt , with a spe-
cial interest in Nuhia and Egyptian warfare. His studies were initially at
University Co llege London. At present he lect ures for the Universi ty of
Exeter. li e has traveled frequently for resear ch , to visit sites and lead
study tours, not only to Egypt but also to Libya, the Sudan, and Syri:1.
l ie has written four books and many other academic pub lications. This
lime he has produced a trul y fascinating historical dict ionary.
Jon Wor onoff
Series Editor
My interes t in warfare is to a large extent accidental. As an Ancient Hi s-
lor ia.n, I am part icularl y concerned with the interconnecti ons of Egypt
and Its contemporaries in Africa, wes tern Asia, and the eas tern Med iter-
ranean. Jnevitubly, conflic t and warfare played a major role in that. But ,
as I emphasize in the introduct ion , our ev idence is remarkably patchy,
both chro nologically, and in certain issues, such as tacti cs and strategy,
that form a maj or part of studies of warfare. In orde r to explain the na-
lure Ih: record, and the role of warfare in Ancient Egy pt,
the Historical Dictionary therefore ranges through some of the wide r so-
cial. economic , and rel igio us spheres that affected, and were affected
by, thi ngs military.
A book of thi s type, synthes izing a wide range of materi al , is indebt ed
10 the specialized scholarly work of numerous professional co lleag ues,
ranging from the analysis of the types of wood used to make a chariot
wheel to the interpretation of difficu lt ancient texts, and from ca lculat-
ing how many so ldiers wer e requi red to defend a par ticular fortress to
understandi ng the diffi culties of destro ying cro ps. The bibliography
shows the richness and diversity of research relat ing to all aspects of
My own spec ialist wor k, not ably that on the Egyptian Empire in Nu-
bia, has benefi ted from discussions wi th many colleagues, and particu-
larly from th.e invitat ion to contribute to " Imperial Designs: Cornp ara-
live Dynami cs of Ear ly Empires" sponsored by the Wenner-Gren
Foundat ion for Anthropological Research at their Internat ional Syrnpo-
srum #122 held in Mijas, Sp ain, in 1997. My thanks go to the organiz-
ers, Susan Alcock , Terence D'Altroy, Kath leen Morrison , and Carla Si-
nopoli for the invi tation, and to the other co lleagues present , for the ir
As always , I have pleasure in thanking Peter Stephen
Qu irke for their wi llingness to answer 'Illd.
references, and their wide- rangi ng di scussIOns of many Is.sues, anfd h
. N' t for their help 111 the library 0 t e
Patricia Spencer and hns aun on . .
, I . t' S " ny My thanks al so go to the senes editor , Jon
Egypt ' xll OIa ron : ncrci v. , d
- - . d t ' 1 He has rna e many
Woron olT, for his patience and altentlo
to e au. . . . I
. I . . number of additio nal entnes t iat
valuable suggesllonS, resu ling 111 a
bri ng together recurring subjec ts . . f
I ' ks as ever to John Vincent or
Fina lly on a persona l note, my i narucs. , j
" . . That one of my uneles server as an
constant suppor t 111 so many wa ys.' . r rna
officer in the ordnance. and my 111 the.cavalry, may, .o b' y
. I b f entnes rel ating to eco nomics . Il -
not. have a hearin g on me num er 0
rcuucrucy. and horses.
Reader's Notes
There is no universally accepted system of rendering ancie nt Egyptian
name s. Some Egypt ologists still prefer to use Greek forms of royal
names, such as Amenophis and Sethos, but since Greek forms are not
known for all pharaohs (e.g. , Hatsheps ut, Tut ankhamun). this inevitabl y
leads to an unhappy mixture. Thi s volume uses a standard system of
names based upon the hieroglyphic writ ings . It should be noted that
these transcriptions may have no relation to how the names were actu-
ally pronounced in ancient time s.
Simil ar problems occ ur with Persian, Greek, and Roman name s.
Greek names have often been Latinized (e.g. , Seleucus for Seleukos),
and Lati n names have often been Ang licized (e .g., Trajan rather Tra-
ianus). Greek names are given here in their Greek, rather than Latini zed ,
forms (e .g.. Aktion, Ant iochos, rather than Actium, Antiochus), al-
though some familiar forms, such as Ptolemy, are ret ained . Persi an
names such as Dar ius have suffered by being Latini zed from Greek
li mns of the Old Persian. but are retai ned because of their familiarity.
The familiar forms of Assyrian and Babylonian name s are also used .
This inconsistency is perhaps unfortun ate , but refl ect s modern trend s,
hopefully without being overly pedanti c at the expense of famil iarit y.
The name s used for places are also rather complicated. Egypto logist s
still generally employ the Greek forms , such as Heliopolis, Memphis,
and Thebes, rather than the Egy ptian Iunu, Men-nofer, and Waset. There
is incon sistency, but princ ipal towns have been cross-refe renced to their
Greek or Egyptian forms. Archaeo logica l sites are genera lly referred to
hy their Arabi c names, but a large city. such as Memphis , incl udes many
doze ns of individual archaeological sites .
The chronology of ancient Egypt is stiII a matter of some controversy.
The relative ordering of pharaohs, and their rei gn length s, is genera lly
acce pted for the principal phases, the Old, Midd le, and New Kingdoms,
xii • NOT! S
thc Late , Ptol emaic. and Roman periods , It is during the "Intermediate
Per iods" whenthcre we re two or more pharaohs ruling in different parts
or Egypt thaI most proble ms occ ur. The ear liest absolute ly certai n da te
is 690 Be , the accession or the pharaoh Taharqo. The dates for rei gns
and peri od s used in Ihis volume are , with a few exceptio ns , those em-
ployed in Morris Bierb rier, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt ,
Scarecrow Press , 1999,
The use o r hold face type to hi ghli ght names in the di cti onar y ind i-
cates that these have a spec ific entry o r their own e lsewhere in the text.
The maps and plans are intended as a simple guide for orientation,
and should not he considere d as substitutes for those in archaeo logical
report s or in histori ca l atlases .
c. 5000-c. 3100 BC Predy nas tic Peri od
c. 3100-2686 BC Early Dynasti c Period
c. 3150-3050 BC Dynasty "0"
c. 3050- 2890 BC fi rst Dynast y
". 3100 Ilc
". 30511 IlC
c, 2985IlC
Narrner: wars that led to unification of Egypt.
Djer: Nubian campaign recorded at Gebel Sheikh Suleirnan.
Den: military action in Asia or Sinai'!
c. 2890-2686 BC Second Dynast y
r, 2600 li e Khasekhcmwy: civil war; action in Ta-Scty (Nubia).
c. 2686-2181 BC Old Kingdo m
", 2686-2613 IlC Third Dynasty
", 2686-2613 IlC
2(,48- 2640 IlC
Sanakhte: action in Sinai.
Sekhemkhet: action in Sinai.
c, 2613- 2494 IlC fo urth Dynasty
2(' 13- 2589 li e Snefru, Nubian campaign captured 7.000 people, Defensive
system of walls and forts built on eastern bordcr.
25119- 2566 li e Khufu: battle reliefs ( ?) .
xiv • OCy
2558-2532 IIC Khufrc: battl e reliefs ('I) .
c . 2498-2345 IIC Fifth Dynasty
2494-2487 IIC Uscrka f: troops dep icted in sce ne from temple, but not
speci fically militar y. . .
' 1' ' . . . ' 1St Libyans ASI'l and Nubia
2487-2475 IIC Suhurc: mt nar y act ions agall , ' , ' ,
implied in rel iefs fro m King' s temple . Expcditi on to Punt : . .
2375-2345 IIC Unas: batt le sec ne fro m temple shows As iuucs or Libyans .
c. 234 5- 2181 IIC Sixth Dynasty
2287-227811c Nemt ycmsaf: expeditions of Har khuf to Yam.
227ll--2184 IIC Pepi II: expeditions of Harkhuf 10 Yam: cmcrgcnce of united
kingdom of Wawat in Lower Nubia; references to raid on eastern border 01
c. 2181-2000 BC First Intermediate Period
c. 2181 -2125 BC Sevenlh/Eighth Dynasti es
c. 2160-21 30 IIC Ninth Dynast y. Period of conflic t between loca l
rul ers (" ci vil war") .
c . 21 30-2040 BC 10th Dynasty. Rulers of Herakleopolis.
c . 2125-1985 BC 111h Dynast y. The rul ers oflhebes, Intef I and Intef
II, expanded their power northward,
c. 2040-1 795 BC Middle Kingdom
11th Dynasl y (continued) .
2055-2004 IIC Ncbhcpctrc Mcnthuhotcp II: wars of Egypt
(taking 40 years) ; campaigns in Nubia. Si nai, and against LIbyans .
c. 1985-1795 BC 12th Dynast y
1985-1955 IIC Ame nemhat I: Nubian campaigns ove r 20 yea rs, under Iny-
otcf-iqcr : cons truc tion of fortress at Buhcn; construction of the Walls of the
Ruler on the eastern border.
1955 Murder of Amenernhat l.
1965- 1920 IIC Scnusret I: Nubian campa igns: fort s buill around Second
Catarac t .
1922- 1878 I1c Amenemhat II: yca r 28 exped ition to Punt.
1880- 1874 IIC Senusrct II: wa ll built between Aswan and the hcad of thc
First Cataract.
1874- 1855 11c Scnusret III
c, 181i7 Year 8. Nubian ca mpaign.
c. 181i1i Year 9. Nubian ca mpaign.
r, 181i5 Year 10. Nubi an ca mpaig n south of Second Ca taract.
r·.1859 Year 16. Fortr ess of Uronar ti completed .
r. 1857 Year 19. Fortresses completed. Pcrhaps this year, campaig n in Asia;
.utnck on Shcchcm.
1855- 1808 II(' Amcncmhut III
I'. 1782-165 0 IIC 13 th Dynast y
Loss of Nubia to Kushite kingdom of Ker ma , Fortresses (e .g.• Buhen) sac ked
"1Il1 burned . Kushite ga rrisons later installed in some fortresses. Hyksos take
ove r the Dell a and establish their main center at Avar is .
1'. 1650- 1550 BC 15th Dynasty (Hyksos)
r. 1585-1550 IIC Apcpi War with Thcban rulers Tao and Kamosc .
,'. 1580- 1550 IIC 17th Dynasty (Thehan rulers)
,.. 15(,0 IIC Tao: co nflict with Hyksos; campaign in Nu bia?
". 1555- 1550 IIC Kamose: ca mpaig n in Nubia, Buhen regained ; conflict with
l lyksos. capture of Ncfrusy, adv ance on Avar is.
xvi . C1 IRC)NC)I OCY
Co 1550-1069 IIC New Kingdom
e . 1550-l295 IIC l8lh Dynasly
1550-1525 Il l: Aluno sc
Ca mpai gn in Nu bia. The Egyptia n army reoccupied and restored the fortress of
Buhcn , instulling a ga rrison and vice roy. Military ex pans ion south of the Sec -
ond Cataract aga inst Kenna, foll owed by the co ns truction of a fortress on the
island of Sa i.
Wars with Il yksos. A naval battle at Avaris, The Hyksos were defeated . Thi s
was followed by act ions in Ca naa n, including the siege of Sharuhen (three
years or three campaigns).
To co nsolida te hi s posit ion . Ahrnosc led anot her ca mpa ign in Lower Nubia.
agai nst Autu , probabl y a local ruler. and de feated Tcti-an, probabl y an anti-The-
ba n rebel in Egy pt. Th e ar my sailed 10 Byl os.jhen campaigned inl and .
1525-150411<: Amenhotep I
To co nsolidate his posit ion . Arnenhotep campaigned in Nubia. with furth er
bui ldi ng in the fortress on Sui. In western As ia there was a ca mpaign in the
Oronics Valley ncar Tunip.
1504-1492 uc Th urmosc I
Thuunosc I led the ar my int o Nubia and attacked Kenna . Th e ci ty was
burned . but lat er rebu ilt. Th e army marched to the Fifth Cataract. Campaign
in Asia . The army sailed to Byblos , then mar ched inl and to the Euphrates as
a show of s trength agai nst the kingdom of Mitanni .
1492- 1479 11 <: Thutrnosc II
At the pharaoh's accession. there was a rebell ion by the Kushite princes . Th ut-
mosc led his army into Nubi a and de feate d the Kushit es in battl e .
1479-1425 11 <: Thutrnosc III (so le reign from 1456).
1472- 145S II<: Hatshcpsut and Thutmose Ill . joint rule .
Pour ca mpaigns in Nubia. the fi rst probabl y led by Hat shepsut in per son . One
expedition was led by Thutmose III and one reached Miu.
1456 Year 22-23. First campaign of Th utmosc Ill's sole reign. The army
marched from Tjel to Gaza, then north into Syria to confro nt a coa lition led by the
rulers of Qadcsh and Megiddo. Battle of Meg iddo, followed by seven-month
siege. and the city's capture. Return march through Lebanon, where a fort ress was
built. Ret urn 10 Egypt.
Year 25 . Third ca mpaign, apparently a peaceful tour of inspection .
Year 29 . Fiftb campaign. in Djahi: Arvad captured.
Year 30 . Sixth campaign. against Qades h, Sumur, and Retenu.
;ear Eighl.h campaign. Na harin (Mitanni). Th e army crossed the
I.uphrdtes . engag ed In battle In Na hari n, and captured Ca rchemish A b d
stela was set u licati h . oun ary
' ,. ' , . . p rep rcatmg t at of Thutmose I, Thutmose III received tribute
lro m Babylon and the Hitt ites .
Year 34 . Ni nth campaign; Thutmose III . d
receive tribute from Rctenu , Djahy,
Nukhashshe , and Cyprus. J
Year 35 10t h ca m ' . O'
' . pa ign aga ins t j ahy, foll OWing the " rebellion" of Na harin,
Year 38. 13th campaign, in Nukhashshe.
Year 39 . 14th campaign, aga inst the Shasu.
Year 42 . 17th ca mpaign, agai nst Qadcsh and Tun ip.
47. Thutrnose II I returned ( 0 Nubia, sail ing to Gebel Barkal . t tl F I
( '11'1ract I ,. a te OUr( 1
" , w lere a ortrcss was built.
1427-14ll0 ne Amenhotep II
1425 11<: Year 3. Asi atic campaign aga inst Takhsy.
1421 IlC Year 7. Amenhote p led his army across the Oro ntes, the n sout h
Ihrough Takhsy and Ga lilee.
1419 Il l: Year 9. Ca mpai gn aga inst Qaqa, chief of Qebaasumi n. ncar Meg iddo
1401l-139llllc Thut rnosc IV .
1.193 IIC Year 8. The army was se nt on ca mpaign into Nubi . I .
unknown. a. preci se oca uo n
lJl)ll- 1352 I1c Arnenhotep III
1J1l6 IlC Year 5 Ca . . N b' .
. . rnpntgn III u la, possibly foll owed by tw '
p'" g" s in Nubia, 0 more cam-
1.152- 1336 BC Ak henaten
I ': BC Year. 10 (+'1). Th e Nubian army. led by the vicero ca m-
p,lIgned agai nst Ikayt a, III the Eastern Desert. y
I': 1.14.0/1336 BC Hittites under the ir king. Suppil uliumn, take Arnu r
".gYl'tlan control. rru rom
1.1.16- 1327 uc Tut an kharnu n
m ight. have been a ca mpaign ill Nubia. Egyptian con flic t wit h the Hittites
III . yna . ThIS was perhaps a victo ry led by Ge neral Horemheb .
1.12.1- 1295 I1c Horemheb
c. 1295- 1186 BC 191h Dy nasty
1l '!4- 1279 BC Se ty I
xviii • C1 lllONOI OCY
1294/1293 Ill: Ca mpaign aga inst the Shasu; capture of Beth-Shean ami
Yenoam. Campaigns ensured Egyplian control of Damascus , Tyre, Sidon , By-
bios, and Sumur.
1290/12119 Ill: Egyptia ns regained Qudcs h, but the city soon returned to Hit-
tite rule.
Libyan War.
Year ll. Rebell ion of (rem, followed by retaliatory campaign, perhaps led by
Crown Prince Ramcsscs .
1279-1213 Ill: Ramesses II
1275 Ill: Year 4. First campaign: march along coas t of Canaan and Lebanon ,
returning via Byblos, Tyre, and Nahr el-Kelb.
1274 Ill: Year 5. Campaign to Syri a agai nst Hitti te coalilion led by Muwatalli,
Batt le of Qades h: Ramesses II claimed an Egyptian victory.
127111l: Year ll. Ramesses ensured Egyptia n control of coastal cities of Tyrc ,
Sidon, Beirut, and Ilyblos.
1269 Ill: Year 10. Ramesscs bad a stela carved at Nahr el Kelb on the army's
return from Tunip or Dapur.
Year 2 1. Peace treaty wit h Hittites.
Year 40. Rebelli on of Ircm.
1213-1203 Ill: Merncptah
Action in Canaan, with the capture of Gezcr, Ashkelon, and Yenoam.
Year 4. Rebelli on in Lower Nubia, suppressed.
c. 1208/1207 Ill: Year 5. Invasion of Libyan tribes, domi nated by the Libu , al-
lied wit h groups of the Sea Peoples. Batt le near Memphis.
1203-1200 Ill: Amcnrncsses (or entirely within the reign of Sety II): dynas-
lie war.
1200-11 94 Ill: Scty II
c. 11 8 6-1 069 BC 201h Dynast y
1184-11 53 Ill: Ramcsscs III
e. 1180 Ill: Year 5. First Libyan War , in which an alliance of Meshwesh, Libu,
and Seped invaded Egypt , bUI were rep ulsed .
Syrian War, incl uding siege of Ar zawa and Tunip .
Nubian War, probably directed aga inst Irem .
e. 1177 Ill: Yea r ll. Batt le with the Sea Peoples.
e. 1174 IIC Year II . Second Libyan War dominated by the Meshwesh.
115311c "Harim conspiracy" in whi ch Ramesses III was, perhaps, murdered .
11 53- 1147 BC Ramesscs IV
1151 Ill: The army was involved in a major expedition to the quarries of the
Eastern Desert.
1143- 1136 11c Ramesses VI
The towns of Megiddo, Beth Shean, and Gaza were destroyed by fire,
marking the end of the Egyptian Empire in western Asia.
1126-1108 Ill: Ramesscs IX
Nubian troops defeated the Shasu.
1099- 1069 uc Ramesses Xl
c, Ill: Anarchy in Thebes; the viceroy Panehesy brough t the Kushite
army Into Upper Egypt. This was foll owed by a campaign farther north into
Middle Egypt or the Delta, and a batt le.
c. 1083 IIC Year. 17. P.anehesy and the army had returned to Nubia, leaving
the general and HIgh Priest of Amun, Her ihor, in contro l in Thebes.
". 1080-1069 IIC Years 20- 30 . Wars co nducted by the High Pr iest of
Amun, Paian kh, against the viceroy Panehcsy in Lower Nubia. End of the
Egyptian Empire in Nubia.
Third Int ermediate Period c. 1069- 656 BC
c. 1069-945 IlC 21 st Dynast y
'11l4-978 IIC Osorkon "the elder"
'178-959 IIC Si amun
('. 945 - 715 IlC 22nd Dynasty
'145-924 Ill: Sheshonq I
'1-15 Ill: Sheshonq I establishes a dynasty of Libyan chiefs as pharaohs of
lJ25 Ill: Campa ign of "Shishak" against Judah captures Jerusalem.
lJ24-1189 IIC Osorkon I
1174-850 IIC Osorkon II
IlS.! Ill: Battle of Qarqar, Army of Shalmaneser III of Assyria defeated a coali-
Iiun of western Asiatic rulers led by Damascus, including a contingent from Egypt.
xx • O(; Y
1150-825 I1c Takc loth II. Rebell ion in Khmunu ami Thebes crushed by Crown
Prince Osorkc n.
c. 750-656 IIC 25 1h Dynas ty
c. 750-736 IIC Kashtu. Kushitc power acknowledged in Thebes and Upper
c. 736-712 IIC Piye (Piunkhy)
Tcfnakht ruler or Suu expanded power and look control or Memphis, A coali-
tion or Libyan dynusts led by Tefnakht marched into Middle Eg,Ypt. Nimlot or
Khmunu , a Kushit e vassa l, joined Tcfnakht . Piye sent the Kushi tc army based
in Thebes aga inst Tef nakht : Despite several confro ntations , the ar,my
failed 10 defeat the coa litio n. Piye led second army to Egypt and besieged Nun-
lot in Kbmunu . A part of the army was sent north and relieved the Kushitc all y,
Peftjauawybasl , who had been besieged withi n Herakleopolis.
yielded, and Piye led his ar my north . Tefnakht fled back to The Kushitcs
ca ptured Memphi s and Piye recei ved the submission of the LIbyan dynasts at
Athribis; Tef nakht swo re his oat h of fealt y at Sau.
720 IIC Bailie or Qarqar, Sa rgon II of Assyria de feated Yau'bi di, ruler of
Il amath , then marched south, reca ptur ing Damascus and Sa maria. The Ass yr-
ian army defeated an Egyptian force at the bailie of Raphia, and captured the
Egyptian vassa l ruler of Gaza. The Assy rians were left III control 01 the Egypt-
ian bonier at Brook -of-Egypt.
c. 711-695 IIC Shabaqo
710 IIC Year 2. Shabaqo and the Kushit e army marched into Egy pt, defeat ing
the Sui te pharaoh Bakcnra nef in bailie.
701 IIC A joi nt Egyptian-Kushite army marched to support Hczckiah of Ju-
dah in his rebelli on against Assyria. The army of Sennaeherib defeated them at
the Bail ie of Eltekeh.
c. 695-690 IIC Shcbitqo
IIC Taharqo
679 IIC Esarhaddon led the Assyrian army to Brook-of-Egypt.
6711llc Tuhurqo might have bee n active in the Levant while Esurhuddo n con-
fronted problems in Babylonia.
677 11c Esar haddon att acked Sidon , Taharqo' s ally.
674 IIC Th e Assyr ian army marched to Egypt but was defeated in bailie ,
671 IIC The Assyr ians invaded Egyp t again. The Egypt ian-Kushite
marched to meet them, and there were two battl es between Gaza and Memphis.
• xxi
There was a third bail ie on II July 67 1, at Memphis, which was captured and
sacked. Taharqo fled,
(,{,9 IIC Taharqo regained control of Memphi s and Lower Egypt and the As-
syrian army ret urned 10 oust him, bUI Esarhaddon died en route and the ca m-
paign was abandoned.
(,{,711c The new Assyrian king,Ashurbanipa l, marched his ar my to Egypt and
defeated Taharqo, capturing Memphis. Taharqo fled. There was a rebell ion
against the Assyrian army by the Libyan dynasts . In response the Assyrians at-
lacked Sau and ot her Delta cit ies. massacring the popul ation ,
('{,+-656 IlC Tanwetamani
(,(,-t IIC Tanwct amuni led a Kushite army to Memphi s. where he defeated and
killed the Assyrian vassal , Nckau 101' Sau, Nekau was succeeded by Psarn tik l.
663 IIC Ashurbani pal led his army 10 Egypt and pursued Tanwctamani from
10 Thebes , which was sack ed. Tanwctamani fled to Napata. The As-
syrians wit hdrew, leaving Psumtik I as their vassal ruler in Lower Egypt.
664-332 BC l ate Period
61>4-525 Be 26th Dyna st y
(,(,+-6lf1 ll c Psamrik I
r. 6M--656 IIC Psarntik I establ ished himself as sole ruler of Lower Egypt, re-
dllelllg the power of the other Delta dynasts.
(,5(, IIC Year 9. Following diplomat ic moves the Kushit es withdrew from
Thebes and Upper Egypt, leaving Psarntik as so le rul er of the whole of Egypt.
(,5-t IIC Year II . Psamti k led his ar my agai nst Libyans to the lVeSI of Egypt.
(,111-595 IIC Nekau IJ
(,tI') IIC Nckau led the Egyptian army to aid the Assyrian king besieged in
( 'lI rchemish, At the baili e of Megiddo, the Egypti an army defeated Josiah , king
" I Judah. Nekau installed Jehoiakim as king of Judah.
1tlI(, Il l: The Egyptian army marched into Syria . The siege of Kimuhu was 1' 01-
lowed by an Egy ptian victory over the Bahylonians at Qura rnati .
1tlI5 IIC At the bailie of Ca rchcmish, the Egyptian army was defeated by the
Illlhylollians unde r prince Nebuchadnezza r. A second Egyptian defeat at
l ltnuuth fo llowed .
f,U 1 Il l.' Nebuchadnezza r II atte mpted to invade Egypt, but was preve nted by
II Il' Egyptian army at the battle of Migdol (Tell el-Hei r) . Nckau II pursued the
404-399 HC 28t h Dynasty
404-400/399 IIC Amyrt aios
404 11c Amyr taios es tablished himself as pharaoh after severa l " 1' ,
nlla warfare . . years 0 g ucr-
, IIC . The Pers ian invaded Egy pt. Memphis was recaptured. The
I Egyp tians and Athe mans we re besieged at Prosopit is in the Delt a .
.IIC An Athenian relief expedi tion was dest royed by Persi an forces in the
c ta. Inaros was ca ptured and executed.
423-404 IIC Darius II
.1 110- 341 BC 30th Dynast y
" II• .179/378-362/36 1 IIC Na khtnebef (Ncctanebo I)
C'll. JllOIIC Ha . t I' ki I'
rs ryo e r, IIlg 0 Mcroe, ca mpaigned with his army in Lowe r
IIC Th e Persian king. Artaxerxes II. sent Pharnabazos and the army to
,gypt. They fat/ed to e nter via Pclusion, but were successful throu h th

branch of the Delta. Th e Ni le 1100d ca used di saster and
"""Ill forc es to ret reat.
lit 1/.160- 360- 359 lie Dj edhor
I Iln lhor led a n army of Egy ptians and Greek meree n ' . PI'
II . aries Into a estme He
I sagrced with the Greek comma nde r, Agesil aos II of Sparta who th .
1''',I..d the rebellion of Djedhor ' s nep hew Nekhthorh eb A : I I ' ell sup-
I" . def . ' . n va e atma nt 111
I ll' CS W<lS eteatcd by Age si laos.
)2-38 1-380 11( ' l lakor
in the Greek War
29t h Dy nasty
Amyrta ios was defeated by the rival dynast, Nefaarud, and executed .
l lako r formed an anti-Persian a lliance with Evagoras of S II "
, i. anus In
Pcrsi an attuc k on Egypt ; Egyptian actio ns in Phoeni ci a.
400/399 IIC
:1'19- 379 BC
rn. 399/398-394/3')3 lie Ncfuarud I
11( ' N I' . I '
. . - e a'" UI se nt a id to Ages ihos J of Sp a t.
;Ipaill "d Per... in. ' , l r ..l
) ' I('
( 'vprus.
.1115 11 ('
595-5119 IIC Psamti k II
ret reat ing Bahylon ian army and recaptured Ga za. Nckau may have led his army
into Kush.
xxii • OCY
525-404 BC 27th Dynast y (Persia n Ki ngs)
525-521 IIC Cambyscs
There were probabl y milit ary activities on t he southern bo rder in Lower Nubia
and perh aps in Khargu Oasis.
521 -4115 IIC Duri us I
An Egy pt ian dynast, Ped ubast III , rebelled agai nst Persi an rule , The satrap of
Egy pt led the army on a disast rou s expedition to Cyrenaica.
4115 IIC A rebe llion (perhaps led by Psam tik IV) broke out in Egypt.
4115-465 IIC Xerxes
Xerxes suppressed the Egyptian rebell ion .
ca . 4110-470 IIC A second Egy ptia n rebelli on aga inst Persian rule .
465-424/423 IIC Artaxerxes I
c. 460-454 IIC Th e rebell ion of Inaros and A myrtaios of Sau , aided by Athens,
459 IIC Memphis captured . except for a Pe rsi an gar rison. The Per sian satrap
was killed at the batt le of Paprcmis .
593 IIC The Egy ptian army. with Ionian and Ca rian mercenari es, invaded
Kush and gained a victo ry in bail ie at Pnubs .
589-5701lc Wahihrc (Apr ies)
5118/587 IIC Wahibrc attacked Tyre and Si don whi le Neb uehadnezzar and the
l3ahylon ian army was besieging Jeru salem.
570 IIC Wahib rc sent the army to Cy rene . The expedit ion failed , the ar my rc-
belled ami acclaimed the ge neral, Ahrnosc , pharaoh,
570-526 IIC Ahmose II (Amas is)
570/569 IIC Wahibre attempted to rega in thron e with help from Cy prus. He
was defeated in batt le and fled to Asia.
5611/567 IIC Nc buchadnezzar II and the Babyl oni an ar my attem pted to rest ore
Wah ibrc, Wah ibre wa s killed in baili e .
52(>-525 IIC Psamtik III
52511c Egypt was invaded by the Persi an army and fl eet led hy Ca mbysc s. A
batt le at Pel usi on was followed by the siege and capture of Memphis, and o f
Psamtik Ill , who was later put to deat h.
xxiv • C1 IRONOIOey
359/35ll-3-12/341 Il l' Nck hi horhcb (Ncciancbo II)
351-350 IIC An attempted Persi an invasion by the forces of Artaxe rxes III
was driven back .
343 11c An invasi o n by the Persia n ar my was successful, and Nckhthorhcb fl ed .
Second Persi a n Dyn as ty 343-332 BC
3-13-33llllc Artaxcrxes III
e. 33ll Khabbash established himsel f as pharaoh. He was acknowledged in
Memphis and the Del ta.
c. 340- 330 IIC Nastascn, king of Meroc, with his army in Lower Nubia (difficult
to date preci sely). Th e army of Dar ius III regained control of Egypt for Persi a.
333 11c The Maccdonian adventurer, Amyntas, captured Pelusion but was de-
feated outs ide Memphi s.
332 IIC, Se pt.-Nov. Al exande r III bes ieged Gaza , In December , he ca ptured
Pelusion .
Ma cedonian Kings 332- 305 BC
332-32311c Alexander III the Great
332 IIC Alexander was crowned pha raoh at Memphi s.
33 I IIC Alexande r visited Siwa and founded Alexandria before leaving Egypt.
323 uc , J u ne Al exande r died at Babyl on . Philip Arrhidaios and Alexander IV
were procl aimed joint kings.
323 tiC Pto lemy governing as sa trap of Egypt for Phi lip Arrhida ios (323- 3 17
uc ) and Alexander IV (323 - 305 uc) ,
322/.'21 uc Ptol emy wa s invited into Cyre ne . li e inst all ed Ophc llas as
32 1 uc First War of the Di adochoi: Perdikaas killed by hi s troops in Egy pt.
3 19 tiC Second War of the Diadochoi; Syri a and Phoenicia annexed by
314-311 uc Third War of the Diadochoi,
3 D uc Ptol emy crus hed revolt in Cy prus .
313/312 uc Rebelli on of Cy renc led by Ophe llas .
3 12 uc Ptole my I and Seleukos I led ex pedi tio n into Syria. Demetrios de-
feat ed by Ptolemy at the bail ie of Ga za; but at the batt le of Myus, Ptol emy wa s
de feated by Demet rios.
.\1 1 uc Peace reached .
.I HI nc Ptol emy led an e xpedi tion against Ci licia and occupied Cyprus .
.109 nc Ptol cmy led an exped ition to Lyci a and Cari n, ga ining control of
I'ha se hs, Xant hos, Kaunos, Mynd os , and lasos.
.I09/30ll tiC Ophell as was murdered and Ptolemy regained Cyrene .
, ~ ~ I l l uc Ptol emy led a naval e xped ition against Greece, occupying Korinth ,
Sikyou, and Mcgar a.
.lOti t I ~ Ptolemy' s fleet defeated at Salamis (Cyprus) by Demetri os who the n
occ upied Cy prus (306-295/294). Antigonos Monop hthal mos and his son
l icmc trios assumed title of kings. In autumn, they att e mpted an invasion of
I':gypt , whic h was foil ed by bad weat her.
.lOS tiC The oth er diadoc hoi , incl uding Ptol emy. procl aimed themsel ves ki ngs .
Ihe Pt ol emies 305-30 BC
.1115 IIC Ptole my I Soter ass umed title of ki ng.
.111-1- 31111 tiC Magas inst alled as go vernor of Cyre ne .
.111.1- 311 1 IIC Fourth War of the Di adochoi .
.1112/311 1 tiC Ptol emy ga ined Coe le Sy ria .
.111 1 IIC Ipsos , the " Battle of the Kings."
2'15/294 IIC Ptole my annexed Cyprus, Phoen icia , Pumphyliu, and possi bly
part of Lycia.
2'1-1 IIC Ptolemy 's attempted rel ief of Athens failed because of Demetrios' s
superior fleet .
2HH-2llS tiC Fift h War of the Diadochoi.
HH IIC Ptole my' s fleet in Greece .
2H(. III· ) Dcmetri os' s Phoen ician admiral. Philok les , king of Sidon, allied him-
':' " to I tole my I and took the best of the fleet , includi ng the Phoenici an con-
IlIlgl·lItS. Ptol emy thereby acquired Tyr e and Si do n and gained co ntro l of the
"'II und the Is land League, wit hout fighting . He also acq uired Th era.
HStil ' Phi lokles captured Caunos. which gave Ptole my a footing in Ca ria,
H.l llc Sarnos , l lal ikar nassos, and Cnidos become Egypti an.
l' tulcmy II Philadelphos
' 7,1- 271 lie Fir st Sy rian War.
xxvi • n OC; Y
274 IIC Ant lochos I formed an alliance with Magas of Cyrcnc, Magus marched
toward Egypt and nearly reached Alexandria because of a mutiny by Ptolemy II's
mercenary Gauls , but a rebellion in Libya compelled him to return to Cyrene.
27311c Ptol emy inspected the defenses at Hero onpoli s in the Wadi Turni lat .
Invasion of Arabs; by 269 a protectin g canal and wall had been constructed.
272 IIC Thc end of the war Icrt Ptolemy in possession of: Cilicia west of the Ca-
lycydnus; eastern wast of Pamphylia with Phrasclis and perhaps Aspendes; Lycia
south of the Milyud; in Curia and Ionia-Caunus, Halikarnassos, Myndus, Knidos,
and probably Miletos; in Aegea n-besides Sames, Thera, and the Cyclades,
Ptolemy held Samot hruce and llanos in Crete; Code Syria (retained Marsyas Val-
ley); acquired Aradus and Marathus, making all of Phoenicia Egyptian.
267-261 IIC Chrcmonidcan War.
260-253 IIC Second Syria n War.
257 IIC Campaign in Syria.
255 IIC Baili e of Kos, end of Egypt ' s control of sea.
255'! IIC Baili e of Ephesos, fleet under Chremonides .
255 IIC General peace co ncluded.
252 IIC Ptolemy II instigated or supported the revolt of Alexander of
Cor inth.
Ptolemy III Euergetes I
246--241 IIC Third Syrian War (Laodicean War).
246 IIC The Egyptians captured Se leukeia in Pieri a, Antiochei a on the
Oro ntes , and Soli in Ciliciu. In the spring, Ptolemy III started from Antioch,
marchin g 10 Scl eukeia on the Tigr is.
246 or 245 IIC, spri ng At the baili e of Andros , the Egyptian fleet was de-
feated by Ant igonos Gonatus of Macedon. An uprising in Egypt forced Ptolemy
to return.
241 IIC Peace concluded bet wee n Scleukos II and Ptolemy III.
Ptolemy IV Philopator
Klcomcncs of Sparta at Alexandria , start ed an uprising. l Ie commi tted suici de
when it collapsed .
219-21711c Fourth Syria n War.
219 11c Antiochos III recovered Sclcukcia in Picri u, then made gai ns in Pales-
tine and Syria, except Sidon.
• xxvii
2 UI :I C The forces of Antioehos III moved south by land and sea, engaging
Ihe Ptol emai c ar my at the bail ie of Porphyrion ncar Beirut.
22 Ju ne 217 BC Battl e of Raphia: Ptolemy IV defeated Anti ochos III, who
evacuated Coe le Syria and Lebanon. A peace treaty concluded hostilit ies.
21(. lIc The beginning of the nationalist rebellion by the Egyptians.
205 IIC Be.gi nning of rebell ion in the Thebaid . The Egyptian rebel pharaoh,
Ilaronnophns , controlled Upper Egypt from Abydos to Pathyri s.
205 IIC Ptole.my IV died, but his death was concealed, and his favorit e,
Agathokles ,. seized power. Ptolemy' s widow, Arsinoe II I. was murdered. Riot s
II I Alexandr ia ended in the murder of Agathokl cs and his famil y.
"Iolemy V Epiphanes
211 2- 195 I1c Fifth Syri an War.
Allli.od lOS III acquired Palestine and parts of the Ptolemaic Empire in Asia Mi-
" : rr. Ihe Egyptian army under Skopas was defeated in Palestine and evacuated
lode Syria, but prevented Anti ochos from invading Egypt.
20 1 IIC Antiochus took Palest ine. Balli es at Gaza and Lade.
200 llc Battle of Panion.
200/ 199 11c Antioc hus took Sidon which became, and remain ed, Seleukid.
"lllllc Ant iochus reduced the whole of south Syri a.
1'/7 IIC Beginning of rei gn of the Egyptian rebel pharaoh , Chaonnophris, in
I hehes and Upper Egypt.
I 'IS IIC Peace of Lysi machei a.
11111 lie Treaty of Apamea, seulemcnt of Asiatic affairs.
1117 li e Ptolemaic army regained control of Thebes.
111(, lie Chaonnophris defeat ed.
IIl0lle Ptolemy V Philadclph os murdered.
1'lulcl11y VI Philomelor
• (klubcr 170 BC Beginning of jo int reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor,
l'tulcmy VIII Euergetes II , and Kleopatra II.
17U-IMlllc Sixth Syrian War.
IIlntl'/'1 70/169 Be Anti ochos IV besieged and captured Pcl usion and entered
I', 'yl' t. On his return to Syria, the three Egypt ian rulers were reinstated.
xxviii • C1 IRONOIO(;Y
1611nc Antiochos I V invaded Egypt aga in, but the Roman senate inte rvened
and scnt Pop ilius Lucnus to Alexandria. He forced Antiochos to wi thdraw.
165 nc Th e rebellion of Dion ysios l' ct osarapi s spread from Alexandria , 1'01 -
lowed by a rebellion in Thcbcs .
164-163 uc Dynastic co nflict , which ended when Ptol emy VIII Eucrget es II
went to Cy rcnc as king.
147 uc Ptol emy V I Philomctor led Egy ptian ar my and navy to Sy ria, whe re
he became invo lved in Sclcukid dyn ast ic wars to regain co ntro l of Coele Sy ria.
145 nc Philomct or died while he was on campaign. Euergetes II returned to
Egypt and seized the thro nc .
132 IlC Klcopatra II began a dyn astic wa r and gained Th ebes .
/JIllc Euc rgctcs II expelled from Al exandria but had returned before 15 Jan-
uar y 130 and was prepar ing an exped itio n aga inst Kleopatra. An Egyptian
rebel , Hursicsis seized power in Th ebcs .
124 IlC Peace and order was restored , wit h a series of amnest y decre es in the
names of Euergc tes II, Kleopat ra II , and Kleopatra III.
1161l c Death of Euergetes 11. The army and the peo ple of Alexandria forced
Klcopatra [JI to appoint her elde r son, Ptol emy IX Soter II , as king.
lJO IlC Sot er II expelled from Egypt. Kleopatra III assoc iated her younger
son, Ptolemy X Alexander I with her.
109 Il C Sote r II resto red.
1081lc Bet ween 10 March and 28 May, second interrupt ion of Soter ' s rei gn
by Alexander I.
1Il7 IlC Before 15 November, probabl y before 19 Sep tember , ex pulsion of
Soter by Klcopat ra III. Join t rule of Klcopatra III and Alexa nde r I. Soter II
spent thc next 19 years as king of Cy prus.
1Il3-101 IlC Syrian War : ac tions by Ptolemy IX So ter II, Kleopatra HI , and
Ptol emy X Alexander I in Palestine . Battl e of Asophon.
IIlI IlC Before 26 Oct obe r, murder of Klcopaira III by Alexander I.
961lc Ptolemy Api on di ed bequeath ing Cyrene to Rome.
881l c Alexander I dri ven into ex ile by a rebelli on of both the army and Greek
populat ion of Alexand ria, incensed by his pro-Jewish at titude . He fled and was
killed in a naval batt le off Cy prus . Return of Sote r II from Cy prus . Rebell ion
in the Thebaid.
80llc March , death of Sote r II. Berenike III ruled unt il the Greek s of Alexan-
dri a forced her to look for a co rcgc nt . Ptol emy XI Alexander II was chosen, but
after 19 days , he had Bcr cnikc murdered . In response , the enraged Alcxandri-
Cl IRONOl OGY • xxix
:II IS murdered Alexander. The thron e was offered to Ptolemy XII Ncos
I Jionysos (" Auletes") .
511 nc Rome annexe d Cy prus, Th e Alexandrians drove Auletes into ex ile Hi s
daughters Ber en ike I V and Kleop atra Tryphai na rule togeth er, until Kleopa tra ' s
deat h the next year. '
IlC A I . G bi .
., u,us a iruus, the Roman governor of Syria, escorted Auletes back
'." Alexa ndria. He was accompanied by large mi litary unit , the "Gabinians,' the
, nvulry co mmanded by Mar cus Antonius . Aulctes put Berenike to death .
Aulet es died appoi nting Klcopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII as his s ue-
,I'}lie War bet KI V
wee n eo patra II and Ptol emy XHI. Klcopatra fled to Syria.
. The ge neral: Pompey, landed in Egy pt and was put to death by
I XII I s adVIsors. Julius Caesa r arrived in Egypt and rein stat ed Kleopa-
II,' VII al.ongslde her brot her. Caesar 's reli eving army captured Pelu sion. Th e
" 'l'xandnan War.
.J7 ne Ptol emy XIII killed, Kleopat ra VII was confirmed as queen , with
l'Iulcmy XI V as king .
,1 2 Ill.' Octavian and the Roman Republ ic decl ared war on Klcopatra,
,1,111( ' Battl e of Ak tion in Greece. Octavian defeated the fleet of Antonius and
II lvopat ra and pursued them to Egy pt.
'lolllan Emperors 30 8c-395 AD
,III Ill' August 3, Alexa ndria ca ptured.
Allgust 12, dea th of Klcopatra , followed by the 18 days rule of her chi ldren.
'\ lIgust 3 1, New Year ' s Day, Oct avian began to date his rei gn in Egypt.
q C I' G .
, '" ' . IUS allus suppress ed rebe llion in the Th ebaid; the army then
, IlIlIp' "gned 10 Lower Nubia.
t', 25 nc Kush ite army led by the Kandake of Meroe , Arnani rcnas, marched
1I11, th II1 to Nubi a. Attack on Aswan. The prefect Pctronius led a cam-
1'11 1):'.' to Nubia , Invol ving actions at Qasr Ibrim .
III ,\II Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria .
·1 (,ll All Nero
,III Jcwish-Greck riot s and co nfl ict in Al exandri a,
/'(' : " ' Jewish revolt in Jerusal em sparked riot s in Alcxandr ia. The prcfec t
1II IIII s Alexa nde r att acked the Jewish quart er of the city.
h'I ,III Vcspa s ian procl aimed empe ror in Alexandria.
xxx • (ley
911-117 All Trajan
115-117 All Jewish revolt spread fromCyrcnc to Egypt. and Palestine. Greek
population in Alexandria besieged until relie ved by Marci us Turbo. Fortress of
Babylon rebui lt ,
171 ,\ Il Rebellion of the Bouko loi. Jcd by the priest lsidoros.
172 All The rebellion was quashed by Avidius Cassius.
175 All Avidi us Cassius proc laimed e mperor in Egypt.
215 All The Empe ror Caracalla in Alexandri a; ordered massacre of population
and di vided thc city into two parts. .
2111 All Confl ict in Alcxandria between supporters of rival cmpcrurs, Macri-
nus and Elagubalus .
262 All Alexand rian mob proc la imed lulius Aemilianus emp eror,
2611 All Zenobia of Palmyra captured Alexandria and Egypt.
270-275 All Aurclian
270 ,\ Il Aurelian in Egypt.
c, 272 "" Reputed rebel lion of "Fi rmus."
21l6-305 All Dioclctian
296 All Domitius Domitianus proclaimed as emperor in Alexandria. The Em-
pcror Dioclctian in Egypt. Alexandria besieged until 2lJH,\ Il .
306-337 All Constantinc I
325 All Council of Nicaca sparked rcligious riots in Alexandria.
361-363 All Julian. Riots and attacks on pagan temples in AleX: lI ldria.
379-395 All Thcodosius
391 All Thcodosius ordered closure of all pagan temples in Roman Empire;
riots and destruction of temples in Alexandria.
Byzanline Emperors 395-642 AD
All Pho cas
Hcraclius and troops landed in Egypt. Persian army of Khosroes II captured
All Ilcmclius
639 All Arab armies led by . AmI' Ibn-al ' Asi entered Egypt.
640 All Defeat of Hcraclius at Hcliopolis; fortrcss of Babylon captured.
641 All Alexandria besieged for II months,
September 642 All Last Byzantinc forces left Egypt; beginning of Arab rule,
This volume covers anc ient Egypt ian history from the late Predynastic
l'criod to the Ara b Conquest of Egypt in 642 AD. Th is is a vast span of
II I1IC. some 4,000 years altoge ther, yet, for such a long per iod , there is
1" III arkabl y littl e surviving evidence for specific battl es and wars, al -
Ihongh the imagery of war is co mmon in most periods.
Egypt was unit ed into one state around 3000 BC. The date ass igned
hI' El;yptolog ists to this event, and the beginning of the First Dynasty,
1'11 1ies by some 200 yea rs. In recent years, excavat ions at the Upper
I')' )'plian site of Ahydos. not ably by the German Archaeological Insti -
111 11' . have reveal ed so much " new" mater ial that a Dynasty "0" has been
1Il'alcd. Although there are art ifacts from thi s peri od , notabl y the "slate
1'" I1' IICS" and cercmoniul muceheuds. some from the site of Nckhen, that
ho'" violent and mi litar istic sce nes, there is no dir ect evi dence relating
10 rhc IVa I's and batt les that are presumed to have created the Egyptian
lall' , Even if the " Narrner Palett e" is a record of an Upper Egyptian vic-
tOI )' over Lower Egypt (as has long been assumed) , it is couched in a
typically Egyptian styli zed image of the pharaoh smiting enemies. of a
I\'pc that would continue to appear until the Roman per iod . The depi c-
1I0 1lS of soldiers do, however , show that the principal types of wea pon,
how and arrows, axe, and spear, were already developed.
Evidence from the first two dynast ies is hardly any more explicit. The
uuk inscription formerly at Gebel Shei kh Sul eiman in Nubia (now in
IIII' National Museum , Khartoum) has generally been att ributed to the
II ' ll' n or the pharaoh Djer (c. 3050 BC) , and understood as a record of
I " pIian military activities in Nubia. The figures around the base of a
IIIIII C or Khasekhemwy (c . 2600 BC) , allied with other scanty evidence,
huvc suggested that there was a civil war during his rei gn. Images of
pluuuohs smiting Libyans and Asiatic s suggest co nflicts wi th immedi -
01 1,· neighbors, perhaps 011 the western bord ers of the Delta and in Sinai ,
rather than farther afie ld. Th ey are not , however, evid ence of specific
actions .
Th c Old Kingdom (Third to Sixth Dyn ast ies, c . 2686-2181 BC) has
littl e more evi dence to offer. More sce nes of pharaohs in the sy mbolic
act of smiting were carved at quarr y sites in Sin ai , and a fe w fragme nts
of reli ef depi ct the army in action, altho ugh the contex t is lost. Th e an-
nali sti c text known as the " Palermo St one" refers to a maj or ca mpa ign
in Nubi a in the rei gn of Sneleru (c . 2613-2589 BC) , and Egy ptian ac-
tivities in thc region of the Second Cataract , along with other arc haeo-
logi cal material , does sugges t major Egypt ian invol vement in the re-
gion. Inscripti onal evi de nce from the lat e Old Kingdom tomb of the
border offi cial, Harkhuf, at As wa n, tell s how the army was used to ac-
co mpany trad ing expedi tio ns int o Nubi a and also that band s of Nubian
mercenar y troops ca me back to Egy pt.
Frag ments of reli ef depict ing archers are the earli est surv iving part s
of battl e scenes , probabl y from the pyram id temples of the Four th Dy-
nasty pharaoh s Khufu or Khafre. Similar fragments , whi ch impl y mili-
tary ac tivi ties , have been recovered from pyrami d complexes of the
Fifth and Sixth Dynasti es , but no " historical" texts surv ive with them.
Scenes in two late Old Kingd om tombs , those of Int i at Deshasheh and
Kaemheset at Snqqara, are the first dep icti on s of siege warfare, show-
ing sca ling ladders and the underminin g of wa lls by sappers .
Th e breakdown of the ce ntral govern ment during the First Intenned i-
ate Peri od appea rs to have see n the rise of local armies under the com-
mand of the local governors iuomarchsi . Scenes in the tombs of such
governors at Beni Ilasan in Middl e Egypt show att acks on walled towns
and training exerci ses (ot herwi se quite rare in Egyptian ar t) . Th ere is
also co ns iderable ev ide nce for Nubi an mer cenaries based at Gebelein in
Upper Egypt. There is slightly more ev ide nce from the end of the First
Intermediate Per iod (c . 2 18 1- 2000 BC) for the milit ar y activities of the
princes of Thebes that brought about the reunification of Egy pt by Men-
tuhot ep II (c. 2055-2004 BC), notably the fragment ary sce nes of battl e
from the king's temple at Deir el-Bahari (Thebes) and the mass burial of
soldie rs appare ntly killed during an attack on a wa lled town . The events
of thi s peri od could perhaps be classe d as "civi l war."
The pharaoh s of the 12th Dynasty (c . 1985-1 795 BC) , not abl y Ame n-
emhat I , Se uusret I, and Se nusrct III ex pand cd Egy ptian control over
Nubia. Inscripti on s give some infor mat ion from which the ge neral
prn: c.ss ca n be recon struct ed , but there are no det a iled narrati ves of the
IIll hv l.dual conflic ts. These pharaohs also established massi ve fortresses
It. defend the tran sit of luxury trade through the newl y conquered terri -
"y. These fortresses were parti cularly numerous around the vuln erabl e
S,.·.w nd.Ca taract: Se mn.a and Kumrna controlled the nar row gorge at the
h'.I d of the ca taract , with smaller forts on the islands and wes t bank at
Avkut, Mei na.11i , Shal fak, and Uronart i. There we re two large supply
d<" pots at the loot the ca taract, at Buh en and Mirgi ssa. Although con-
'.flllel ed o.f mud brick, these fortresses were impressi ve ex-
muplcs mil.ltar y architec ture, carefully planned intern all y, and de-
" ·IIl I.cd w!th ditches , glacis , basti ons , and co mplex ga teways . The end
0,' I ru!e in ca me with att acks on the fort resses by
' :' ' ypt s erstwhile trading partn er, the kingdom of Kush based on
1\<" lIna. There is ev ide nce for serious destru ct ion in the fort resses dur-
III )' tbc 13th Dyn ast y, and ultimatel y occupa tion by Kushit e troops, in
cases under the co mma nd of Egyptians.
The Second Intermedi ate Peri od (c. 1795-1 550 ac) once again saw the
" " ''' Ion of with an Upper Egypti an ki ngdom centered upon
I a kingdom the Delta and much of Middle Egypt.
traditi on ca lls the rulers of this northern kingdom the "Hyksos" and
II " ucncrally accepted that there were cl ose contacts with Ca naan at thi s
111I1l· ,. Whether there was a large As iatic popul ation in Lower Egypt at thi s
11111(' ISa more issue. The northern kingdom had direct trad-
,'olltact.s with the Kushit e kingdom based on Kerma in the northern
,' 10 1:11 1, had and occ upied the fortresses of the Second
I II laraet. reglon. ThI S phase appa rently saw the introdu cti on of the horse
111 10 1eh.allot , and th: co mpos ite bow, into Egypt. Although ex tremely rare
I" "..gill with , chariots were to come to dominate the warfare of the next
' "'' the Late Bronze Age (the Egypt ian New Kingdom) .
11.11' I hcban.rulers Tao and Kamose regained cont rol of much of Lower
Nllilia and thei r successor Ahmose reunited Egypt, estab lishing what is
as 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom (c . 1550-1069
ru I, I here .IS slt.gh.t1y more detailed ev ide nce for these ca mpa igns from
1"'11i roya l inscnpuons and records of pri vate indi viduals who took part
III Ih,' II" II:S. Although these have legitimat ely been used 10 reconstruct the
1,1 lilly 0/.even.ts , both types of document are still bound by the conve n-
111111', 01 te.xts.. Simil ar con tinue throughout the early
IHIIi I>yn.lsty, Illumlll atlll g the mil itary expansion of Egypt under the
pharaohs Amcnhotep I, Thutmosc I , and Thutmose II, until the joint reign
of Thutmose III and lI atshepsut. With the sole reign of Thut mose III an
edi ted version of a different type of document gives much more detail
about the pharaoh 's 17 campaig ns in wes tern As ia over a period of 20
years . Thi s text , the "Annals of Thutmose Ill " is carved as an offic ial
record in the temple of Amun at Karnak (Thebes) but is edited from the
actual Day Books kept du ring campaigns . Although it is still framed
within the conventions of royal reports to the gods, it contains more de-
tail about the progress of the army and the contlicts, wit h lists of boot y
captured. Significant here are the large numbers of chari ots and horses.
Diplomacy, rather than wa rfare, seems to have maint ained Egy pt 's
pre-eminenc e in western Asia in the rei gns of the pharaohs Amenhotep
II, Thuunose IV, Amenhotep III , and Akhenaten. Thi s is detailed in the
archi ve of state corres pondence known as the " Amarna Lett er s." Besides
details of the probl ems confronting the ci ty-states of Syri a, Palestin e, the
lett er s enumerate the armor and weapons of the intemational arms trade .
The end of the 18th Dynasty, from the latter part of the reign of Akh en-
aten, through those of Tutankhamun and Horernheb , saw the rise of the
Anatolian kingdom of the Hittit es as the major threat to Egy pt's intluence
in western Asia. The situation may have led to conflict earlier, but is well
document ed in the early 19th Dynasty reigns of Sety I ( 1294- 1279 BC) and
Ramesses II (1279- 1213 BC) . Indeed the "victory" of Ramesses II at
Qadesh 1274 BC) is, perhaps ironi call y, the most depi cted and doc umented
battle in Egyptian history, It is also document ed in the Hittite royal
archives , giving a rare alternative view to the official Egy ptian records.
Th e rei gns of Set y I and Ramesses II are al so important for the ev i-
dence of milit ary co ntl ict wi th the Li byans that was to become ever
more important in the later 19th and 20th Dyn asties. Th e scenes carved
to record the milit ary actions of Set y I in Asia and against the Li byans
are the earlies t major surviving battl e reli efs ill situ: only fragments and
dismantl ed blocks survive for earlier pharaohs. Although military
sce nes figure prominently in the temples bui lt by Ramesses II , many of
them ac tually depi ct the battl e of Qa de sh.
In the rei gn of Ramesses Il ' s son, Merneptah ( 1213-1203 BC) , the
Libyan threat increased , and an invasion of Egypt by the Libu and
Meshwesh , with allies and mer cen ary troops, is recorded in both a prose
account and more literary eulogy of the pharaoh . Thi s seco nd account
con tai ns the only known re ference to Israel in Egyptian texts and has
INm ODUCTION • x x x v
been. called the " Israel St ela ." Impli cit in the text is an
.advance Into Pal estin e ea rlier in Merneptah ' s reign.
. I of Merneptah 's son, Sety II ( 1200- 1194 BC) , apparently
"."V.CIVil ,or dyna stic war and the rival kingship of Ame nmesses, per-
",II'S son. The end of the 19th Dynasty mi ght also have been
11I n,e 01civi l war , although not as long lastin g and se rious as some ear-
lier t gy ptologists suggested.
The reig n of I.II saw the re-establishment of Egypt ian au-
IlulIlly parts 01 Palestin e, but this was a time of cris is throughout
ASia. Th e temple of Rarnesses 111 at Medinet Habu (Thebes)
,'IUTle S.both co nve ntiona l milit ary images and strikingly original dep ic-
he most not abl e of the ca mpaigns depicted are those agai nst the
I:I"yans the Peopl es." The battl e with the "Sea Peoples" is the
Inst survIving of a " naval" confl ict . Th e king also had to fight
\1' 11 11 the Kushit e klllgdo m of Irem, which see ms to have become in-
1ll'l.lsingly on the border of Egy pt 's Nubian pro vinces.
"01' the remainder of the 20th Dyna sty, the evide nce is from texts and
1II l'illleology rather than depi cti ons. Thi s reveals that there were co n-
tnut of Libyans into Egy pt (although not necessaril y all
were mi litary III nature) , and that Egy pt lost control of its territories in
l'lI ht ine in the reign of Rarnesses VI , and in Upper Nubia in the rei gn
III, X or XI. There was some sort of civil war in Egy pt in the
11' 1/' 110 1Ramesses XI , followed by military acti vit ies aga inst the Egy pt-
1'11 1viceroy 111 Lower Nubi a.
Tile collapse of Egypt' s e mpi re should be seen in the broader cont ext
I" Ille "e nd" of the Late Bron ze Age, and the fact ors that ca used that are
1III II0lly deba ted . In Egypt , the phase immedi atel y follow ing is known
., I"l' ' T hird Intermedi ate Period" (c. 1069- 656 BC) . Pharaohs with
I I" '111 1 names appea red. and a ser ies of Li byan chiefdo ms dominat ed
I '"Vel' is the later Libyan per iod that there is any ev-
Id' II\'1' 01 milit ary ac uv nies. In thi s case , it is not abroad, but within
I H PJ. The High Priest of Amun and Crown Prince Osor kon took his
II ru v to Thebes on a number of occasions and used force to assert his
11I 11"",·ilY. TI.le limited , and very one-s ided, ev ide nce suggests a peri od
..I I Ivli IVaI' In which Thebes was tryin g to assert its independenc e from
II" nuu hcru pharao hs and set up its own rival rul er.
III Nuhia, foll owing the end of Egyptian rul e there in the late 20th
\ there must also have bee n mil itary activi ties . Again these are
xxxvi • INTROllllCl ION
not document ed for some time, the first indication of a civil war being
found in the extremely diffi cul t inscripti on of Karimal a carved in the
temple at Scmna at the Second Cataract. Military act ions must have
played a sig nificant role in the for mati on of the new Kushite state that
had co me into ex istence by about 750 BC. Under the rule of Kashta (c.
750- 736 BC), the Kushit e ar my had become sufficie ntly large and well
armed to invade Egypt and take control of Thebes and leave a garrison
there . Aga in, mi litary activities within Egy pt itself are implicit , but the
response of Kasht a' s successor , Piye (c. 736-7 12 BC) , to the southward
expansion of the Libyan dynast , Te fnakht, is det ailed in the text of a
very long inscripti on , known as the " Victor y Stela." Although couched
in thc language of a conve ntiona l Egyptian royal inscription , thi s docu-
mcnt does detail the progress of Piye ' s campaig n agai nst the coalition
of northern rulers led by Tcfnakht. Ther e are references to co nllict on
the river, to sieges, and to siege engi nes, scaling tower s. and ladder s.
The ev ide nce of the " Victor y Ste la" of Piye imp lies a style of cam-
paign typical of the Late Bronze Age. but in we stern Asia there
now changes in army, weaponry, and warfare , introd uced by the pnncr-
pal power , Assyria, The Assy rians had iron wea pons, although at this
stage they mi ght not been the deci sive factor in thei r victories. Mor e
signi ficant may have been the larger types of hor se that had been intro-
duced and br ed , leading to a far grea ter use of cava lry and reduction in
churiotry. Th e Assyrians used a heavy char iot , rather than the fast light-
framed vehicle of the Late Bronze Age. They also had sophisticated
siege engines and scaling towers that they used wit h great effect , and
whic h are depicted in the scenes of their campaigns in Palest ine.
Estab lished as the major power holders in Egypt , the Kushites under
Piye' s succe ssors, Shabaqo, Shebitqo, and Taharqo, began to offer sup-
port to the rulers of Palestine and the Levant in thei r bids for inde pen-
dence from the Ass yrians. The first major con flict came at the battle of
Elteke h (70 1 BC) , in which the Egyptian-Kushi te army was forced to
retreat. Lat er activities were apparently more succe ss ful , but led to As -
syrian invasions of Egypt. Th e Kushit e position was made more di ffi-
cult by the political machi nat ions of the Libyan dynast s, one of whom,
Psamti k, eventually succeeded in reun iting the whole of Egypt under
his rule , forci ng the last Kushi te pharaoh, Tan wetamani, to abandon
Thebes and Upper Egy pt (656 BC) .
Psamt ik I (664-6 10 BC) was fortunate that his bid for independe nce
from Assyr ian vassa ldom came at a time when the Mesopotamian Empire
was under pressure on several di fferent fronts. In a long reign, Psamt ik I
was able to consolidate his position and remove any internal opposition.
lie see.ms achieved this with the aid of mercenary troops from
Auatolia, principal ly Lydia and the Gree k ci ties of Ionia. Psamtik I' s re-
unification of Egypt followed in the reign of his successors by at-
u- mpts to restore Egyptian authority in western Asia and Nubia. The ac-
II Vl tlCSof Nekau " (6 10- 595 BC) in JUdah , and in aid of the last Assyria n
brought Egypt confl ict with the new major power , the kingdom
III Hahylon. Nekau enjoyed only limited and short-lived success, which
"lillie to an end when Babylon attempted to invade Egypt. Psamti k II's
Nubian campaign (593 BC) , although hailed as a victory, seems to have
h.ul 11 0 lasting, gains of terri tory in the south. The later kings of the 26th
I Wahibre and Ahmose Il , became involved in the polit ics of their
rut her distant neighbors, the Greek cities of Cyre naica, a region
lli lll was to be increasingl y important to Egypt.
III 525 fell to the invading armies of the new power in
wvvrcrn ASia, Persia, For the next three hundred years Egypt was ei ther
III"'d hy the Persians or in rebellion agai nst them. Egy ptian independent
III II'IS (the 28th-30th Dynasties and Khabbash) established contacts
wil li ihc Greek cities and isl and s that were also host ile to Persian am-
lulioux. For this peri od , Greek sources provide more infor mation on
'Wills than.Egyptian ones. Egypt ian success es were in part affected, if
11 111 determ ined , by the complex politics of the states of mainl and
I h,','ce and.the coast of Asia Minor. Egypt gave aid, usually in
II", lnrm of gra m, to Greek ci ties such as Athens and welcomed the
1I !'l'lIIl of.ships and mercenary troo ps from Athens and from Sparta.
I ii" defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Grea t of Macedon
I I I ' .\23 BC) brought Egypt under Mace donian control, and so it re-
''' "II1 <, d tor.. hundred yea rs under the Ptolemaic dynasty. These
I'ltlliliohs effec tively es tab lished an empire extendi ng into Palest ine and
\ 11 11 with smaller territories and cities all around the coast of the
, l'illl and eastern Medi terranean from Cyrene to the western coast of
1I I1 II1 Ii:l. a nd incl uding such important island s as Cyprus. There is
111111" ,kt:,, 1on battle and military activities from this time as the sources
" , 11 111 " .,Iely roya l narrat ives. The orga nization of the army and tech-
"" III, ' s 01 war fare were now differ ent from those or earlier times. The
II lill I' S far often co mprising huge number s of mercena ry
" lillI'S. I he emphasis had moved from the elite char iotry of the Late
"'"'I /(' Age to the infantry organized into a phalanx of pike-men, with
smaller contingents of archers, sling throwers, and cava lry. With con-
trol of the sea and the islands being a major focus for the rival Hel-
lenistic monarchies, there were many more sea battl es, with result ing
developments in ship construction.
Although the Ptolemics ultimately lost control of the sea at the battle of
Kos (256 Be) they still retained considerable territory and important cities
outside of Egypt proper. The Ptolemies consistently had to fight with their
neighbors, the Seleukid kings of Syria, for control of parts of Palestine.
The situation was briefly resolved with the Egyptian victory at the batt le
of Raphia (217 Be) notable for its use of elephants by both armies,
Internally, there was opposition to the Ptolemaic dynasty, most no-
tably in Upper Egypt, based on the city of Thebes, although there was a
more widespread "native revolt" following the battle of Raphia. The dy-
nastic squabbles of the later Ptolernies also had repercussions through-
out the country. In their capital city, Alexandria, the mob emerged as a
force that beca me increasingly prominent in Roman times.
With the defeat of Kleopatra VII and Marc us Antonius at the battl e
of Aktion in 31 Be and the fall of Alexandria to Octavian (Augustus),
the following year, Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire. The
consolidation of Roman control of the country and its southern borders
is well documented by literary sources, archaeological remains , and ev-
idence from the neighboring southern kingdom of Meroe. The Roman
army system was introduced into Egypt, and there is much evidence for
its locati on and for individual soldiers. New fortresses were built , par-
ticularly in the Western and Eastern Deserts. There were periodi c out-
breaks of opposition to the author ities, some related to the Jewish Wars
of the Flavian emperors , and the Jewish revolt ( 115- 117 AD) . Tensions
between Greeks and Jews in Alexandria frequently erupted into con-
flict. On some occas ions, such as the rebellion of the Boukoloi ( 17 11 172
AD), stirred up hy the priest Isidoros, the confl ict spread from Alexan-
dr ia to other parts of Egypt.
Augustus had foreseen that Egypt's wea lth and importance might
pose probl ems within the Roman Empire and had ensured that it was
under the direct rule of the emperor through a prefect , rather than a sen
atorial officer. This did not , however, prevent pretenders to the imperial
purple from appearing. Vespasia n was proclaimed as empero r iu
Alexandr ia by the prefect luiius Alexander, but he was the only pre
tender who gained wider recogniti on. The aspirations of Avidius Cas
, illS: luiius Aemilianus, "Fi rmus," Domi tius Domitianus, and Aurelius
Achilleus, all came to nothing.
. The increas in.g import ance of Christianity in Egypt did not end reli-
,.n AI.exandria and Egypt. Doctrinal dispu tes brought
I.gypt mto conflict With a number of emperors, and imper ial appointees
10 the of Ale.xandria were usually greeted with riots. With the br ief
Il' YI.val 01 under the emperor Julian, and the Edict of Theo-
t10slllSclos lllg the temples, tensions broke into violence and Widespread
,h tlllction of buildings.
that the entrance towers of the temples appears to
I,. hdl ofImages of Violence, notably the massive figures of the pharaoh
IIl1t lllg his enemies. Acloser examination of these images reveals that re-
IIl illkab!y. of them are "historical" and related to actual events. AI-
II 111 due to accident of survival, there are relatively few de-
pillIons of . battles for the vast span of Egyptian history, and most of
1111' S: .survJvlllg bel?ng to the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 Be) and
I"'cr!ically to the reigns of Sety I, Ramesses II , and Ramcsses III.
II must be emphasized that survival of monuments is an important
1111 '1 01'. Recent excavations at Abydos have recovered small fragments
01":1 11 Ie. scenes of the reign of Ahmose, and other isolated fragments
III vrvc lrom the Old and Middl e Kingdoms showi ng that the depic tion
ul "allies a well-established genre. Nevertheless, the destruction of
earlier means that the materials for the study of war-
1'111 ,lJId batt le are immediately weighted in favor of the New Kingdom.
II II I\Cl from the fragme ntary evidence, that battle scenes were
' I "'Itillre 0 1 the temples associated with the king's burial, rather than
111 "\,, for the cults of the gods. It is only in the relatively
"l ld 01 the reigns of Sety 1 and Ramesses II that battle scenes
II . ICl lllld In cult templ es.
1\ similnr situation is found with the literary record, with more refer-
", I" ICl battle and most of the detailed accounts of the conduct of mili-
I II Y Cl peratlons belonging to the New Kingdom. It has long been reco _
"I •oJ .tltat the accounts of military activities do not attempt to be objective
" 1I llI llves. and more recent studies of literary genres have emphasized the
ways in which "a utobiogr aphical" texts are cont rolled by what it is ap-
, (" d ") A
propriate within certai n circ ums tances lor a text to say
leading exponent of this analysis has bee n John Baines, who, 111 his stud-
ies of specific texts, and of "decorum" more generally, points out tha.t cer-
tain aspec ts of military activi ty fall wi thin the royal,
sphere: so a soldier might have said that he had living
but not that he has killed because that was the pharaoh s responsibility.
On a broader level , Egy ptian "historical" texts are rarely that : the
" Annals" of Thutmose III arc unusua l in that they do appear to have
bee n adapted from Day Books of the campaigns. But even in thi s in-
sta nce. adaplat ion is the essential factor : even if the army scribe re-
spons ible actuall y wrote a stra ightforward " factual" ac-
co unt of the day' s activities , thi s has been edited , and edi ted specil lcally
for the location of the final text . Of co urse , most officia l records,
whether in the form of ste le or insc ri ptions on temple wa lls are state-
men ts of legitimacy by the pharaoh . They are , however, our pri me
sources for reconstruct ing hi storical events .
We have nothing surv iving from Egypt comparable to the narr ati ve
hi stori es (objective or oth erwi se) of the Gree k and Roman worlds . with
their det ail ed accounts of campaigns and battl es. Nor do we have any
manu al s rel ating to tactics or mil itary training. B UI agai n we must rel y
on those texts that have survived. For e xample. we know that there was
a manual relat ing to the train ing of hor ses for chariotI')' that \\a, used in
north Sy ria and Anatolia . Th ere are no surviving cnpics from but
it is likel y that it was translated into Egy ptian becau se man)' Egy ptia n
terms rel ating to chariotry are Syrian loan words .
From a brier comment in the "Annals of Thutmose 111 ," we learn that
the Day Books of ca mpaigns were wr itten on pa pyrus or leather rolls ,
but , like so many doc ume nts, these have not survived , and we have to
rely on br ief edited accounts in offic ial texts: A few as
sc riba l exe rcises relate to equipping of ex peditions or life 111 garnsons.
Suc h texts might poss ibly be fabricated letters , but eve n so the " infor-
mat ion " that they contai n ca n be pres umed to be "real" and consc
quently usefu l to our analyses. . . ' ..
Give n these problems wi th basic source materials. It IS not surpnsm '
that there have been relati vel y few genera l studies of warfare in ancient
Egy pt. compared with the Greek and Roman worlds, and that those thai
have been written have focused on the techn ologies and material remain -
or and fort resses, and the organi zation of the army. The mat e-
i iul relating to battl e is remarkabl y limit ed , with relati vel y detailed ac-
,-ollnts from the per iod of only two battles , Meg iddo and
() ;l(les,h. the information is der ived from official versions. There are
even lewer where there is more than one source for a battl e or
war. The roya l archives supp leme nt the Egypt ian sources on the
1) ;lllesh campaign, and the conduct of the wars of tile Theba .'
' . . , n plln ces
ISdocument ed from seve ral different sources and gen-
II·S. I.he mscnpnon of Piye recounting his co nflict wi th the Libyan d -
lIasls IS.one very few post-New Kingdom records of military
I uuuanons by the natu re of the texts and by the space ava ilable
II here they were wn tten, mean that nearl y all accounts are rather brief.
, .problems relati.ng to the ev ide nce for the history of
II 1110' uga mst ((?re.lgn peopl es. It IS not surprising that the evi de nce for
, within the pharaoni c period is negli gible.
IIIl It a lill ie survivmg evidence for dynastic op posi tion , usually in-
Il I'III opl:tately dubbed " Harirn Co nspiracies ," but there was dou btless
II lOll' VIolent than there is evidence for. The survival of a
I' ....11 1 01 trial of co urtiers invol ved in the cons piracy aga inst
I III IS Similarl y, the archive of pri vat e corres pon-
d III l 01 Theban scribes Dhut mose and his son Butehamun de tails
, 1"' lIls during the civil wa r of the reign of Ramesses XI.
I llTosition.to rulers is we ll docume nted from the Ptol emaic era, from
, of sources. but raises many other issues such as na-
to the Ptol erni es as a dynasty, and to the Greeks (i n-
, II IlllIIg Macedo nians) as a ruling power that played no part in the ear-
II. I Another .new feature of the document s wr itten at the time
,I uutiunalist op pos ition to the Ptolemies is the moral izing in literature
III II ,lIS tile :' Dem? tic.Chronicle." An important aspect of opposition
Ih. period IS the focus on the southern ci ty of Thebes, whic h
I. "I lip rival rul ers , or acted as the main ce nter of an Upper Egypt-
."' Egypti an history, but parti cularl y during the
I ,101 111 1 period. Op pos ition to monarch s dur ing the pharao nic per iod
• 1'10"ahly the result of co nflicts between the pharaoh and elite fac-
""11 , lIl1d as such wo uld have been more co ncealed .
I ypl, was resul t of the unificati on or two ki ngdo ms , and the irn-
- I I' 01rulcrs hip emphas ized that , with crowns, protecti ve deiti es , and
1I1 1" ds IorI hc north and south. At times of nati onal weakness, Egypt
did di vide, although it ca nnot be sa id that there were any natural units.
Thebes first emerge d as a major power in southern Egypt in the Fir st In-
termediatc Period and became a maj or center of opposition to northern
ruler s in the Thi rd Intermediate and Ptolemaic Per iods. Thebes set up
rival s to the later Libyan pharaohs, apparently first local , then support-
ing the Kushit es. The city became the pri ncipal of a nti-Ptolemai.c
acti viti es with its own aspiring rulers . The rebe llion 01 Haronnophns
and Chaonnophris in the rei gns of Ptolemy IV and V lasted for 20 years
and was succeeded by further, if briefer , attempts at independe nce.
Although the Egyptian borders, most notably those to the south, .in
Nubi a. have received consi derable attention because of the substantial
remains of for tresses, the intern al secur ity of Egypt is less well known.
Literature tends to emphasize Egy pt's safe ty from fore ign invasion by
its geographical posit ion. I lowever, the evi de nce suggests al.though
invading armies, especially those coming from we stern ASia, did have
to contend with the diffi culties of cross ing northern Sinai, and the de-
fenses of the "Ways of Horus," smaller groups of nomadic peopl es reg-
ularl y entered Egy pt either seasonally or when forced by or
other causes. There were many entra nce s int o the NIle Vall ey lrom the
Eastern and Western Desert s and these must have been controlled by
guard posts, galTisons, and milit ary patrol s . Access to some, if not all,
of the main cities was also controlled by guardposts. Texts refer to the
city wa lls of Thebes and Memphis, among ? th.ers, and although noth ing
of these survives, it does suggest that certain Important parts, If not en-
tire cities, were strongly defended . Wi thin the society, scenes showi ng
police and henchmen acco mpanyi ng offic ials give the impress ion an
authori tarian. eve n brut al , reg ime standing in direct contras t to the Idyl -
lic images of rural life found in the tombs o f the same offi cials (and per -
petuated in much popular literature on Egypt) . . .
The role of the Pharaoh was always predominantly relt glou s.ln some
sense, he was akin to medi eval popes, rathe r tha n being a mil itary
leader who also had some religious duti es . It is impossible to separate
the religious from any other role of the pharaoh . The phar aoh thus had
the authority of the sun god and was dep icted as both terrestrial and cc
lestial conqueror (in the form of the sphinx) and judge. The pharaoh"
dut y to co ntrol emb raced all are as of op posi tion, both foreigners and the
Egyptian people. Hunting wi ld animal s, particu larly those of the desert
and river, was another way of depi cti ng the pharaoh ' s contro l over till'
world. At the sa me time, the pharaoh co uld assume the for m of the most
lcrocious anima ls, notab ly the falcon. the bull, the lion, and the leopard .
AI Ihe news of a "rebellion" (and all oppos ition was viewed as rebel -
111 m agal nst the king), the king is usually descri bed as "ragi ng like a
leopard . ' In he roars like a bull (or, in some late New Kingdom
ux ts, like a gn ffon) and drops on his enemies like a falcon. For a brief
!,I'liod In the late 18th Dynasty, in the reigns of Ame nhotep III and
the queens were also depi cted as sphinxes and conquero rs.
I heir Imagery, derived direct ly from that of the pharaoh , showed them
li S the of Egypt' Sfe male enemies. In thi s role, the queens
II'l' l l' manifestations of the violent solar and lioness goddess , Tefnut.
l lu-re were only two major changes in technology and organization
d lll ll l g the I.ong span of Egyptian history. The most significa nt during
tlu-!'hara? l1I c penod was at the beginning of the New Kingdom with the
lnumluction horses and chariotry: unt il then , Egyptian armies had
1"' 1'11 infant ry. This reall y was a revolution in milit ary technol-
"I' y, al lowing a whole new type of batt le. At the same time, it was an
111 1' and !ed a whole new ge nre of literature and de pict ion
I, tliux). The use of chanotry on a large scale was a phenomenon of the
I II.mnze Age. the re is much less ev ide nce from Egypt for
11 11 l'hinl .Intermedlate and Late Periods, contempora ry armies . such as
Ih, AS,synan and used larger number s of infantry and cav-
,II,y, ( hanots co ntinued to be used in batt le into the Hell enistic and Ro-
II Ii III periods , but they became more impor tant as transport.
IIII' second change in the ar my came in the Ptolemaic pe-
,1t ,,1, whcn the Hell eni stic ar my was introduced . Thi s put emphasis back
"" 1111: infantry, but using the phalanx of pike-men that had been devel-
"I"" III Macedon by Philip. father of Alexander the Great. The Ptole-
III ,IIt ' period also saw a great expansio n of military act ion at sea. The
II, ""lIislic kingdo ms fringed the eas tern Mediterranean. and vied for
" 1111,, 1 0 1 the coast, and the island s. Larger warships, the triremes and
ruluqucrc mes. bui lt, and sea batt les became more frequent, and
I , I Il'l' : It was de feat at Aktion in 3 I Be that effective ly brought the
1' ,,1, IIIHIl" dynasty to an end .
The good preservati on o f we apo ns and chario ts has focused stud ies on
technol ogy rath er than thc conduc t and social as pec ts of wa rfare. In-
deed , the conduct o f war in Egypt is quite diffi cult to discuss , simply
becau se o f the lack of good ev ide nce . From other anci ent sources , suc h
as the Homeric epics (a nd the Egypti an " Pedubast Cy cle," whi ch was
influen ced by them ), we lind accounts of the field of battle as a socia l
occasion in whic h etiquette was import ant , as was social status . In these
heroic conflicts, warriors did not fi ght with those o f lower soc ia l rank.
In so me societies , ind ividu al s identify themsel ves to their op po nents ;
thi s can be done by sho uting out name and line age , als o by the use of
the shie ld with an indi vidual device .
Ther e is hardl y any di rect ev idence fro m Egypt for the conduct of
bailie before the New Kin gdom. The New Kingd om ( the Lat e Bronze
Age of the Near Eas t) did see a significa nt change, at least in the fir st
phase of bailie, There was now a major socia l di stincti on in the army
wi t h the e lite chariot divi sion s apparently taking a leading ro le in the
ea rly stages of the battle.
Di splay must also have been an important fea ture o f New Kin gd om
campaigns. On lon g marches through we st ern Asi a , the ordered
progr ess o f the army wo uld have been important as a threat. The large
number s of chariots and foot so ldiers that a phar aoh could mu st er
would have impressed the ex te nt o f hi s wealth and power. Forei gn con-
tingents may also have bee n important in thi s aspect, as another indica-
tor of the ex te nt of Egypti an rule . In Nubi a , where the fleet was fre-
quentl y used to co nvey the army, the shi ps we re decorat ed wi th images
of the pharaoh as ce les tial and terrestrial conqueror.
One as pect o f Egypti an warfare that has recei ved lilli e det ail ed treat -
ment is the e ffec t on ag ricu lture of the regi on s attacked. There is good
evidence from Assy rian and biblical records o f the practice of cut tine
cro ps and trees, and thi s is attested for the Egypti an s in the Anna ls 01
Thutrnose III and in so me Rarnesside baili e scenes (suc h as the sto rm
ing of Tunip dep ict ed in the templ e o f Medinet Habu ). Obviou sl y, thr
taking of a har vest had pr actical ad vant ages , as is stated in the anna ls
because it could be used as food for the army, as well as depriving til '
ene my and ca usi ng har dship. Thi s acti on was limited in time because
the cro ps could be resown the foll owing ye ar. The regular CUll ing dowII
" I'orchards report ed in the Assyrian records, not abl y for town s, such as
I)amascus , .must have had longer-term repercu ssi ons . Victor Han son
the issues of CUll ing and regrowth in co nsi derably more
d, t,ul 1' 01 (l#/I j are and Agriculture in Classical Greece.
Ik rkeJey: Uni versity of California Press , revised edi tion 1998) than has
""en don e for the ancient Near East.
.·' :lIel:e is for Egyptian destruction of crops by fire , at-
It from and cla ssic al so urces. The va lue of the crops as food
II 11 ght have outweighed the punitive and propaganda value of de stru ction'
"11 l1 l11g crops is quite as effective in depri ving a populati on and mud;
" "we use to an army that has marched a co ns ide ra ble di st ance . Effecti ve
• II l1 l11g of crops co uld only be achieved if the enemy was bes ieged (as at
and to at.tac k the ar my. Victor Han son highli ghts all of
Ihl' prohlems associated with dest roying crops whether by fire hi I .
I lfect] I " W IC 1 IS
',"1y e ec tl.ve w len the c:op is fU.lly ripe; by cutting , which is very time-
" "lslImlng , or by trampling , which is not always completely effecti ve .
I IIher fact ors, such as terrain, are al so important- terraced fields are obvi-
Itll\,'y much more diffi cult to ravage than nat , open ground.
SlnH/.ar Occur in the at tempts to dest roy trees. CUll ing is the
o f destroying orcha rds : gree n wood being diffi cult
lit Ign,He. As Victor Han son det ail s, there are immense problems in at-
to destroy olive .trees , trees fi red or cut down rapidl y
I I ucnue . Th e depredalJons o f invading armies would have had seri-
effects ,. but thi s is probably all that was de sired: the ag-
VII S,, " S have WI shed to recei ve the products of orchards through
11 ,,, 1,, or tax III future years .
,!fall the social issues, the status of the soldier is the one where the
11 1"1" 111 are most ambivalent, and modern opinion has been
. di vid ed . There is good evidence for conscript ion and en-
Iltll'n l lllilllary se: vice in the Old and Middle Kingd oms and so me ev-
Id, lor Its .contllluation int o the New Kingdom. Th e o ft-quo ted view
It' h 'y pl.o loglsts that the Egypti an s "di d not like Iighting" (unlike the
1111"1'" of the " bloodthirsty As syrians") might owe more to a 19th _
. . cen
"II V n,te"st .vlew than any sou rces . Cert ainl y there were large
IIIIIIIII,IS of troops 111 the Egypti an army at all periods , es pe-
10111 v,the but there is no doubt that the bulk o f the army
" I:gyptl an . bo wmen were a regular feature o f the army, and
II" I,,' ,' r Ne w KlIlgd om had larg e co nti nge nts of Libyan s. This was in
par t an Egyptian res ponse to circumstances . From the reign of Sety I
onward, Libyan s were marching into Egypt to sett le, appare ntly as the
result of famine in thei r homel and . Ramesses II and his successor s in-
corporated s igni ficant numbers into the ar my and sett led them in spe-
cific areas , not abl y aro und Buba stis in the eastern De lta . Other foreign
troops are found associated wit h the Li byans , and also in the Egy pt ian
army, notably the Shekelesh and Shardana. Both gro ups are also num-
bered amo ng the "Sea Peoples," who are supposed to have posed a
threa t to Egy pt in the reign of Ramesses III .
Mercenary soldie rs ce rta inly had hi gh status : Egy ptian wives and
se rvants are document ed for Nubian mercenaries at Gebelein in the
First Intermediate Peri od and for Asiat ic mercenaries at Ak hetate n in
the New Kingdom. Militar y officers of Libyan origin married into the
Egyptian elite and eventually became pha rao hs.
One of the most controve rsial iss ues is the relat ionship of the army
and its commande rs to the Egyptian elite as whole. In the earl y 20th
ce ntury, Egyptologists argued that there was a "mariyanuu" class in.
Egy pt. The mariyannu we re supposedly a chari ot-owni ng ar istocracy 01
Indo-European or igin. The term certai nly occurs in Egyptian texts and
is a loan-word from Asia. However, identifyi ng this group with a race
was certai nly wron g, although it was typical of ideas about race and dif-
fusion that had rece ived wide spread academic sanct ion at that time.
Wolfgang Heick, in his influential volume Del' Einfluss del' Mi lititr-
fii hrer ("The rise of the milit ar y leader") , publi shed , rat her significantly,
in 1939, rei nforced the idea that the New Kingdom saw the rise of mil-
itary leaders as pharaohs. Thi s process is seen to have culminated with
the accessio n of, firstly, Hore rnheb, and then the fam ily of Se ty I and
Ramesses II, to the ki ngship. Th ese men were certainly army ge nerals
before they became pharaoh s , but whether they became pharaohs be-
cause of thei r mili tary background (and, presumabl y, support) is rath ci
more contentious. It might be wrong to separate the mil itary, as an in
stitution, from the rest of the elite. Th e Egypt ian Emp ire of the New
Kingdom required an increased spec ialization and professionalism ill
all of the key areas of administration, pri esthood , and army. All mem
bel'S of the elite shared the sa me education, which combined sc ribal
ski lls wit h those of chariotry and archery. Indeed, some mili tary off
cials chose 10 be depi cted as sc ribes on their monument s. Although ill
the later New Kingdom and the succeeding periods , the ideal of herod
11 "ry mi ght have led to whole families being largel y, for exam-
I' k , pr iests , "the milit ary" is unli kel y to have constituted a sepa rate
1'0lVcr before the later 20th Dynasty.
Re!,lted to issue , anothe r term that has provoked co nsiderable de-
hale IS machimni , There is abu ndant evide nce for the term fro n th
/ '1 I . . d b I e
o cmarc perm. ' ut the key text is Herodot os , who lays great empha-
'" , Oil th.e machimoi as a mi litary "caste. " There is no evidence for such
II caste 1IJ the New Kingdom (despite the mariya nnu y and it has now
h'T11suggested the emergence of such a military cas te was perhaps
II legacy of the Li byan period .
WI' seem to know more about the eco nomic aspects of warfar e than about
1I1I Il'gy and tactics in battle. Th is is largely because of the nature of
I "Yl' tlan document s, and "decorum." The import ant role of the bureau-
, !n war has been examined by Ian Shaw (" Battle in Ancient Egy pt:
II", Inumph of Horus or the Cutting Edge of the Templ e Economy?" In
\111 11 Il. Lloyd , ed., Battle ill Antiquity. Londo n: Duckworth , 1996,
I 1' 1 2( )l) . Egy pt was an extraordinarily bureaucrat ic soc iety, and the de-
,,,1"'" record of captures, both peo ple and thi ngs, is fou nd in both offi cial
'111 01 1'1'1 texts. As with so much of Egyptian history, the best docu-
1I1I 'llIallon IS from the New Kingdom. The autobiographica l texts of sol-
ol" 'I S, such as Ahmos e son of Ebana and Ahmose-pen-Nckhbet , detail
11 11 Ii own captures on the field of battle and their rewards from the
I'ltll llllllis under whom they served. They are important sources lo r un-
,I" lalltling the eco nomic aspec ts of war as it affected individuals.
I IH' III" and some ot her texts provide details of
11 11 , Iall' s revenues from war through captures on the field of battle and
' '' '''I y 11' 0 111 defeated cities and states . The "Arna rna Lett ers" are a rich
" 'lIn' lor the import ance of gift exchange bet ween rul ers
11 111,
: of mi litary equi pme nt and technology. They detail the types
I I 1II IIIIary equipme nr sent from Mitanni to Egy pt , including chariots,
"'I I:equipment and spea rs, arrows, shields, and helmets. They
I:,111 11 11 111 u.s the Import of horses to Egypt from north Syri a.
hi indi vidual level , texts record the rewards made to soldier s for
' I 'lUIlug enemy soldiers and civilians or chariots and horses. Captured
civilians were often given to the soldier as slaves . Gold flies and other
valuables we re also given as reward and as indi cators of bra very in the
field. Most significa nt, perh aps, were the grants of land , as the se may
have aide d famil ies in soc ial advancement . The importance of such
document ati on to the elite is revea led parti cul arl y well in the insc ription
of a man named Mose who lived in the ea rly 19th Dynasty. There had
been a family disput e over a peri od of some 50 years , but the di spute
was about the produce from land that had been granted to a soldier an-
cestor some 200 yea rs ea rlie r, in the ea rly 18th Dynasty.
On a broader level , what becomes clear from the sources is the rapid
spread and ex pansio n of the char iotry. The text s from the ea rly 18th Dy-
nasty in Egypl, and contemporary records from western Asia, indicate
that chariots were very few in number at the beginning of the peri od , but
by the time of the battl e of Qadesh, rul ers were able to put hundreds, if
not thous and s, into the field . The incre ase in number s of char iots avai l-
able to the Great King of the Hittites illustrates this well. Early rulers had
few chariots , but by the time of Thutrnose III , the Hittite Great King
could muste r 1,000, and the records of Rarnesses II clai m that there we re
2,500- 3,000 chariots of the Hitt ites , their vassals and allies. at the bailie
of Qadesh. Th e Egy ptians certainly increased their num bers of cha riots
throu gh ca ptures. At Megiddo Thutrnose III se ized 924 chariots. and
slightly later Amenh otep II captured a total of I .lQ 2 in his campaigns,
Altho ugh all early char iots appea r to ha ve been imports or captures,
by the mid-18th Dynasty, the Egy ptians were manufactu ring them
themsel ves , and transferabl e technol ogies in wa rfa re and equi pment an'
a character istic of the peri od , with an effect on the trade in raw materi
als. Lacking good- quality timber, Egypt had go ld and other luxur ies il
co uld use in excha nge. Mit anni controlled the trade in deciduous tim
ber s such as oa k, ash, and birch that were essent ial lor chariot building,
and doubtless thi s played a significa nt part in the import ance of tht,
kingdom intern ationall y,
Chariots, of cou rse , need horses , and the horse trade was of great im
port ance , es pec ially to a country like Egypt , where it was diffi cult III
breed the anima ls . At Megiddo, Thutmose III ca pture d 2,04 1 horses
Again, Mitanni seems to have been an important source, or channel, 01
horses. Th e biblical record indicates that later, Sol omon , king of Israel
became one of the grea t hor se trader s. The hor ses of the Late Bron«
Age were relativel y sma ll animals and hors e breeding and the intr«
,IlIclion of new types of a hea vier hor se had import ant milit ary reper-
' IiSSlons In the Iron Age, not abl y an increase in the use of ca valry,
flrslly by the army of the Assynan Empire.
The Lett er s det ail the many othe r aspect s of the int ernati onal
HI ',lIS of the Late Bronze , from armor to different types of arrows .
,II " typi cal ?f Egyptian depi cti ons that littl e of thi s import ed wea ponry
" shown being used by Egypti an soldiers. Ho we ver, the earliest known
11"',1 fro m Egypt , a dagger from the tomb of Tut ankhamun is
Id<, nllcal to one described in the Amarna Letter s. '
Although the girt exchange bet ween rul er s was the main way in
Ill: ld l arms were the widespread e mploy me nt of mercenary sol-
d" " would also have disseminated wea pons and techniques of warfare.
Ih<, y should be cons ide red as part of the arms trade itself. The
\ 11I:ll na include a request by an Egyptian vassal rul er in Pales-
lit ,,· Ior Nub ian archer s , and a fragment ary papyrus of the sa me date
h" ws a battle between Libyan s and what appea r to be Mycenaean sol-
d",IS. who also perhaps be regarded as me rcenary troops. There
' ,'" :11 1 Increase In the number and ethnic gro ups or mercenaries in the
I lilt n,l' ty, Some. such as the Sha rda na, with their di stinctive hel-
1I 1t' 1, :11 '." weapons. to be round both in the Egy ptian army and fight-
111 1' "1'" lllSt the Egy ptians alongside the Libyans.
1\ 11 oi the SOUrL'es indi cate the "i nternational" nature of the Late
11 11 111 / " Age. with the spread of technol ogies and weaponry throu uh the
h"'" ' " .Mesopotamia. wes tern Asia, the Aegean, and northeast Africa .
II" ,'hanot. for example, spread to Nubia, presumably as royal gift and
,' 1I l' ply the pharaohs. Although battl e scenes show Nubian
", III "" conve ntionally as bowmen with rel ati vel y littl e equipment
II" I ".' ,III'ces show the of chariots by the elite and sugge sl that the;
' I' Itl lllg If] some center s. The Egyptians also rece ived
I I " o,' ,anno,r, shields : and we apo ns, notabl y spears and bows , from
111 "" , r here IS al so evidence that horses were being bred in Nubia by
I, 1IIII," ,that Kushite kingdom conquered Egypl in the eighth cen-
'II Il l , I he. Libyans, too , acquired fore ign weapons. By the 19th Dy-
, 1\ , fltt' Libyans had chariots , and swords of western As iatic type.
I •• 11 1'." ;111 Greece and the Aegean was also part of this net work, as ev-
I II" 11011 1I'ylos , Mycenae, and Knossos shows .
lilt interde pende nce of the states of the Late Bron ze Age , it is
I III I" IS l lIg that the co llapse of the Hittite Empire had widespread
r:: .....
Map of the Western Delta.
, t sp
: .
~ : : : : : : ..\.
:..~ J r n Abu Girg
.\ J' ' ;"
repercussions. In the past , this was genera lly attributed to the "Sea Peo-
ples" as a mass migration of populati on from the north into western
Asia . More rece ntly. this idea of population movement has been chal-
lenged , and Robert Drews has re-examined the whole issue in The End
of the Bronze Age. Changes in Wwfa re and the Catastrophe ca. 1200
B.C. (Prince ton, N.J.: Princet on University Press. 1993). He empha-
sizes the increased importance of infant ry over chariotry. Certainly, the
evidence from the succee ding historical phases (although sca nty for
Egypt) shows that the massed chariot ranks of the Late Bronze Age
were repl aced by infantry and cavalry.
The first millennium Be saw the rise of a series of increasingly large
empires , which were in turn taken ove r. The first , the Assyrian Empire,
extended its sway ove r Mesopotamia and westward to the Medit er-
ranean and briefly into Egypt. II was conquered by the resurgence of
Babylonian power, but that empire in tum fell to the Medes and then the
Persians. Egypt. under the strong rule of the 26th Dynasty. managed to
remain independent , even to challenge the power of Babylon, but ulti-
matel y fell to the overwhelming might of Persia. Throughout thi s period,
mercenaries played a signifi cant role in the Egyptian army. many com-
ing from southern and western Anatolia, the lands of Carla, and the [on-
ian coast. The states of the Greek mainl and now played an increasingly
impor tant role, and sea battl es increased in number (or are better docu-
ment ed) . II was also the Greek mainland that produced the major new
devel opment in warfare, the phal anx of pike-men. Th is formation, de-
veloped by Philip II of Macedon , was used with devastating effect by
Alexander the Great in his ca mpaigns agai nst Persia and continued to
playa maj or role in the wars of his immediate succes sors (the diadochoii
and the later Hellen istic kingdoms. The armi es of the Helleni stic king-
doms were organized and equipped in largely the same ways. and there
was frequent defecti on to an enemy by both troops and commanders. In
troducti ons, such as the use of elephants by the Seleukid kings of Syria.
were soon adopted by other monarchs. The fall of the Hell enistic king
doms ( 0 Rome saw the rise of the largest empire. and also the culmina
lion of military standardization. Egypt now shared an army and had mil
itary structures of a type that cou ld be found from Britain to Syria.
Abush" •.
Saqq ara MEMPHIS
Map of Middle Egypt from Memphis to Akaris.
Medinel ..;.' :.... :. )I?PER-
MAGDOlA·· ··. .... •.... • .. 'w": HERAKlE OLiS
"thnesy» -Medina
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..\ ".1 Retaba Maskhuta.
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Map of the Eastern Detio.
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o z ........--
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~ D e i r el- Bersha
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M"I' of Middle [g}'pt from Akoris to Akl .
Map of Southern Upp er Egypt from Thebes to Aswan.
...;::p- .
. Fayurn.;
J {
-: r


.:-"./ ·f

(/ Oasis
Map of Western Desert.
,/ .. .
...; Faratra
,( ' . '
, Oasis
I) 50 100
• Oosls
I t-blr.
v - First
To / -10
... . ... (el-Kab) . A
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/,.... / . r: -. '>
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(Dush) I
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La •Koin6rilbo
Djeme··:···. arnak
...' 'Luxor THEBES
Arrnant, Diospolis Mega/e
.:.• Tod
/---' \ .... :..
/ Gebelein ".
To Pathyris

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0 '"
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Map of Eastern Desert.
~ , .
to •
"' :i....QMBOS
:z .. 0
~ : ~ K o m mba
.7Nag el Hagar
Cataract J'Philae
i ' Tu PHIUM
1, .100
' Gebelein
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Edtu' ", ' ' ''lbbaC/
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G e z ~ r j\ijalon
Map of Palestine.
o 50 100
, ,
~ l l a n O S
M,JI' of Greece and the Aegean.

Dashur. )
I 't Reuion. The Mcmp 11 e 0
Il _ _ i
- - - kilome ters
Shell al
1 ,
~ - I
,( quarries
i /
( , are shown),
I the larger islands
F' t Cataract (on Y The Irs
Plan of the Fortress of Kwnma, after W B. Emery.
~ WB Emery.
Plan of the For tress of Semno, a ter . ,
C L - = - ~
Plan of the Fortress of Shalfak, ait er w.B. Emery.
'" ,,,,,I -cction of the north defenses oi the Inner Fort at Buhen, modified from a
tI, 1111: 1>)' W.B. Emery.
o 50
~ -
~ r w a l l
cont inues 10
160 mei er .
5 10 15
Plan of the Fortress o( Uto narti, after WB. Emery.
" I' I' " " ·,,Ie armor etter a pai nting in the tomb oi Qenamun at Thebes ireign oi
lit " IP /I '/J /I) ,
I ~ I I J
.. 1

., [1111 liT i!!
Illl :filll 1111 i\.ll
f Til
I ~ l lJ ! Til J ~ i I .
1il iI, J 'I' J !' JIll
A small baNlemented garrison ion at Akhetaten (Amarnal depicted in the tomb ",
MaIJU, chiei oi the Madjoy, at Amarna. The complete scene shows provisions beilll'
brought to the tort. Inside, there are amphorae and ioodstulls. a soldier end spare 5.11 '
dais, shields, axes, bows, and quivers. Aiter N. de G. Davies Rock Tombs "I
el-Amarna, vol. 1\1, pl. xxiv.
, ' /'" " '" .llier a paillting in the tomb of Oenamun at Thebes (reigll of Amen-
I ' III , howing the products of royal workshops; that 0 11 the right is made of
, ,,, .. I,I II.
A cowhide shield after a pailltillg ill the tomb of Qellamull at Thebes (reili" ,
Amenhotep I/) showillli the products of royal workshops. The accompallyillli ' .,/
tiot: states that 680 w ere presented to the king.
(Left) A khepesh-SlVord with scaled hand-grip and a ridge in the shape of a CO/II,'
From a scene showing gifts presented to Thutmose IV in the tomb of Tjaflllll)' "
Thebe«. (Right! A group of khepesh-SlVords in a painting in the tomb of Qenamu/I , l
TIlebes (reign of Amenhotep /I) showing the products of royal workshops. TI,,' ,"
companying caption states that 360 were presented to the king.
,,,,,I rI"lmers depi cted in a scene of gi fts presented to Amenhotep' /I in the
11111 ' ,,)t 'H.ItU lIn nt Ihebes.
, , 'II /'{I./I ' archer wearing a long robe and pointed helmet. Reien of Rm . " /1
o ( lCS!'i Ui .
Troops fromAkhenalen's bodyguard. In the upper register are an Asiatic wilh sp""
and khepesh, a Nubian, and a Libyan, both with bow and axe. The lower regilt I
has anot her Asialic witb spear and khepesh and a Nubi an with a cudgel, follow, ,,
by an Egyptian with a khepesh. From a scene in the lomb of Ahmes al Amarn., ",
ter N. de G. Davies RockTombs of el-Amarna, vol. 11/, pl. xxxi .
A military trumpeter from a scene of the campaigns of Ramesses //.
II, ,,·//i"Rof orchards outside a fortified town in western Asia, from a scene of one
II,,' ,,""paigns of Ramesses ll .
T/lUtmose /V in his chariot, from a scene on the side of the ki ng's chariot.
Asidli cs bring a chariot and horses as " tribute" to Akhenaten. From a scene in II,;
tomb of Mer yre /I at Amarna, alter N. de G. Davi es Rock Tombs of el-Amarna, VII
II, pl . xxxlx,
1111' ''(,5 feeding and chariots from a scene in the tomb or Tutu at Amarnc1, after N.
d,' ( ;. Davies Rock Tom bs of el -Arnarna, vol . VI, pl. xx.
II .., lII,lIlufacture of a chariot, and an axe, and leatherworking. A bow case, two
' I"!I"'S, and other cbetiotrv equipment, d,l ggers m, and a shield are depi cted
,I..''''. From a scene i n the l omb of Puyemre at Thebes (reign of Ibutmose 1/1).
Queen Tiye as a iemaiesphinx trampling the female enemies.of Egypt. From a paw'/
on the side of the queens throne as depicted in the tomb 01Kheruef at Thebes.
The Dictionary
-A -
.\ ATI\ (11. c. 1530 uc ), Opponent or Ahmose I. In the autobiography or
Ahmose son or Ebana the episode follows the Nubia n ca mpaig n,
II l1d it is likely that Aata was a local ruler in Wawat . Aata came wi th
i ll l ar my and ships, but in the outcome he was take n as a living ca p-
live and his people were enslaved . The text impli es that a whole pop-
Il lation was involved and this incident therefore contrasts with the
"rchellinn" ofTcri -un referred to in the same autobiography, both in
l'llI npo, ilion and treatment.
\ 111 1. The Egyptia n name for the island or Ele phant ine in the Ni le at the
100101' the Firs t Cataract. opposite the town or As wa n. Its position at
Ih.. root or the catar act ensured its role as an early trading center, and
silategic front ier town. By the Midd le Kingdom, it was protected by
IIIl' lortress or Scnmut and a long defensive wall , which exte nded to
Ihl' head or the catarac t and its harbor. Senus r et I ordered a canal to
he cleared through the cataract to ease navigat ion, which was renewed
h ' Thutmose I. The tombs or the town 's officials are carved into the
d ills on the west bank or the Nile, at Qubbet el-Hawa. These include
Ihl' Old Kingdom "controllers or the doors or the south," respo nsible
1111 the frontier and expedi tions into Nubia, es pecially to Wawat, lrt-
1"1. Satju, Yam, and Kush . There are informati ve autobiographica l in-
" '1 iplions in these tombs, notably that or Harkhuf.
\ «''1'1 li M. See AKTION.
\1: ESILI\ OS II (c. 445- 359 nc ). King or Spar ta in Greece (rrom 400
Ill ') . i\ ges ilaos comma nded the Greek war agai nst Per sia in 396-395
2 • Al lMOSr I C. I S,!)2 1527 lie)
AHMOS[ SON o r [ IlANA II L. C. 1560 · 1500 Rei • 3
BC, receiving aid from the pharaoh Nefaarud . Lat er , the elde rly Age-
silaos, with an army of Greek mercenarics accompa nied by a fleet
from At hcns , aided Djcdhor' s attem pt to gain territory in Palest ine
and Syria. I l is change of allegiance ensured Nakhthorheb was sue-
ces sful in his bid for the Egy ptia n throne (360-359 BC) . Agesilaos
died in Cyr enaica on his way back to Gr eece .
AHMOSE 1 (reigned c. 1552-1527 BC). Theban ruler , successor 01
Kamose, who reunited Egy pt by defeat ing the Hyksos ruler of Avaris
in thc eastern Delta. He is recognized in literature as the first pharaoh
of the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. His military campaigns,
which achieved the reunificat ion of Egypt , are recorded in autobio
graphical texts of soldiers who served in the wars: Ahmose son of
Ebana, and Ahmose-Pen-Nekhbet . A brief reference to Ahrnose 's
war may be preser ved on the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. and small
fragment s of battle reli efs have rece nt ly been recovered from the
phar aoh 's temp le at Abydo s. It see ms likely that Ahmose I was a mi
nor at the death of Kamose (ei ther his cider brother or father), as there
see ms to be no military acti vity until the second decade of the reign,
Activi ties in Nubia may have preceded the Hyksos campaigns,
which are probably to be placed late in the seco nd decade. Evidence
from Buhen attests building work by the viceroy, Ahrnose-Turo, and
it is likely that the Nubian gains of Kamose were conso lidated. Ahrnosc
I' s name also occur s in the fortress es tablished at Sai nor th of the Third
Cataract , indicating an Egyptian adva nce into Kushite territory. The
records of the Hyksos campaigns also show that Memphis had been
rega ined by the Theban forces before the commencement of hostilities,
The inscr iption of Ahmose son of Ebana describes battles in which th('
navy was prominent ; the siege of Avaris; the defeat of the Hyksos; and
sack of Avaris, The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus carries notes dated til
a year II , attributed by scholars vario usly to Ahmose or the Hykso:
king Khamudi . These notes record the capture of Heliopoli s and Tj aru
The defeat of the Hyksos in the Delta was followed by the siege III
Sharuhcn, which lasted for three years , or thrce ca mpaigns. AhmOSI
also see ms to have campaigned inland from Bybl os (which was, pn'
sumably, reached by ship). Followi ng the campaigns aga inst the Hyk
sos, Ahmosc led a military action in Nubi a and later quashed the " 1'1'
bell ions" of Aata and Teti-an, Aata was probabl y a local ruler III
I.ower Nubi a (Wawat), Teti- an is said to have gathered "malcontents"
!,l' rhaps represent ing a pro-Hyksos faction in the nort h of Egypt itself.
,\l II\IOSE II (AMASIS) (reigned 570-526 BC). Phara oh of the 26th
I who ga ined t.he throne during an army rebe/lion following
Ihe failure of a campaign sent agai nst Cyrene by Wa hibre (Apries).
Alunose appears to have faced oppos ition from some facti ons and in
BC attempted to rega in the throne with help from
( yp r us Ionian and Carlan me rcenaries . In a second attempt to
I,.' galll his thron e, Wahibre enlisted the support of the Babylonian
1"lI g Nehuchadnezzar II who invaded Egypt. Ahmose gained help
110111 Cyrene (pro bably sealed with the dip lomatic marriage alliance
rvported by Herodotos). The invadin g for ce was defeat ed , and Wahi-
luc was An inscription of Ahmose attr ibut es the victory to the
uucrvern ion of the gods and the wea ther. Ahrnose entered into al-
liance with Polykrntes, tyrant of Sarnos, from whom he recei ved sol-
rl icrs. also es tablished a treat y with Croes us of Lydi a, (there
was a similar treaty bet ween Lydia and Babylon). Th e new threat to
I!gypl and western Asia was Persia unde r Cyrus . Lydi a was attacked
hili Croesus received less help than expected. A Persian attack 0;
Ilahylon foll owed (539 BC) , but the deat h of Cyrus (530 BC) rel ieved
li/'ypt for a bri ef per iod .
\ III\ IOSE SON OF EBANA (fl . c. 156(1-1500 BC). Milit ary officer in
II ", navy who served under Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thut mose
1,IIe was buried in his homet own of Nekheb (modern el-Kab), south
II I I.uxor, Where an autobiographical inscription records the eve nts of
Iii, milit ary service. Ahmose was the son of a soldier who served Se-
qrucnrc Tao, ca lled Baba (Eba na was the name of his rnother ). Ah-
IlIme's military service began as a youth, before he was marri ed
when he was a soldier on a ship ca lled the "Wild Bull ." He served 0';
I WII more ships, the "Northern" and "Arising in Memphi s." At this
lillie he took part in the wars against the Hyksos and the naval battl e
II I Avaris . He was later invo lved in the Nubi an campaigns of Ahmose
I, Amcnhotep I, and Thutrnose I. Apart from the histor ica l value of
II II' texts they indicate the numbers of enemies slain and the rewards
IIII' those. Altoge ther Ahrnose cut off eight hands from slain enemies
IIl1d hrought live capt ives. So me of the ca ptives were given to him as
4 • AI IMOSE· I' EN·NEKI mET III . c. 1550·1 470 BC)
slaves other s were exc hanged. In return for two Nubian wa rriors Ah-
mose recei ved fi ve slaves (sex unspecified), and, for two Nubia n
men , he was given four Nubia n wome n. Ahmose was rewarded with
gold on seven occasions, given a total of 19 slaves and grants of five
arouras of land in Nekh eb (el-Kab) . Of part icul ar signifi cance was
Ahmose 's ca pture . in one campaign in the rei gn of Thutrnose I . of 1I
chariot. horse . and soldier. The cha riot was still a rel at ivel y new de-
velopment and was presented by Ahmose to the pharaoh , for whi ch
he was rewarded with gold. Ahmose rose from being a soldier to be-
come crew commander. Ili s tomb was decor ated , at least in part , by
his arundson, Paheri , who was a sc ribe of the treasury and mayor of
e .
Nekheb (e l-Kab) and Es na . Ahrnose' s milit ary service lind Its mate
rial ga ins mi ght therefore be see n as evide nce for social advance -
ment of a famil y.
AHMOSE-PEN-NEKHBET (fl. c. 1550-1470 IIC) . Served in ca lli
paigns from the reign of Ahmose I to the coreign of Thutmose III and
Hatshepsut. He was buried in his hometown of Nekheb (el-Kab). Il l'
records an expedition to Djahy (Lebanon) by Ahmose I, which is not
documented elsewhere (e.g. Ahmose son of Eba na). Th is is presumed
to have taken place after the ca pture of Sharuhen . He served in Klish
wi th Amenhotep I and with Thutmose I in Kush and Naha r in. I h'
went with Thutmose II on an expedition agai nst the Shas u.
The text is also valuable for its lists of the r ewa r d given by vari
ous pharaoh s for actions on the batt lefi eld . From the Djahy campaign
of Ahrnose I, Ahrnose-pen-Nek hbet brought a livi ng prisoner and II
hand . On the ca mpa ign of Amenhotep I to Kush , Ahrnose took Olll'
living priso ner; in that against Yamu-kehek ; three hand s; during Thul
mose I' s Kushite expedition, he ca ptured a tot al of five living pri son
ers; and in the pharaoh' s Naharin expedition, 2 1 hand s with Oil
horse and one ch ariot. Under Amenhotep I , he received as reward
two bracel ets, two neckl aces , an armlet, a da gger , a headdress , a fall
and a mekhtebet (a type of ornament), all of gold. In a ca mpaign 01
Thutrnose I, he rece ived two bracelet s, four necklaces , one armlet, si
flies , three lion amulets, and two axes , again all of go ld. On another
occasio n, under the sa me pharaoh, he was rewarded with thrc
bracelet s , six necklace s , three armlets , and a mekhtebet , all of gold
and a silve r axe. No allotme nts of land are me ntion ed in the text.
AKl-ltNATEN I RUGNm c. 1352- 1336 BC) • 5
'\ I\ II ENAT EN (r eigned c. 1352-1336 uc ). Pharaoh of the later 18th
Dynasty, son and successor of Amenhotep III, asce nded the throne
ax IV. but cha nged his name early in his reign . There is a
possibility of that Amenhotep III and Ak henaten we re coregents for
lip to 12 years, but Egyptologis ts are still di vided on this , and it is not
ncccpted her e. The Amarna Letters are the principal source for our
understanding of Asiatic affairs in the reign , although fraught with
problems of chro nology and interpretation. Earl ier literature painted
1I pictu re of the pharaoh as unwar like, or even a "pacifist," who let the
I':gyptian Empire fall apart through inactivity, whi le devot ing himsel f
10 the worshi p of the sun god . The view of Ak henalen as a pacifist
"lI lI safely be rej ect ed: he is depi cted smi ting his enem ies in the con-
vcutiona] mann er of a pha raoh , as is his chi ef queen, Nefertiti , A
hlldyguard always surrounded the pharaoh and contingents of the
1I 1111y accompany him on his public appearances.
One milita? action by the Egyptian army in Nubia, pro bably on a
scale, IS known from the reign. A fragment ary stele from
Buhcn records a military ex pedition into the Nu bian de serts between
W:lrs 10 and 12 (the exac t read ing of the date is uncert ain). This was
"illTlcd agai nst the gold-mining regi ons in the Wad i Allaqi , the land
' Ii Ikaytja. There is a fragmcnt of a parall el text from Arnada .
Scenes in the tombs of the offic ials Huya and Meryre II at Amarna
huw the par ade of foreign tribute in the "Great Durbur" at
in year .12. Such presentati ons of tribute are frequ entl y as-
' '' ' I:lled With foreign wars and consequently it has bee n suggested
Ihlll there was a mil itary ca mpaign in that year. Other Egyptologi sts
"' I':lrd.the "Durbar" as part of the ceremo nies attendi ng Akhenateu's
," rcsxron as sole pharaoh followi ng a long coregency wi th his father
Ilhis is co ntroversial). The foreign tribut e incl ude s chariots , horses,
'"111 IIlher w.eapons from bot h Nubi a and wes tern As ia, rellecting the
"' "'lIll1l' nlatlon of the arms trade in the Amarna Lett er s.
lhc Amarna Letter s are co ncerned with affai rs in Asia . At some
1'"111 1 in the reig n, the .Hitt it e King, Suppiluliuma, conducted a major
, '"l1 p:lIgn III north Syria, seizing Egyptian vassa l states. Thi s is proba-
I,' \, III dated betwee n yea rs 12 and 14 of Akhenaten's reign . At the
'"1'" tunc, Aziru, ruler of Arnur r u , gained co ntrol of Surnur, Az iru
" 1I )':lined control of Tunip , and there was a coup in Bybl os. Right at
II" "lid III Akhenaten's reign (or immediately following it) , there was
an Egyptian offe nsive against Qadesh, which was followed up in the
later years of Tuta nkha mun, probably commanded by Horemheb.
AKT ION (ACTlUM) . Naval baili e, 2 Se ptember 3 1 BC, at which the
forces of Kl eopatra VII and Ma rcus Antonius were defeated by
those of Oc tavian (Augus t us) and the Roman Republic. Aktion is at
the entra nce to the Ambraci an Gulf on the western coast of Greece,
Antonius pitched camp on the mainl and , but malari a and dysent ery
affected his troops, foll owed by the defecti ons of some of his leadin g
supporters. Antonius's fleet , along with 200 of Kleopatr a' s shi ps
sailed to jo in the land army. But another di saster occ urred when, on
its arrival, the joint fleet was blockaded in the Gulf. Pol itical factors
influenc ed the deci sion to attempt withdrawal by sea rather than by
land . Illness meant that Antonius did not have enough rowe rs to man
all of the ships, so he equipped 230 and burned the rest. Sources state
that Antonius took 20,000 legionaries and 2,000 a rchers and slingers
onto his ships constructing firing towers for them at bow and stern,
Octavian's fleet of 400 now vastly outnumbered Antonius' s and was
more experienced. Later claims that Octavian' s ships were smaller
and more eas ily maneuvered are probably incorrect. Ant onius' s ships
were allowed to sail out in file through the narrow Gulf. As they
spread into line, Octav ian' s fleet was drawn up aga inst them . Octa-
vian apparently wished to lure the fleet into open water so that his
greater numbers could out flank them . He refused to join halli e and
Antonius had no option but to sail fart her out or ret urn to the Gulf. As
the fleet s moved out and engaged, the center wea kened, allowing
Kleopatra and her squadron of 60 ships to break through and set sail
for Egypt. This had doubtless been prearranged. Antonius managed
to follow her, although he had to abandon hi s llagship. Few of the
other co mmanders were abl e to break free. About 30 or 40 of Anto-
nius' s ships were sunk. The remainder surrendered , although some
ret reated into the Gulf until the next day. The defeat led directl y to the
fall of Egypt and its incorporation into the Roman Empire.
ALAMEIN, The existence of a fortress here in the rei gn of Ramesses
II has been suggested by some remains, notably gra nite stele frag-
ment s referring to Libyan Wars . Estimates of di stance between forts
along the coastal route from Rakote to Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham
Al f XANDRIA • 7
also suggest that Alamein was a likel y site. Any such fort would have
been part of the defense against the Libyans, but probably only op-
erated during the early 19th Dynasty.
11 (' ). Macedonian king who defeated Darius III and conquered the em-
pire of Persia, Following Alexander 's defeat of Persian forces at Issos
t.U3 BC) in Asia Minor, the Macedonian adventurer Amyntas tried to
capture Egypt for personal gai n, but was put to death , with his force,
hy the Persian satrap of Egypt. Meanwhile, Alexa nder's army and
llcct proceeded toward Egypt along the Phoenici an coas t to Gaza ,
which was besieged (September-November 332 BC) . With the fall of
(i aza, Macedonia's supremacy at sea was unchallenged . Alexa nder
IIOW crossed the Sinai Penin sula to Pelusion (Dece mber 332 BC) .
Mazaces, the Persian satrap, yielded Egypt to Alexander without rnak-
illg opposition. Alexander installed a garr ison in Pelusion and went di-
rcctly to the capital at Memphis. From Memphi s, Alexander sailed to
I.ake Mareotis and founded Alexandria , near the small port of Rakote
(Jnnuary 331 BC), before makin g the long desert j ourney to the oracle
temple of Zeus-Amm on at Si wa. Recogni zed by the god as his son, and
Il'l,:itimate pharaoh, Alexander returned to Memphis, apparently di-
rcctly across the dese rt . Whil e at Memphis, Alexander imposed Mace-
donian rule on the country. He appointed two of his companions, Pan-
falcon of Pydna and Polemon of Pell a, as commanders of the gar risons
ill Memphis and Pelusion. Lykidas, an Aetolian Greek, was placed in
rornmand of the mercenary troops, and other mil itary appointments
ensured that the security of the country was not under the command of
OIIC individual. The Roman writer, Arrian, in his history of Alexander 's
cnmpuigns based on contemporary sources, observes that Alexander
thought that the country' s potenti al strength made it unsafe to be under
1'0 11 11'01 of one individual. Leaving Egypt in late spring of 331 ac ,
Alexander continued his advance into the heart of the Persian Empire,
d ,jllg at Babylon in 323 !lC, after which Egypt was seized by the gen-
rrnl, later pharaoh, Ptolemy I.
\ I.EXANDRIA. Ca pital city of the Ptolemies. Fou nded by Alexande r
tlu- Great in January 33 1 BC, Alexandria became the greatest
Mediterranea n port in the Hell enist ic period and, with a population of
8 • AI
over half a mi llion persons , the seco nd city of the Roman Empire.
Th e populati on was very mi xed, including a large number of Jews ,
and was the site of numerou s civi l di sturbanc es under the Ploleml es
and in Ro ma n times . The Alexandrian mob took sides in the dynas-
ti c wars of the Ptolemies, often wi th devast ating results . In the first
century AD, there were race riot s against the Jews . . . .
Shortly after the acce ssion of Ptolemy IV, the ex iled king 01
Spar ta , Kleomenes Ill , attempted a coup but was put down..
There we re further problems in the city followmg the death 01
Ptol emy IV, the murder of hi s widow, and the accession of Ptolemy
V (204-03 BC). Thi s culminated in mob violence .
In the rei gn of Ptolemy VI, Alexandria was besieged by Autio-
chos IV, the Seleukid king of Sy r ia , during the Si xth Sy r ia n Wur
(168 BC) , but he failed to take the ci ty. A few later (about 1. 65
BC) , an Egyptian co urtier, Dionysios P.:toserapl s , started a r ebellion
among the soldi ers stationed in Eleusis, to the east of the c ity. I k
raised about 4,000 rebels , but they were defeated and ned to till'
cham (countrysi de) , where he recei ved some popular supporl.
A Roman army under the co mma nd of Aulus Gabinius. with Mar
cus Ant onius leading the cava lry, was sen t by Pompey to reston'
Ptolemy XII (Auletes) in 55 BC. There was a ba u le outside the cit y
followed by a naval battle on the Ni le. Although Gab inil" ret ur ned to
Rome , a for ce of legionaries . the Gabinia ns . rem aincd in the ci ty.
There we re two major milit ar y actions in the ci ty in the reign III
Kleopatra VII . In 48 BC, the arriva l of lulius Caesar in pursuit 01
Pompey led to the Alexa nd r ia n War and the restorat ion of Kl eopu
tra to the throne. In 30 IJC, the forces of the future emperor Augus l n
arrived outside of the city whe re Kleop at ra and M. Antonius returned
following their de feat at Aktion the preceding year. On I August .111
BC, Augustus entered the city. This was followed shortly afte r by th
deat hs of Antonius and Kl eopatra and the appointme nt of a Roman
prefect , the first bei ng Corneli us Gall us . . '
In 38 AD, the appearance of the Judaean tetrarch Agn ppa , a fnelld
of the reigning emperor, Caligula, provoked anti- Jewish riots aliiI
desecr ati on of synagog ues . These are the fir st raci st attacks h
Greeks o n Jews in Alexa ndria. The prefect failed to intervene and Ihl
ar my did not play a major role. The re were fur ther Jewish-Greek II
ots in the cit y in 55 AD, short ly after the access ion of the empcn»
This connected with the attem pt by a large group of Egypt-
1.111 Jews to liberate Jerusal em from Roman rul e. Lat er, in 66 AD a
Jewish rebelli on in Pal est ine led to further conflict in Al exandri a,
which had to be suppressed by the prefectlulius Alexa nder , who 01'-
tined an attack on the Jewi sh quarter of the city.
I July 69 formall y proclai med Vespasian
k oman m opposi non to Vitellius with the back ing of the le-
glllns of . Syria and Egypt. Th e new emperor went in person to
Alexandria to ensure that the corn supplies to Rome were cut off if
lI ecessa ry, rece ived the news of the defeat of Vitellius and that he
was recognized as emperor in Rome.
111 the rei gn of Traj an wa s a maj or Jewish revolt , which affected
ruost of. the e:lstern provinces ( 115- 117 AD) . The Greek populat ion
was in Alexandria until it was relieved by an ar my and fleet
III1t1CI.· Quintus Marcius Turbo. Th ere were several batt les before the
"I'ns lllg was suppressed. Turbo then or de red the rebu ildi ng of the
l.urrcss of Babylon .
There was further civil disturbance in Alexandria in the reign of
I IOI tln:.II1 . apparcntlv over the housing of the sacred Ap is bull. Thi s is an-
other Instancc of the violent outbursts resulting from religious matters
1":11 churnctcrizcd the c ity. A rebellion in the rei gn of Antoninus Pius
11I"l!ncd IJ R-1 61 All ) badly docu ment ed. although one (not entirely
II lIsl\\ 0I1hy) source claims that the prefect was killed. There was a much
1I'" ll' Egyptian rebellion in the reign of Marcus Aurelius
1"01 1 begun the Boukoloi. The rebels nearly captured Alexandria
1'"1 \\,cl:e defeated by the governor of Syria, Avidius Cassius. in 172 AD.
a false report of the emperor ' s deat h, Avidius Cassius was
emperor (175 AD) supported by the prefect of Egy pt, Ca ius
1 II lvlSIUSStatianus . but the rebellion came to a swift end
Thc emperor Caracalla visited Alexandria in 2 15 Caracal la
I,"!' hl emulate some of the great heroes such as Alexa nder the Great
II l1 d Achilles and as a result had been mocked by the Alexa ndrians . In
I. vcngc, ordered the massacre of a large number of ci tizens
II l1 d the city was. div ided into two part s with a wall. The empero r also
III tallcd the legionary troops inside the city rather than at Nik I'
. I . . opo IS,
II l1hll c. Following Caracall a' s death and the accession of Macrinus (in
' I I co nflict broke out in Alexandri a. Elagabulus, cla iming to
I" t nruculla's son. was procl aimed emperor by the Syrian troops and
10 • AI
supported by the Roman garrison in the city, but the citizens and the
new prefect opposed him. Bailie ensued in which the military tri-
umphed after considerable bloodshed on both sides. From this time on,
both Egypt and Alexandria ceded their importance in the empire: the
country, as a corn supplier, to Africa, and the city, to Antioch.
There was further li ghting between factions in the reign of Valer-
ian (253-260 AU) . In 262 AU, the Alexandri ne mob proclaimed the
prefect Marcus Julius Aemilianus emperor. After some successes in
Upper Egypt, supporters of the emperor Gallienus arrived in Alexan-
dria, and the city was divided into two warri ng factions. The troops
of Gallienus ultimately won, and Aemilianus was captured and sent
to Rome. Alexandria was left a wreck with a much-reduced popula
tion. Shortly afterward, in 268 AD, Alexandria was captured by the
Palmyrene army of Zenobi a . Shortly after his access ion in 270 All ,
the emperor Aurelian went in person to regain control of Egypt. Ilc
was partly successful, ousting the Palmyrenes from Alexandria. Also
at this time sources claim that an Alexandrian merchant, Fir mus, at-
tempted to proclaim himself emperor.
In about 296 AD, Alexandria again proclaimed a rival emperor, the
Roman officer, Lucius Domitius Domitianus. The emperor Dioclet -
ian had to come in person to restore order. Alexandria was besieged
for severa l months, before being captured, probably in 298 AD.
Under the later Roman Empire, a new source of civil dissension in
Alexandria was the rapid spread of Christianity. The fourth and fifth
centuries were marked in Alexandria by religious disputes that spo
radically erupted in violence. They began with a major theological
controversy between the Bishop of Alexandria, Athanasius, and his
rival, Arius, that was only part ly resolved by the Counc il of Nicacn
(325 AD) . The "Arian" dispute continued to erupt in succeeding
reigns and violence was frequentl y associated with the imposition 01
bishops from Constantinople. Later in the fourth century, the resur
gence of paganism, in the reign of Julian (361-63 AD), led to riots and
attacks on temples, particularly that of Sarapis, which was one of till'
greatest symbols of paganism in Alexandria. In 39 1, Theodosius I
proclaimed Christianity the state religion and ordered the closure 01
the temples. There was still a nourishing philosophical school at
Alexandria, and the savage murder of Hypatia , a leading Neoplaton
ist , at the instigation of the bishop of Alexandria, and the violent de
AI r XANDRIAN WAR (48- 47 Be) • 11
-truction of the temple of Sarapis, reveals the continued tensions in
the city. Even after Christianity had triumphed, the installation of
Alexandrian bishops was usually marked by riots.
ln the reign Phocas (602- 6 10 AD), Heraclius rebelled against the
vmpcror and his troops landed in Egypt, gaining Alexandria, which
Ihey held against Byzant ine reinforcements. Shortly after Heraclius
lI' as,"ec.ognized as emperor (610 AD), the forces of the Sasanid king
.. I I ersra, Khosroes II, captured Egypt, and Alexandria was filled
with It was 10 years before Heraclius could recover Egypt,
hilt only briefly, The capture of Alexandria in 642 AU marked the fall
.. I' Byzantine Egypt to the Arab forces of 'AmI' Ibn-al ' asi .
,\ I.EXANDRIAN WAR li e), The principal historical sources
llle the work entitled the Civil War (De bello civieo) written by Iulius
( 'acsar and its continuation 0 11 the Alexandrian War (De bello
,1/".w ll dr iIl O) , which was probably written by one of his officers. Fol-
1'.' lVing defeat by Caesar, the Roman general Pompey had ned to
which had previously supported his cause. On his arrival, how-
" \'( '1', the young Egyptian pharaoh, Ptolemy XIII , ordered his murder.
1'1111 1' later lulius Caesar arrived in pursuit of Pompey, with 10
warships and a force of 3,200 infantry and 800 cavalry. Shortly after-
ward . Kleopatra VII , who had been ousted by her brother, managed
III garn entry to Alexandria and access to Caesar, who attempted to re-
her alongside her brother. Ptolemy XIII was popular in Alexan-
""a, and hIScourtiers tried to prevent a reconciliation with Kleopatra.
l 'rolcmy recalled the Egyptian army, including a Roman continzent
tlu- under the command of Achillas. Caesar was b;
urpnse as army marched on Alexandria and did not have enough
" li llI'S to risk confrontation outside of the city. Caesar now took
l'lulcmy hostage, and as a result, a nationalist, anti-Roman mood soon
' It ' W in Alexandria. The war in the city began in November 48 sc and
":1I' concentrated around the Great Harbor and the palace quarter.
c Iit'sar managed to capture the Egyptian royal fleet of 72 ships, but in
"I.k r to prevent it falling into enemy hands, set it on fire. Another
Arsinoe, managed to escape from the palace, and
1'lIlllllg Achillas, was proclaimed queen by the Alexandrians. Caesar
I' It ' as.cd Ptolemy XIII from custody in the hope that peace could be
lit ' 'lIllated, but the pharaoh immediately joined his army.
AMENEMHAB (It c. 1460-1400 IIc). Amenemhab served in the earn
paigns of Thutmose III and Amenhotep II . He an auto.hi<'
graphical inscription in his tomb at Theb es but thi s IS not strict!
12 • AMANIRINAS til . J Il ·2 0 sc)
power struggles among the different leaders of the Egyptians reo
suited in the death of Achillas . In March 47 Be, Caesar 's reli eving
army und er the co mmand of Mithridates of Pergamo.n approached
Peillsion from Jud aea. It incl uded a contingent of jewish troops and
the Jewish high priest Hyrcanus hi msel f. Thi s won over the J ews 01
Alexandria to Caesar and Kleopatra . The army skirted around till'
De lta and approac hed Alexandria where they confronted t.he army
Ptolemy XIII. Caesar and his force managed to leave the city andJOIII
with Mithridates, and the deci sive battle took place on 27 March 47
Be. The Egy ptian army was defeated and Caesar returned tn
umphantly to Alexandria. Th e young pharaoh Ptolemy ned, and was
drowned, and Arsinoe was ca ptured and sent to Rome . Kleopatra Wll '
restored as ruler , in association wit h a younge r brother, Ptolemy XIV
AMANIRENAS (fl . 31l-21lIl c). Meroit ic Kandake (queen). Arnanirc
nas was probabl y the ruler of Mcr oe who led her forc es into Lowci
Nubia and confronted the Roman army of Augus t us , under the pre
feet , Petronills.
AMARNA LETTERS, A collection of cl ay tabl et s with text s wr itte n ill
the Akkadian language found at the site of el-Amarna (the ancient
city of Akh etat en) in Midd le Egypt. They are a part of the dipl omati,
correspondence of the reigns of Amenhote p III , Akhe nat en, ami
Tut ankhamun, mostly letters recei ved from other rulers, such II
Tushratt a of Mi tanni , or Egyptian vassals in the Levant. They III
valuable source of info rma tion on local affairs in the Levant alld
north Syria and for diplomatic marriage and gin exchange. Th
pri nci pal towns and territori es menti oned are: Alashiya (Cypr u,)
Amurru, Assy r ia . Arvad , Babylon (as Karduniash) , Bybl os (Gubla1
Canaan (as Kinakhkhi) , Gaza , Hanigalbat (Mitanni), the Hittitv
J er usalem , J oppa (Yapu), Lachi sh, Lukki , Megiddo , Niv
Nukhasse, Qadesh, Su mur, Tunl p, Tyre, and Ugarit.
AMENEMHAT II (REIGNED C. 1922 -1878 BC) • 13
, hn, :lOlogical. He his service in the sixth campaign of Thut-
moxc III (year 30) direct ed against Qadesh; the eighth campaign
I Yl'ar 33) and capture of Se ndjar, three battl es in Nahar in and the
ell- phant hunt 111 Niy; the yea r 35 campaig n in Takhsy; that of year 39
III the Negeb; and that of year 42 , whic h saw the capture of Qade sh.
I (r eigned c. 1985-1955 BC) . Fi rst pharaoh of the 12th
1' y"a,ty. He IS ge nera lly ide ntified with the Vizier Amenemhat who
.. M.enth.uhotep IV: it is unknown how he attained supreme
I'"wel. HIS reign saw mi litary expansio n in Nubia . He also defe nded
tln- eas tern front ier with the Walls of the Ruler. The papyrus docu-
kn?wn as of King Amenemliat / begins wi th the
phuraoh s des cription of his own murde r. and the caution that his son
vhuuld be wary of palace plot s. The introduction to the Tale of Sill-
,,1,,' also suggests that the phar aoh might have been murd ered while
III, Senus ret I , was on a ca mpaig n agai nst Li byans .
lixtensi ve campaigns in Nubia were led by the Vizier Inyotef-iqer
1I 11 t! by Se nusret I. The chro nology of the actions depends on whether
the ,Idea of a between father and son is acce pted: it is a
subject that st ill divides Egy ptologists. There are indicati ons in some
the rock inscripti ons that document the campai gns that local Nu-
hiun rulers had assumed roya l style in the late 11th Dynast I iti II
I . ., . h . . y. 111 ta y.
I mig t have bee n no Egyptian oppos ition to them, and they
might have been recogni zed as vassals. However, the Nubian kings
" T ill to have asserted their independence in the reign of Ame nemhat,
1I 11l 1lI,lI s could have s.timulated the prolonged wars that brought the
whole of Lower Nubia under Egy ptian control, foll owed by the de-
of the Second Ca tarac t. An inscription of Inyotef-iqer alludes to
him who rebell ed against the king ." Another text indi cates that the
Vizier and army had been active for 20 years in Nubia, and that the
hl.I:!1act had.been sailing of the royal flagship through Lower Nu-
hin. of Villages, and the cutt ing down of trees .
/\ n Asiatic ca mpaign might have been assoc iated with the defense
III the eastern border and the building of the Walls of the Ruler.
Il c. 1922-1878 BC). Pharaoh of the 12th Dy-
11I1, ly. The d.ocument atl on of foreign affairs in this rei gn is not as rich
II' Ihat for his predecessor s, Amene mhat I and Se nus r et I. There was
14 • AMFNFMI IAT c. 1855 -1!lOB BC)
a co mmerc ial expedition on the Red Sea (0 Punt and the building 01
the Nubian fortifi cations co ntinued . An inscr ipt ion beneath the dl'
fensive wall between the First Cataract and As wa n is dated joi ntly (0
Ame nemhat II and Senusret II , sugges ting that the wall , perhaps til
be identifi ed with the fortress of Senmut, was built at thi s time.
AMENEMHAT III (r eigned c. 1855-1808 IIC). Pharaoh of the 12th
Dynasty. Although there are many monument s of thi s rei gn , nOI Il'
carry any spec ifica lly military informati on . It can be ass umed that till"
bui lding act ivities of hi s father, Senusret III , in the region of the Sec
ond Cata r act were completed.
AMENHOTEP I (r eigned c. 1527-1506 IIC). Pharaoh of the 18th Dy
nasty. Son and successor of Ahmose I. His reign consol idated th..
achieveme nts of his father. The mi litary events are recorded in the all
tobiographica l inscr ipt ions of Ahmose son of Ebana and Ahmosc
pen-Nekheb. A campaign in Kli sh is refer red to in the texts, and ill
scr iptional material from the island of SOl i suggests that the fortres-
there was built about this time . One fragmentary inscription anributu l
to the pharaoh indicat es act ivities in As ia in the Oront es Valley nciu
Tunip. Unfo rtunately, many monument s of this reign were later di,
mantled and evidence from them is only now being brought to light.
AMENHOTEP II (reigned c. 1427-1401 IIC) . Pharaoh of the 18th Dy
nasty. So n and successor of Thutmose III , with whom he appears til
have ruled as coregent for two years, Literat ure ge nera lly, and llll
fairl y, por trays him as a more bombast ic, but less successful, ruh-i
than his father. Thi s reign saw the transition from war to di plomacy
and gift exchange as the means of maint ainin g Egypt's pre-eminence
in wes tern As ia. The principal record of his milit ary activities is th
stela carved in the sanctuary of the temple of Amada in Nubia. At till
beginning of his sole reign , yea r 3, Amenhotep led a campaign again. t
Takhsy (in Syria) . Seven princes were cap tured and slain in the tern
pie of Amlin at Karnak. Th e bodi es of six of them were di spl ayed 011
the walls of Thebes and the seventh taken to the far south of Nublu
where it was hung from the walls of Na pata "as a warning to Ihl
Kushit es." A second campaign in year 7 saw Amenhotep march hi
ar my across the Oro ntes, then south through Takh sy and Ga lilee. II
AMENMl SSES C. 1202- 1199 RC) • 15
lurther campaign in year 9 was directed against Qaqa , the chief of Qe-
haasurnin, an otherwise unknown town near Megiddo. Qaqa was re-
placed with an Egyptian vassal.
The pharaoh ' s so-called "Dream Stel a" was di scover ed in 1936 on
the north east side of the gre at sphinx at Gi za. The inscripti on is a
l,..y text for the militar ist ic ethos of the 18th Dynasty, of which
Amenhotep was the model. It tell s how the pharaoh is superior to all
III the army in runni ng, row ing , arc hery, and , most importa ntly, in
:" iving chariots and train ing horses . Th roughout the text , the prince
I s likened to the god Monthu , The text report s an epi sode in which
II Il' pri nce shoots arrows from his fast-moving chariot at cop per tar-
f'l'Is one pal m thick so that the arrows go rig ht thro ugh the targe ts
11 111 1 appear on the other side. Th e prince is al so said to be praised by
tlu- Asiatic deit ies Reshep and Astarte, both assoc iated with wa rfare
IlI l ti chariot ry.
III (reigned c. 1390-1352 IIC). Pharaoh of the later
IHl h Dynasty. Son ofThutmose IV. In a long reign of38 years , there
1I1l' very few recorded mil itary ca mpaig ns: one certai nly in year 5 in
Nubia, and perhaps two others . Egy pt maintained her pre-eminent
I'"silion in western Asia through diplomacy, diplomatic marriage,
III1t1 gift excha nge, all of which is det ailed in the Arna r na Letters .
(reigned c. 1202-1199 IIC) . Pharaoh of the 19th Dy-
lI asty. Duri ng the reign of Mer enpt ah, his son Sety was crown
1'1 incc. At some point shortly after Merenptah ' s death , a dynastic
wur broke out bet ween the legitimate heir Scty II and a usurper,
Amcncmesses, who may have bee n his own son. Amene messes '
uuurumcnts were most extensive in Upper Egypt , part icul arl y
ll u-hes . His rebellion and assumption of royal style appears to have
111 111 powerful suppor t in Thebes and Nubia. Sety II appears to have
"' Iaillcd control of the Delta and Memphis . The rebell ion was sup-
IlI t' sscd and all of Amenmesses ' statues and monument s were re-
. urvcd lo r Sety II. There is still uncertaint y as to whether the four
\'I ' IIiS of Amenrnesses ' rebel kingship were co ncurrent with the years
III Scty II , or preceded them,
16 • 'AMR mN·AI 'Asi .c. 580· &&3 ADI
' AM R IBN-AL' xst (C. 580-663 All). Arab leader who ent er ed Egy pl
with hi s army in the winte r o f 639 AD, via Rhinocolura (e l Arish) . I k
established hi msel f at Pelusion, where he we lco me d Arab
so ldiers . In Jul y 640 AD, he march ed on the stra tegically slgOlfic:"11
fortress of Babylon (Old Cairo) , defeating the army o f the
emperor Heracl ius . at Heli opol is . The governor, Cy rus, sued 101
peace, but the emperor accused him of treason . Babyl on was Ill'
sieged, falli ng in Apri l 64 1. Fo llowing the .fall of Babyl on :
marched on Alexa nd r ia and received the ca pi tulatio n of the ci ty .11
tel' an l l -month siege . By 29 Se pte mber 642 AD (2 1 Hij ri) , the last
Byzantine forces had le ft Egy pt to the Arab co nquerors.
AMUN, Local god of Thebes whose import ance increased from. the
11Ih Dynasty on ward . He was mer ged wi th the sun god Re, an.d lrmu
the 18th Dynasty became one of the state gods of Egypt With J{\'
llurakhty, Ptah, and the rei gning pharaoh. P.haraohs are. frequentl '
depicted pre senting captives , forei gn countries. and rul ers III
Amun , and receiving from him the khepesh-scirnuar or
weapons of war. The Arnuda ste le of 11 records
lowing the capture of seven princes in his Synan campaign , th
pharaoh slew them in the temple of at Karnak. . , .• .
Although Arnun himself was not spec ifica lly a war god , he tI
the pharaoh with expanding hi s domain , advised him on tacu cs,
protected and guided hi m in battl e , All o f these roles ca n be
the records of the battl es of Megiddo and Qadesh. The " Poet icul
Stela" o f Thutmose III is couched as a speech o f Amun-Re , narrut
ing the vic tories that the god has wo rked for the phar aoh . Pharaoh
also presented booty from ca mpa igns to the god's temple at Karnak
which began to function as a royal treasury. Captured town s W" I
also give n to Arnun, whic h prob abl y indi cates an annua l levy Wil
se nt. Fo llowing the Megiddo ca mpaign of years 22- 23, Thutrnose III
gave the Leb anese town s of Nuges , Yanoam , and to
The attachme nt of cert ain temples, lands , and revenues 111 Nubin h'
Anum's sanctuary at Theb es is also indi cated.
AMURRU. Territ ory in western As ia, some where in the modcu
Lebanon-Syri a , lying het wecn the Orontes Valley 5to east ) am]
the Mediterranean (west), Arvad ( north), and Tnpoh (so uth) . II
AMYRTAIOS(2) IRlIGNUJ 404-399 He) • 17
houndaries are uncert ain . It figu res prominentl y in the Ama r na Let-
n-rs, when its rul er, Aziru, gained co ntro l of Tunip, on the ea stern
horder, and Surnur on the coast.
(fl . 333 IIC). Arny ntas son of Antiochos was a Macedoni an
uohle. He was a cl ose friend and assoc iate of Prince Amy ntas who had
II rival claim to the throne on the death of Philip \I and the accession of
Ah-xander the Great. When Prince Amyntas was put to death. Arnyn-
111\ son of Antioc hos ne d to the Per sian Empire , where he became one
III four Greek co mmande rs who served with Greek mercenary troops
ill Ihc army of Darius III. Foll owing the Persian defeat at the battl e of
I" os (Nov. 333 BC) , they ned from the sce ne with the 8,000 troops un-
.h-rt heir command to Tripoli on the coast of north ern Phoeni ci a, where
Iheir fleet was based . The force now seems to have divided , with
Amyntas commanding 4,000 soldie rs sailing for Cypr us . He now
""' I ll S to have see n the opportunity, with the Persian forces in di sarray,
h' seize Egypt. Arriving in Egypt at Pelusion, Amynt as announced that
Ill' was the advance guard for Darius , As soon as he ga ined control of
IIIl' garrison, he began his advance on Memphis , now procl aiming
himself a liberator fmlll the Persians, There was some local Egyptian
upport for the invader, and he achieved a victory over the Per sians at
Mi-mphis. forcin g their withdrawa l into the city. Amyntas' army now
1lt' )!:111 to plunder the countrys ide and became overconfident. The Per-
11111 satrap, Mazaces , launched an attack from Memphi s. defeated the
hrvudcrs, and put them to death .
IYRTAIOS (I ) (r ei gned c. 470-460 IIC). Ruler o r Sau in the west-
I III Delta who participated in the rebellion of Inaros against the Per -
111 11 pharao h, Artaxerxes I , between 463 and 461 Be . He sent aid to
\lh" lIs in 450. He was grandfather of the pharaoh Amyrtaios (2) .
IYlnAlOS (2) (r eigned 404-399 IIC). (Greek form of the Egy ptia n
1I11111l' Amenird is.) Phar aoh of the 28th Dynasty, The period from
I 11,'a ·140- 380 IIC was one in whic h rival wa rlords were competing
1,01 power, the Persian s retai ni ng nominal co ntro l unt il the death of
IInl'iu s II. in 405. Then , Arnyrtaios of San, who had been lead ing a
IlI'lIilla war for several years , succes sfully es tablished himsel f wi th
18 • ANATI I
pharaonic titles and achieved some indcpendence from Artnxerxrs
II (405-359 IIC) . Amyrtaios appears to have been de feated and ca p
lured by the dynast of Mendes, Nefaarud, who had him executed al
Memphis , himsel f assumi ng royal style .
ANATH. Goddess, who originated in wes tern As ia, parti cularl y asso
ciated with Uga rit. She was sis ter of Baal. She is know n in Egy pl
from the Middl e Kingdom onward and her c ult was favored by thl'
Hyksos. By Ramessi de time s , she was a prominent goddess in Ih,'
Delta, Ramesses II nami ng one of his daught er s Bin t-Anath
(" Daughter of Anath") . Her vio lent aspect led her to be ide ntif ' d
wi th the daught er of Re (Tefnut) and as a wife of Seth (hirnsell
equated with Baal). Anath is depi cted wearing a tall crown, flanked
with plumes, and carrying a shield, spear, and battl e- axe . Anath prll
tect ed the pharaoh in batt le: a text of Ramesses III states that Anur h
and Astarte are hi s shie ld .
ANDROS. Naval batt le of the Third Syria n War in 246 or 245 lie, II I
whic h the Egypt ian Admiral So phron was defeat ed by Antigonos (ill
nat as, king of Macedon . As a res ult of the battl e. Gonalas gai ned con
trol of the Cyclades (Andros is the most north erl y of the group). aud
the Ptolerni es lost Delos and were no longer able to interfere in till
politi cs of the Greek mainland. Although dctcut cd at Audru
Ptolemy III made gains in the eas tern Aegean.
ANIBA (MI ' AM) . Fortress and administrative center in Wall'ul
(Lower Nubia) . Standi ng on the wes t bank of the river, Aniba had III
parti cul arl y important strategic posit ion , but occupied a ce ntra l po I
tion in one of the three major regio ns of cult ivation in Lower Nuluu
Archaeological evide nce indicates the ex istence of a Middle Kin '
dom fortress, probably const ruc ted under Senusret I. The forti n ' II
tions were renewed in the New Kingdom when Aniba became Olll' II
the principal centers of the viceregal administration. It .retained, II
importance until the late 20th Dynasty. It wa s perhaps duri ng the ell' l
war at the close of the 20th Dynasty that the hill of Qasr Ibrim. dl
rec tly opposite Aniba , was fortified .
,\ NNALS OF THUTMOSE III. The name given to the record of the
military campaig ns of Thut mose III inscribed on the walls of the hall
surrounding the central sanctuary of the templ e of Amun at Karnak
(The bes). The an.nals are apparently der ived from the Day Books kept
during the campaigns and are rare among Egyptian "historical" texts in
their apparent factuality and lack of rhetoric. References within the an-
lI als refer. to. other original doc uments, written on leather rolls and pre-
\lTvcd within the templ e of Amun. The annals give details of the nu-
mcrous ~ s i a t i c campai gns of the pharaoh ' s sole reign following the
d('alh of Hatshepsut , beginning with the first campaign of years
.' 2 23, and the battle of Megiddo, and includ ing most Asiatic actions
III year 42 . The opponents specified are the Hittites , Naharin (Mi-
III IIIIi) , the Shasu, and the pri nce of Qadesh. The texts place great em-
phaSIS upon the booty captured, includin g armor, weapons , chariots,
II l1 d horses . There are also references to the t ri bu te of Assyria ,
C 'ypr us , and the taxes of Wawat and Kush. Other incident s of the ex-
p('ditions were the building of a fortress in Lebanon and an elephant
luuu in Niy. The details are useful for calc ulating the rate of the ar my's
Ill/11Th. On the fifth campaign, aimed at Qadesh, the army sailed to and
110111 Sumur. Some of the later entries in the ori ginal Day Books were
pllssihly wri tten by the chief army scribe, Tjanuni.
I NTI(;ONOS I MONOPHTHALMOS (c. 382-301 HC). Ant igono s
"t lu- one-eyed" was a Macedonian nobleman who served Philip IT
li lld acted as go vernor of Phrygia at the time of Alexander the
1;I'l'a l's expedition. Foll owing Alexander ' s death at Babylon in 323
Ill ' , he became a lead ing figure in the wars of the diadochoi ("Suc-
" '"ors") , initially ga ini ng co ntrol of a huge kingdom. Wh ile
l'luh-my I was engaged in the campaig n agai nst Cyr ene, Antigono s
III YUlkd and conquered Syri a. In response, Ptolemy led his armi es to
',ylia against Antigo nos 's son, Demetrios, who had been left in con-
1' "1. Ptolemy's fleet, under the co mma nd of his brother Menel aos,
li Sdefeated at Cyprus. Ptolemy I was part of the coalition that now
1IIIIIIl'd to oppose the ambi tions of Anti gonos and Demetrios .
l'loll' llly aided the invasion of Babylon by Sel eukos I in 3 11 BC,
hhh led to full-sca le war. Following the defeat of Ptolemy' s forces
II SlI lamis in Cypru s in 306 IIC, Antigonos attempted an invasion of
I YPI. III Oc tober/November 306 BC, he set out from Antigoneia to
20 • ANTIOCI IOS IV IC 164 Bel
Egy pt wit h an army of over 80 ,000 foot soldiers, about 8,000 horses,
and 83 elephants , 150 wa rships , and 100 troop transport s comma nded
by his son, Demctri os. The flee t was scallered by stor m but reasse.11I
bled and re-establi shed contact wi th the land force near Mt. Kasios
(probably Ras Baron ), a short di stance beyond Pelusion. re
pul sed the inva sio n at Pel usiou. Antigo nos was later del eated and
killed at the batt le of Ipsos in 30 I IIC.
ANTIOCHOS IV (c. 215-164 uc), Seleukid king of Syri a from 17
IIC. He atte mpted to incorp orat e Ptolemaic Egypt and Cypr us into hi
empire. invading Egy pt with his army in 169 BC and 168 BC, in.tl1\:
reign of Ptolemy VI. He acted , and may have bee n crowned. as king,
but the Romans int er vened and force d Antioc hos to leave . He did
however . capture J erusalem from the Ptolernies , turning it into II
Greek city. This led directly to a r ebellion by the Jews , led by Judu
Maccabeus ( 16817- 164 BC) . after which the high priest Onias and,
large followi ng sett led in Egypt.
ANTONIUS, MARCUS (83- 311 IIC) (Mark Antony). Roman pol iu
cian and general. His firs t vis it to Egypt was as a cavalry command I
when Aulus Ga bi nius was in Alexa nd r ia to res tore Ptolemy XI(
Auletes (57-54 BC). Antonius then served wi th, or on behalf of, III
rel at ive lulius Caesa r in Gaul. Ital y. and Greece. He was Caesui '
colleague as consul in 44 BC. and followi ng his murder, one of thc 1'''
litical heirs. He was made triumv ir along with Oc tav ian (see AUJ.:II
tus ) and Marcus Ae milius Lepidus , to restore order to the Repuhh
and und ert ouk the reorgani zat ion of the easte rn part of the emph
An tonius met Kleopatra VII at Tarsos in 4 1 BC. Al though hi s action
in western Asia and As ia Minor we re in ma ny way s pro-Egypuu
(an d ce rtai nly painted that way by Octavian) , Ant onius did not tal
territory away from Herod of Judaea as Kl eopatra wi shed . His call
paign aga inst Part hia (36 BC) was a disas ter. In 34 Be , he 11 11 11
success ful in Armenia , and this was followed by the " Donations I
Alexandria" in which Kleopatra and her children were named
rulers of most of the eas t. This was foll owed by increas ingly ho.l iI
propaga nda in Rome and, in 32 IIC, many of Antonius's
supporters among the nobili ty, inc ludi ng the co nsuls , were IlItll ll
dated and left Rome for the east. Oc tav ian decl ared war on Kll-1I1'
AI'I RU • 2 1
Ira. and the are na of action moved to Greece . Antonius retained con-
siderable support until just before the baili e of Aktion . It was sup-
posedl y Kleopat ra who ali enated the remainder of his mos t influentia l
supporters. Antonius and Kleopatra ma naged to nee the di sastrous
lxutle and return to Egypt. Antoni us remai ned at Paraitonion to pre-
vent any attack by the governor of Cyrene who had go ne over to Oc-
ravian. He eventually joined Kleopatra in Alexa ndr ia, where he com-
mitred suicide on Octavian's entry into the ci ty (August 30 BC) .
i\ llho.ugh with vic tor y, there was co nsiderable propagand a
hostifi ty to Antonius . the sources still port ray him as a fine ge nera l,
1I'111r great personal charm. although wi th serious faults. Oc tavia n's
ultimate was not expec ted , and apparently not sought for by a
larl!C proport ion of the Roman nobilit y, Antoni us retain ing supporters
throughout the eas t, right up to the final baili e at Aktion. Exce pting
11 K' " Donations of Alexandria," which never came into effect . his po-
1I IIcai settlements in the eas t were left in place by Oc tavian.
\ I' EI' Y(reigned c. 1585-1550 HC). Hyksos king of Ava r is. His reign
II II' open war with the rulers of Thebes , Tao. and Kamose. The
"'"ords of Karnoses reign reveal that the Hyksos had bee n allied
with the kingdom of Kush based on Kerma, and that with the ac-
Il'ssion of a new rul er, Apepy proposed ajoint Hyksos-Ku shit e attack
11 11 lhc Thebans. If success ful, this wo uld have divided the whole of
IJIIII.n hetween the two power s. Apepy's letter was interce pted
hy Isalllose s desert pat rol . apparentl y instigat ing the Th eban ruler ' s
1I' 1I1S. It is not known whether Ape py was still king whe n Avar is was
IIIIIIIcd by Ahmose I.
1'lIl1 J. Term fou nd in a num ber of textual sources. notably the
\ 11111 1'11:1 Lett ers . Earl ier scholars hip (reading the word Habirui
Id" lItiricd the m wi th the Hebrews, but they are now understood to be
I ucinl, not et hnic, group, ap parently co mprisi ng a ra nge of peopl e
111 1luul opted out of soc iety. They were associated wi th brigandage
1I 11 111
a threat to the transit of trade and the settled communities.
111 1111 the time of Amenhot ep III they are found in Arnur r-u , and fur-
lIi'1 sllllih in Ca naa n, es pec ially the hill co untry. As a response to the
1IIIIIhle they caused, Akhe nate n deported some and install ed a rnili-
I II Y"lIvernor in Jerusalem.
22 • AI'Rlrs
\ 1(( '1IE RS. Th e earliest depictions of wea pons and soldiers on the cer-
ruu urinl palett es of the late Pred ynastic and Early Dynastic Periods
I' uch as the Palett e) show archer s. Th e ea rl iest surviving
of a military sce ne of Old Kingdom date also show part of
n vouuugenr of arc hers . It dates from the reign of Khufu or Khafre.
Ihe how remained the principal long-range wea pon, and archers co n-
1III IIcd to form one major elemen t of the army until the Ptolemaic pe-
dlld when the phalanx became more sign ificant. The ea rl ies t type of
I" ,IV. the self-bow, conti nued in use alongs ide the co mposite bow in-
II"duced from wes tern As ia and was parti cul arl y associated wi th the
« uuingenrs of Nubia n mercenaries .
1\11 soldiers in Egy pt were foot soldiers until the introducti on of the
' hlldot at the beginning of the New Kingdom. Th e bow remained the
"rillci pal weapon of the char iotry. New Kingdom battl e reli efs show
,", hers on foot and in chariots, whic h were used as moving fighting
1' llI l/lIrllls. The mass burial of soldiers of the reign of Menthuhotep
1I1l' veals some of the types of wo unds inflicted by archers during the
" '/:1' of a town.
externa l affairs until the great and rapi d expa nsion of the seventh cen-
The ca liph Urnar laun ched his ar mies aga inst the Byzant ine
territOries of SYria , Palestin e, and Egypt , and agai nst the Sasanid
ones of Per sia and Mesopot ami a. The Ara b armies under ' Arnr Ibn-
'II 'Asl entered Egy pt in 639 AD, ca ptured the fortress of Babylon
:Iud With the fall of Alexandria the last Byzantine troops left Egy pt
((,42 AD, 21 Hijri) .
,\ nAMAEANS. People of Syria who came to prominence wi th the
collupse of the empires of the Late Bronze Age as rul er s of many of
lhc sma ller kingdo ms that formed coalitions agai nst the expa nding
powe r of Assyria. Th ere were movements of Ara maeans into the
margins of Mesopotamia ex tending from Assyria in the north south-
ward into Babyl on ia. The main Ar amaean kingdoms of the ea rly Iron
I\ge ( 1200- 900 BC) were Damascus and Bit-Bahi ani (modern Tell
l lalaf). The names of the states ge nerally ca rry the prefi x Bit " House
nf" their supposed tri bal origin, for exa mple, Bit-adini , Bit
I\gusl. They are closel y associated in their opposi tion to Assyria wi th
the neo-Hittites and the Arabs.
ARABS. The term has been used rather loosel y for nomadic peopl e 01
the desert margi n of the Near East from Sinai east ward into the
Negeb and Arabia (the ea rly arc haeology of whic h is still imide-
quate ), The Sinai region was home to the Shasu bedouin . who appear
in many ea rlier texts. Arabs do not become mo re prominent until til\'
end of the Late Bron ze Age und the Iron Age . Their enc roac hments
on the settled areas of the Fert ile Crescent were not as extensive :I,
that of the Aramaeans , although incr eased in Seleukid and Romnn
times. Israel under Sol omon ex pande d into the Negeb, but the Arabs
first appear more prominentl y as tributari es to the ex panding power
of Assyr ia (nint h-eighth ce nturies BC) . They contro lled the direct
routes , bet ween southern Mesopot amia and the Levant , and the trade,
prin cipall y incense, along the east coast of the Red Sea from Yemen,
The Assyrian king, Ti glath- pileser III (reigned 744- 727 BC) de feated
the Me'unites , an Arab tribe of northern Sinai, in his advance on Ga:f.II
The aid of these tribes was sought by armies attacki ng Egy pt along thl'
desert route of north Sinai , the Wa ys of Horus or Via Mari s, because
of the difficu lties of the route: they certainly assi sted the army 01
Esarhaddon. The battle rel iefs of Ashur banipal (reigned 668-63 1'
BC) depict wars with Arabs, probably in north Arabia , in which tlu
Arabs depl oy archers moun ted on camels . Nabonidus king of Buhy
Ion (re igned 555- 539 IIC) established a base in the oas is of Teima, :II'
parently in an attempt to secure the trade routes. Ara bia, probably nOlth
Sinai, ap pears as a satrapy under the control of Persia.
There were "Arabs" in Egypt during the Late , Ptolemaic . and
man periods. The name of the pharaoh Hakor certa inly mean
"Arab" but there is no evidence that his family were of Arab ori gi n
Simil arl y, the name Kh abbash is suppose d by some to be Arab (II I
though Libyan and Nubian are also suggested). During the Hell eni
tic peri od. the Nabataean Arabs of Petra cont roll ed the trade tuu n
South Arabia along the Red Sea. This lasted unt iI Trajan absorbed II,
tra into the Roman Empire . The re is good evidence for mi gration au 1
stro ng cultural influence from southern Arabia int o Ethiopia in Ih
later lirst mi llennium BC. This had an important influence in the d,
ve loprnent of the city and kingdom of Aksurn (which later came to n
va l Meroe). Ot her wise, there is little evidence for southern Arabi»
Amenhotep II ca ptured 730 and 1,092 char iots. A record at Qasr
Ihrim, also of the time of Arne nhot ep II , suggests that chariot s had
been captured in a military skirmish with Kushites.
Transf errable technologi es. Although the Egyptians had to import
horses fr.om nor th Syria, they soon learned the art s of horse training
ami chariotry, They also soo n began to ma nufac ture their own char i-
ols and presumably ada pted it to condi tions within Egy pt. Scenes in
a number of tombs show the manufacture of chariots, and some cam-
paign scenes (re lati ng to the bat tle of Qadesh) show repairs of char-
lois 111 the Egypti an cam p. The timber used in chariot manufacture
was il.npor ted from Syria and fart her north. Also requiri ng imported
materials was the compos ite bow (see bow, composite), and it has
hccn that all of these weapons were imported , rather than
in Egypt. However, it is now clear that co mposite bows
WlTCmade 111 Egypt and that material s such as birch bark could have
"ITn brought from long di stances and still used .
1I'c'(/I'0ns trade. The "tribute" scenes and Amarna Letters detai I the
"' lI din
..of horses to Egypt as par t of the royal "gift ex-
l'h:lllge, principally WithMitannl, A scene in the tomb of Horemheb
III Sallqar a (now in Leiden) shows Hittites bringi ng 12 horses (6
The scene in the tomb of Meryre " at Amarna shows horses
IWl ng brought by two di fferent groups of Asia tics, one probabl y /-lit-
111l's . Both groups br ing a chariot (one six- and one four-spoked). The
tribute scenes of the 8th Dynasty show a var iety of weapons being
"Ionght from both ASia and Nubia. Frag ments from the Th eban tomb
III (reign of Thutmose lIT) show Nubians bringing spears .
11 11 ' scene 111 the tomb of Meryre II (rei gn of Akhenaten) shows com-
Ilt l" ilL' bows, qui ver s, khepesh-swords, helmets , long spears, and
lul'lds as part of the Asia tic tribu te, and bows and arrows and shields
11 1111 1 Kush. The tribute scene from the tomb of the viceroy of Kus h,
l luy, who served under Tutankhamun, shows bows and arrows ,
Ir ll'lds covered in cowhide and cheet ah-skin, gilded ceremonial
hll'lds, and chariot , as part of the Kushite tribute. The weaponry is
dlll'lI l1 lcnted IJ1 more de tail in the Amarna Letters. Of these, EA 22
I of the most valuable for thi s subject. The letter contains part of
II I inventory of weddi ng gi fts sent by Tushratta of Mitanni when
\ 1I11'IIhulep III his daught er. Of particul ar significance , it in-
l IlId,' s a number of Iron objects including a dagger with an iron blade.
ARMOR. Body armor and helmet s are rarely shown being worn hy
Egyptian troops in ball Ie scenes ; they are usuall y see n wea ring onl
the ki lt. Armor is, however, depicted in some tomb sce nes of the 18tli
Dynasty, nota bly that of Qe namun. Ar mor appear s as part of the
tribute to the pharaoh . or as the product s of royal and temple work
shops. It is also shown, along wi th wea pons, bei ng distributed in tlu
bat tle scenes of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu . The Arnarna Let
ters refer to armor and also to horse armor and helmet s for horses.
A cuiras s was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. It consists 01
scales of leather sewn onto a sleeveless linen bodice. Bronze could
also be used for the scales . The textual record s tell us that Ramessc
II put on his coat of mail before the ballIe of Qadesh and is shown
wea ring such a coat in some battle reliefs. An identical type is shown
in the gifts prese nted to Amenhotep II in the tomb of Qe namun.
ARMS TRA DE. There is good evidence for the intern at ional ann
trade during the Lat e Bronze Age and the Iron Age . In Egypt , thl'l
are scenes in private tombs and temples showi ng the presentation 01
" foreign tribute" to the pharaoh, which incl udes weapons , char inl
and horses. Th e Amarna Letters give much more deta il about SPl
cific items and quantitie s and det ail royal gift exchange . Th e arcluu
ologi cal evidence is more limited.
Both weapons and the knowledge of developments in mil iuu
technology could be acq uired through capture in battle and as booI
through "trade" and gift exc hange , and from merc enar y troops, 'Iii
acquis ition of chariots , horses, and other wea ponry through booty all, 1
capture in battle must have been significant, part icul arl y in the earh
part of the 18th Dynasty when chariots were a relative ly new inti'
duction. At the battle of Megiddo, Thutmose III ca ptured 924 Ch:1I1
ots (i ncluding two "of gold") and 2,04 1 horses. In his ca mpaign
AREI KA. Sit e in Lower Nubia. The excavators suggested that it was
the "cast le" of a local Nubian ruler , but rece nt re-assessment of the
material from the site by Josef Wegner proposes that it was a settle
ment of the local Nubian "C-Group," which also had a garrison 01
troops with Egyptian commanders . The garrison at Areika was proh
abl y to control traffic along the Nile and peopl e enter ing the valley
from the desert.
26 • ARMS TRAf)[
Its guard and hart are descri bed in det ail and the whole has a strikin. '
parallel in the iron dagger from the tomb of Tutankhamun . There I.'
also a mace of iron. Diffe rent types of a r rows appear 111 large quanti
ties as we ll as arrows "with thorn s" and othe rs to be shot flamin u.
There we re 10 javelin s with iron tips and 10 javelins wi th bronze tips:
10 maces; 10 "zallewe"- knives of bronze, and 10 spea rs.
Mercenaries. As we ll as being part of the arms trade itsel f, mercv
naries were doubtless import ant in the dissemi nation of weapons and
techniques of wa rfare . Egy pt e mployed foreign mercenary troops, inl
tiall y Nubi ans, from the ea rliest times. The ruler s of wes tern Asia p.n
ticularl y sought for Nubian troops in the Amarna Lett er s. There wu
an increase of mercenari es in the 19t h Dynasty and some, such as th,'
Shardana, wi th their peculi ar helmet s and weapons , are to be Ioum!
both in the Egyptian army and fighting alongside the Libyans as Cill'
mies of Egypt. The Libyans themselves benefited from the arms tnllil
as they are shown wi th chariots and horses and wi th weapons of di,
tinctl y western As iatic types. Th e Libyans themsel ves employed 111"1
ce nary troops , such as the Shardun a, as is clear from the account s II I
the Libyan Wars of Merenptah and Ramesses III. Th e evidciu'c
from ce nters , suc h as Pylos , Mycenae, and Knossos. shows uuu
Greece and Aegean were part of the sa me net work s. Western Anutu
lia and Cy prus probabl y provided the mai n link betwee n Egypl
Crete, and Greece, although there is evide nce of di rcc t eon tach in th.
reign of Amenhotep III . Nuhi a, too , must have be nefit ed from the in
tern at ional arms trade . Altho ugh battle scenes show Nubian encnu
con venti onall y as bowmen with relati vel y little eq uipment, there I
evidence of the use of char iots by the elite, and the "tribute" see n
show weaponry and armor that was ma nufactured in Nubi a. ChariIII
and horses were presumably give n as gi rts from Egypt , but the inclu
sion of char iots as part of the Kushite tr ibut e to Egy pt suggests Ihll
they, too , were eve ntua lly being ma nufact ured in Nubia itse lf.
The Iron Age saw a change in the trade routes , but there is ampl
ev idence from the Assyrian, and other , reco rds for a simi lar ann
trade. Israel under Solomon (reig ned ca . 950-930/922 BC) seems, 10 "
a peri od , to have controlled the trad e in horses throu ghout north Syun
The Assyrians imported horses from man y surrounding regions. 1' hl'l
is also good evide nce that horse breeding developed in Kush . ' lh
Dongola Reach of the Nile was a horse-breeding area in medi cv
ARMY • 27
limes and probabl y anc ient times as well. The evi dence that suggests
Ihal the Kushites were breedi ng hor ses comes from Assyri an texts of
Ihc cighth-seventh centuries BC and the inscription of Piye .
.\ llI\ I Y. The evi de nce for the Egy ptian army co mes fro m a variety of
, " nrces in art and literature, al though none gives the det ail that we
have for, for examp le, the Hell eni stic or Roman ar mies. A large num-
lx-r of terms are prese rved in documents rel atin g to the military bu-
rruuc r acy, but few text s det ail the numbe rs and functio ns invol ved .
lunction ca n ge nera lly be det ermined from context and lexicograp hy,
II I It I some words , particular ly those as sociated with chariots and
hors es, such as mariyannu , are foreign loan words .
The army fulfi lled many functions in addi tion to its main one of
1ll',liting in battl es and protec ting frontiers. Bodies of troops were se nt
III escort trading expeditions (such as those to Punt) and dip lomatic
"I l" hanges. The army played a significant role in building and quar-
I "illl!. heing used 10 guard and to convey stone. It also had an impor-
11111 1 role in "'yal .1I1 d religio us ce remo nials. Th e sce nes depi ctin g the
l' II' al 1" ligioli s fe'l il'als. such as Opet , show the army towi ng the river
' III' the gods from the ban k, accompanied by mil itary rnu si -
I lnnx. notabl y trumpeter s and Nubian drummers.
( l id Kingdom. Conflict betwee n groups of armed men is shown on
1I 111111 1111ents of the Predynastic Period , such as the Battlefield Palette.
Nlllhi11g is known of the organization of these forces . During the Old
I IlIr dlllll troops for campaigns were levied as necessary, although there
11I1I, t have been some more permanent mil itary unit s, such as the royal
11l 1I1.\,gllard and garrisons stationed in key cent ers. The ea rliest depic-
1/" "II I' the army in action shows a group of archers and is of the reign
III 1\ hulu or Khafre. The inscript ion of Weni indicates that local offi-
• I " I ~ were responsible for conscr iption of troops as required, and also
, 1I111 111 ' lI1ding them. The only unit mentioned is the Tjeset " battalion." A
11111 11"" 1' of offic ials carry the title imy-r mesha, Overseer of the sol-
oi l' !'/anny or "General," but they are nearly all recorded in texts relating
I " qll:lrrying expeditions (three to Sinai , three to the Wadi Hamrnamat ).
I "':lsllwo kings ' sons- Rahotep, the son of Snefer u (fourt h Dynasty),
,,,"I Kucmtjcnenet, son of Isesi (fifth Dynasty) -were generals.
A1i"d'" Kingdom. During the First Intermedi ate Peri od the local
",' /I I/ In'lis (governo rs of the administra tive dis tric ts called nomesi
28 • AKMY
rai sed forces and there is evide nce for mercenary troops, mainl y Nu-
biuns . There wa s certainly a standing army duri ng the Middle King-
dom. The ex tens ive campaigning in Nub ia , and the es tablishment of
the fortresscs there with permanent garriso ns , must have seen an in-
creas e in pro fessio nal so ldiers . The increase in terms employed also
indicates an expansion of nu mbers and diversity of functions . An in-
scription of year 25 of Amene mhat III records that the ar my scribe
trave led to the nome of Abydos to choose recruits (neferu). Another
text states that a crown pri nce made a levy of one man in every hun -
dred, in a limited area of the country.
New Kingdom. In the New Ki ngdom , there was an increased pro-
fession ali zati on in all areas . The ex tent of the Egypt ian Emp ire, with
permanent garrisons, and the annua l ca mpaigning of pharaoh s, such
as T hutmos e Ill , must have required a large standing army. By the
rei gn of Ramesses II, there we re four divisions of 5,000 plus
mi xed conscripts, and professional s. There is also some ev idence 101'
a for m of nati onal service . Cha nges in milit ary technol ogy meant that
the New Kin gdom army was di vid ed bet ween infantry (me/!fat 01'
menfyt ) and chariotry.
Th e ar my was co mmanded by the Pharaoh, with the Vizier and till'
army co unc il. When in the field , there was a co unc il of war. The roll'
of the counc il in adv ising the pharaoh on tact ics is det ail ed in the ac
counts of the battl es of Mcgiddo and Qadesh and in the campai gn ut
Piye, although the pharaoh usuall y chooses to adopt a different (and
success ful) course of action. An inscription of Horemheb ind icates a
division of the army into two co rps, one for Upper and one for LOWCI
Egy pt , each under the co mma nd of the ulnu of the ar my, who wcr
res ponsible to a ge neral. The ea rly Ramesside army (Sety I ) had reg
iments (sa) of 200 each with its standard bearer. Th ese reg ime nts
were subdivided into platoons of 50 infantry under a "chief of 50"
and squads of 10. By the reign of Ramesses IV, the pri ncipal unit
was a co mpany of five platoons , 250 men unde r the lI'areltl of till'
army. Two companies formed a host (500+ men) and 20 companies
one division (5000+) . The army itse lf comprise d three division.
named after the state gods of Egypt, Anu m , Ptah, and Re . At times,
there was a fourth division, named for Se t h .
The army of the New Kingdom incl uded large numbers of merce
naries. There were many Nub ians, although these might also haw
AllMY • 29
heen in part s of Nub ia di rectl y admi nistere d by Egy pt.
In the Rarnesside penod ,. there we re increasing numbers of troops
Irom western ASIa, Anatolia, and farther afi eld , such as the She kclcsh
Sha rd ana, and Pelcsct. These usually have di st incti ve cos tumes and
weapons . The Libyans also ca me to playa significant ro le.
The Egyp tian ex pansion int o Nubia and As ia led to the creation of
some new military office s, part icularly in re lation to the co mmand of
fortresses and garrisons . In Nubia, the army was specifica lly under
the co mmand of .the c1.1ie f of bowmen of Kush , and not the vice r oy,
although the earliest viceroy s we re mi litary officia ls.
As .the art of chariotry became one of the di sti ngu ishi ng skills of
the e lite , so the roya l princes and pharaoh s were chara cteri zed as war-
riors in a way not previously found. This is parti cul arl y notable with
Ame nhotep II, inscri ptions epitomize this new military
et hos. .battl e re liefs of Ramesses II show the pharaoh ' s so ns play-
II lg a significant rol e in the army. Mo numents, insc riptions, and
tombs document numerous militar y per sonnel of the New Kinudom
(c.g., Ahmose son of Eba na, Ahmosc-pen-Nekhbct , Amcncmhab ,
Ilnrcmhcb , and Tjanuni).
Third lntermediate Period. Th ere is much less ev idence from the
Third Intermediate Peri od . The breakdown of Egypt and Nubia into a
number of kingdo ms and prin cipalities would onc e aga in have seen
smaller arm ies with local loyalti es (or merce naries) , and under the
command of the dynusts . The documentary evide nce is rather limited
li nd although officials with mil itar y titl es are known, actua l co nflict is
detai led only in a limit ed number of texts, such as the inscri ptions of
the c:rown p.rince Os.orkon. The most informati ve text is undoubtedl y
the mscn pnon of Piye narrat ing the conflict with Tefna kht and the
I.ihyan dynasts and the use of the fleet and siege equ ipment.
.' ,ale Period. The ev ide nce is again limited . There are inscription s
ar my and n.aval comma nde rs , such as Wcdjahor rcs nc, but they
I:lve litt le det ail of mili tary action or organization. Herodot os clai ms
that Egyptian society was organized in a sys tem of cas tes , the most
important of which we re the pries ts and the military (machimoi) .
From the rei gn of Psamtik I on . there were large numbers of mer-
rc uury in the Egypti an army, many comi ng from Asia Mi nor ,
notab ly Cari n and the Gree k towns o r the wes tern coa st (Ionia). There
is det ailed evidence of the Persian ga rrison at Elep hanti ne (Abu) with
30 • A/{MY
its large co nti nge nt of Jews and other Phoen icians and Syrians . The
pharaohs who led Egy pt 's fina l bid for independence from Persia
em ployed whole forces of Greek mercenar y troops and recei ved con
sideruble support fro m the city-states , such as At hens . and the rul ers
of the Aegean Islands . not ab ly Cyprus .
Ptolemaic Period. The army of Ptol emy I was recrui ted from
Greek and Macedon iun soldiers who had served with him undci
Alex a nder t he Great. Followi ng the failed invasion of Egypt hy
Perdikkas (32 1 BC). many of the Macedo nian troops stayed and en
listed in Ptolemy' s army. In a similar way, he ga ined many deserters
foll owing the attempted invasion of Ant ignnos Mo nophthahnus
(306 BC) . These troops we re sett led as cler uchs , notab ly in till'
Fayum regi on. This earl y Ptol emaic ar my was esse ntially Greek wi th
so me me rce nary troops suc h as Gauls and Thrac ians . In organizu
tion , it wa s model ed on the Macedon ian army in whi ch the phalanx
was the mai n heavy infantry fig hti ng body, with ligh t infantr
(peltasts) , ca va lr y, and the add itio n (co py ing the Seleukids) of elv-
phants . The 20 yea rs of peace at the end of the reign of Pto lemy III
meant that the army lacked training and experience. Acc or ding III
Pol yb ios , Egypt was no lon ger ab le to defend herself', Pto lemy IV
therefore recruited Egy ptians tmachimoii into the army. The victory
of th is new for ce at Ra phia (2 17 BC) act ually prompted ci vil war.
Th e lat er Ptol emai c army was increasingl y influenced by Roman
organiza tion. It emp loye d Egyptians as we ll as Greek sett lers alitI
mercenaries, not abl y Jews. The new struc ture was based upon th
semeia (perhaps deri ved from the Egy ptian demotic word seteni wi th
probab ly six per regiment ; each semeia was di vided into two cc n
turies commanded by hekatontarch oi and two pentekontarchia with II
heral d/trumpet er and standa rd- bearer (semeiophorosi. Th e cavahy
was divi ded into hipparchies of at least two squadrons (ilai), eac h ilt
being at least 250. Ten hipparch ies are attested .
Roman Period. The fall of Egyp t to August us (30 BC) and the ill
sta llation of the prefect saw the introduction of the Roman army inlll
Egy pt. Augustus hi msel f reorganized the Roman army int o a prole:
sional standing army of 25 legions . Each legi on . total ing 6,000 men
was subdivided into 10 co horts (600) of six ce nturies . The number II I
legion s increased in the later e mpi re . risi ng to 33 under the Severun
dynast y ( 193-235 AD) and to 67 under Dioclet ia n (re igned 284- 311
AD). Many auxiliary troops were recruited fro m groups throughout
ART · 3 1
the empire, incl uded cavalry di vision s (alae) of about 480-500 me n
divided into 16 troops .
Augustus stationed three legion s in Egypt , but Legi o XII Fulmi -
'."1/0 was tran sferred to Syria later in his rei gn . Legio XXII, Deiotar-
11// /(/. was named after Dei ot aru s , ki ng of Galatia, who had formed it
"'1the Roman model. It was incorporated into the Roman army by
and stationed at Nikopo lis (on the edge of Alexand r ia) . It
miglu have been dest royed in the Jewish r ebelli on of Bar Kokhba
( 132- 135 AD). Legi o IIJ Cyrenaica was also stat ioned at Nikopo lis by
Augustus , where it remained unt il Traj an (reigned 98- 117 AD) tran s-
lcrred it Arab ia, replac ing it with the newl y for med Legi o II Tra-
/111/(/ Fortis . The Noti tia Di gnitatum detai Is the garriso ns of the lat er
third cent ury. See also SOLDI ER .
.\lW OWS. The shafts of arrows were generally made of reed a read-
ily availab le mat eri al. Some from the tomb of Tutankhamunwan- of
wood. They we re fletched wi th feathers, had nocks (to receive the
howst ring) of wood, and were tipped with Oint , obs idian, ebony,
I:ory, bone, hardwood, glass. and met al (co pper, bro nze , and iron ) .
SurVIVI ng examples of arrows from the tomb of Maih erpri (all reed )
were bet ween 0.64 and 0.85 me ters long (ma ny damaged ) and from
the tomb of Tutankharn un up to 0.95 met er. The maj ority of ar rows
would have been manufact ured in Egypt from locall y available rna-
tvrinls. A relie f from an unident ified tomb at Saqqara shows an ar-
10 1V ma ker checking the straightness of arrows . After ban le, the ar-
10 IV S and arrowhea ds wo uld have bee n collec ted . Ame nhotep II
records the capture of two bows (presuma bly composite) and a
:lllIvcr IUIl .of arrows after a batt le near the River Orontes on his Sy r-
11 11 1 campaign. Other sources show that arrows for med part of the
' " ' IIIS tra de. Th e Ama rna Letters det ail varieties of arrows sent
111 11 11 Mita nni, The differen t typ es of arrows we re grouped as: 1,000
III "'I'IS, sharp, 2,000 arrows , and 3,000 arrows. In additio n, there
were speci fied types of 20 arrows " with thorns," 20 arrows to be shot
lIilllling and 20 arrows of "shukudu" type. The bodi es of the so ldiers
of Ment huhotep II bur ied at Deir e l-Bahari showed arrow wounds,
11 11 " some frag me nts of ebony arrowhea ds were found.
\ ItT. Images 0.1' war violence in Egy ptian art are co mmon, but many
III them are Ideological rather than historical. The most common type
32 • ART
shows the pharaoh (occasionally a queen) smiting an individual enemy,
or group of enemies, usually in the presence of one or more deities, such
as Amun or Re- (Harakhty). Thi s image is found from the earliest pc
riods (e.g., on the Narmer Palette) to the Roman period (in the templ es
of Esna and Dendera). It is a favored scene on the pylon gateways 01
temples, although can be found elsewhere. On the pylons, usually on a
vast scale, the scene has the added significance of preserving the tem
pie from the chaos of the real world and real time, since the templ e is
the image of the cos mos and of the moment of creation when perfection
was achieved. The enemies are therefore symbols of uni versal threats to
order and have no specific historical significance . In other contexts till'
subj ugated groups can be given historical significance. If the image is
of the subj ugation of Nubians, Libyans, or Asiatics it may be due to thl'
orientation of the scene: Nubians frequently being found on the south
and others on the north of the templ e axis. The location and purpose 01
the temple (i.e., in Nubia) might also be significant. However , the great
relief of Sheshonq I at Karnak recording the Asiatic conquests of tlu-
pharaoh includes Nubians among the enemies he smites.
Th is type of image of the pharaoh as uni versal conqueror is taken II
stage further wi th the image of the king as a human or hawk-headed
sphinx . For a shor t period in the late 18t h Dynasty, queens Tiye and
Nefert iti, wives of Amenhote p III and Akhenaten respectively, wen-
shown smiting and trampling in the form of a sph inx. Th ey are specif
ically shown subduing the fe male enemies of Egypt as counter part 10
the pharaoh and as a manifestat ion of the bellicose goddess Tefnut .
It was not only the foreign lands that were subjugated by the pharaoh,
the rekltyt-people of Egypt itself were also. The pharaoh can be shown
carrying a lapwing, the symbol (derived from the hieroglyphic writing)
of the rekhyt, who were equally a threat to order. The pharaoh also tram
pled his enemies, collectively known as the Nine Bows , underfoot. Thiv
image is found in statue f011n, and bound captives , or bows , were Ill'
picted on the soles of the roya l sandals, on the pharaoh's footstool aud
dais, and painted on the lloor of the throne room .
The temples were places in which battle scenes could be carved
They usuall y appear in the outer part s of the building on the pylons,
the walls of the COllI1s and outer hall s, all of which were publi c areas,
rather than in the inner halls and sanctuaries that were devoted to 11'
ligious and offering scenes. Although the image of a smiting and COli
ARTAxmXEs I (REIGNED 465-424/423 Be) • 33
querin g pharaoh is common, the surviving scenes that can actually be
described, even loosely as "historical," are very limited in number
(see battle, representations of) . The maj orit y, in fact , is of the battle
of Qadesh . Although the temples of god s do carry historical battle
scenes, the temples of the pharaohs themsel ves (usually styled "mor-
tuary temples") were the most appropriate setting, and allowed the
events of a reign to be present ed as a royal self-j ust ification. The best-
preserved cyc les of reliefs are in the temples of Ramesses II ("the
Ramesseum") and Ramesses III (Medinet Habu) at Thebes.
Tomb scenes very rarely show battles, although those of Kaemheset
al Saqqar a and Inti at Desbasheh, of the late Old Kingdom, and tombs
.u Beni Hasan do show attacks on fortifications, and hand-to-hand
combat. In the New Kingdom, tomb scenes can be informative for the
study of war in that they show weaponry and chariots and the milita ry
burea ucr acy at work. Some of the most valuable scenes are those from
the tombs of milit ary officials, such as Horemheb and Tj anuni, which
show the registering of recruits and other aspects of army life. Another
important group of scenes are those that show gift exchange and re-
ward . At Arnarna, the tombs of the reign of Akhenaten contain many
reward scenes , mostly showing gold and jewelry but also the gift of a
pair of leather gauntlets to the chariotry officer,Ay. A simi lar pair is de-
scribed in the Amarna Letters as a roya l gi ft from the king of Mitannl ,
:lnd a pair was discovered in the tomb of Tutankhamun. There are
scenes in Theban tombs showing the presentation of "gifts" to the
pharaoh. This took place at the New Year, the coro nation, and other sig-
nilicant occasions. What is actually shown is the product of the royal
und temple workshops. The tomb of Qenamun, part icul arly, depicts col-
lections of weapons and armor, with the number of the amount s pro-
duced. These are some of the best representations. Indeed, in the case of
armor, corselets and helmets are very rarely shown being worn. The
presentation of foreign tribute includes weaponry and is a valuable
source of information on the internati onal arms trade.
\ IU AXERXES I (reigned 4 6 ~ 2 4 / 4 2 3 nc ), Great King of Persia and
ruler of Egypt. The acce ssion of Artaxe rxes. in a palace coup, saw re-
hellion throu ghout the empire. In Egypt. Inaros, a ruler in the west-
ern Delta, and Amyr taios (1) , pri nce of Sau, were aided by a fleet
110m At hens . In the rebellion, Memphis was ca ptured , and the satr a p
34 • AKTAXrKXI:5 II IKn CNID 405- 359 Bel
(the Persian viceroy) was killed in battl e at Papremis, before till'
Egyptians and Athenians were besieged at Prosopit is in the Delta ,
The rebellion altoge ther lasted from about 462 BC unt il 454 BC.
ARTAXERXES II (reigned 405-359 IIC). Great king of Persia and
pharaoh of Egypt. On the death of Darius II (404 BC) , Egypt had
gai ned independence from Persia . In 373 BC, in an atte mpt to regain
co ntro l of Egypt , Artaxerxes se nt his army, led by Pharn abazos and
the commander of the Greek mercenaries Iphi krates from Ac re. The
failed to enter via Pelusion, but breached the Mendesian barrie:
There was disagreement bet ween the two co mmande rs, whic h II I
lowed Nakhtnebef to surround and besieg e them , until the inundu
tion forced a Per sian retreat.
ARTAXERXES III (reigned 359-338 IIC). Great King of Per sia alld
pharaoh of Egy pt. Art axer xes regained control of Sid on and Cy pru
before turning his attention to Egypt, which had been inde pende nt III
Per sia for 60 years , The first invasion , in 35 1/350 IIC, was dri ven
back by the army of Nakht horh eb , but in 343 Be a second invuviuu
was successful. Artaxerxes now had the advan tage of two capalih
co mmande rs, Bagoas and Ment or of Rhodes. and a large force III
Greek mercenaries . The Per sian army advanced to Pe lusinn . whi.h
was ca ptured by Bagoas. Further Delt a c ities fell as the Pcrsians ad
va nced on Memphis, The pharaoh Na khthorhch see ms to have III
fered lillie resistance and reputedly ned to Nubia . Egy pt once ag.un
came under Persian rul e and a satrap was install ed . Later text s. 111 1
tably the Sat rap stele of Ptolemy I (citing a decree of Khabbash), Il
fer to devastat ion ca used by the Per sian invasion .
ARZAWA. Co untry in wes tern Anatolia, nei ghbor to the Hittite "III
pire. As the evi de nce for its position co mes fro m Hitt ite texts. it I
difficult to place Ar zawa preci sely, althou gh it is thought to be W I
app roximatel y where Lyd ia was in later times.
ASHURBANIPAL (reigned BC) . Late Assyrian empe ror of III
Sargonid dynasty. 5h0l11yafter his accession. As hurbanipaJ made pI'!'!,,'
rations for the invasion of Egypt. Th ese incl uded see king the advice "
the gods through omens . The eve nts of the campaign are recorded 1111
ASKUT • 35
day prism known as the "Rassam Cylinder." The army adva nced rap-
lilly toward rece iving the submission of the Levantine rulers who
1I0W him. The army engaged and defeat ed the j oint Egypt -
Kushit e of Taharqo at "Kar-baniti," which is the Assyr-
1.1 11 name for an Egyptian place , probably on the route from Pelusion to-
ward Memphis..Taharqo himself was in Memphi s. The text refers to
uuothcr oracle given by the gods that As hurbanipal had taken with him.
1\ hattie took place, presumably close to Memphis, which fell. Taharqo
' I,'d to Thebes and the Assyrians pursued, but the dynasts of the Delta
Il'I1elled, In response, the Assyrian armies attacked Sau, Tanis, and an-
: uhcr Delta town.llaying rebels and hanging their skins from the walls.
taken to Assyri a, where some were exec uted. Only
N, I' ,1lI I and his son, the future Psamtik I , were spared. There might
have been deportation of some of the rebel popul at ion and people from
,' b",where III Assyri an empire settled in Egypt.
laharqo died during. or short ly after the invasion, and was sue-
" 'l'lil'd by Ta nwctamant, who immedi ately reoccupied Memphis
1I 11 e1 " Iought the Delta dynast s under his authority, Ashurbanipalnow
1'"I11..hl·d a sel'Ond ca mpaign (663 BC) . Tanwetamani fled to Thebes
'"Ie1 I IllIll there back to Nubia, Ashurbanipal 's army marched on
I h<,hc.' and sacked it. carrying off its treasures to Assyria, Althouoh
1" 11 11 11 I/.; I was originally an Assyrian vassal, he gradually shoo k ;1'1'
I 1111 Htl I. preocc upied with events on the ot her border s
III ' " ' not a ttem pt to intervene agai n in Egypt.
i\ , hlllhan!pal s mil itar y campaigns are recorded in annals and a se-
III ' , III from the pal ace at Nineveh . Some rel iefs dep icted the
I \"' lIt, m Egy pt, but they have no accompa nyi ng texts. Of part icular
IIIIl ' r,'st IS the war against the Arabs , which shows Arab archers
uuuuucd on A lar?e se ries of oracle and ome n texts supple-
111,'11 1, (he ann alistic material ,
h IJ:[ in the Second Ca ta r act to the north of, and
11 1,"11 dista nce of, Shalfak. It was part of the 12t h Dynasty
, h,1I11 II / /0I1s maugurated by Senusret I and completed b S t
III '1', . Y enusre
, ICplan dIctated by the topography of the site, resulting in a
11 111 11 iulur fort WIth a regular town plan accommodat ing up to 200
k ' men,
III IS unusual among the fortresses in that 22 percent of its total area
, V
<'11 over to granary buildings. It has been suggested that it served
as a fort ified grain store to suppl y the ot her fortresses of the cataract. II
is estimated that , if full, the granar ies had a pot ential capability of feed
ing up to 3,264- 5,628 individuals (o r one year, more than any
fort in the region, even the great depot at Mlrgissa. From Ask ut , Sl •
nal s were rel ayed northward via Murshid and Gemai to Mi rgi ssa.
ASSYRIA. Kingdom of northern Mesopotami a (modern Iraq), with it
cap itals at Assur, Nirnrud , and Nineve h.Assyria enjoyed several phasr
of political and military expansion. The first major contacts 1\,
syria and Egypt are documented by the Ama r na Letters and indican
the emergence of the Middle Assyr ian Empire as a significant pol iticnl
force . By the rei gn of Ramesses II, Assyria under Shalmaneser I WII
abl e to di spose of the final fragment of the kingdo m of Mitanni , brillf'
ine its western borders directly up to those of the great king of the 1111
tites, Hattusili III . Direct mili tary involvement with Egypt came in Iii
Late (or Neo-) Assyrian Empire which, from the ninth century BC, grad
ually expanded throughout wes tern As ia to Egy pt itse lf. ,
As syria 's wes tward ex pans ion began in the ninth century BC. Willi
Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 883-859 BC) , Shalma neser III (reigiu
858-824 IlC), and Tiglath-pileser III (reigned 744-727 BC) . Th is hu
been att ributed to devel opmen ts in military technol ogy, notabl y Iii
increase in iron weapons , but could result as much from the orgnII I
zati on and discipline of the Assyrian ar my (the achieve me nt I
Ti gl ath-pil eser III), Undoubtedly, there were mil itar y development
during the Late Assyrian Empire , not abl y the increa sed use of ,' II
airy over cha r iots .
Init iall y, Assyrian expansion established a sphere of infh nn
throughout wes tern Asia from Aleppo to Damascus and the Levannn
coast, but with constant r eb ellion, this tributary area eve ntually bccun
an empire with Assyrian govern ors . Egypt aided some of these I'd,
lions, sending contingents of troo ps to the battle of Qarqar (853 III ' ) . ,\
syrian activities brought her armies ever cl oser to the bor ders of I
Although there is no evidence of direct conflict at thi s time, Gaza , will
was usually an Egyptian vassal, was taken , and the frontier betwee n It
two states was established at the Brook-of-Egypt (el Ar ish) ,
Wit h the fall of Egypt to the Kushite pharaohs of the 25t h DYIlIl I
a more ami-Assyrian fore ign policy emerge d, with the Kush itcs II
ing as pro tectors of the states of we stern Asia. This wa s partl y <111 1
ASWAN • 37
\ ell.·-interest, although the Kushit es might have harbored ambitions of
own. Th e 0rst di plomatic contacts are record ed in the reign of
Sargon II , relating to the ni ght of larnan i, rul er of Ashdod to seek
the protection of the Kushit e king . The first direct conflict known
,'ame the reign of Shabaqo, who se nt hi s armies to the aid of
Ilczck iah of Judah. The Egypti an-Kushite forces c las hed with the
almy ?f Senuncher lh at the bail ie of Elt ckeh (70 I BC) . This led , in
Iill', rei gn s of EsarhaddOIl (reigned 680-66 9 BC) and As hur ba ni pa l
f 668-63 1? BC) , to the Assyrian invasion of Egypt itself. The
Kushite pharaoh Taha rqo (reigned 690-664 BC) had to co nfront As-
,,\' Iiall il: vasions by Esarhaddo n. Battl es were fought at
11 11" M.emphis . which was sac ked. Taharqo' s successor, Tall-
II vtuma ni (re igned BC) , had to face another invasion by
" \'.11 11 banipa l, and this urne the Assyrians reached Thebes . The As-
I'llall.s some sUPp0l1 in Egypt from the Libyan dynasts , acti ng
1111 1 sell -.Interest , most not abl y the rulers of Sau (Sais), Ncka u I,
,II I" ,I sa mtik I (reigned 664-610 BC). However, once Psamt ik I had
I contro l of the who le of Egypt, he was able to throw off the
aided by prob lems on the other fro ntiers of the As-
vn. m Empire. Assyria itse lf fell to the expanding empire of Babylon
'"111"1" Nabopo lassar and Ncbucha dllczza r II .
1'/\ RTF:. Goddess of Canaani te and Syr ian origin, the western As i-
'llit' equlval.ent of the Mesopot amian Isht ar , Astar te was introduced
111 10 hgypt In the . 1 Dyn ast y. Astar te was a warrior goddess who
,,,", u wi th horses and chari ots , In the de scriptio n
rr] IllS military abilities as a yo uth, Amenhotc p II tell s how he was
bes t horses from his father 's stables and that because of his
1111 them "Reshep and As tarte rej oi ced over him. " Like other
lillll' goddesses, Astarte became as soc iated with the ferocious
I I'Vlllian deities give n the title "daughter of Re" (Sa khmct and
I, IUIII ) and became a wife of Se th .
\\ '/\ N, ', li lwn on the so uthern frontier of Egyp t and Nubia, at the foot
" 11 11 ' Cat aract. Aswan (Gree k Syene from Egyptian Sil li er "a
""11 1" 1, ) on the east ban k of the Nile opposi te the island of
hu It was the site of a fortress , referred to in Ara -
10 ,1& tlOt'l lillents of the Persian period as S UII Byrta,
38 • ASWAN
Eve n aft er the expansio n into Nubia, Aswan retai ned the charac -
teristics of a frontier town and served as a supply and administrat ive
depot and the place from whic h milit ary act i? ns into Nubia v:erc
launched. There were major defensive works m the Aswan region.
wi th references to the fortress of Aswa n, the fortress of Abu (Ele-
phantine) and the fort ress of Se nmut. Th is last is usually to
be the island of Bigga, at the head of the catarac t and oppos ite the
presumed locat ion of the harbor. However , it recentl y b.een sug
ges ted that , rather than being iso lated on the Island of Bigga, the
fortress of Se nrnut was actually the whole of the area between Aswan
town and the head of the cataract defended by a massive mud -brick
wall , fragment s of whic h are sti ll extant.
The wall, some 7.5 ki lometers long, was built on elevated ground
of mud bri ck , reinforced with reed mats and gra nite rubbl e. With a
thickn ess of to cubits (5. 25 meters) at the base , its hei ght would have
been up to twice that. A glacis of 35 degrees defended. its outer f:ICl"
There is no evi dence for tower s along its length, but Its sca le might
have served as an adequate defen se. The stela of the official Hepu ,
dated to the coregency of Amenemhat II and Senusret II and
recording the inspection of forts of Wawat year 35, is on a
boulder crossed by the wall. Thi s, and the size of the bricks, would
sugge st a construction da te of the time of Se nusre t II. A similar v:all
ran for 5 ki lometers bet ween the fortresses of Semna to Ur onar t i .u
the Second Cataract. It is to be assumed that the wall connected with
a fortress at both the Aswan and harbor ends . Bet ween Aswan and till
harbor was a milit ary road, along which are roc k inscr ipt ions record
ing mi litary campaigns by Sety 1. . .
Along the same route as the wa ll (which had doubtless fallen mlo
ruin long before), there is evi de nce for three Roman watchtowers II I
Ge bel Boas, Tell Asmar, and on the plain of Shellal. These probahl v
rel ate to a wbole net work of such tower s throughout Upper
others are known at Dendur and north of Edfu. The fort of Dloch-t
ian, Leg io I Maximiana Filas, was presumably in a simihu
position to the pharaoni c harbor, oppos ite island of On th
outskirts of the modern town are the remains of the Byzantine lowII
wa lls, whic h include blocks from di smantl ed Roman templ es.. ,
On the west bank of the river, the rock-cut tombs of the el ite I II
elude those of the governo rs of the border in the Old Kingdom. ill
AUGUSTUS (63 8C- 14 AD) • 39
d Uding of Harkhuf, who led several peaceful expedi tions to Yam
In the Si xth Dynasty. A high point mar ked by Ge bel Tingar , the
"Rock of Offerings.". is where the desert road bega n. Th is rega ined
the Nile Toshka III Lower Nubia and was frequently used during
the Old Kingdo m, The Monastery of St. Simeon stands at the end of
a wadi opposite the souther n tip of the island of Abu. Like most
monasteri es, it is de fended by high wa lls and mighl have been
adapted from a Roman guard station.
. regio n are numero us rock inscriplions, many
0'.which record military expeditions or indi vidual offic ials assoc iated
with the administration of Nubia. The mountain of granite boul ders at
the island of Sehel has a part icularly large number
vouve IllSCnptlons, many left by officials on their way into Nu-
'.,.ra . 1. of some Important inscriptions relating to
l ,lI np,lIgns. There are mscnpuon, relatlllg to the campaign of Psamtik
" on the southern end of Bigga Island and on Abu itself.
Ci ty of mainland Greece, with surrounding state of Attika . In
Sixth- fourth centuries BC, it was one of the main political and mil-
nary of the wor ld. Athens became a center of opposition
10 the of Persia. As such, il both aided anti-Persian r ebellions
II l1 d r:ecel ved support from independent or rebellious states. Athens lent
"ollslderable support to the maj or. if ultimately disastrous. rebellion of
Illams . This mili tary suppOl1 from At hens was reci procaled by local
urlcrs .of the Delta who sent corn to Athens in times of famine. The
Athenian general Chabrias was hired by the pharaoh Hakor, but he
recal led 10 Athens on the interventi on of the Persians. The last mil-
":II'Y cont?ct was the Ptolemaic involvement in Athens during the
( IlI'emomdeall War (268/265-262/26 1 BC) . See also SPARTA.
\ III a JSTUS (63 /lc-14 AD). Roman pol itican , genera l, and first em-
!,l'Ior. Born Cai us Oc tavi us, he was the great nephew of Julius Cae-
IU' and one of his closest male relatives. Caesar adopted him as his
11l' 1I' (when he became Caiu s Iuliu s OClavianus. "Octavian") . In the
strugg les followi ng Caesar 's murder in 44 BC, Octavian allied
Irliliself M.arc us Antonius and Ma rcus Ae mi lius Lepidus form-
III ' tir e Trru mvrrate. During the foll owing yea rs, Oc tav ian was able
III l'stablish hi msel f, and promote himsel f as the defender of Italy.
40 • ALJ Rrt IAN IRFJGNtIJ 270- 275 ADJ
BAAL · 41
whi le Antonius was invol ved in the eastern Roman prov inces and in
creasingly wi th Kleo patra VII in Alexandria . The alienatio n of Oe·
tavian and Antonius led ultimately to civil war, culminating in the de
feat of the fleet of Antoni us at Aktion in 31 Be. Octavian pursued
Anton ius to Alexandr ia, which he captured . Following the death or
Kleoputra, Egypt was absorbed into the Roma n Empire, but there
were further mi litar y actions by the newly appoi nted prefect to im
pose full co ntrol. In 29 BC, Cornelius Gallus suppressed a re bellion
of the Thebaid and took his army into Lower Nubi a leading to the in
stallat ion of a tyranuos in the Dodekaschoinos . Oct avian himsell
was now unassail able politi call y, supported by the captured wealth 01
Egypt. In 27 BC, he forma lly "restored the republic" reinstating the
Roman magistrates, senate, and constitution, in return for which Ill'
was given the title " Augustus" (Sebastos in the Greek-speak ing eas t).
There were further prob lems on the southern frontier, leading to a
second campaign into Nubia, led by the prefect Caius Petronius .
Thi s was claimed to have reached Napata, although the towns named
are predominantl y in Lower Nubia, such as Qasr Ibrim.
AURELIAN (reigned 2711-275 All ) . Roman emperor. Lucius Dornitiu s
Aurelianus rose to high military ran k. becomi ng chief comma nder 01
the cavalry. He was proclaimed emperor by his troops shortly after
the death of Claud ius II as riva l to Quinti llus. The di sputed succes -
sion, and thc invasions of the empire on the Danubi an front, enabled
the already powerful kingdo m of Palmyra under Zenobia to take
Egypt and parts of Asia Minor. In 272 AD, Aure lian was able to lead
his armies to the east , defeatin g Zenobia' s forces at Antioch and
Emesa and drivi ng them back to Palmyra, which was besieged.
Palmyra and Zenobi a were captured , but Aurelian returned the next
year to suppress rebellion in Palmyra and assoc iated turmoil in
Egypt. where the Palmyrene soldiers had joi ned forces wi th the
B1emmyes . There was a siege of the foreig n troops within Alexan-
d r ia , which was captured, and its wa lls were destroyed . The rebelli on
of Firmus in Alexandria reputedl y occurred in this reign.
AVARIS. The Greek form of the ancient Egyptian name , Hut -warct ,
Avaris was the capital city of the Hyksos in the eastern Delta, the
modern site of Tell ed- Dab'a. It was attacked and eve ntually captured
hy the Theban pri nces who reun ited Egypt in the late 17th and be-
ginning of the 18th Dynast ies . Although the wars with the Hyksos be-
gan in the rei gn of Tao, the first document ed attack on Avaris was in
the reign of Kamose. Th is did not capture or dest roy the ci ty, and the
lapse of time before his successor, Ahmose I , began his wars must
have enabled the I-Iyksos to recoup and redefend the city. The Theban
assaults on Avaris are narrat ed in the autobiogra phica l text of Ah-
mose son of Ebana. They invo lved the navy, and the cit y might have
been prot ect ed by canals as well as the Ni le branch.
AXES. From the earliest times, one of the commonest wea pons of war,
used for hand-to- hand co mbat. Ori gin ally, the war axe was hardly
distinct from that used in woodworking . During the Old Kingdom, it
had a semici rcular head with lugs, perforated for attachment to the
1V00de n haft. In the Midd le Kingdom, a si milar type continued, but it
was larger with three lugs or "tangs" to attach it to the haft. Another
type had a longer, rather than semici rcular, blade. In the New King-
dom, the long, more rectangu lar, blade was favored. A type of halberd
is also att ested . This was an elongated tanged blade attached to a long
shaft. Ceremonial axes with openwo rk designs are also known. The
earliest blades were of Oint; later copper and bronze were used.
Hand-to-hand combat with axes is depi cted in the Old Kingdom
tombs of Kaemheset at Saqqara and Int i at Deshasheh . Numero us
examples of axes survive. They are also frequentl y depi cted in scenes
"f the army, such as the contingen ts of troops depicted in the templ e
" f Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari (Thebes). In the tomb of Qenamun
at Thebes, statues of Amenh otep II are shown- in which the pharaoh
wears the short ki lt and cut leat her apron-carry ing an axe .
IlAAL. Asiatic god of thund er. Baa l was worshipped in Egypt from the
IXth Dynasty onward. As a thunder god, he was assoc iated with Seth .
III acco unts of battle, the pharaohs of the later New Kingdom could
he identified wi th the god. Sety I was " like Baal when he treads the
mount ains" in the text of his Libyan War. Ramesses II was equated
with both Seth and Baal " in his moment of power" in the record of
42 • BABYl ON
the battl e of Qadesh , whil e the battl e inscripti ons of Ramesses III
ca ll him "brave like Baal in his time," "his form and body are exactly
equal to those of Baal ," and " like Baal on top of the mountains."
BABYLON. City and kingdom of southern Mesopotamia. An ancient
ce nter, it did not bec ome involved with Egypt in any dire ct military
way unti l the first mi llennium IlC. Babylon appears in the Amarun
Letters as Karduniush (the city) and Shangar (Babylonia). panici
pating in the gift exchange and diplomatic marriage network of thl'
Late Bronze Age. The wea lth of the country meant that Babylon be
ca me the focus of aggress ion by its northern neighbor, Assyrin. From
728 IlC onward, Babylon was rul ed eith er directly or through Assyr
ian vassals, although there were frequent rebelli on s and peri ods of in
de pende nce. These often affected (if they were not di rect ly connected
with) Assyrian actions in Syr ia-Palestine and Egy ptian ambitions
there . Assyrian invol vement in Babylon allowed, for example,
Ta harqo to es tablish himsel f as the defender of Pale stine.
Babylon's power increased under the Neo-Babyloni nn dynast
founded by Nabopolassar (626-605 IlC). Rapidly expanding at a tim«
of Assyri an weakness. Babylon was able to conquer her northern
neighbor and sack Nineveh (6 12 BC) . Babylonian expansion bro ught
direct military conflict with Egypt under Psamtik I and Nekau II . III
his last years, Psamtik I atte mpted to bolster the ai ling kingdom 01
Assyria, sending milit ary aid, which confronted the Babylon ians Oil
the Euphrates . In 6 10, a joint Egypt ian-Assyrian force aba ndoned
Harran to the adva ncing troops of Nabopolassar, Nekau " renewed
the initiative on his accession, resulting in Egy ptian defeat at the bat
tie of Car ehemish (605 BC) and, with the access ion of Nebucha d-
nezzar II , a Babylonian advance on Egypt itself. The host iliti es COli
tinued through the reign of Psarntik II . Self-int erest turned Babyl on
from enemy to ally when, deposed by Ahmose II. Wahihre l1ed 10
Nebuchadnezzar. In an unsuccessful atte mpt to restore Wahibre, thl'
Babyl on ian king invaded Egypt (568 BC) . Baby lon fell to the risilll'
power of Persia under Cyrus the Great in 539. Following the death
of Alexander the Great in the city in 323 BC. it became a key centci
in the vas t kin zdom of the Seleukids, before falling to the Par thian
and later the Sasan ids,
ItABYLON, Fortress (Old Cairo). The name probably derives from the
Egyptian Per-Hapy-e/l-/II1/l1 . The Jewish histor ian Josephos says that
Babylon was founded by Cambyses who installed a Chaldaean garri-
sun there. The origins of the surviving fortress are believed to be of
l'crsian date (circa 500 BC) , but there might have been a fort at this
place from much earlier (perhaps the place attest ed textually as Kher-
Aha), as it stand s at a strategic poi nt controlling land access to Mem-
phis from Pelusion and Tjaru. The Roman fort was rebui lt by Traja n
alter the .Jewish Revolt of 11 6 AD. This time it also served to defend
the end of the canal, which ran to the Red Sea along the Wadi Turnilat ,
apparently an extension of that built by Darius I. The fort was again
rebui lt. in the reign of Diocletian , and now forms part of Old Cairo.
Baby lon is irregular in shape, bei ng a rectangle with its west corner
n it off. The eas t wall, 300 meter s long, has evidence for six rounded
hastions and two square corner tower s; the north wall also had six
rounded bastions. The short south wall. 100 meters long. had a gate
Il.urkcd by rounded bastions. Th ere were other gates in the east and
IITst wallv. th« laller with round tower s. The interna l arran gernems are
unknown because the site is now occ upied by later structures .
1t ,\( ;( ;AGE. An essential fact or on any mi litary expedition. but poor ly
documented. A letter preserved in Papyrus Koller lists some of the
supplies and equipment. incl udi ng wea ponry and armor, but no-
lahly the foodstu ffs for the horses . including straw and kvlles tis-
bread. The horses also requ ired thei r grooms and stab le masters.
Scenes of the Egyptian camp, although rare, show that large tents
were carried for the pharaoh and officers, with furniture , such as
lolding stoo ls and folding beds (an example was found in the tomb
of Tutankhamun), and headrest s (shown in the Qadesh ca mp) . A
large body . of nonmi litary per son nel accompanied the expedition,
such as scr ibes , servants, and grooms, all with thei r own specialist
rq uiprnent . Ox-drawn carts are shown in a few scen es. These wou ld
have bee n extremel y slow moving and affect ed the rat e of march of
the army. Some literature indi cates tha t so ldiers carried their own
lond and water on the mar ch , although supplies must also have been
carried in the baggage train, supplemen ted by forage and ca ptures en
1IIIIl e and during the ca mpaign.
44 • c. Bel
HAKENRANEF (reigned c. 715-710 II C). The only pharaoh ascribed
to the 24th Dynasty, rul ing from Sa u in the western Delt a. Accordin '
to Greek sources of dubious reliabi lity, " Bochchoris" was defeated ill
battle by the Kushi te pharaoh Sha baqo and burned alive .
BASTI ON. Pro ject ion from the curtain wall or rampart s of a fortress,
which enables the ga rrison to enfi lade soldiers attac king the wall. III
Egyptian fort resses, the bastions are semicircular or rec tangular,
Those at Buhen had an elaborate sys tem of loophol es enabling till'
arc hers to shoot in a choice of direct ions.
BATTLE. A single confrontation between two armies. Despi te the
sce nes of batt les, detail about the tact ics and co nduct of pitched bilt
ties in the pharaoni c per iod is actua lly very limi ted , Me giddo arul
Qadesh being the two best-document ed . In the Old Kingdom, the ill
fantry were involved in hand-to-hand combat with axes . This might
have foll owed initial confrontation by archers. In the New Kingdom
and later periods unti l the time of Alexander t he Great , batt le WII
dominated by chariots , and later by cavalry, although the actual dl'
ployment of chariotry is still controversia l. The reliefs give little use
ful information, generally depi cting a mel ee of figures with the Vii I
image of the victor ious pharaoh and numerous equally victoriou
Egyptian and mercenary soldiers. Texts give a little mor e impression
of the clangor of batt le, although the emphasis is still on the victou
ous phar aoh. Occasiona lly, texts refer to the pharaoh ' s war cr y.
There is little detail of naval battles, apart from that of Rarnesscs III
against the "Sea Peo ples" in which the fighting is between the USII II
infantry troops, many of whom are shown in small cra fts. Battles II
tween large warships, such as the t r ireme or quinquereme, do not al'
pear to have been a feature of early war fare and only become comruun
from the time of the confrontation between Athe ns and Pers ia 01'
Salamis (480 BC) . Sea battles were a feature of the Greek-Persian Wil l
and those of the Ptolemaic period , notably Kos , Sa lamis, and Aklillll
BATTLE, SCENES OF. For the vast span of Egypt ian history, it is 10
markable how few scenes of batt le survive . Certainly, some nunIII
merus that might have carried batt le rel iefs, such as the temples "r
Thutmose II I , Amenhot ep II , and Mercnptah on the west bunk ,,'
Thehes have been almost co mpletely destroyed , but even so, the con-
centration 0: reliefs is of the reig n of Ramesses II and spec ifically of
the battle of Qadesh . The foll owing survey indicates scenes of bat-
lie,. but also other more stylized represent ati ons that cover periods for
which there are no specific batt les.
From the Predynast ic and Early Dynast ic Peri ods co mes a series of
obj ects wi th scenes of batt le or its aftermath: the Gebel cl-Ar ak
knife handl e; tomb 100 at Nekhen (Hierakonpolis) ; the Hunter 's
Palett e; the Libya (or Town' s) Palette; the Battlefield Palette; and
(he Nar mer Palett e. The relief of Djer at Gebel Shei kh Suleirnan is
(he earliest record of a campa ign in Nubia . More conve ntionalized
images are found on the ivory label s from the tomb of Den and the
statues of Khasekhelllwy.
Conve ntionalized images are typical of the surviving evide nce from
Ihc Old Kingdom. Of the Thi rd Dynasty, there are only smiting scenes
of Sekhemkhet and Sneferu from Wadi Maghara in Sinai. The earli-
':sl surviving fragme nts of batt le sce nes are of Fourth Dynasty date,
110m the pyramid temple (or a pri vate tomb) of the reign of Khufuor
Khafre at Gi za . The pyrami d temples of the Fifth Dynasty pharaohs
IIser kaf and Unas carried ballle scenes as well as more conve ntional
" .niting Scenes in pyramid temple of Sahure were copied
t1 11':ctly by his succes sor Niuserre and, in the Sixth Dynasty, by Pepy
II. I here are scenes of attack on fortifications in the private tombs of
K<lc mheset (at Saqqara) and Inti (at Desh asheh ).
The troubled times of the First Inter mediate Period and early II th
Ilynasty are refl ected in the scenes of conflict and att ack s on towns
ill the tomb of Ankhtify at Moall a, of Setka at As wa n, of Int ef at
Thebes (IT 386), and of Baqet .Hl and Khety at Beni Hasan. Fore ign
,1I' <l rs were shown in the reliefs of the temple of Menthuhotep II at
I hches. In the 12th Dynasty, the tom bs of Khnumhotep and Amen-
rruhat at Beni Hasan repeat sce nes of siege, modeled on those of ear-
lier tombs. The only surviving royal baul e rel iefs of the 12th Dynasty
II I ': fragments from the pyramid co mplexes of Senus ret I at Lisht and
S"llIIs ret III at Dahshur.
. Ikspite the richness of the lite rat ure rel ating to the military activ-
1I 1"s of bot h ph.ar aohs and officials in the ear ly 18th Dynasty, hardl y
li lly scenes depict the batt les or campaigns. Some fragme nts of relief
Imvc rece ntly been excavated in the temple of Ahmose I at Abydos ,
4 6 • BATTI r. SONES 0 1
A r.elief fragment from a Ramesside temple, found at Deir el-
Bahan, shows As iatics under the royal chariot. It cannot be ascribed
to any specific reign .
.The maj or cycle of battl e reli efs of the 20th Dynasty is that of the
of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu , These begin with the Nu-
111 i1n battl es, agai nst Irern, and a confl ict in Syria-Palestine, co nsid-
cred by some Egyptologists to have been copied from reli efs of an
earlier reign, The most importa nt sce nes show the equipping of the
army and the battl e wi th the Sea Peoples, and the Libyan War s. Fur-
Ihcr sce nes at Karnak (temple of Amun) show the Libyan War s and
the pharaoh ' s temple in the precinct of Mut depi ct s the second ca m-
p:ugn aga mst the Libyans,
The.re is hardl y anything later than the 20th Dynasty from Egypt
dL' ,?lctlllg although conve ntional imagery continues (e.g., the
relief of the Victor ious Sheshonq I at Karnak) and has been used to
".Iaim. pharaohs fought foreign wars (e.g., Siamun). The
Kushite ki ng Piye recorded his conquest of Egypt in a cycle of reli efs
III the temple of Arnun at Gebel Bar kal (Na pata) . The invasion of
I by Ashurbanipal , king of Assyria. was depi cted in reli efs in
Ihe palace at ?ne reli ef shows the sac k of an Egyptian ci ty
lI ud the deportation of Its peopl e. Gl azed tile decor ation also showed
of the campaigns, and preser ved fragme nts show dead
I Kushites in water and beneath Assyrian char iots. Onl y
"Ollventlonal Images, such as smiting scenes , survive from the Late
I'erind . The text of the Rosell a Stone descr ibes statues of Ptolemy V
Ih:.11were to be set up in the templ es. These showed the pharaoh re-
,'('m ng from the pri nci pal god of the temple. Simil ar con-
Y(' UIIOnal lmages of smiting conti nue into the Roman per iod , not ably
li t the temples of Esna and Dendera, where empero rs continue to be
depicted as pharaohs.
II \'ITLEFIELD PALETTE. A fragmentary ceremonial slate palette of
I'u'rlynastic date that carri es a scene of the aftermath or battle on its ob-
The field is strewn with the bodies of the dead. some of whom are
' "'IUg uuacked by vultures and other birds. A lion preys on the body of
II lnrger figure. The defeated all have stylized curly hair and beards and
1111' . naked , Some have their arms tied behind their backs. Standards ,
Which have been given arms, grasp two captives who have their arms
probably relating to the Hyksos Wars . The body of the chariot of
Thutmose IV dep ict s the pharaoh in battl e with the Asia tics , and the
paint ed box from the tomb of Tutankhamun depi cted both As iatic
and Nubi an battles . In both cas es , the sce nes are probabl y more ide
ological than histor ical. Nevertheless, these scenes point to the de
velopme nt of a genre of battl e depi cti ons, whi ch is cont inued in the
19th Dynast y and suggests that other sce nes have bee n destroyed . Tu
tankhamun erected a temple at Karnak that had scenes of Asiatic and
Nubia n Wars, which have recently been reco nstruc ted. The chapel 01
Horemheb at Gebel Silsila depicts a Nubi an campaig n, perhaps thilt
of the reig n of Tutankhamun.
The largest number of battl e scenes surviving is from the 19th and
20th Dynasties. At Karnak , a cyc le of reli efs depi ct s the battles 01
Sety I with Libyans, Asiatics, Shasu, and Hittites. Fragment s that
can probably be attributed to the reign of Sety I were recovered from
the temple of Sesebi in Upper Nubia and depi ct a Nubian baili e, PCI
haps in the ca mpaign aga inst Irem.
The reign of Rarnesses " provides the largest number of survivinr
bailie scenes, but most of these depi ct the battle of Qadesh. Thei r
might have been battle reliefs at bot h Per-Ramesses in the eastern
Delta and at Memphi s, but nothing has yet been recovered from th
sites . At Abydos, a Syro-Palestinia n campaign (badly dama ged) deco
rated the outer court of the temple of Sety I. The outer wall of his OWII
temple at Abydos carries scenes of the Qadesh campaign. In the The
ban region , the temple of Karnak (Hypostyle Hall , outer wall) hild
scenes of Qadesh, later altered, and Syro-Palest inian Wars, The pylon
and the outer wes t wall of the templ e of Luxor carry rel iefs of Qadesh
The pharaoh' s temple on the west bank (the Rarnesseurn ) has rel ict
showing Qadesh and other Syro-Palestin ian conflicts. In Nubia, Iii
earliest temple of the reign , at Beit el-Wali, detail s a Nubi an battle
perhaps of the reign of Sety I. There are also more conventionalized
scenes of conflict in Syria-Palestine and with the Libyans. At DCII
there are sce nes of Syro-Palest inian conflict. A badl y damaged Nubian
battl e sce ne in the same temple is closely modeled on that at Beit ,I
Wali. The reli efs of the templ e of Aksha are badly damaged , The Grvut
Templ e of Abu Simbel carries sce nes of the Qadesh campa ign and II
more conventional Nubi an battle and attack on Libyans. At Anuu«
West there were scenes of the campaign agai nst Irern .
4 8 • II I
secured behind their backs. The standards are surmounted by di vine
emb lems, a falcon and an ibis , suggesting this might be a record of one
of the wa rs of unification . The palett e mi ght have come from Nekheu
or the region of Ab ydos; it is now in the Ashmolean Muse um, Oxford,
BERM. T he ledge between the ditch and the base of a parapet in a fur
BETH SHEAN. Tell a/ -H ll slI in Jordan 32°29' N 35°32' E. Garrislln
town south of the Sea of Ga lilee , on the we st bank of the River Jordan
Beth Shean stands at a strateg ic point co ntro lling the route via till'
Jezreel Va lley to Damascu s . There have been man y excavat ions hell'
and di scoveries incl ude an important stela of Scty I rel at ing to his Asi
atic campaigns. There was an Egypti an garrison in the town , certai nly
until the time of Ramesses III , in whose rei gn it included mercennry
troops of Pcleset and Tjekker . Beth Shean was destroyed by fire in 11 11
20 th Dyna st y, the blame usuall y being placed on the "Sea Peoples ."
BLEMMYES. A peopl e of Lower Nubia who posed a cons idc ruhl
threat to the southe rn border and the int ernal security of Eg ypt , pili
ticul arl y Upper Egypt , in the lat er Roman period . They were invol ved
in co nfl icts with the Roman forces and were apparently defeat ed hI
Di ocl eti an in 297 AD. Probl ems persisted in the fourth ce ntury unul
the Blemmyes seized control of the Dodekaschoinos around 395/41HI
AD. They ar e recorded as rai di ng in Upper Egypt in the early li llil
ce ntury, causing people to flee to mon asteri es for safety. The raid
reached Kharga Oasis. The imper ial respo nse might ha ve been 1
stre ngt hened garrison with new barracks on the isl and of Abu (EI,
pha ntine) . The Blemmyes were at times variously in conflict and II I
liance with the other peo ple of northern Nubia, the Noubades . Ron uu
forces defea ted a j oi nt ar my o f Blemmyes and Noubades in 452 III'
Lat er the Blemmyes were defeated by the No ubadian ki ng, Sill 1
who records three batt les in an ins cription in the templ e of Kal ab II
The lon g-di st ance raids of the Bl emmyes mi ght have been made 1'''
sible, or at least easier, by use of t he camel.
BODYGUARD. Armed force to protect the phar aoh or high olfi ci nl
The royal bodygu ard is frequently depi ct ed in the tombs at Anu uu
• 49
where it accompanies the public ap pearances o f Ak henaten . It in-
d udes sta ndard bearers and a va riety o f troops: Egyptians with
s pea rs and axes , Nub ian s wit h bows or cudg e ls , Asi atics with spears
.unl A trumpeter accompa nies t hem. Various auto-
biographica l text s re fer to se rving in the royal bodygu ard.
III IlmER. A fixed line marking the end of a polit y. Because of its geog-
1nphy, most of Egypt was not clearly defi ned by bord er s but by looser
boundaries. The clearest borde r wa s that to the south
Nu.bl3, where the cataracts 01' the Nile formed a clear phys lcal
Iltlrder. winch was. then defended by fortresses. One o f the roles of the
11.II:1raoh w.as. to defend , and ex tend , the boundaries of Egypt. In the New
Kiugdom It IS u.sually Amu n who charge s the pharaoh wi th thi s and to
\I 110m success IS accredited. Stelae and rock inscription s were used to
,II,l:llk borders and In Nubia , Thutmose lief! inscr iptions at
1III Ilhos (at the T hird Ca taract) and at Hagar c1-Merwa: these defined
IIIl' Nile and desert limits of Egyptian influence at one point in his reian
1I 1I11 not necessarily the actua l riverin e border). The Nubi an inscriptions
were parallel ed by one set up (perhaps rock-cut) in Naharin when the
pharaoh crossed the river Euphrates . Th e northeastern border with Asia
IVII S by the ca nal and fortress sys tem around Tjaru. The two
'," Iae 01Sen us ret erected in the fortress of Semna at the Seco nd
c ut.rruct (both 111 the Berl in Mu seum) are the best exampl es of bar-
d"1 stelae, The fi rst stela was set lip in year 8. the second in year 16. The
pharaoh addresses the troops at the southern border.
I II;,:Cestablished my border further south than my fathers,
increased that which was bequeathed to me . . .
/I coward is he who is driven from his border
for any son of who shall mainlain ;his border which my
has made, he IS my son . . . The Irue son is he who champions
Ill S' ather,. who guards Ihe border of his bcgeller. BUI he who abandons
II , who fads 10 fight for it , he is not my son, he was not born 10 me.
li lt' inscription concludes wi th the sta tement that the pharaoh had se t
III' lin at t he border so t hat the so ldiers stationed wo uld fight on
II Iochall. the Egypti an word employed (t ilt) doe s mean
IlIlm' . and could Impl y " one wit hin the fortress temple " it I
. ' I can a so
li lt 111I stela Itsel f. Whi chever was meant , it symbolized the
I'hllliloh s pre sence .
gilt attached by 10 or 12 twi sts aro und eac h end of the bow and se-
cured by one or more hitch es at one end . Good ex amples of strung
"" ws we re found wi th the bodi es of the sold iers of Menthuhotep II
buried at De ir e l-Bahari . There were 14 self-bows in the bur ial of Tu-
lankham un , varyi ng in length . The shortes t was 0 .67 met er and was
perhaps made for the pharao h as a child. Most of the bows we re
I; II'ge r, ran ging from 1.2 met ers to 1.77 meter s, with three over 1.9
ureters. The self-bow had a range o f perhaps 155-1 90 met ers .
III I\VS. 2. COMPOSITE BOWS. A laminat ed bow, sometimes ca lled a
"IIII I/}(} /l ll d bow. The form was de veloped in western Asia and replaced
lhe self-bow ther e. It was the bow of the Late Bron ze Age (New King-
" " Ill!. and qu ickl y adopted in Egy pt. Th ere is little firm ev ide nce for its
usc after the 20th Dynasty in Egypt , but it continued in use in wes tern
unt il the time of the Per sian Empire. The composite bow is dis-
in unstru ng, the bow has a dou ble-curved pro-
lilc, With an inward angle at the grip, but when strung, thi s angle be-
ru mcs external and the whole bow assumes a triangul ar profile. When
Ihl' how is drawn, it di spl ays a sweepi ng curve , the angle almost com-
pletel y d.isappear ing. The composi te bow has a woode n core (us ually
' I'h l, which was covered wi th a layer of sinew on the back and a layer
" I horn on the face. This is then covered with a shea th of bar k, usually
birch. This covering was decorated , often elabora tely. The tomb of Tu-
produced a collection of around 30 bows of di ffering
li t'S, some probably made for the pharaoh as a child (measuring 0 .34
uu-tcr) . The larger specimens , some elabor ately decorat ed , we re up to
1..1 met ers in length. The bowstrings were of gut (so me of Tu-
tunkharn un's in four-st rand twisted gut), which was probabl y attached
Ilr ltlllgh an eye . Th e composite bow had a range greater than the se lf-
huw, with a modern repli ca achieving 230- 260 met ers . In the classical
world. it see ms to have been effec tive up to 175 meter s.
Such bows are referred to as part of the gift exchange in the
1\ III arn a Letter s co ming from Mitanni , and it was as sumed that , be-
t'III IS!: of the materi al s employed in their manufacture , all co mposite
Ill llvs were impor ted. It is now certain that some we re manu factu red
III Egypt and that the bark (us ua lly birch) co uld be imported. Bi rch
hili k rema ins pl iab le for so me time , but even if it dr ies out, it ca n be
1I \1'd, if softened again. Scenes in the Theban tombs of Puyemre and
BOWS, 1. SELF-BOWS. The earlier type of bow consisted of a siru
pie woode n stave with gut string att ached . Thi s type III
the Early Bronze Age (Old Kingdom). In western ASia, It was It
placed by the co mposi te bow. In Egypt , the se lf-bow to "
widely used , especially by Nubian troops. The bowstri ngs wert' "I
BOUKOLOI. Troops recru ited in the countryside, es pec ially associato l
with the herdsmen of the Delta. They revolted in 171/172 AD and jo inl'd
a wider rebellion,led by a priest lsidoros , They were accused of ki llin '
and eating a Roman ce ntur ion. The force marched on Alexa nd r ia hili
was suppres sed by the governor of Syria , Avidius Cassius.
BOREDOM. Boredom must have affl icted troop s in many capacit ies
it is not abl y recorded in the text of Pap yru s Anastas i IV, reputedl y II
lett er from an official in an Asi ati c garrison. He complains tluu
ever ything he brought with him has vanis hed, although ther e is II"
one to rob him; the trees have no fru it , his eyes " turn longingly to thl
road that goes to Djahy" ; he is plagued by gnats , mi dges, and sand
fl ies acco rd ing to the time o f day ; the heat is unending and to cap II
all , the scribe wi th him has a tw itch and the toothache. The Scmuu
di spatches also record the tedi um o f ga rrison life wi th the ir monotn
nous records of small groups of nomadic Nubians . The pre sence "I
opium ve sse ls at Zawiyet Um m c1-Rakham that the
mi ght ha ve resorted 10 ex treme way s of 1,111
bored charioteer is a leitmotif o f bureaucratic lomb pamtings . S,
The east and west borders of Up per Egy pt and Nubia were much
mor e difficult to co ntrol. There were undoubtedl y watchtowers and
guard stations at the entrance to the Ni le Va lley major desert
roads . In the Roman period, a series of forts wa s built 111 Kharga DOl
sis and the vulnerable west end of the Fayum, at Dionysias . It ha.
been sugges ted that a series of sma ll forts protec ted the wes tern limit
of the Del ta and extended along the coast from Rakote vi a Knnu
Abu-Gir g, el-Ghar ba niyat , and Ala mein to Zawiyet Um m el
Rakham. There are also Roman for ts in the Eas tern Desert of Upper
Egypt. Th e most vulnerable border to the eas t wa s that whic h incl uded
the Ways of Horus and the fortress system of Tjaru and Pelusion.
52 • ImOOK·Or-l GYI'T
"l'l:n estima ted at 8.0-9.0 met ers or 11.0 met ers . Bastions or towers
were set every 5.0 met ers and there were large square corner towers,
per haps higher than the curta in wa lls . On the thr ee land ward sides,
' :lIup.arts comprising a berm and parapets with loophol es prot ected
1I' l: Citadel , Th e dit ch was 7.3 met ers wide and 3. 1 meters deep lined
with white gypsum plas ter. '
The basti on s had an elabor at e se ries of loophol es . A single embra-
vure opened onto triple loophol es . Th e embras ures were arranged in
two rows, the lower being flush with the floo r. Altogether, the bastion
I''' lIld accommoda te up to I0 or 12 archers , each with a vari ety of an-
,' Il's to shoot , enab li ng a devastatin g crossfire on any attackers.
The entrance to the inner fort was the west ga te, like the bar bican
III the outer defenses , a massive tower with double doors of wood and
II drawbridge on rollers. If the outer defenses were breac hed, the
lowl:r rampart s co uld eas ily have been reached , but the defense of the
"" ' hers in the bast ions wou ld have limited acc ess to the main walls
,iI the fort .Any attack on the wes t gate faced the same problems as
III Ihl' barbi cun. and even if access was ga ined, it led directl y onto a
\Il1 all ' quare with a bafll e wa ll formed by a main block of the mili-
1111 ." qunricrs . enabling the invaders to be surro unded.
l he huildings inside the ci tade l were laid out on a grid plan on
1111 ,'" terr aces sloping down from west to east toward the river. Two
III j;r1 ro;lds created three zones with the residence of the co mmandant
III Ihl' nor th , with the temple (pos sibly in the Middle Kingdom , cer-
IIII II ' y III the New Kingd om) . and with some ent repots and living
tcrs . In the ce ntral zone, the buildings were mainl y living quar-
" I' or work shops. The southern zone contained residences for the 01'-
I lI n , . with mor e barracks or work shops ,
The river defenses show that there was little fear of attack. Two
'I""ys proj ect ed over 21 met ers into the river. There was certainly one
gate, perh aps two.
The garrison at Buh en may have approached 2,000. The est imate
III ils defense need s, calculated on the length of wall, would requi re
I" III'"en 350 and 700 for the inner fort and 700 to I ,400 for the outer
,I, lcuscs .
lluhen was captured by the Kushit e rul ers of Kerrna in the 13th
IIYII II ,l y and occupied by a mixed garrison of Nubian troo ps with
, "Yllilan co mma nders. There was ev idence for maj or fires in some
Menkheperresonb show the manufacture of bows in the works hops 01
the templ e of Amun,
BUll EN. Major fortress and supply depot at the foo t of the Second
Cata r act. From here, the river was navigabl e without maj or obstnn
tion as far as the Fi rst Ca taract. Th ere were two fortifications: a VII I
outer enc los ure wall and the inner fort (or c itade l). The outer wa ll iru
tiall y served as the defense of the site while the inner fort was bci u
co nstr ucted. In the first stage , the outer wa ll was 4 met ers thi ck, wi rl,
32 rounded bast ion s set 22 met er s apart. It was later alt ered to a lI',iI l
with towers and made more secure by the construc t ion of the
barbi can gate and by a river wa ll co nnect ing it wi th the inner Iort, Ad
ditional defenses were the be rm (dry dit ch ) 6.0 met ers wide and II
meters deep that foll owed the sa me line as the wa ll wi th
where the towers , gates, and barbi can proj ect ed . Th e halte red "'
the ditch were face d in thick mud and white gypsum plas ter, The til
ers and wa lls had a batt ered base about I .SOmet ers high. The area I..
tween the base of the wa ll and the berm was paved in bri ck. On Iii
outer side of the berm, the countersca rp was topped with a brick WliI
from which a glacis descended to gro und level. In places , till: dill I
was cut into the escarpme nt , but elsewhere the scarp and co uun ,
sca rp were reve tted with wa lls of brick and roug h stone.
On the desert side, the main entrance was throu gh the barb icun
brick tower 47 meters long and 30 meters wide . It had projccun
square basti on s and a batt ered base . The tower was desi gned to 1' "
ve nt large numbers of troop s enteri ng at once. Th e barbican was .I,
vided by three gateways into two barnes (co urts) , the first wi th t
square basti ons overlooking it, the second with four.
The inner fort or ci tadel a lso had a surround ing ditch . It was a I
tangular structure, enc los ing an area 150 met ers by 138 met er s \I,t1
its main wall s being 5.0 met ers thi ck . The hei ght of the wa lls I,
Gr eek Rhinocorula or Rhinocorura, the mod
ern el-Aris h. At the seaward end of the Wadi el-Arish, it formed tln
boundary bet ween Egy pt and the empi re of Assyria and probah h
that between Egypt and Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar II .
54 • BUl l
CAMllYSr s (RUGNW 53 0 -522 BC, IN [ GYPT f ROM 525 BC) • 55
priests; the we re tu is both a civi l administrator and military official; the
"/ilil/a was both the court of magistrates and co uncil of war ; tnesha and
ttcset were words applied to both the army and gangs of workme n.
In the 18th Dynasty , with the introduction of chariots and horses,
became the second sk ill that defined a member of the elite.
I Ills IS shown by the length of time autobiographies accord to study
III "school" and time "in the stables ." The scenes of reward at
Aurarna show that recor ds of gi fts distributed to officials were bein
"I' ll
in Simil arly, in sce nes of the aftermath of
',<' nhes are .keeplllg records of the severed hands and phall uses of the
dead enemies . There are ma ny versions of the texts , oft e n known co l-
,1'.'l" llvely as a scri be," whic h were used as wri ti ng exerci ses .
I hcsc emnhas lze the easy life of the sc ribe , compared wit h that of all
IIIher workers, especially that of a so ldier.
- C-
I (re igned 530-52211C, in Egypt from 525 IIC), Great King
" I and : uler of Egypt. Camoyses was the son of Cyrus the Great,
1111 ' 0 1 the power of the Persian Achae menid dy nas ty. The Per-
1111 1 b nplre had rapidly with its conquest of Babylon and
11 ,,' Empire and its defeat of the Median ki ng
whos e ernpire st retc hed across north Me sopotamia into Ana-
' "11 '1 . Cyrus did not attempt to attack Egypt, under the rule of Ahmose
II ' ,' Hil ,the present ed the major threat to Persian rul e in western
\\1'1 . '. reparati ons for the advance on Egypt involved the format ion of
" navy and the co nsolida tion of Persian contro l of the eastern
The Persians gai ned control of Egy pt' s main ally,
I ,\'Il/·us . and sought assistance from the Ar a bs who co ntrolled the dif-
I I, lilt route across the Sinai Peninsul a. The new Persian fleet was not
" IIl 'y tor action until 526, and the opport unity for invasion came with
IIIl' dl'ath of Ahmose and accession of his son Psamtik III.
• 'l'1i: Egyptian and Persian ar mies engaged in the eas tern Delt a, ncar
I d ll.\lun: The Egyptians were de feated and retreated to Memphis .
IIll' l'crsian hera ld, who was sent to seek the city's surrender, was
I llh'd. and Me mphis was besieged. falling after 10 days. Psamti k III
., 1;lken into captivi ty and, acc used of foment ing a rebellion, put to
parts of the fort, pro bab ly associ ated wi th its ca pture . The for t was I'"
occ upied during the Theb an expa nsion, at the end of the 17th and tlil'
beginni ng of the 18th Dynast ies, in the reig ns of Kamose and
mose . It was ex tens ive ly re fort ifi ed , but during the lat er New Kill!'
dom, its mi lita ry role declined , altho ugh it must have remained all
important staging post and depot. Fo llowing the Egyptian wi thdra wal
fro m Nubia at the end of the 20 th Dy nas ty, Buhe n wa s aban do nr. l
until a peri od of reoccupation in the 25th Dyn asty. As in the Iortrcs sv
at Semna , Kurnma , and Qasr Ibrim, the templ e was restored h\
Ta ha r qo, and Buhen ce rta inly had a garrison and served as a stag iu '
pos t. There is no evidence for later mil itary activity here .
BULL. The bull was one of the characteristic images of the phuruoh
from Predynast ic times onward. The pharaoh as bu ll appea rs tram
pi ing and goring an enemy (perhaps a Libyan).on. a slate ( )11
the Na r mer Pal ett e, he appears as a bull demoli shing a fortifl ca tlon
Th rou ghout the New Kingdom, each pharaoh was procl aimed 0
" Horus , the mighty bul l." At the battl e of Qadesh , Ramesses II wn
" firm-hearted like a bull ready for battle ," and in the texts or III
Libyan war of year 5, Ramesses III is de scribed as " like a bull suuul
ing on the battl e field, hi s eyes on his horn s, prepared ready to III
tack his assai lants with his head ." Milita ry standa r ds give the 1H1I1 1l
of some of the platoo ns of the ar my, which often have 0,1' Iii
pharaoh such as " Bull of Nub ia ." The bu ll was associated wit h ,
number of gods , including Mont hu ,
BUREAUCRACY, Egypt wa s one of the most bureaucratic civi lII ,
tion s of the ancient world and th is certainly extended to the arcn u "
war. Because writing wa s the access to hi gh office and indl catc.l
member of the elite, all high officials we re literate . Indeed , so me "
erals, such as Horemheb, erected statues of themsel ves as scri be . I
the Old Kingdom , a maj or milit ar y ex pedition was placed undci II
command of'Weni , presumabl y because his organizationa l skills WI '
of greater importance than those of the co mma nders of levies . ,
The inti mate rel ationship between mi litary and burea ucracy I S , "
phasized by the ter mino logy, in which ma ny military terms and 1111
have direct parallel s in civi l and priestly spheres. For example, II
wor d sa for a co mpany or regiment of troops is the same as a pily/.
C''' MP' ,Scenes. o f bailie of Qadesh show the camp encircled by a wa ll
III shields with ga teways flanked by images of lions. The royal en-
stands at the center with large tents . There are area s where
rh arlots are being repaired and checked, and donkeys ar e being given
Elsewhere , a foot sor e soldier is being treated; a man is drin k-
a water skin: is. a dis pute over rations; men are fight -
II I); , whi le others are sittmg doing not hing and being berated for it.
t Egypt' s nearest ne igh bor in western As ia , so me times in-
111 the looser term Retenu. The name is Kenaa n in both Egy pt-
ran and Hebrew and Kinakhkhi or Kinakhni in Akka dian (e.g., the
Ama rna Letters). Canaan compri sed the plain betwee n the Mediter-
ruucan on the west and the Dead Sea and Jordan Va lley on the eas t
II lId included important towns , such as Gaza, Joppa , and J erusalem.
,II, north as far as the modern border o f Israel and Lebanon.
IS evidence for a stro ng Egypt ian presence along the w as t
III Canaan Gaza northward ) in the Early Bron ze Age , perhaps
With the passage o f ships to Byblos. In the later part of the
Middle Bronze Age , so uthern Canaan became a strong ho ld of the
who a maj or base at Sharuhen . Fo llowing the Egyptian
rump.ugns agai nst the Hyksos and the ca pture o f Sharuhen by Ah-
II1":' C, the EgyptJa.ns absorbed Canaa n in a series of campaigns ,
which ca used massive destructi on of town s. Th er e is evide nce for de-
1'" r ta tion of some o f the pop ulation. Canaa n was divided into city-
uucs. although there we re also some seasonally nomad ic groups ,
II l'b as the Shasu . The Egypt ians installed garrisons and imposed
1II'hl control on the local ruler s . There is co nsi de rable ev ide nce about
l i lt' reg ion in the Ama rna Letter s . In the rei gn s o f Sety I and
Illlmcsses II, ther e wa s another series of campa igns to re-enforce
. It was ass ume d that the acquisition of the camel was a contributory
fact or 111 the ex pans ion of the B1emmyes , a people of the Eastern
Desert of Lower Nu bia , but in the light of the Qasr Ibrim ma teria l this
I11USt now be quest ioned. Nevertheless , the camel must have made the
long-dist ance raids into Upper Egypt and Kharga Oasis
lcusible. There are two- and three-dimensional images o f camels and
riders from Meroe, and texts show that the desert routes from the
lourth Cataract were bei ng used ex tens ively in the first centur ies AD.
CAMELS. The came l was domesti cated in Arabia and first appears III
a mi litary contex t in the scenes of the war of Ashur banipal , III
Assyr ia , against the Arabs in the seventh century Be . It was, until II
cently, thou ght that the camel was not used in Egypt until the Perxi II I
per iod. However, excavations at Qasr Ibrim.identifie d
within a sealed-contex t, whic h dates to early 111 the first millenunnu
Be. Neverthe less, dep icti on s o f came ls are rare be fore Ptolemaic 11 11"
Roman times . The Sele ukid kin gs of Syri a deployed came l-hili II
troops , but they we re used as pack animals for conveyance of 511 1'
pli es and baggage. The Roman army also used ca mel-borne trlllll'
the dromedarii .
death. With the capture o f Memphis, Cambyscs receive d the subrnis
sion of the Greek cities in Li bya, Cyre ne , and Barca.
The cvents of Cambyses' invasion are recorded by Herodot os , but
he is extre me ly host ile to the Per si an rul er , as are othe r anci ent tradi
tions, particu larly those from Egypt itsel f. Herodot os repor ts a failed
attempt by Cambyses to inv ade Nubia , which probabl y masks. ae
tions on the southern frontier . The ev ide nce sugg es ts that the Persian
did have some control of Lower Nubi a , perhaps as far as the Seco nd
Cataract with the fortress of Dor gina r t i as their base . There was CCI
taiuly dipl omati c contact with Meroe, and the Ku shite rulers sup
pli ed troops that fought in the Per si an invasio n o f Greece . Kush ap
pears as the last of the satrapies in Persian li sts and probably
represents Lo we r Nubia, the admi nistrati ve di stri ct s lat er known II
the Dodekaschoinos and the Triakontaschoinos .
Cambyses is also reported to have sent anot her faile d expedition to
the wes tern Oases . Agai n, the hostilit y to the king in tradition may COl '
ceal a success. II is certa in that Kharga Oasis was unde r Persian CIIII
trol in the reign of Cambyses' successor, Darius I, who bui lt the tC11I
pie of Hibis and the chapel within the fortress of
A brie f, but contemporary, Egy ptian account 01 the Persian II1Vll
sion is to be found in the autobiogra phica l inscri ption on the statue III
Wedjahor resne t , comma nde r of the navy in the reigns of Anmosv II
and Psamti k III .
The death of Cambyse s and accession of Darius I saw wi despread
rebell ion in the Per si an Empire, although it is unknown whether
Egypt was also involved.
56 • CAMUS
5 8 • CANAl
Egy ptian co ntro l in response to Hittit e acti viti es farther north , The re-
gio n remained firml y under Egyptian contro l throughout the 19th and
earl ier 20th Dynasties. There is evi de nce for the destruction of major
sites and the end of Egyptian rule in the reign of Ramesses VI.
CA NAL. Al though a regul ar feature of Egy pt' s irr igati on patt ern ,
canals we re also used for de fensive purposes and were made to faeil
itate navigatio n through the Fi rst Cataract. The most important de
fensi ve ca nal was that whic h guarded the easte rn border , through
Tja r u . depicted on reliefs of Sety I as fi lled with crocodiles and
ca lled " the dividin g waters. " The largest ca nal was that through thv
Wadi Tumilat begun by Nekau II and completed or enlarged by
Darius I. Pt olemy \I clea red the canal , and Traj an later extended it t"
Babylon. All ca nals needed reg ular maintenance and clearance I"
prevent them from either silti ng or sa nding up .
CARCHEMISH (Ka r kamis). City of north Syria on the River Ell
phrates. It was the site of a battle (605 Be) between the ar mies "I
Nekau II and Babylon, whose forces were led by Prin ce Nell
ucbadnezzar. The Egy ptia ns had es tablished themsel ves within thl'
city. Ousted by the Babylon ians , there was a second batt le m::11
Hamath as they retreated southward.
CATARACTS OF T HE NILE. Major obstacles to navigation , some ",
which served as frontiers bet ween Egy pt and the kingdoms of Nuhlu
All of the cataracts lie within the reg ion of sandstone, south of Gchcl
Si lsila in Upper Egypt and are points where the underl ying grunlu
rocks break through, impeding the nort hward now of the river and l' ll
ating rapids and islands. The princ ipal cataracts are numbered fWII \
north to south, sma ller ones are named . From the Fi rst Cataract to Ih.
delt a, there are no major obstructions to navigation (except sandbanks!
The First Cataract. The large island of Abu (Elephantine) stand
at the foot of the Fi rst Cataract and was the site of an important sr i
tlement from late Predyna stic times onward. Elephanti ne seems ori '
inally to have bee n an Egyptian trading cen ter wi thi n Nubia n tci u
tor y, but by the time of the unificati on of Egypt it marked Ih
southern fronti er. Both Elephantine and the later mainl and seulcmcul
of Syene (As wa n) always rema ined the southern border of Egypl
territories to the south ge nerally co ming under the rul e of des-
officials, from the beginning of the l Sth-Dynasty-s tyled
vicero y. At the head of the cataract was the fortress of Senmut
by some to have bee n on the island of Bigga , with a port 01;
the opposite. A military road and defensive wall connected
Aswan WIth the port. Nu merous inscriptions are carved on the uran-
ire rock s throughout the Fir st Ca tarac t reg ion recording military ea rn-
In the period , a fortres s was on the mainland opposite
the Island of Phil ae, par t of a de fensive net work of watchtowers
throug hou t Uppe: Egypt. A canal was constructed thro ugh the
cataract near the Island of Sehel in yea r 8 of Senusret I and call ed
"The ways of Khakaure (Se nusre t T) are forever." It was 150 cubits
(approximately 80 meter s) , 50 cub its wid e (26 met er s) , and 15
(8 meter s) dee p. Th e canal was cleared aga in in the rei gns of
.1 I a!ld III , do ubtless to ease navigat ion of fleet s
uno Nubia. DIfficulties in keeping it clear of boulders co uld have led
I" the creation of the port at the head of the ca taract.
'I1, e Second Cataract. Although there were smaller rapids and
catar acts , suc h as the "Kalabs ha Gate ," in Lower Nubia, the river was
navigabl e as far as Buhen at the foot of the Second Ca taract. The
of 12th Dynasty, not ably Se nusr et I and Senus r et III
established cataract , actua lly an extended series of rap ids and is-
lnuds, as their southern border. The Second Ca taract is situated in the
barren Nubi an where there is ver y little cultivab le land on the
riverbanks and Isl and s. The ca tara ct begin s at Semna, where the Nile
lorce d through the narrowest point of its whol e length. This rocky
f'orge was dominated by the forts of Semna and Kumma. Northward
lor .a distance "?" 7? ki lometer s, there were islands and rapids:
made navigau on difficult, This whole regi on was controlled by
II series small fortresses bui lt on the wes t bank and islands at sig-
lI ullng distance from eac h ot her and co ntrolling the separate sma ll
"lItar:lcts. Th ese fort s, Ur onarti , Shall'ak, and Askut, have simi lari-
Ib or design and were probably the work of one architec t. At Mir-
boats were taken fro m the river and dragged over the great
llpway, Buhen, at the foot of the ca taract was a major supply and de-
I'llt lor the goods brought from the south.
'11,,' Dal Cataract. So uth of the Second Ca tara ct lies an inhos -
pllllhlc region with rel ati vely few anci ent remain s. At Tangu r north of
60 • CAVAl KY
Dal are rock inscripti ons recording military expeditions , not abl y III
Thutmose III . South of the Dal Ca taract there is more fert ile land
not abl y the island of Sai.
The Thin/ Cataract. Th e Thi rd Ca taract marks the northern end III
the Dongol a-Napnta Reach of the Ni le. This was a rich reg ion III
arable- or pas ture land and was the ce nter of the kingdo m of
with its main c ity at Kerma and, lat er the Kushite state , which con
quered Egypt (t he 25th Dynasty). With the Egy ptian reoccupati ou ut
Lower Nubia in the rei gns of Kamose and Ahmose, there were ;H
tivit ies south of the Second Ca tarac t, doubtless to sec ure it as a sail
southern frontier. The fortress on the island of Sai was built in till
rei gn of Ahmose or that of Amenhotep I. However, the power of III.
Kerma rul ers co ntinued and a for tress was built on the isl and 01" 1\11 11
bos in the Thi rd Ca taract. A rock inscripti on of Thutmose I at 1'11 111
bos ind icates thi s as his so uthern border.
The Fourth Cataract. The Fourt h Cataract marked the limit III
Egypti an co ntrol along the Nil e in Nubia in the New Kingdom. COlli
ing from the south, the Nile and Atba ra Ri ver s join, mo ving nollh
ward in a great arc through barren desert. This stretch of the river 11,1
numerou s islands, no sig nificant culti vable land , and when thc I i\ I I
began to now so uthwest. the crosswi nds and curre nts render
tion impossibl e. The river becomes navigable agui u in the reig n 01til
modern town of Kareima, c lose to the ancien t of Nupatu all'
Gebe l Barkal . Throughout history, the de sert roa ds crossi ng If,
Bayuda bet ween Sa nam and Mcre e have bee n pre ferred to the rill
route. The Fourth Cataract therefore marked a natural sou thern lilill
to Egy ptian expa nsion. It is possible that the New Kingdom pharaoh
cros sed the Bayuda to Irem and Miu , but the locati on of these tl' lIl
tories so far south is still co ntrovers ial. The desert roads from LOll
Nu bia, lea ving the river at Korosko, regained the river in the vici nu
of Ab u Hamed and Hagar el-Merwa, where rock insc riptions •
Thutmose I and Thulmose III mark an Egy ptian front ier. Egy puu
sec uri ty of thi s desert route was to prot ect the gold min es of Ikuyu
CAVALRY. The horses used in the 18th Dynasty see m to have htl
small, and it is only very rare ly that a figure is shown riding onc. Sli l
di es were not used and the riding of horses seems to have been l"1I1
fined to scouts or moments of emergency : the Libyan prin ce, ' 10
uukht, is sa!d to have mounted his horse and ned Memphis , wi thout
lisklllg for his chariot. Cavalry did not become a signi fica nt force un-
ul Late Assyr ian period . Stephan ie Dall ey has chart ed the in-
, " ':lslIlg .01' cavalry as revea led by the Assyrian texts . These sug-
rl"st that initially (e .g., at the battl e of Qarqar in 853 BC) one horse
II l1 d rider alongside each chariot. In slightly lat er Assyrian
' :'/lel S, a pall' of riders accompani es each chariot , but by the time of
II cavalry were outnumberi ng chario ts . Although the records
III the Qarqar show that cavalry was bei ng used alo ngsi de
I h.uiot s I.n Syr ia, so me wes tern states , such as Israel , had no cavalry
,,' nl]. Thi s was presumably due to pre ference , rat her than inab ility to
1lI ''i lllrC hOI:ses . The inscription of Pi ye , the principal Egypt-
1','11 text for thi s does not indicate the use of cavalry by either
I' typuan or Kushite forces, Although cha riots co nti nued to be used
'""y were supplanted by the mor e versa tile ca valry in lat er wa rfare:
l lu- cava lry were an important eleme nt in the army of the Ptol ema ic
1"'1 i.ul, placed on the wings . Ilan king the phalanx.
f II,\ONNOI' II RIS (ANKH.WENNEFER) (r eigne d ]97-]86 Be)
I 1''',' 1pharaoh In the rci un of Ptolemy V successor to Ha I .
• <0 , • • • rOllllop IriS.
III, 1l'lgn .appears to have begun in 197, but he continued the regnal
\ 1'11 1 III IllS predecessor. Before the end of the year, Ptolemy V' s ar my
II "'i1 I1 IL'd control 0: Thebes and Chao nnophris went n0I1h, perhaps as
1.11 as.th,e Lykopolite nome (Asy ut) . He successfully cut off the Greek
.uIII )' 111 rhebes . Although the region from Thebes to Ahu (Elephantine)
"s controlled by the Ptolemaic army, it was cut off from the north .
1IIIIIId 1? 4 . the Greek in Thebes gave up the town and went up-
' " ' 11111. Chaonnophns still co ntrolled the Theban region in year 14 of
"'"l l'lIly V ( 189/ 188), but by the summer of 187 IJC it was in the hands
II I I V. Chaonnophri s had been driven from Thebes and had ned
III Nubia. On the 27 Aug ust 186 BC, Kornan os, co mmanding the ar my
1111 /'llIlemy V, defeated Chaonnophris and his Nubian support .
It \/lIOT, (Egyptian: wereryt or tnerkebers The int rod uct ion of the
11/111 ' two-whee led chariot dr iven by horses was the most radical de-
, IlIpl."Cnt in ea rly v:arfare. In the Ea rly and Middle Bronze Ages (the
t , \'I'tlan Old and Mi ddle Kingdoms), in fantry domi nated warfare. In
1I 11 llwrn Mesopotam ia (Sumer), four-wheel ed chariots dri ven by lour
62 • CHARIOT · 63
Construction. Chariots are made of a frame of bent wood covered
with leather. The heavier ceremonial chariots have gi lded leather or
wooden panels with colored glass and stone inlays. The chariots had a
w I"y wide wheel track to ensure stability on fast tums . The chariot in the
1'IIII"el1l:e Museum has a narrower wheel track than the Tutankhamun
rx. nuples. The car was approximately hip-high and fully open at the
Il'al". which made it easy to j ump into qu ickly. The car was wide enough
IIIhnkl two peopl e standing side by side: one from Tutankhamun 's tomb
was 1.02 meters wide by 0.44 meter deep. The axle was made of ash
II l1d in one example measures 2.3 meters in length. In all surviving char-
illls, the axle is placed at the rear, although in some artistic represent a-
IllIns the axle and wheel have been moved forward, making them cen-
lIal lo the body. The floori ng is a leather thong mesh. The pole, usually
III el m, was heat-bent and about 2.89 meters long. The whee ls had fel-
It ",s of ash, spokes of evergreen oak , and spoke lashings of birch bark.
1I 1l' curlier chariots had whee ls with four spokes: later chariots had six-
wheels. Thutmose IV is depicted in a chariot with six-spoke
wlu-cls III battle with Asiatics, who are using chariots with four-spoke
wheels. In the scenes of Ramesses III' s battles, the Libyans drive char-
l"ls with both four- and six-spoke wheels. Chariot whee ls, fel loes, and
were made from heat-treated wood. To make a spoke, single
I'll'r cs of wood were bent at 90 degrees (for 4- spoke) or 60 degrees (six-
and glued back to back. Wet rawhi de was bound around them at
IIIl' nave and then lashed with birch bark lor waterproofing. Tires were
" , leat her, Egyptian chariots were light weight , one modem replica
\\'l'ighing 34 kilograms.
,I"//uisitio/l of chariots. Chariotry is first menti oned in the second
,1'1 :1 or Kamose as belongin g to the Hyksos. The earli est depicti on
»t u chariot appears to be in the tomb of Renni at el Kab (Nekheb) of
II,,' rime of Amcnhotc p I. Chariots then begin to appear more Ire-
IllH' lltIy in both text s and sce nes . The accounts of battles , such as the
" vtx or Ahrnose son of Eba na , show that chariots we re still rather
' "Il ' ill Egy pt in the ear ly 18th Dynasty and those ca ptured were pre-
1' lItl'd to the pharaoh . The ca pture or numerous horses and cha riots
III Ihc ca mpaigns of Thutmose III sugg ests that the Egyptians were
11 11 Irying to increase their numbers. A fragment of a tomb painting
''''111 the tomb of Nebamun (reign of Thutrnose IV) shows a cha riot
dlllWIl by mules or hinni es (t he offspring of a she-ass by a stallion) .
donkeys (or onage rs) are att ested from Ur. They were presumahl '
heavy, relativel y slow- mov ing vehic les , as they had solid, rather thall
spoked, wheels: a solid wheel of oak, one meter in diameter, CIIII
we igh over 100 pounds. These chariots see m to have served as right
ing platforms. Th ere is no ev idence for anything simi lar from Egypt
Th e chariot appeared in the Near East and Egypt in the middle III
the seco nd mill ennium Be and was rap idly ado pted in all co untries
Earlier sc holarship attributed the appearance of the chariot and dll
mesticated hor se to new gro ups arr ivi ng in the region. Th ese 11'1'11
thought to be Indo-European spea kers and to represent a horse-breed
ing, char iot-owning aristocracy (the "Aryans") , which was tu donII
nate the Late Bronze Age . The Kassi t e dynasty in Babylon , the 11111
rians of Mit a nni , and, more ge nerally, a class ca lled the mu ri yannu
wer e all thought to rep resen t these north ern invader s. It is now clcm
that the char iot devel oped in Eastern Anatolia not northern Europe
The supposed racial or igins of the Kassites and I Iurrians can also I"
disco unted, and the mariyannu , although ce rtai nly char ioteers, 11'1' 11
not an ethnic group nor an exclus ive warrior caste . The int roduction
of chariotry into Egypt is acc redited to the Hyk sos .
Survi ving examples. The ev ide nce for the char iot in Egypt COl li
from a number of sources . There are numerou s de pictio ns of charuu
in Egyptian art . They appear in temple reliefs of batt les and are Iouml
in scenes in private tombs showing hunt ing and official life . The:
are also complete examples and numerous fragments of chariots Sill
vivi ng . El even compl ete exa mp les , all of the later 18th Dynasty, huv
been recovered from tombs at Thebes . One exa mple, now in the 1'111
renee Museum, is from a private tomb, the remainder come from th
Valley of the Kings. The body of a char iot was found in the tomh II
Thut mose IV, decorated wi th scenes of battl e. Co mplete exampk
were in the tomb of Yuya, himself a military official and father II
Queen Tiye , wife of Amcnhote p III. The largest number of exum
pies , six in all , comes from the tomb of Tuta nkhamun . Th ese III
eluded ce remo nia l chariot s and light war vehicles. Fragme nts hal'
been recovered from the tombs of Amcnhot ep II and Amenhotep III
The larger royal tombs of the Ramesside period had a room called th
" house of go ld" or "the chariot hal l." Thi s hall is named on a papyru
with a plan of a royal tomb, pro bab ly that of Ramesses IV, now 1'1
served in the Tur in Museum .
64 • C1 IARIOT
The Ama rna Letters al so document the import of chariots as pall
of the royal girt exchange system. The surv iving lett ers of till"
arc hive reveal a total o f 3 1 chariots, each with its pai r o f horses,
whic h we re sent to Egy pt as gree ti ng gifts from Babylon and Mi
tanni . In add ition there were several very special chariots, such as thl'
royal chariot outlined for Assur-uballi t of Assyria, which he se nt as II
greeti ng gift with its two white horses . Some chariots were se nt full
outli ned; others are specilied as not outlined . The lavishn ess of SOIIlI
of the royal chariot equ ipment is revealed by the det ail ed descript ion
among the gifts sent by Tushra na of Mi tan ni to Ame nhotep III at th
time of his marr iage to the Mitann ian princess , Tadu-Heba. The cluu
iot was gilded using 320 shekels of go ld. The equi pment included Olll
whi p overla id with five shekels of go ld, wi th kilt/lalli-stone mounts
The letter detail s other items clea rly related to horse trapping
so me in leather with lapi s lazuli , and gold amo unti ng to 26 shekel
and 4 shekels of silver. Ther e we re also neckla ces for the horses II
ing 88 stones per string and 44 shekels of gold; a set of br idl es wilh
ivory blinkers , and orname llts o f go ld amo unting to 60 shekels; a Sl' I
o f rein s overlaid with silve r and ornaments of gold totaling (,II
shekels; one set of snaffles of silver, 50 shekels in we ight; one pUll
of gloves trimmed with red wool; one leather hail er with all achmc lll
o f klwlalu-stone inl aid with lapi s lazuli and a ce nterpiece of khilihll
stone mo unted on lapi s lazul i. and with lapi s and gold ornamc ut
from the straps . The det ail of the amo unts of precious met al and suuu
used was not only a sa feguard against theft , but also an irnport uut
economic feature: correspondi ng amo unts we re expe cted in return
Elsewhere in the leit ers arc references to a leather cuirass set 1111
horses, wit h rings of bronze , and two hel met s of bronze for horses
It was once assumed that because the spo ke lashiup
of birch bark had been app lied whi le green, the whee ls and chariots h,lIl
been made in countries where the materials were avai lable locallv
probably in Armenia, somewhere between the Caspian Sea and Trclu
zond. However, it is now known that birch bark can be transport ed ulld
used. Although chariots initiall y had to be imported and reserves hiliII
up through ca ptures, sce nes of chariot ma nufac ture make it certai n tlll.1
the surviving examples, and probabl y the majority of chariots in u. I
were actually manu factu red in Egy pt. A sce ne showing the prescnm
tion of "gifts" to Hatshepsut in tomb 73 at Thebes shows chari ut
along a wide range of other produ ct s of royal workshops . Sce nes
111 the mid -I Sth Dynasty tombs of Hepu, Puyemre, Qenamun at Thebes
the ma nufacture of chariots and whee ls in the state (i .e., templ e
A late-1 8th Dynast y relief in the tomb of Ipuia
Suqqar a shows a whee l being made in a royal or temple
workshop, where are producing stat uary, a stela, and
' lillie vessels. The surv ivmg captio n above one of the chariots in The-
hall tomb 72 .reads " a great chariot (werery!) of shendl'1-wood of Kush
decorated with gol d." Thi s pres uma bly means thai the chariot
made the royal workshops from wood from Kush , showi ng an early
adaptation to non-Asiatic supplies . A frag me ntary whee l from the tomb
III Amenhotep III uses tamar isk wood, an Egy ptian nat ive , with im-
ported elm. Amenhotep II brought wood for chariots from Mit ann i. lt
seems, that much of Mit anni was unwooded and the materi -
als were bei ng Import ed from even farth er north , The chariot co m-
prised a num ber of eleme nts that were eas ily damaged or broken , ax le,
pole, and spokes, and there is evide nce for the transport of extra char-
1111 poles and other eleme nts to allow for repair s in camp. Th e eco-
nonuc tablets from Pyl as in Greece record 200 pair s of wile I d
Ires an
WOOl ? r 100 suggesting that considera ble number s of spare
(',lItS l111gl:t be A papyru s document of the Ramesside peri od
Bntl sh Museum 10247) note s the visit of an Egy ptian
l harioteer 111 Canaan to a chariot repai r shop in Joppa.
I' IIARIOTEER. Many monuments show charioteers of different
ruuks. early in the New Kingdom, the elite were train ed in the
t of and it is possible that so me form o f nat ional service
III the chariot corps wa.s Scenes of batt le conve ntionally
vhuw the pharaoh alone 111 his chariot, the reins tied aro und his waist.
III the account o f the batt le of Qadesh , Ramesses II specifically
, Ia les he no charioteer wi th him, altho ugh he was accompa-
uicd by his shield bearer.
I The Egyptian chariot was a lightwei ght ve-
hldc. that carried two people, the driver iketjen or kedjens and the
The. dri ver co uld also act as de fende r, carryi ng the
hicld. Eg,Yplian chariot wa rriors we re a rcher s first but also ca rried
weapons lor hand-to-hand co mbat: the khepesh, axe , and spea r . Th e
66 • CI II O I'S
re liefs of the battle of Qadesh show the region al di ffer ences . in pall
dictated by terrain. T he Hittites used a heavier type of chariot , ap
parcnt ly with solid sides. whic h carricd three people . Its axle was
pl aced at the middle of the body, Thi s made it a slower- moving vehi
cle than the Egyptian chariot. T he soldiers it carries are shown with
the shor t stabbing spea r, and the Hill ites appear to have used thcu
chariots for cl ose co mbat , charging lines of ene my infantry.
The records of balli es indicate very large number s of chariots bciur
deployed, but whether they were all used at one time remai ns uncl em
II clai ms that ther e we re 2,500-3,000 Hilli te chariots at thr
ball le of Qadesh.
Ther e has been some disput e over how chariots were de ployed III
baili e . It was once suggested that chariots we re dri ven to a point. al1l
tha t then the wa rrior di smounted and fired . It is ce rtain that the Chili
iot act ually functioned as a movi ng firi ng platform: nu merou s relici
indicate tha t the archers fired while the chariot was being driven. Th.
co nstruction of the Egyptia n cha riot allowed a small tuming circle
perhaps enab ling the cha riot to be dr iven in one charge , ar rows loosed
and the cha riot swiftly turn ed for a second return cha rge . Bail ie SCCIIl'
such as those of Qadesh show the two chari ot lines cha rging at ClI\ II
ot her. Even wi th chariots arranged in several lines , the numbers \I
ported in some conflicts would have resulted in very long lines, whi. II
would have been feasible on ly on flat plains. As the biblica l narrutiv
makes clear, so ft sand also hindered chariots beca use it " cl ogged lh l l l
chariot wheels and made them lumber alon g heavil y."
CHREMONlDEAN WAR (268/267 or 265/264-262/261 II C). Na llll 0
afte r Chremo nides, a politician in At hens , who negot iated all 111 111
Macedonian alliance . The resulti ng war beginning in 268/2CJ7 ,
265/264 and lasting unti l 262/261 saw the active invol
l "
Ptol emy II in Greece. The Egyptians sent naval forces and eslll
li shed bases wi th gar risons on the mainl and , at , for eXIlIlIl'1
Methana in the Peloponnese , which was renamed Arsi noe . Witl: II I
failure of the wa r, Chremonides and hi s brothe r Glaukon Ikd I
ClEOf'ATRA • 67
I Chremonides later co mma nd d
was defeat ed at the baili e o f Rhode .e Pt ol emaic fleet , which
lind Sy r ia n War. s 111 circa 258 BC during the Sec-
C' IVIL WAR. The nature of the ev idence . .
Icrmediate Period s to times 1" ifi c?nfi nes Civil wars to the In-
. , ' 0 reurn icatron 0 tl PI ' .
(whic h IS beller documented ) Th " 1 to ema ic peri od
arc in many cases dyna ti ' e CIVI wars 01 the Ptol emai c peri od
, < S IC wars altho ug h th
hy disaffected groups All docur ere we re al so rebellions
. . oc ume nted civi ! b
IIl IIl C period were power stru les betw I .wars the Ptol e-
evidence fo r "popular" . een elite factions: there is no
, upnsll1gs Du ri ng th F'
rioi l differe nt nornarchs in M' j II ' e rrst Int ermediate Pe-
. , I( ( e and Uppe E'
II val dyn ast s Ther e W'IS . . . . I' gypt we re support ing
, . , a maj or Civil d isturb .
reign of Ramesses XI Th ' . . '. l ance 111 T hebes in the
. , . ere W<lS OPPOSition to R ' . I ' ,
.ucly after the conquest of th oma n IUe imrnedi-
. e co untry by A t
I'lIl11 tS. This wa s ge nerally dealt wi I ugus us, and at lat er
prefect . In most of the ' t II I (not alwa ys successfully) by the
. illS ances noted the . .
uuthori ty wa s loc ali zed ' I ' ' OPPOSition to the ce ntra l
, ,1I1( IS more pro perl " b II' "
tcctcd groups . rath er tl1'111 civil ' y re e IOn by dis af-
hulk of the popul ati on, ' wa r involving the who le co untry and
t ' IVILlANS. In all mi litary actions it i I . ..
common pol icy in ancient f ' s t ie Civil ians who suffer. A
. . . war are wa s to cut d
rcqursi no n, or destroy CI'Op ' If h own orchards and
, ' s. not t at the ' ..
Ili g of armies on the m I I ' rrnposur ons and Iorag-
ov e (ep eted foo d lies . .
hattie scenes o f Sety I d R supp res. In the Asi atic
an amesses 11 'I tl .' .
towns with the ir occupants b . . are ie sieges 01 forti fied
, , ' urnll1g II1cen se as ' I'
I he Egy pti an conques t o f C . a sign 0 sur re nder.
. ana an 111 t he ea I 18 h D
1I 1:l SSlVe dest ruct ion of s ttl I' y t ynas ty saw
e eme nts some I' I ' I
ru pied. Similarl y in N bi K ' 0 Wuc 1 were not reoc-
, , II ra, erma suffe d d .
l'ollowi ng mil itar y raid I . re estructi on by fire.
, ' s am campaigns b tl ' I I' .
II l1 ght be capture d and ! ' k . , () 1 so cners and Civilia ns
a en to Egypt a I
lIIuse son of Ebana. : as s aves . The text s of Ah-
ana, amona othe rs list su h .
nuihorities also us ed (Iepo-t ti . , c capnves . T he Egyptian
, . r a IOn to rem I
III II S. such as the Cannanit h ove arger groups of civil-
, ' , es w 0 were tra d
klllgS of Assyria also used th l' to Klis h . The
e po ICy o f deportation ex tensively.
CLERUCHS. A Greek term for veteran soldiers give n grants of land and
settled in communit ies , The policy wa s begun by Pt olemy I , who
wished to encoura ge Greek settlement in Egypt. His veterans were
mainly of Greek or Macedonian ori gin , with some Asi atics (from tht"
fonner Per sian army) , In the reign of Ptolemy II , much of the Fayum
was brou ght under cultivation and cleruchies were establis hed through
out the region , Initiall y, the land grants were only for the lifetime of thl'
c1er uch, but they soon became hered itary in practice , legall y formal
lzed by the pJrilalltJrropa o f Ptol emy VI II ( 118 BC) followi ng the ch'lI
war, Fo llowing the battle of Raphia (2 17 BC) , there were cleruchu
grants to Egyptia n machimoi , many in the Fayum, and in vi llagl'
already with Greek cl eruch s, There is evide nce for a si mi lar pol in
during the pharaonic peri od , such as the land grants by the pharaoh
Ah mose to Ahmose son of Ebana and sett lements of Lib yan aliiI
Asiatic mercenaries in the Fa yum and Middle Egypt. It is well docli
mented from the Roman peri od , too ,
COELE SY RIA. T he name used for the Ptol emaic pro vince of " SYl loi
and Phoenic ia" in western Asia , The name co mes from the Grcvl
koile mean ing " hollow," Coele-Syria was the region be hi nd Ih
coastal plain of Lebanon , including the Bequ Va lley. the bo rder \l.
ing the El eu theros Riv er. It provid ed the PlOlcm ies with a bufkr I llill
agains t the Se1euk ids. but was the co nsta nt sourcc o f dispulc bc iwc II
the t wo ki ngdo ms , resulting in the Syr ia n Wars , Who aCluall\
owned Coele-Syria was the subject o f ncgoti ati on s in the winter ,i1
2 191218 IIC duri ng a truce in the Fo urth Sy rian War. In 30 1 lie, S,
leu kos I had been grantcd the whole of Syria after the batt le of Ipso
but had taci tl y accepted Ptolemy I' s control of it. The region cont III
ued to be disputed in the Fifth and Sixth Syrian War s and was COll I
plctely lost to Egypt in the reign o f Ptolemy VI.
CONSCRIPT ION. Evidence from the Old Kingdom shows that levi
were made when an army wa s needed , In the Middle Kingdom, 1111
text states that a levy of one man in 100 was taken , Doubt less , lit
system continued in the New Kingdom, even thou gh there WII
larger pro fessi on al standing army, The Papyrus Har ris states thut III
the reign o f Ramcss es III one man in ten was co nscri pte d: thi s 1111
number probabl y re llects specific circumsta nces , The llteruturv d
scribing the ben efi ts of a sc riha l c '
make re fere nce to the w " hi areer 111 pr eference to all othe rs
:I soldier , There is no c l aa
vide ich a man can be summone d to be
er r eVI ence for any t f nat i
hur the rec ords of careers f ffi ' I ype 0 nat ional serv ice,
, 0 0 , ICIa S sugge sts th ibili
lowing schooling they s t , ': e POSSI I uy that , fol -
, pen some time III the char iot corps,
1'( IRNELlUS GALLUS, CAIUS (prefect of E
tirst Roman prefect of Egy t d Iri d gypt 30-26 lie). The
_ p an nen of Augr t "
f:USI 30 IIC after the capture o f AI d . IS us , appo inted 111 Au-
, • exa n r ia Short l It d
hel lion in the Thebaid di , y a erwar wa s a re-
, accor II1g to Strabo . h
taxes. The prefect ' s V'I t d ' agamst t e. collectors of
c ory an subse que nt ' ti ,
«-rorded on a t 'I' I . ' . " ,IC Ion 111 Nubia are
c n mgu a mscnption ( 111 Lati G k "
croglyphic) found on the isl and of PI ' I 111 , reek. and Egyptian hi-
included Koptos Kel'am'k' (M 111 ae near Aswan. The rebel towns
, , I e ec arnud) D' li
( iphieion (the latt er two were ' , lOSpO IS Megal e , and
reg ions of Theb ) C '
then took the ar my into L ' N bi , esr, ornelius Gallus
ower U III It IS P ., ibl h
lx-cn takine advantace (I I' th I 'f OSSI e t at Meroe had
eo ' eo e chunge of power i E
" ' llk illent with the Meroite renr rill gypt. There wa s a
presentanves at Ph il' I I' '
II n' slI lt. a 1."1'11111111.1' (loca l ruler) wa s install ' ae the ronti er. As
II.owcr Nuhiu ). ul thouuh his ide tit , ', ed m the Triakontaschoi nos
prince) . In 26 Il l'. G' ll
I y IS uncertain (possibl y a Meroiti c
, .1 us wa s recalled by A
. h-\'e1 opments were in I ow N bit ' ' ugust us . Further
J er u 1<1 111 the Prefecture of Petroniius.
I \' I'IUlS. Large island of the ea stern Medi
II I Phoenicia and Asia Minor It ,Iterran ean close to the coasts
, " was Importan t ' tl b
III the eastern Medit erranean TI trib In ie sea- orne trade
, ,1e rJ ute of Cypr ' , '
Ih" Annals of T hut mose III A ' prus IS recorded In
, s a trading pa rt ner itl E
uppcars in the A L I WI 1 gy pt , Cy pru s
marna etters (as Ahshia) d ei
tween pharaohs and its ki " , , " an gift excha nge be-
, II1g IS recorded It '
uurce of copper bronze d id , was mo st Important as a
l'nrt of the isl and' was b ' lalthOUgh are also listed ,
In the early first mill enni umYBC ast of the ki ngs o f the Hittites ,
1' ''' trom Greece Phoen ic ia Th were nee: sett leme nts of peo-
Ih\' rulers of Assvr ia In 570/569 e mgs of the Island paid tribute to
111 11 and Ionian to hel ga,ve n,aval aid, and Car-
usurpation of Ahmose II Th P, I r e regain his throne after the
, e IS and came under E ti, d .
tlun when captured by Ah ' II' gyp Ian om1113-
mo se 111 560 BC idi ,
uuportant naval base cl ose to th S ' ' provi mg hi m wi th an
, e ynan coast. It submitted to Per si a
in 545 BC and aided the invasion of Egypt by Cambyses in 525 III
Later , Cyprus became a center of conflict between pro- and alitI
Persian groups , regularly receiving support and ships from Athcn
The Athenian fleet was diverted from Cyprus to aid the rebellion III
Inaros in 459 Be. Durin g his rebellion against the Per sians, Bvagoru-
king of Salamis, allied himsel f with Hakor (389 BC).
The island came under the rule of Ptolemies in 312 BC and was hd tl
by them until it was seized by Rome in the reign of XII, II
was in a vital strategic posit ion for control of the Ptolemai c POSSl" ,
sions outside Egy pt , and garrisons were installed in man y of its citi«
Because of this naval importance , the office of governor , the st ratcgu»
was usually combined with that of nauarch (admiral). At sevcrol
points, members of the Ptolemaic roya l fami ly fled to Cyprus or wc«
sent there as rulers when ev icted from Egy pt in dynastic wars. Thc«
were some significant naval battles near the island, not ably the bauk
of Salamis in 306 BC, at which the fl eet of Ptolemy I was defeated hi
that of Ant igo nos Monophthalmos and his son Demetrios.
CYRENAI CA, A region of Libya, bein g the ea stern part of the nuul
ern state , from the Gulf of Sirte to the Gulf of Bomba . It is la1'l:\l'l
mount aino us, wit h a narrow coasta l plai n fro m which the k ill I
Akhdar rises steeply. The barren coas t of the Gulf of Sirte, whr:
the Sahara comes 10 the Medi terranean , made a natural horde
with the near est power to the west , Carthage . This remained a
ni fica ut divisi on between Gree k east and Lat in west und e r thc RII
man Empire .
Cyrcnaica might have bee n occu pied by some of the Libya n trihlll
gro ups who entered Egypt in the later New Kingdom, the Libu , till
Meshwesh , the SCllcd, but arc haeological knowledge of this phase I
sti ll scanty. Greek colonists from Thera foundcd Cy r ene (c . 630 II I I
followed by other setllements at Apollonia, Barce, Euhespcridl
(modern Benghaz i) , and Taucheira . Th is was known as the Libyuu
Pent apoli s. In the reign of Darius I (522--486 BC). the Persi an sat1'111'
of Egy pt sent an army in support of the rulin g famil y of Cyrenc, I."
sieging and eve ntually ca ptur ing Barce. The whole of Cy renuu "
came under Ptolemaic control in the reign of Ptolemy I , the bord«
with Egypt bei ng I' araitonion.
I ' YREN E. Greek settleme nt in Lihya founded , accordi ng to traditi on
.rbo ut 630 BC. It was soon followed by a number of other towns in
( 'yrenaica . Its territory eventually stretched wes tward from a border
with Egypt near Paraitonion.
Cyrene c.ame under the rule of a dynasty of kings, the Battid s, and
' lion rel ati ons with Egypt. Wahibre sent an army aga inst
II. mut inied and set up Ahmose II as pharaoh (570 BC) . Ah-
di plomatic with the roya l family,
.Ladlke as his Wife . DUring the reign of Darius I (522--486 BC) ,
III L I CISIan of Egypt sent an army in support of a member of
the ruling fami ly to besiege Barce .
from Cyre ne met Alexa nde r the Gr eat at Paraitonion
I Soon after he took Egypt, Ptolemy I was invited by a
d" ,llIected gro up of the elite actmg out of self-interest to take over the
rt ty and the region , which he did in 322/32 1 BC. Ptolemy installed a
Op hellas, as governor. There was a rebell ion aga inst Egyptian
Oll ie in 313 BC, but Ptolemy sent forces that reinstaled Ophellas. By 308
Ophellas was acting on his own behalf, but he made no declaration
,:1 Involving himsel f in the campaign of Agathokles of
S racuse aga mst Carthage, Ophellas was murdered .
Another rebellion took Cy rene out of Ptolemaic contro l. Ptolemy I
was preoccu.pie? with events elsewhere and was unable 10 regain the
1l'lrIlory unt il alter the battl e of Ipsos in 30 1 BC. He then installed his
' ll'pSOn, as ru!er. Sometime ea rly in the reign of Ptolemy II ,
himself independent and became king, e ntering into al-
11.:lllce with Seleukids of Syria. Magas eve n laun ched an attack on
I:g)'pt , marching his army toward Alexandr ia , but it was forced to
u-rurn a r.evolt of Libyans, at Paraitoni on . Follow ing the death of
111 circa 250 BC, there was a br ief interna l strugg le before
I returned to the Ptolemaic Empire . This was sealed by the
urnrnage of \'vI.agas' s da ughter , Berenike , to Ptolemy III. Cyrene was
, " 1\\' of the with its own governor s and a place
which ki ngs ned or were exiled (e.g., Ptolemy VI;
Illllcmy VIII. trom 163-1 45 BC; Ptol emy IX). In 162 nc .the gover-
11111': ,.m Egyptian named Ptolemaios "Sympetesis," rebell ed , but the
upnsmg was qu ickly suppressed. Ptolemy VIII bequeathed it to his
""l Ptolemy Apion, who in turn left it to the Roman people in his
72 •
wi ll. Cyrcne suffe red extensive damage duri ng the Jewish re volt ut
lI5-117 AD.
DABENARTI. An island fortress in the Second Cat ar act standing " I'
posite Mir gissa . The nature of the cataract here made landing din I
cult , and the fort was perh aps never completed. Alternat ively, II
might have bee n a temporary fort , for add itional defense of Mirgiss«
in time s of crisis .
DAKHLA OASIS. A large oasis in the Western Desert , connected hI
desert roads to the Oases of Farafra and Kharga and dir ectl y to 11 11
Nile Valley. There are archaeo logical remains from the Old Kingdom
to the Roman period, although the maj or si tes so far excavated h '
long mainly to these two phases. Although there was an Egyptiuu
governor in the Old Kingdom, the population of Dakhl a might hnv.
been largely Libyans . In the 19th Dynasty, the Libyans who we»
driven back by the army of Mercnptah from Memphis, appear I"
have used the desert routes through the northern oases, Dakhl a ;1111 1
Kharga, to reach the Nile Valley in Upper Egy pt and Nubia.
DAPHNAE (TELL DAFANA). A fortress on the eas tern border bllill
by Psamtik I , close to Migdol and Pelusion, The Greek histori III
Herodotos states that it was built as a defense aga inst the Arabs :UIII
Syrians and that it was a Persian garrison with Greek mercenari es II I
his lime (mid-fi fth ce ntury BC) . The site of Tell Dafana (Tell Dcr!'11
neh) , on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, was first exc avated by W. M
Flinders Petrie, who interp reted the site usi ng the literary evi dence " '
Herodotos and also identified it with the biblical Tahpanhes . It W, I
thereaft er considered a typi cal Late Per iod fort , and other monument
with similar construct ion were also designated forts . The lowest k:I',1
is a massive co mpartmented wa ll 450 x 200 meter s and 17 mell'l
thick. Inside this wa ll, the area is filled with cross wa lls creating a "
ries of ce lls. Th is type of construction is found in the " Palace "I
April's" at Memphis and at Na ukr atis . At Memphi s, Barry K CIII)
proved that the ce llular level was used to suppo rt a stone pavcmcui
Similarly. the st ructure at Naukratis is probably the podi um of a tern-
pre. The archaeo logical evi dence at Tell Dafana included consider-
able quantities of Greek pott ery, but there is no di rect evi dence of a
(ireek garrison. The pottery ends about 525 BC, the time of the inva-
vi un by Ca mbyses of Persia.
IIAI' UR. Town of north Syria, in the territory of Tunip. It was attacked
by.I{amesses II in his campaign of year 8. The attack is depicted in the
reliefs of the Ramesseum, the pharaoh 's templ e on the west bank at
The bes. Dapur is shown as a typical Syrian fortified ci ty with a central
n ladel and other Many of the walls are battlemenled. The Egyp-
II<I IIS are entering using scaling ladders. The defenders. many of
whom are Hlthtes, use bows and throw missiles at the attackers. A fig-
lire. perhaps the ruler, bums incense as a sign of capitUlation.
II".IUUS I (reigned. 522-486 IIC). Great King of Persia and pharaoh of
' ;gypt. seized the Persian throne when Cambys es was in
TIllS. was followed by rebellions throughout the empire, per-
!,aps Incl udlllg Egypt. Thi s might have bee n the point when an Egypt-
umdynast, Pedub asl III , tried to esta blish himsel f as pharao h. Darius
l'IlI npleted the canal co nnecting the Nile with the Red Sea that had
hccn begun by Nekau II . In Kharga Oasis. he erected the small
that forms the nucleus of the temple in the fortress at Qasr el-
and presumabl y built the first fortress there . During the
1l·lgn. the sat r ap, Aryandes, sent an expedition to Cyr enai ca . In the
IlI sl year of the rei gn of Dariu s there was a rebelli on in Egypt, per-
"nps led by Psamtlk I V, a Libyan ruler of the western Delta. This
IVns suppressed by Xerxes .
III\\' BOOKS. The Annals of Thutmose III refer to a record of the
military activities during the siege of Mcgiddo, which was written on
JI leather roll and preser ved in the temple of Amun at Karnak. It is
d l" nr fro.m the insc ribed vers ion of the annals that they have been ex-
nuctcd from a more detailed source. and the leather roll may have
lx-cn extracte d text. Both would have rel ied on a daily ac-
, llllnt detat lJn.g a." of the campaign, and presumabl y. the hu-
II'lIlH:racy: di stributinn of rati ons, orders, officers, marches, scout-
111 /' . hooty, etc . The Scmna Dispatches fall into the category of daily
report s, although in the for m of lett ers. The wri ting of the Day Book
(perhaps co mpiled from numerous bureaucratic document s) wn
probably the responsibil ity of the Chief Ar my Scribes , such as, in til '
reign of Thut mose III , Tjanuni.
DEIR (KHARGA). A large and imposing Roman fort in the northern
part of Kharga Oasis. It dates to the reign of Dioclctian (284-305 Al l )
The fort controlled the access to the Oas is by roads from Sohag urul
Girga , considered the best and shortest route between Kharga and till'
Nile Valley ( 160 kilometers) , These roads descend the escarpment nellI
a spring of good water, controlled by the fort. Quantit ies of broken pot
ter y indicat e a Roman watering station on the plateau itself , but the wu
ter must have been taken from el-Deir. The fort is square , 73 x 73 nn
ters. The walls are mostly of unburned brick, banded with burned Il'd
brick. They still stand around 10 meters in height and 3.60 meter
thick, with circu lar towers at each corner and two semicircular towci
on each side, and entrances on the north , east, and west sides. The ill
terior of the fort is almost devo id of visible remai ns, except along til
south side of the court, which has a series of brick rooms. The south
wall is the best preserved and retains internal staircases leading to lilt
parapet. At the center of the cou rt was a well, apparently with a COli
duit to divert the overflow to cultivate the fields surrounding. A small
temple of mud brick was later converted into a church. In design alll i
construction the fort has strong similarities with others of the same pI'
riod at Babylon , Dionysias, Tjaru, and Aswan,
DELTA. The Delta was created by the deposit of silt where the Nile It'll
the confines of the limestone cliffs. Throughout much of the dynusik
period , large tracts of the nor thern Delta were marshlands, with lar 'l
sea lagoons. There were important ancient cities in the Delta, not ubl v
Sau (Sais) in the west and Per-Bastet (Bubastis) in the east. New citi .
were founded later. Of these , the most signitica nt were the Hyksu
capi tal of Ava ri s and close to it the new reside nce cit y of the 19th D
nasty pharaohs, Per-Ramesses and its port , Dj anet (Tani s), The Grev].
trading center of Na ukr atis was built close to Sau in the rei gn "I
Psamtik I. The princi pal routes for armi es, whether Egyptian leaviu '
the region of Memphis or those invading, were those that followed
the desert edges of the Delta. On the west , the route ran from Melli
phis to Abu Billo, Kom el-Hisn, Kom Firin, Korn el Abqa' in, EI-
Barnugi, Nuba riya, perhaps to Rakote (later Alexandr ia) . In the east,
II was prot ected by the net work of forts from Pelusion to Tjaru, then
toward the Wadi Tumilat, Heliopoli s, and Babylon .
. Most of the documented invasions of Egypt through the Delta were
lrom the east. The kings of Assyr ia . Esar haddon and Ashur banipal ,
engaged with Egyptian forces bet ween Tj ar u and Memphi s. The As-
xynans also camp aigned across the Del ta to Sau. The king of Baby-
lon, Nebuchadnezza r II. attempted an invasion in 60 I BC but was
driven back. The ar mies of Persia entered Egypt through Pelusion, in
the rel.gn of Cambyses (525 BC) , defeat ing Psamtik III. During the
rebellion of Inaros ( 463-454 Be) against Persian rule , there was a
hattie at Papremis , followed by the siege of Inaros and the Athenian
lorce at Prosopitis . There was co nfl ict in the Delt a when
Nakhthor heb se ized power, and there were further Persian invasions
,il,! the reigns 0.1' Ar taxerxcs II (373 BC) and Ar taxerxcs III (343 BC) .
Ihe adventurer, Amy ntas , entered Egyp t throu gh Pelu-
sron III 333 BC and was followed by Alexander th e Great the follow-
ing y,ear. Ptolemy I confronted the army of Antigonos Monopthal-
IIIC1S. III the eastern in 306 BC, and there was another invasion by
Antlochos IV of Syna ( 169/8 BC) . The main disturbance in the Roman
period was the rebe llion of the Boukoloi (17 1 AD) . Furt her invasions
from the east came in the later Roman period, first ly the Palmyrene
army of Zenobia , the Sasanid armies of Persia , and final ly, the Ar abs ,
led by ' Amr Ihn-al 'asi . The principal invasions of the western Delta
were by the Libyans. The Delta figures in Hell enistic novels as a
place where dissident gro ups, and brigands, sought refuge.
III':N (re igned c, 2985 II C). Pharaoh of the First Dynasty. An ivory label
IIIIm Abydos shows Den smiting an Asiat ic enemy wit h a mace, the
lext refers to "the first time of smiting of the east." This might be the
same as the "smiting of the Troglodytes" recorded on the Palermo
Slolle as the second year of a 14-year cycle of an unnamed ruler. The
"Asiatics" could refer to the Eastern Desert , to Sina i or to Palest ine.
IlEI' ORTATION. The forc ible removal of an entire, or a significant pro-
portion, of the population of a conquered town or state to be resettled
ill another region of an empire. Deportation was frequently used in
7 6 • DESERT
their campaigns in Babyloni a and wes tern Asia by the rulers of
syr ia , notabl y Sennaeherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal. Depoi
tation could serve several purposes: it could remove "disruptive" ell'
merits, but more significantly, it could provide labor, part icul arly
skilled labor, in other parts of the empire. The Assyrians certainly n'
moved some groups from Egypt, including members of the reignin '
Kushite roya l family. The use of de porta tion by the Egyptians is b
well document ed , but there are references to the Apiru being sent from
Canaan to Kush and Canaanites from Gezer to Thebes. Interpretation
of some Egyptian texts is made more difficult by the kingship ideo log '
that claimed the pharaoh's power could tum the world upside dOWII ,
thereby removing Asi at ics to Nubia and Libyans to Asia .
DESERT. Egypt is surrounded by desert and the defense of its borders
on south, wes t, and eas t was a respon se to that. The Western , Libyan,
Desert has areas of rocky plateau and sand dunes, with a strin g 01
oases running from Bahariya in the north, through Farafra, 111
Dakhla , and Kharga. Exc ava tions at Dakhl a have found a fortres
of Old Kingdom date , but the evidence of most of the other fort s ill
Kharga is far later , dating from the Per sian to Roman and Byzantin
periods. Kharga con trolled the desert road from Nubia later ca lled
the Darb el-Arba ' in, the "Forty Days Road." From Bahar iya, a strin
of smaller oases connected with Siwa.
The Easter n Desert is more mountainous and was a major source 01
stone and minerals. There is abundant evi dence in Upper Egypt 1'01
quarry ing expeditions to the Wadi Harnmamat and use of the routes 111
the Red Sea ports. There are over 60 small Roman forts in the south
ern parts of the Eastern Desert , protect ing the roads to the principal
ports of Myos Hormos (now ident ified with Quseir el-Qad im, ratlu-i
than Abu Sha'ar, as earlier scholars thought) and Berenike, and the
quarries at Mons Porphyrites and Mons Claudianus . There has been
less survey work in the nort hern parts of the Eastern Desert , but the ViII
Hadriana, running from Antinoopolis in Middle Egypt to the Red Sea ,
must have been protected in a similar way as the southern routes . Thcs.
small forts provided protected watering places (hydreulllala) and
ing places for the tradin g caravans, as well as being bases for policin '
operations . They also played an important role in the quarrying aIII I
mining activities of the region. In southern Upper Egypt and Nubia
had an ambivalent relati onship with the people who lived in the
l .astern Desert , the Madjoy and later the B1emmyes.
Until recentl y, it was assumed that desert travel was more limit ed in
uncient times, and that very long desert j ourneys did not become usual
until the introduction of the camel. Long desert journeys can be made
II SlI1g donkeys, but these require much more baggage and water. In the
Sixth Dynasty, Harkhuf certainly used a desert route, and donkey car-
".van,. to travel to southern Nubia. Recentl y discovered rock inscrip-
.11.' lIIS IJ1 Ihe Theban region attest a desert road of Middl e Kingdom dale.
I he desert patrol of Kamose captured a Hyksos messenger travel ing
III the ruler of Kush . Meroitic texts show that the desert roads between
the Fourth Cataract and Lower Nubia were being used, and rock in-
-criptions to the eas t of Buhen attest a desert road of the 18th Dynasty.
I>Csert patrol guards are well attested from the Ptolemaic and Roman
periods by papyri from the Fayum. Fortresses and watchtowers con-
trolled the access to the Nile Valley and the Oases from the desert, In
I\ harga Oasis, the fort ress of Dush controlled the desert road between
' hl' south of the oasis and Edfu, and Deir controlled the road from the
III1r1 h of the oasis to Girga (ancient Tj eny).
A cemetery site to the south of Herakleopolis (Ihnasya
vl-Medina) III north ern Middle Egypt. The tomb of Inti of the late
Fift h or Si xth Dynasty cont ains one of the few Old Kingdom sce nes
u] It shows an. attack on a walled town, apparently occupied by
ASiatICS. The town IS schematic , being the conventional ova l car -
lnuche shape used for names of forei gn places, with semicircular bas-
liClns indicated. The attacking Egyptian force is using a wheeled seal-
1111: ladder to ascend the walls , while sa ppers mine the walls with
p" inted stakes. Inside. the town, two men are shown listening for signs
" I 'he sappers, Outside the wall s, hand-to-hand combat with axes
place. The whole sce ne has a close parallel in the roughly con-
umporary tomb of Kaernheset at Saqqara.
1II ,\I10 CHOI. Th e successors of Alexa nder th e Great. On Alexa n-
dn 's death at Babyl on in 323 Be, his ge nerals acknowledge d his in-
III IH son, Alexander IV, and his hal f-brother , Philip Arrhidaios as
I, illgs. but partiti oned the empire among themsel ves. At first , the gen-
1III Is ass umed the Persian style "sat r a p" as provincial governo rs.
IlIPLOMATI C MARRIAGE. Thi s was often used to seal a peace
tn' aty.y is best documented in Egypt in the later 18th and early 19th
I)ynastles by the Amar na Letters and the Marriage Stela of Ramesses
II . The Arnarna Letters show that there were elaborate protocols to be
observed. At this time the pharaoh claimed never to send his daughters
10 marry foreign rulers. as a way of emphasiz ing his position as the first
1II III lllg equals of the Great Kings. It was also necessary to write severa l
times, before a daughter of a ruler would be gra nted. The letters also
,,' \'eal that. like peace treaties, the death of a ruler required a new mar-
Iillge to be contracted betwee n allies . So when Shutt arna II of Mitannl
died. negot iations were opened for the marriage of Amenhotep III
Willi her niece. the daughter of the new king, Tushratta.
The Hittites adopted a di ffere nt policy to Egypt and sent da ughters
oil (he condi tion that the pr incess became pri nci pal wife and queen,
IIl1d Ihat the son of the marri age would become king. ther eby extend-
III ' Ili ttite power. The unusual request o f Ankhescnamun for a Hittite
1'1 iucc to become her husband , on the deat h of Tutankhnmun, was
' '''l' ted with disbe lief by the Hitt ite king. Some factions at the Egypt-
111 11 court al so opposed it , as the pri nce was murdered on his way to
I ' ypt. an action that led to the reopening of hostilities between the
I Wo powers. Ramesses II eventually sea led his peace treaty with the
l liuitcs by marriage.
There is evidence for s imilar dynasti c marriages later. In the Th ird
hurrmcdiatc Period, the Libyan and Kushit e pharaohs estab lished al-
IllI lires with other rul ing families and the elite. Ahmose II marr ied
Sha' ar on the Red Sea coast of the Eastern Desert is now known to
date from this period.
1l1 0 NYSIAS . Fortress at the far wes tern end of the Fayum. the mod-
ern site of Qasr Qarun . Bui lt in the third century AD, perhaps about
2('() AD, although often ass igned to the reign of Dioclet ian. The
lortress is brick-built. meas uring 94.4 meter s x 80 meters, with
square towers at eac h corner and in the middle of the wes t side, and
wruicirculur towers on the south and eas t sides . Semicircular towers
ulso flanked the main gate on the nort h s ide. This gate opened onto a
«olonnaded street leading to a bui lding wit h an apsida l end. Th ere
were single ce lls lining the north. eas t, and wes t walls.
DlOCLETl AN (reigned 284-305 All). Roman emperor. In Egypt , th
reign of Diocleti an is mar ked by the rebeIlion of Domit ius Donn
t ianus and Aureli us Achi lleus (297 AD) . invol ving a long siege II
Alexandr ia . Dioclet ian was present in person. He then extcnsivcl
reorganized the admi nistra tion of Egy pt. Diocleti an was responslhl
for important changes on the southern frontier in Lower Nuhlu
where the B1emmyes had been a per sistent problem . although A IIII
Iian had ga ined some victories over them. The fronti er was now I '
moved from Maharr aqa to As wa n, where a fortress was built al Iii
head of the Fi rst Catar ac t. A number of other for tresses can Ill" III
tribut ed to the reig n of Diocletian: the rebu ildi ng of Ba byluu
Dionysias , Tjaru, and el-Deir in Kharga Oasis . The fort al AlII
There were numerous political and ma rriage alli ances bet ween the di
adochoi, but breaki ng of political alliance was usuall y accompanied
by divorce, itse lf leading to dynast ic riva lries later. The principal ri '
ures in the per iod from 323 BC to the batt le of lpsos in 30 I BC wen'
Perdi kkas, Antigo nos I Monophthalmos , Antipater, Kassandci ,
Lysimachos, Ptolemy I , and Seleukos I. Ptolemy I seized Egypt. tal,
ing Alexa nder 's body wit h him.
In the Fi rst War of the Diadochoi (32 1120 BC). Ptolemy I faced ill I
invasion by Perdikka s. The sett lement of Trip aradei sos Antipaun
co nfirmed Ptolemy' s hold on Egy pt. In the Second War (3 19- 3 1
BC) , Ptolemy annexed Coele Syria, whic h he lost in the Third W il l
(3 14- 3 11 BC), although he acqui red Cy prus . The mai n threat I II
Ptolemy I' s co ntrol of Egy pt came from Antigonos I Monophth ulmn
and his son Demetrios. Ptolemy and Seleukos I joi ntl y defcutcd
Demet rios at the batt le of Gaza in 3 12 BC, Another peace was agrl'o'd
in 3 11 BC, but Antigonos and Demetr ios attempted another invasion
of Egypt in 306 BC, whic h Ptolemy was able to res ist. Followi ng 11 11
lead of Antigonos the generals now began to ass ume royal tith:
Ptolemy being cro wned in 304 BC. Coe le Syr ia was regained ." ,
Ptolemy in the Fourt h War of the Diadochoi (303 -30 I nc) . whi, II
culminated in the battle of Ipsos (30 I uc) . Ptole my was not pres"111
at the battle. and in the peace treat y that followed all or Syria 1t,I
gra nted to Se leukos , but for personal reasons. he accepted P l l ~ l c l l l
rule over Coe le Sy ria; thi s was 10 lead to the constant In cuon h.
tween Ptol emi es and Scleukids in the Syrian Wars .
Ladike of Cyr ene, and another Greek marr iage is att ested for Ih.,
30th Dynast y, although the lady' s origins are unknown . Th e numci
ous allia nces of the Ptol em ies, Seleukids, and others of Alexa nder
th e Gr ea t's successors (diadochoii usuall y result ed in civil war and
dynastic war .
DI VI SION (ARMY). The largest unit of the army, comprising 5,0()()I
me n. There were, by the time of Ramesses II, four divisions, named
after the state triad of Egypt , Amun, Ptah, and Re wit h an additio nal
one named after Seth.
DJAHY. Ter ritory of wes tern Asia that occurs freq ue ntly in records 01
the 18th Dynasty. It is north of Ret enu and perhaps to be ide ntified
with the coast of Lebanon , including impor tant ce nters such as Tyrv.
Si do n, Byblos, and Sumur. It was the focus of Egypti an milit ary al'
tivity and as suc h ap pea rs in the autobiographical insc ript ion of Ah
mose -pen-Nekhbet and the Anna ls of Thutmose III. Ramesses III
sta tes that he made his frontie r agai nst the "Sea Peoples" in Dj ahy,
alth ough here the use is possib ly arc haic.
D.JEDHOR (reigned 361-360 li e). Pharaoh of the 30th Dynast y, so n 01
Na kht ne bef. The name is also found in literature as Teos , or Tachos,
from its Greek form, and Dj eho. Djedhor wa nted to take advamugr
of rebellions against the ki ng of Persia, Ar taxerxes II , and prepared
a ca mpa ign into Pales tine. In addition to the Egyptian force, he had II
large army of Greek mercenaries , commanded by Agesilaos II,
of Sparta, and a fleet from Athens , commanded by Chabrias . Djcd
hor imposed hea vy taxes to pay for thi s ar my. They made so me Sill'
ce sses in Palestine, and Djedho r wished to advance far ther intll
Syria. Thi s led to a disagreement wi th Agesi laos , who then suppo rted
the rebellio n of Djed hor ' s nephew, Nekhthorhe b. Dj edhor Iledto PCI
sia and died in exi le.
D.JER (reigned e. 3050 li e). Pharaoh of the First Dyn ast y. A rock ill
scri ption at Gebe l She ikh Suleima n in Nubia has ge nerally bee n lilt
derstood as a record of mil itary act ivities by Djer. The arc haeologi
ca l ev ide nce lor the end of the Nubian "A-Group" cult ure has been
reassessed in recent years and seems to ind icate tha t the powerful
DRil l. • 81
Nubian ki ngdo m based upon Qustu l ca me to a sudden end around
the time of Dj er.
IH)I)EKASCHOINOS. Greek term for Lower Nubia fro m the Egyptian
border at the Firs t Ca ta r act as far as Mahar r a qa (Hiera Syk aminas s,
II might, under a different name, have become an administrative di s-
.11:ict to Upper Egy pt as early as the 2 1st or 26th Dynasty.
I here IS from the fortress of Dorginarti that the persian kings
were defendi ng parts of Lower Nubia. The term dodekascltoinos is first
III Llnd in the Ptolemaic period. The dist ric t was extended to become the
Triakontasc ho inos but , following disputes wi th Meroe, reduced aga in.
Allhough largel y occ upied by Nubians and Meroit e settlers , it re-
mained under the contro l of Roman Egy pt until the rei gn of Diocl et -
ian , when, because of problems with the Blemmyes , the frontier was
redrawn at the First Ca taract. A net wor k of watchtowers extended
trom Lower Nubia, via Aswan , to Edfu and across the Eas tern Desert .
!lORGINARTI. Island fort r ess in the Second Cata r a ct near Mir-
gissa. Dabenarti , and Meinarti. Originally thought to da te to the
Middle Ki ngdom or later New Kingdom, a reas ses sme nt of the ar-
l'haeological mat eri al by Lisa Heidorn indi cat es it is of the 26t h
IlynasttPersian period . The fort , roughly triangul ar in shape, was
al' l' roxllnate ly 80 met ers by 50 meters . Its wa lls, up to 8.0 meters
' hick, were surrounded by a glac is and prot ected by buttresses. It is
rlilfi cult to place the fortress into its hi storical co ntex t. Psamtik II
launched a mil itar y attack on the heart of the Kushite kingdom in 593
III ' . and the Persian king Ca mbyses is reputed to have campaigned in
Lower Nubia . Th ere is also evi de nce for trading rela tio ns between
and Kus h. It is possi ble that Dorgin arti had both an economic
II l1d defen si ve role in the six th-fi fth ce nturies Be.
!l llILL. The ev ide nce of various papyri (notably the Anastasi papyri)
rla ims that or dinary co nscript troops were beat en into shape, whereas
,' hat for the e.lite cor?s de tai ls at hlet ic and skilled train ing in wea pons .
I lie Anas tasi papyn and similar documen ts are prejudiced so urces in
thai they emphasi ze the benefits of be ing a member of the elite and
the hardships of lower ranks . Neverthe less, there was dou btless coer-
I'ion and brutality in the traini ng of rec ru its .
The insc ription on the Sphi nx St el a of Amenhote p II , from (]j,ll
de tai ls his skill as a prince and epitomizes the mi litary ethos of Iii
e lite of thi s period . Th e few det ail ed recor ds of schooling for offi cial
in the New Kingdom shows that fro m perhaps the age of four or !"i v.
they learned scri ba l ski lls, but then from the age of about e ight thn
we nt to the " stables ." Here , scriba l sk ills would have been co nti nun l
alongs ide the technique s of horsemanship and char iot ry, 11Ild
arch er y. Amen hotep 1I also refers to row ing and run ning. Th e SCCIII
show so ldiers engaged in drill exercises in the tomb of Tjanunl II I
Thebes and lpu ia at Sa qqa r a ,
DYNASTI C WARS. As most of the surv ivi ng Egyptian " historical
documen ts were written by the victors, there is, hardl y surprisingt ,
littl e indi cation of opposi tion. The SIOI)' ofSi nuhe and the II, SII'I/('(I,,/I
of Amenemhat I both indi cate that Amenemhat I was murdered III
some sor t of palace conspiracy. The cleares t ev ide nce for later .11
nasti c turmoil is the confli ct on the death of Merenptah bet ween Iii
ap poi nted Crown Pr ince Sety II , and Amenmesse, who ap pears "'
have been a member of the royal fami ly (poss ibly Set y II ' s ow n SOli I
The " Harem co nspiracy" against Ramesses III , which might hili
been partl y succ es sful, suggests that there wa s perh aps more pri vu«
opposi tion to rulers than open r ebellion. Althoug h it is dangerous I"
ge neralize based on such limit ed evidence, the sma ll , cl osed , 111101
powerful e lite, the pal ace environme nt and ana logies with other silll
ilar soc ieties, such as Assyria, makes it hi gh ly likel y that there w••
considerably more dyn ast ic strife than we have document ed ev idcn«
for. The e lite do ubtless for med fact ions promot ing the interests of dli
Iere nt gro ups , not abl y when it ca me to the choice of royal wi ves .
Palace- based con spiracy was a feature of the Ptolemaic period: 1111
tabl y wi th the murd er of Ptolemy IV. The strife bet ween Ptolemy VIII
Euergetes II and Kleopat ra II led to a full-scale ci vil war wi th nuli
tary action throughout the country, itself allowing an Egy ptian rch' l
pharaoh , Ha rsiesi s , to be proc lai med in Thebes . Thi s prolonged 1111
moil had di sast rous effects on the agricultura l economy of the couun v
with land granted to cler uc hs being left unculti vat ed . The feud h,
tween Kleopa tra III and her son Ptol emy IX Sote r II , whom she dl
posed , led to the Syrian Wa r of 103-1 0 I BC, whic h overlapped with 1
Sc leukid dy nastic war invol ving her da ughter s, who were married I"
the rival Sy ria n rulers. There was further dynastic conflict bct wc 'I
[ I.Tr Kri l • 83
l'Iolcmy XI. Alexa nder II , and Kleopat ra Beren ike ITI , and between
I\leopatr a VII and her brothers and sisters.
10( WESH. One of the et hnic gro ups listed in the insc ri ption of
I\llTnepta h as all ied with the Libyans , and often listed by historians
II ' one of the "Sea Peoples," although in thi s case clearly a merce -
lIary force. The name Ekwesh was equated by some earlier scholars
the "Achaeans" and hence placed around Troy. However, Ah-
hiyawa, a wes tern. nei ghbor of the Hittite Empire , is currently
IlItlllght to eq uate wi th the "Achaeans" (i .e., Mycenaeans of mainl and
t irccce and Ioni a) . The Ekwesh are pro bably to be locat ed on the
western coast of Anatolia, perh aps including so me of the island s that
h.ul Mycenaean settle ment.
,q .EI' HANT. The use of elephants in warfare wa s introduced to Ptole-
runic Egypt from Ind ia through the Sele ukid kingdom of Sy r ia . Ele-
1'IIIII1tS had first been encountered by the army of Alex a nde r the
( ;"cat in the battle against Poros at the Ri ver J-l ydaspes (lhelum) . The
Sl'Icukid ki ngs recei ved elephants from the far eastern parts of their
empire. and the Ptol emi es tried to emu late them , bringing elephants
trorn Eastern Afr ica . These were transported from Ptol emais of the
"' ephant hunts, along the Red Sea. There is also evidence for the hunt-
illg or elephants in the Suda nese kingdom of Mero e. Ptolemy IV de-
ploycd elephants at the battle of Raphia (2 I7 Be) . There has been co n-
uovcrsy over which type of e lephant was avai lable to the Ptolemies
11 111 1 it is now generally accepted , on the descriptions of ancie nt wri t-
I' IS. that it was the sma ller forest , rather than the bush, elephant. The
I" c of elephants in war spread among the Hell en istic ar mies, and to
( 'arthage , where Hann ibal famously used them in his march on Rome.
I in 70 I BC between the Egy ptian-Kushi te and As syr-
1111 1 11I'J11I es . It IS document ed by the Anna ls or Se nna che r ib and the
hihlic:' 1 of Kings 20 . Elteke h (Assyrian: Altaq u) is probabl y
III hc Identi fied With Tell esh-S ha llaf, 15 ki lometers south of Joppa.
84 • l NVOY5
The Assyrian army was marc hing south toward Ekron, having cap
tured Joppa, when they enco untere d the Egyptian ar my sent hy
Shabaqo advancing from Gaza . The biblical record states thlll
Tahar qo led the Egy ptian army, although he was not reign ing 'I'
pharaoh and was probab ly too young to have parti cipated . The Egyp
tians were defeated and withdrew to Gaza to recoup. The battle wu
one engagement during the campaign of Sennacherib aga inst Judnh ,
which also included the sieges of Lachish and J erusalem.
ENVOYS. In the New Kingdom , the royal envoys were an import ant
element in the diplomat ic service, maint aining contact between th,·
pharaoh and his officials, such as the viceroy of Kush . Numerous ill
scriptions document their tours. They also conveyed the lett ers :lII d
gift exchange bet ween Egy pt and the western Asiatic rul er s docu
ment ed by the Ama rna Letters .
ESA RHADDON (reigned 6811-669 uc), Assyr ian emperor who ill
vaded Egypt in the reign of the Kushi te pharaoh Tahar qo, who had
been suppor ting anti-Assyrian rul er s in western As ia. In 679 Il l ' ,
Esarhaddon marched to the Brook-of-Egypt and ca ptured its ruler.
taking him to Assyria. In 677 BC, the army ca ptured Sidon and n-
asserted Assyrian control along the coast. In 674 BC, the annalisik
text known as the Babylonian Chronicle report s the defeat of the /\ ,
syrian ar my in Egy pt. This is not reported in the other sources . II
seems that the Assy rians spent 672 BC in makin g preparations For tlu
Egyptian ca mpaig n. There are oracle requests to the god Shama sh
about the likel y outcome . Two stelae FromTil Bar sip (in Aleppo Mil
seum) and one From Zenj irli (in Berl in, Pergamon-Mu seum) recoil I
the campaign. The army headed for Gaza. then pushed on to Raphln ,
where there was a batt le. The Egyptian-Kushite ar my was FOrel'd
back, and three batt les ove r 15 days are reported. The last , on II Julv
67 1 Be, was outside Memphis . The city was captured and Taharqn
fled. There was a deportation of the Kushite elite From the city til
Assyr ia. Esarhaddo n's control of Egypt was short-lived: the Libyuu
dynasts quickly changed sides and Taharqo returned. Esarhaddou
launched a new campaign, but died en route, in Pal estine.
ETHOS. The changes in military technology in the early New Kingdom .
with the introduction of the horse and chariot , and the composite hul\'
fAYUM · 85
resulted in a.new image 0:the pharaoh as a chariot warr ior and sports-
111 :111. In earlier scholarly hterature, this was associated with the idea of
1I1l: mar iyannu as a warrior aristocracy, a view now discredited.
The considerable required to become profi cient in char iotry
r.ulically changed elite educa tion. Thi s result ed in a new ethos re-
,I most clearly in the text of the Sphinx Stela of Amenhotep II.
I hix narrates prince' s grea t abilities as a rower and part icular ly as
all archer shooting from a chariot. He is said to have shot through
lour target s of copper placed about 10 met ers apart. Thi s incident is
depi cted on a reli ef block. During these activities, the pharaoh or
prince was under the guidance and protecti on of Month u and the
Asiuric deities , Reshep, As ta r te, and Anath. A simi lar scene depi ct-
lil t: pharao.h Ay of the late 18th Dynasty occurs on a piece of gold
1111 1 lrom chanotry equipment ,
M RAS. Site in Nubia to the north of the Second Cataract. The earliest
11I rg,c structure is fortress of the 12th Dynasty, probably of the reign
III Scnusrct I. It IS perhaps that named Khesef Medj au in the Rames-
Papyri. In of Tutankhamun, in the late 18th Dynasty,
I'ams was the pri ncipal administrative center of the viceroy with a
walled town (but not , apparently, fortress). After a long per iod with no
III little occupation, it became a major town and administrative center
III the Meroitic per iod and later the seat of a Christian bishop.
!',\Yli M. Large oas is to the west of the Ni le and connected to it by the
Yusuf. the earlier periods, the lake (Lake Qarun or Lake
' :ayum) occupied much of the basin , but this gradually reduced in
,\ IIl: and the ":as recl aimed for c ultivation, most notabl y in the
r. uly Ptolemai c peri od . The principal town was Shedyt , known in the
"Iolem.aic and Roman peri ods as Krokod ilopol is (after its patron
crocodile god , Sobek) , and Arsi noe. There is evide nce for land grant s
10. me rcena ry troops in the southern Fayum and adjacent part of the
Valley. The place names, Per-Baalat , Shasu and Pen-shasu , Per-
Khaset , Kharu and Na-khar u, and the theophori c personal names
kexhpu, Baal -her-khepeshef, Baal-Monthu, and Meher-Seth , all indi-
rule the presence of Asiat ics. There were many grants of land in the
86 • IC 272 AO)
Fayum to veterans , In the Ptolemaic period, these wer e di stingui shed
as cle r uchs and machimoi.
The Fayum presen ted a con siderable desert frontier , and there i
ev idence from the Ptolemaic peri od of desert patrols operating from
some of its southern towns. A defensive wa ll has bee n identified Ill'
tween the Ni le Valley and the Fayum at Rikka. At the western end III
Lake Fayum was the Roman fort ress at Dionysias (Qasr Qa run).
FIRMUS (c. 272 All), Accordi ng to the notori ously unrel iable Historla
Augusta . Firrnus was a rich merchant in Alexandria, who was prll
claimed emperor, but defeated by Aurelian , Th is br ief incident WII
ge nerally accepted by historians, but has been challenged by 1\11111
Bowman . There are records of some trouble in Alexandria at thi
time , but not a full revolt. Th e name of Firrnus given to the usurp"!
by the Hist oric Augusta might be thro ugh confusion wit h an olficiII I
named Claudius Firmus, named in papyrus documents.
FLIES. The gold fl y was given as a mil itary decorati on and rewunl
presumably because the insect's per sistence symbolized a suhlici
valor. Flies are spec ified as rewards in the inscript ion of Ahrnus«
FOOD. The prejudiced record of scr ibal did actic lit er atur e t such a, 11 11
Anas tasi Papyri) impl ies that soldiers' ration, were meager and 1111
plea sant. Th ey cl aim that the grai n ration was not fit for grinding, alii I
that water was available only every third day, and then it was smell,
and salty. Other papyrus texts say that the soldier was ob liged to CHII\
his food and water. As product s of elite schoo ls. these literary soum
emphas ize the advant ages of bei ng a member of the elite and 1111
har shness of life for others ,
On a long march into Asia , rations could have been supplerncnu II
by forage , and there is evidence that the a rmy di visions were sprcml
so as to allow the following divi sions a share . After the siege and cal'
ture of Megiddo, the An nals of T hutmose III accounts the numl « I
of sacks of wheat taken from the harvest of the town' s fields, spcr lf
ically excepting that whic h had bee n cut as forage . A scene in 11 11
tomb of Tjanuni, an ar my scribe of the lime of T hutmose IV, show
cattle being herded for consumption by troops . The inscript ions II I
Th ut mose I suggest that the troops in the fortress of Sai in southern
Nubia wer e graz ing their cattle in the bett er territory of the Kushite
Excavations in the for tress at Uronarti found woode n ra-
II IIn tokens for loaves of bread , showing a highly org anized distribu-
IIII n of bureaucracy. From the ev idence , it appears
Ihat the dai ly baSI Crati on of a soldier in the Middle Kingdom was 10
loaves bread. A quarrying text of the 20th Dynasty records the
bread rat ion , supplemented by three j ars of beer, two portions of
meat , and three cakes .
, There are recording the si nking and clearin g of wells
III desert locations for use of quarrying expedi tions, and doubt less
associ ated with for tresses wer e care fully maintained . The scene
II I Ihe of Karnak showing the fortifications of the Ways of
Hor us includ es seven well s. They are dep ict ed as small lakes.
III )l{TI F ICATlONS. Egypt had many for tifi cati ons, of which
' nr lresses were on ly a par t. Not all fort ifica tions were militar y, al-
ihcy had the pot enti al to be . Fort ification serve d as defen se
III I IIIl CS of interna l str ife but was also prot ect ion agains t the annua l
II l1 l1l d:J IIt,lIl 01 the Ni le. Fortifi cat ions primari ly prot ect ed elite/
,',' rl' moillal ce nters and ce nters o f wealth. Fortifi cati on s of var ious
1,I'l'es were used as prot ection of the borders and other vulnerable
I'ans of. t.he country. They mi ght co nsist of a sing le fortress or
..11 :lIn 01 fortresses, networ ks of wa tc htowers . wa lls , and canals
A/lhough it is co rrect to say that Egypt had natural defens es
ag:lInst Invasi on by foreign armies , in the for m of the cataracts (in
lhc south), and the di fficult access along the Via Mari s or Ways of
Hurus and the desert , the Nile Valley was ac tua lly open all of its
length to the incu rsions of sma ller groups of nomadic or semi-no-
uuulic There wer e numerous vulnera ble points at the ends
II I wadi s and desert roads. ma ny of which doubtless had sma ll
watchtowers . Ther e i.s ev ide nce from different period s of mi litary
nlfic iuls whose function was to obse rve and contro l those entering
11 11(1 leaving the Nile Vall ey. There were Ptolemaic and Roma n
desert pat rol s from the towns of the Fayum.
Several hieroglyphic signs represe nt walled enclosures and settle-
iucnts..A circle div ided into four seg ments by two crossed lines is the
word lor "town" (l1i/lI) . More formal rec tangular enclosures with a
88 • r ORTlfl CATIONS
second rectangle in one corner represent religious and royal precincts
(hii I) . There is archaeologica l evidence for enclosi ng wall s around
some Pre- and Early- Dynas tic sett leme nts such as Abu and el-K'II>
(Nekheb). At Abu (Elephantine) , the circular enclo sur e had a wavy
wall. Some sett leme nts of the New Kingdom in Nubia also had en
closure walls (e.g., Aksha, Seseb i, Amara West) , as did all of thl'
principal temple and pal ace co mplexes in Egy pt. There has been 10 11
little archaeological work in the major cit ies, such as Thebes 01
Memphis, to show whether they had large city-wa lls , but ther e an'
references to the wa lls of the cities of Thebes and Sau, and the earl '
city of Memphis was called lnbu-hedj , meaning the "White Walls" III
"White Fort." Certai nly, sett lements within the flood plai n needcrl
prot ect ion from the waters of the inunda tion, if not for military de
Iense . However , settlement would doubtless have spread outside III
the protecti ve wa lls. Massi ve mud-bri ck wa lls do surv ive surround
ing many temple enclosures, such as Karna k and Medinet Habu, and
in pal at ial complexes, such as the palace of Apries at Memphis and
the royal palace in the northern part of the ci ty of Akhetan-n
(Ama rna) . The elite houses at Amarna also had enc losure wa lls
probably because they were used for the storage of large quantities III
There are Egy ptian words for different types of forti fied structure
and in the later per iods Greek and Ara maic words , so me of whirl>
were equated with the earlier Egy ptian. One word for a "fort ress'
was resit , whic h origi nally might have meant " watchtowe r" III
"guardhouse ," deri ving from the verb "to watch ." Its meaning WII
extended and ca n be found in Ptolemaic texts equating with Ihl
Greek wo rd polis , a town . Resit also equates to the Aramaic woul
bvrta . in document s rel at ing to As wa n. The word tj esmet was P'I
haps or igi nally a crenellated parapet , but came to mean a rampart . II
use related to mi litary structures and the wa lls surrounding tempi
enclos ures . The word khetem (from the verb "to sea l") was ge nerulh
used for fortresses (such as Tjaru); menenu is al so used . The wnul
nakhtu, a " stronghold" (from nakht "strong") , and bekhen (a lso li' ·d
for the pylon tower s at the entrance to temples) are also found alii I
presumably had specific meaning. Th e Semitic term for a tower
migdol , was adopted into the Egypti an language and is found rci'l'l
ring to a number of Ramesside fort resses. Gr eek words that appear in
of. : tolemaic date are PIll/lak e, a watchtower, and hy-
paithron , a milit ary ca mp. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to deter-
urine precisely what some of these terms mean .
F( lRTRESS, ARCHAEOLOGY. Well-preser ved fortresses of Mid-
dle New Kingdom date survived in Nubia unt il the buildi ng of
Ihc High .Dam at Aswan (begun in 1960). These fortr esses, most ly
vurrc unding the Second Cataract , have been excavated and
rvcorded . They fall into a number of different categories . There were
largc supply depots at the foot of the cataract (e.g., Bu he n and Mir-
gissa) , whereas smaller ga rr isons on island s and the wes t bank con-
uolled passage through the cataract (Semna and Kumma) or acted
II ' signaling stations (e.g., Shalfak, Uronarti). One fort, Askut ,
,, 'ems to have serve d as a protected island gra in supply.
FOI:resses in other parts of Egypt have only more recently been
vxnmined and are predominant ly of the later periods. The earliest
Iortrcss-typc struc tures in Egypt are at Abydos, the Shunet el-Zebib,
11 111 1 the town wa lls of Abu and Nekhen . An Old Kingdom fort has
hccn excavated Ain Asil in Dakhla Oasis . The wall connecting
Axwan and the First Cataract, perhaps to be identi fied with Senmut
I, contemporary with the Nubian fortresses. The fortress at Zawiyet
I el -Rakham and the enclosure walls and Migdol gateway of
Habu are the best-preserved exa mples of the New King-
""111 III Egypt , although many of the Nubian fort resses were restored
11 11( 1 altered . Rarnesside defenses in the eastern Delt a have been ide n-
tificd at Deir el-Ba lah and Haruvit. A migdoJ is known at Jebel Abu-
l lnssa bet ween Suez and the Biller Lakes. The troubl ed Third Int er-
Per iod saw co nstruc tion of fort resses in Egypt, not ably at
,"I Iliba (Teudj oi) , which marked the north ern limit of the territory of
',' Il'hes. A massi ve enclosure wa ll arou nd the town of Nekheb (el-
I\ nil) could also belong to this per iod.
II of large mud-bri ck structures of the Saite ' period were
Idl' ntlfied as forts because they shared a massi ve ce llular construe-
111111 . Flinders Petrie identi fied one at Tell Dafana, whic h he thought
IVIIS the fortress described by Herodotos as Daphnae, Simi lar con-
unction was found in the Palace of Apries at Memphis and at
Na ukr ati s . Re-examin at ion of these sites indicates that they arc 1,"1
necessarily military, and that the cellular construc tion was to SUPI"" I
stone floors . Certain Late Per iod for ts are known at Tell Qedwa 11 111 1
Dorginarti , Migdol (Tell el Heir) , and Pelusion. The fort at Qasr.1
Ghue ida in Kharga Oasis is probably of Per sian date in ori gin. 101
though the existi ng structure could be largel y Roman in date .
Roman for ts in Egypt recei ved relat ively littl e archaeologi cal 'I
tent ion until quite recently . Ther e ar e many well-preserved 111 1
forts of third- fourt h centur y date , some certai nly of the reign '
Di oel etian. In add itio n, there are smaller watchtowers. These II I
scattered over the Eastern Deser t prot ecting routes to the Red SI
and the qu arr ies at Mons Porphyri tes and Mons Claudianus. Thl '
are for ts in Kharga Oa sis at ed-Deir , el-Qas r . el-G ib , el-Sollld,"
and Qasr el-Ghueida. In the Fayum. the most important fortu
was at Dionysias . Per sian in origin, but largel y Roman as it III
vives; the fortress of Babylon prot ect ed the access to MemI'll I
from the Delta and Wadi Tumil at. 1n Thebes. the Roman fOl'11i
surrounde d the tem ple of Luxor. The most important Roman III'
was Nikopoli s 3.5 ki lometers east of Al exandria. but nothing 01 ,f
surv ives .
FORTRESS, ARCHITECTURE. The Old Kingdom fortress at /II
Asil in Dakhla Oasis was a mud-brick enclos ure wi th ci rcular COl li I
bastions (only that at the southwest corner was prese rved) and SC II II
circular bas tions along the wall s. The entrance was in the center "
the north wall and was protected by project ing walls . It appears I
have been regul arly planned . The Middle Kingdom fortresses in Nil
bi a have many features in common. doubtless because they were Ii
signed , if not by one architect , then as a single defensive systr ru
They all have mas si ve walls of sun -dried mud br ick , stre ngthened III
ternally with timbers and malti ng and lined externa lly with baslioll
and towers. The evidence of mod els and depictions suggests 111 \
walls were crenellated. Loopholes allowed archers to protect III
wa lls from attack . Access to the mai n wa lls of the fort was impcl!. '
by a berm and deep, wide, dry ditc h. The main entrances to III
fortress were thro ugh gateways of similar design , usuall y cornprisiu
three gates and two bartl e courtyards. The fortresses conformed I
IIIl' lie of the land on which they were built. In the catarac t regio n
IIII S could be an island or prominence, resulting in triangul ar or ir-
"'I'.II I:lrly shaped fort s with long spur walls as added protection. Irre-
' 1'I'l·tlve the overa ll plan, the internal arrangements were regular
11' ,' 11 a mam street and buildi ngs in rectangular (somet imes truncated)
hlockx . The larger depot s, such as Mirgissa and Buhen, built on flat-
It ' l ground, clearly represent the ideal regu lar type.
No large for tre sses of the New Kingdom survi ve complet e and
unal tered, exce pt for Zawiv et Um rn el-Rakh til l d • J am, s I un er exca-
vnuon. The Rarnesside fort s at Deir el-Bal ah and Haruvi t in
III I' eastern Delta are bot h square wi th corner towers . Haruvit the
of the. might have had add itional but tre sses along
II Il walls . Dell el- Balah .had a reservoir. Evide nce from the ga rri-
1111 towns of the Egyptia n Empire in wes tern Asia incl udes the
vuinll square migdol towers , identified at Tell Mor. Other sites
huvc large r palati al buildings associ at ed with the E ti
.. ' sgyp Jan gover-
11 01. Tell el-Fa r ah south, Tell esh-Sharia Aphek M gidd . d
' , e I 0 , an
t' I lean.
The fortresses of Roman date conform to the Roman style. This
usuall y has a gate at the center of the walls , with co lonnaded stree ts
k-nding to the centrall y placed headquart er s (principia). Barracks oc-
' lillY h.alf of the m:ea. wi th the commande r's residence and storage
occupying much of the remainde r. There may be addi-
","l1al bui ldi ngs. Many of the late, larger fort s, have semi-
circular bastions along the wa lls and circular corner tower s.
Ie FORT. A military structure enclo sed on all sides with
III"hlJcat lOns , tower s , basti ons , fortified gates , ditches, glacis, etc.
I f I N DEPI CTIONS AND TEXTS. The slate palettes and
t vrcmonial macc heads of the Pred ynastic Period depict enclosur es of
square fo.rm with rounded corners and bastion s at regul ar in-
Ii 1\ als and al so Circular enclosures wit h triangular salients. Such en-
I'!"s ures are being attac ked and destro yed by the heraldic
Igns of the ki ngs.
There is rather little evidence surviving from the Old K' id
S E I ' mg om.
xume <gypto ogr sts attributed some of the earliest bui lding levels in
the Nubian fortresses to the Old Kingdom, but these are now gcnel
ally assigned to the reign of Menthuhotep II or Ame nemhal. I
There are scenes of attacks on fortified towns in the tomb of lnu III
Desh ash eh and Kaemheset at Saqqara.
The troubl es of the First Int ermediate Per iod may have led to 111 1
increase in fortification: there is certainly more evi dence from thl
period . Khet y Ill , ruler of Herakl eopolis , hi s son III
build fort resses and towns. Tomb paintings of the late First Interm .
diat e Period at Beni Hasan show fortified sett lements bein g al
tacked . Here , the vertical walls have a battered base . Amenemhal I
built some sort of defensive network on the eastern border called till
Walls of th e Ruler .
The earliest major exampl es of fortr ess archit ecture to have SUI
vived were the fort resses constructed by the Middle Kingdom
pharaohs in Nubia , particularly the region of the Second
Farther south in Nubia, there was an enclosure wall around the clin
center of the Kushite city of Ke r ma. There are no depictions of Ihe. •
fortr esses, but they occ ur in administrative document s, such as till
Semna Despatches. .
The pharaohs of the New Ki ngdo m restored the fortr.es; es ol Nil
bia , but none are depicted in battle scenes or tombs ol viceroys . A
small guard tower is dep icted in the tomb of Amarna, p"1
haps protecti ng the access to the area of the city In the north III
south. Th e war sce nes of the Ramesside pcriod show many mOI\
fortified structures in Egy pt and wes tern Asia. A sce ne of a rniliuuV
expedi tion of Sety I shows the for ti ficati on prot ect.in
border around Tjar u, which incl udes sma ll forts with a crocodi le
filled ca nal. Ramesside texts also refer to this chain of for ts alon
the Ways of Horus . A similar chai n of small forts is thought to huvr
existed along the western edge of the Delta and the Mediterrallcall
coas t as far as Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham. The reliefs depi ctin g th
war s of Ramesses III against the Libyan s show the pur suit of Ih
Libyan army past two Egypti.an frontier fortresses . s: encs II I
battle with the Sea Peoples mclude a fortress ca lled Migdol II I
Ramesses-Ruler-of-Iunu ." In most instances, depictions of Egypt
ian fort resses are highl y schematic , often being littl e more II
battl ement ed rectangle with a door way. It is the accompanyIII
name rather than a detail ed representati on that identi fies the
fortress .
no depictions of fortresses in the Libyan period. The
111 Egypt of the Kushite king Piye are documented by his
Victory Stela, but the corresponding reliefs in the temple at Gebel
Barkal are almost entirely destroyed . The text of the Victory Stela
refers to the siege of the city of Khmunu (Herrnopolis) in
Egypt, With sieges of other towns and forts, including Mem-
phis, and to the attack on cities with scaling ladders . From the later
25th Dy.nasty, the Assyr ian text s refer to the attack on Memphis and
III the city of Sau, Dj anet (Tani s), and another Delta ci ty. A
from Nmeve l.l depicts an Egyptian fortified town being at-
tucked by the ASSyrian army, who had a cons iderable array of siege
lowers and engines .
were built in the eas tern Delta in the 26th Dynasty
and Pers ian period , and at Dorginarti in Nubia and Kharsa Oasis in
the Persian per iod , there are no more reliefs or pai ntings showing
Fl NAMES. All Egypti an fortresses had names. These usu-
ally m.c1ude that of the founding, or reigning, pharaoh or the enemy,
sometimes combined. Of the 12th Dynasty forts in Nubia, Semna
was " Kha-kau-re (Senusr et III) is powerful";
off the Bows"; and Semna South " Who repels
the Setiu-Nubians . In the 18th Dynasty, Thutmose Ill's garrison
lortress III Lebanon was called "Menkheperre is the Binder of the
Barbarians. " The "Migdol or Menmaetre" (Sety I) is dep icted in the
at Karnak. A similar fortress of Mere nptah
W, IS called Migdol 01Sety-Me renptah (who is) beloved like Seth "
A fortress or Ramesses III ca lled "Migdol of Ramesses-RlIler-of-
lunu" depicted in thc scene of batt le with the Sea Peoples . A fort
shown 111 the scene of the Libyan Wars is ca lled "Castle in the
Sand." In some of these cases, the fortr esses might be the same, but
renamed for the reigning pharao h. The fort founded by Osorkon I
ncar Herakl eopolis was more simply Per-Sekhem-kheper-re "the
house of Sek hern-k heper-re" (which was the throne name of Os-
orko n I), a designation more typical of temples.
GABINIANS. The Gabinia ns were a force of Roman legionaries led hy
the proconsul of Sy r ia, Aulus Gabinius, who in 55 BC, at the wi sh 0 1
Cnae us Pompey, rei nsta ted Pto lemy XII (Auletes) . The expedi tion S('I
out from Syria anti marched throu gh Pal estine toward Egypt. Marcil
Anto ni us was a general of the ca valry anti seized the gar rison ill
Pelusi on. The Roman force approached Alexa nd r ia where it engaged
the Egy ptia n army, co mmanded by Arche laos, the husband of tlu-
reign ing q ueen Berenike IV (daug hter of Ptol emy XII) . Gabinius all"
Antonius led on two fronts and after a second, naval , batt le on tlu
Nile, Ptolemy was ab le to regai n hi s kingdom. The Gabinians well
left in Alexandria, and were deployed on several occasions against th
popul at ion . They we re prominent on the Egyptian side against luliu
Caesar and Kleopa tr a VII in the Alexand r ian War .
;lII d the Old Kingdom fori at Ai n Asi l in Dakh . .
" Vidence for the Perslan ca-n la Oasis. There ISgood
garnson on Ab u' t/ fiji h
" .Idiers were mainly Jews an I II . JIl re .. t. century BC, The
} " , ' (0 ier wes tern ASiat ICS,
/ h(// (/o/ll c: Empire, Pennanent ar
' "rt resses of Lower N b' I' g mons were placed in the
. u 13 rom the 12th D '
' " l1 lherly ones (Sa i and Nt ) r. , ynasty and III the mor e
" , apu a rrorn early III the J8th D '
expansio n i/110 wes tern A " ynasty, WIth
a, they were in NUbi'1 Th ' ,sJa garnsons were es tablished j ust
, . ere IS ev ide nce from d
uor ably the Amar na Lette d ocumentary sources,
" rs , an arc haeology F II ' ,
/I III I capture of the city by Ah I ' 0 oWlllg the siege
mose , Sha r uhen be '
l!tllllgh it was rept aced I' . ca me a ga rnson, al-
, n Importance by G a h
Iwlher north in Phoel11'cI' a I d ' aza. t er coastal towns
, Ja gam sons and '
IlIlIger range expeditions would ' I b " were pornts to which
. sa l erore march ' ' I d
was later rep laced b)' Sumur d I ' ing III an , Ullaza
. an there might hav b "
Ihe old Irading part ners of B blos I ' e een garnsons III
. Y os am Tyre J oppa w ..
)' 1;11 11 storage and organizat ion of the corv' , as <I center for
lI' cd as a chariot depot Info I ",' ee and III the 19th Dynasty
, anc gan isons seem I I , b
"'Wei": ./erusalem in the lat e 181h D nast v c 0 rave much
""<"I IiCr"cion, ' I\legidll ' , II ! Y . YCO/llrolled the gram pro-
, ' , ' 0 cn ntrn ec the north. tl '
Slll"an was in a slrate" ic po iti ' I sou 1 routes, and Beth
e- Sl Ion III t te Jezreel v: II d
II l1llhe cros sill" oft he J ' /' , I a ey an co uld con-
e- 0 1uan anc way to Da m a h
" illrisons were probubly K . f' y , ascu s, I er towns wi th
• umu I , an muta an I h· U '
I'lIa, 1. i\rchaeolocic'll evidenc I' I ' (per aps ga n t on the
, ' ce rom t re 19th a f 20 / D '
j'I" liIlCthe presence ofga ' anr t 1 ynastles sug-
, . , rnsons comes from 11 II M
" 'lIlh. Tell esh Shari' ah A h k A e or . Tell el-Farah
Be th Shean 'In:' ".PIle .' S Shl,dod , l3eth-s heme sh, Lach ish ,
• " U re es- arc iyeh
/'!o/el1la;c: Eg,l1Jt, There is ev ide nce for " ' . ,
III \Vns of Upper Egypt' II P es tab lished in the
III ie tol emaic per d F II '
IIl1l1s of Ha r onnophr is 'I d CI 10 , 0 owing the r ebel-
. ' n laonnophri s th '
I\ mkodil opolis and Pathyris Art th . . ' ey were placed III
V" I und Kleopatra II there er ,e war between Ptolemy
II I'Thebes and in TI III the Memnoneia dist rict
us. ia t 111 Thebes was t M d'
l'tolemaic: EI1I/1ire There w ' , a e met Habu.
. ere gamsons III all of II
\ ,' /1 , possess ions of the PI I ' 13 . , ie numerous over-
o emres, eca use the t d the i
II Hlllders were ge nerally me . . roops an their co m-
, r eenanes and many f G k
1/l lI lIrigin, defect ion in time f " • 0 ree or Macedon-
. s 0 cns rs was corn mo Th r.
'III TIson was place(1 "11 C n. e n rst Ptolemaic
, yr ene III / 2/ 32 1 BC f
IlsilII S ill Cypr us and Coele S ' S- - , soon oilowed by gar-
yna. amos, although a naval base. doe s
GARRISON. The troops stationed withi n a for t ress . Ther e were pit'
sumably garrisons in strategic towns anti acce ss point s . key storaf'l
centers, and royal residences from the earl iest limes . There is . unlor
tunatel y, littl e early docu mentary ev idence. Acc ord ing to some of Ihl
sc hoo l text s that ex tol the benefits of the elite contrasted wi th I,'
fort unate members of society, the ga rriso n so ldiers " clorhiug is Skill
and his foo d the grass of the field, like any ca u !c." Not
therefore , being stationed in ga rrisons. part icu larly those in Iorei j-u
parts or on border s , was grea tly di sliked anti a cause of int erminahl
bor edom. There is ev idence that in some for tres ses permanent gill
risons we re ins ta lled with the sold iers and their fam ilies (perha ps IiI'
ing in extramura l sett lement). This was certa inly the case with th
Persian garri son on Ab u anti the Ptol emaic garrison at Pa th yris .
Pharaonic: Egypt. Sma ll garrison f0l1S seem to have been localn l
at many po ints wi thin Egypt. They might have contro lled the norn
bounda rie s . There is evidence for them on the outer approaches II
major ci ties . The " northern" and "s outhern" fortresses of Memphl
for example, were some distance from the ci ty itsel f, co ntro lli ng III
ces s. The "Place-bel oved-o f-Th oth" mig ht be a similar small garri sII"
in Thebes. The earliest known Egypt ian for tresses outside of the Nil
Valley are the Early Dynasti c site of En Besor in southe rn Palest ill
whic h might have served as a defended supp ly statio n for caravuu
96 • GAUlS
not appear to have had a garrison. In Caria and Pamphylia, there was a
long Ptolemaic presence, and in Ci licia a number of coastal stronghold
were garrisoned from the time of Ptol emy I ll. On Crete, there was II
garrison in ll anos for much of the Ptolemaic period . During the Chrc-
monidean War, Thera received a garrison, incl uding a contingent from
Pamphylia: its soldiers are particularly well documented, One of thl'
principal functions of this garrison was defense agai nst pirates . Also
tablished at the time of the Chremoni dean War were the bases on main
land Greece: Methana in the pclopo nnese was renamed Arsinoe; Sikyou
and Kor inth were garrisoned from 308-303 IlC. In the north Aegeall
there were garriso ns at Ainos and Maroneia in Thrace from the time III
Ptolemy 11\. Ephesos was under Ptolemaic control from the reign 01
Ptolemy Il until 259 IlC. It was recaplured by Ptolemy 11\ in 246 BC ami
received a large garrison, being held until 197 IlC.
Roman. Garr isons were established at key points by Augus t us , 111 1
iabl y at Alexandr ia (the fort of Ni kopoli s), Babylon, and ASWlllI
As in earlier times, the Roman gar risons were stationed in key pop"
lati on centers , strategic points within nomes, and on the river III
desert edges . The total provinci al garrison was probably between
20,000 and 30,000, with no one nome having more than 1,000-1 ,5l1
men . This has been estimated at 0.5-D.8 percent of the tot al popul ll
tion (ass uming 4.2 milli on persons). Some garr isons were stationrd
for an extended period whi le others had only short visits . The Not l
tia Dignitatum details the places where unit s were stationed in th
later fourth century AD, The Roman garrisons di ffered from the Cill
lier periods most obviously in Ihatlhey were largel y drawn from 0 11 1
side Egypt. In the Fayum, there was a major base at Dionysias . Al ' lI
hort was stationed at Narmout his on the edge of the desert in Iii
southern part of Fayum. Thi s had been wit hdrawn by 346 AD. A cuv
airy det achment (cataplr ract) was stationed in the nome capi tal at /\1
sinoe, There was a garri son at Ox yrhync hos in the reign of Diudd
ian . Lykopoli s in Middle Egypt had a garrison comprising at lea I
part of the Sixt h Legion in 354 AD.
GAULS. Term used for Celtic peop les of central Europe who moved
southward , both west and east, even tually causing serious problem
10 the Hell enistic kingdoms. One incur sion sacked Rome in 390 III
There were major invasions of Macedonia and northern Greece (21
Gm [l l:lN • 97
11 (') and of Asia Minor (278 BC) h
t lalatia. Ptolemy II and 11 'I S SIICC' were the
settled in what beca me
. essors use Gauls C It d G
nuns as mercenary troops. ' e s, an ala-
I ;AZA. An important ci ty ' h .
the Ways of Horus and 111 sout ern lying at the east end of
c ,consequent ly 111 a' ' Ii .
lion. It was called Kedje(t) in Egyptial1' W'
icant strategic posi-
. C . . It1 mose l ' s cam ' .
In anaan 111 pursuit of the Hyksos SI I paign s
ga r r ison, but by the time of made ani Egypt -
("I I'I wh h . I was rep aced by
• .• , IC remained a staging and fr '
hy the kings of Assyr ia in the w .t post. Gaza was captured
I . es war marches toward Eo t A
I 1al time , an Egyptian vassa l ruled the town . oYp · t
gained it and used it as a bas b f . The Egyptians soon re-
170 I Be) . It rernai d : . ,e ore and the batt le of Elt ekeh
play an and con tinued to
Wars of the Diadochul and th 1,0 emSalc. period, notabl y during the
e ater yrran Wars.
"I:ImEL EL-A RA K KNI FE. " The "Gebel e ' . ,. .
nnstic (Naqada II ) dagger Ir U l-Arak Kni fe ISa Predy-
II carved handl e I' I om ,?per Egy pt. A silex blade is fitted to
licI' with o;!pPOP'?I.t
The handle is decorat ed in re-
. con ICt and taking of capt" T . .
groups are invo lved one with I ' '. , d . ives. wo distinct
"I' Egyptian and Mesopotai " 1<1 It' . 111 one With shave d heads, Boa ts
man ypes are shown .
dnrds. The other side has 'I see e I' " . I' . some carry stan-
" n 0 aruma s and a hu fi b
tween two lions Thi h " 1 ... . a uuman igure e-
. . IS as c ose slim Ian ties with M . .
The deco ration has similarities with th P d .esopotalman art.
F . I . . 0 er re ynastrc art from Upp
,gypt, SUC1as the Pai nted Tomb 100 at N kh er
hy the Louvre Museum in 1914 ' . e. en. The piece, acq uired
"I' a " Dynastic Race " whicl ' .Fas considered to support the idea
, 1ca me rom Mesopotami d
Hgypt The scen h' mill an conquered
. e ,IS more recently been suaz t d d .
1",lween Egyptians and N bi L" eoes e to eprct conflict
, . • u Ill ns or ibyans So me th . . h
"llSt doubt upon the aut hentici ty of tl . ' au on ues ave
ie piece .
1,lm ELEIN. Site in Upper Eg pt, south I' .
was Per-Hathor A I gy 0 Thebes , Its ancient name
II I' Nubian of found here record a colony
II Iher body of t I' oops the First Inter mediate Period. The
ihuc. when it was known here is of Ptolemai c
EL-GHARBANIYAT. Coas tal site to the we st of Alexandria and III
kilometers eas t o f Ala mein. Monument s at the site suggest that it 11' 11
perhaps the locat ion of a fOJ1 in the chai n that Rarnesses II built w. II
de fense agains t the Libyans .
EL-GIB. A sma ll fortress or watchtower o f late Roman date . in 11 11
northe rn part of Kharga Oasis , About 15 met ers x 16.50 met ers with
walls 2.5 meters thick . the wa lls sti ll stand about 15 met er s hi gh. 'I'll
fortress was or iginally of three stor ies , the lowest a series of vaullt 'li
rooms with a ce ntra l courtyard above, and had round corner towr:
(now co llapse d). Along with the nearby and very simi lar tower 01, I
Someira, it controlled the road, which led to the northern entry/cxu
to the Oas is through the passes of Rarnlia and Yab sa.
GIFT EXCHANGE. Royal girt exc hange is well documented for III
late 18th Dy nasty (Late Bronze Age of Near East) by the Aml " 'III!
Letter s . The scenes of foreign tribute also relate to girt exchange , III
return for val uable raw materi al s , most not abl y go ld but also iviu
and ebony, Egypt received timber, lapi s lazul i, co pper, and other III"
terial s . Prest ige gi rts we re se nt with the exchange of letters, on ro ,II
fes tivals and at the time of roya l marri age . Not abl e amo ng the ,
"greeting gi rts" were chariots and horses , mil itary eq uipment , alill
weapons See ARMS TRADE.
GLACIS, Sl ope lead ing up 10 walls of a fortress that exposes uttackr
to fire from the defenses ,
GRI FFON iakhekh). Mythi cal creature wi th a lion ' s bod y and eagll'
head . The cres ted gri ffon, si milar to that found in Minoan art, first IliI
pears on the axe of Ahmose I from the bur ial of Queen Ahhotrp
where it is described as " beloved of Monthu" and represent s III
pharaoh as a manifest ati on of that god. The eagle, however , docs I II
figure pro minent ly in Egy ptia n art and the lat er New Kingdom rel"
sentations , whi ch are co mmo n, are correct ly hieraco-sphin xes , havru
a falco n head on a lion' s bod y. Fo llowi ng Egyptian conve ntion, thl'
usua lly have the long tripartite wig (missi ng on the axe of Ahrnosc II
At the battle o f Qadesh , Ramesses II hunted his ene mies " lik..
gr iffo n" and " slaughtered them unceasingly," Ramesses III was '
who is wide of step, a possessor of wings who sees leagues of
as strides ," " his war cry is heard like that of a griffon,"
and his vorce was bell owing and roa ring like (that of) a griffon."
-H -
IIA( ;AR EL-MERWA. Large roc ky outcrop cl ose to the point where
Ihe desert road from Lower Nu bia regain s the Nil e between the
Fourth and Firth Cataracts with inscri ptions of Thutmose I and
Thut mose III . !hese _defi ne Egypt's southern border al ong the
desert roads,'lIld III relat ion to the gold- mini ng regi on of Ikayta. Bot h
pharaohs left parall el inscription s at the river Euphrates in Nahar in .
"here IS also a cartouche of Ramesses II and a da maged text refer-
'lIIg to the land o f Miu .
IIAKOR (r eigned 393-380 HC). Pharaoh of the 29th Dy-
,n,asty. seems to have been interrupted by that of Pshenmut .
I hemalllmlllt aryact ion s ofthereign wereagain stPersia.ln 389 IJC
' ,'akor , an anti-Pers ian alliance with Evagoras ruler of
SalamiS Cyprus. The rebellion of Evagoras had begun in c irca
I' ) , BC with successes that had ex tended his rul e onto the Asiatic
II,aillland in Ci licia and Phoenicia. A late so urce refers to an alliance
and the Pisidi an s (i n so uthern Asi a Min or) , which
would, If It has any veraci ty, be linked wi th the ac tivities of Evauo-
111 \ , At hens.sent a fleet of 10 ships to the aid of Evagoras in 387
lnu the Persi an peace treat y of 387/386 BC severely limited Greek in-
Around 385 IJC, Persia moved to regain co ntro l of Cyprus
11I 1t! IllIS involved an attac k on Egy pt. There appear to have been
I( ryptiun ac tions in Phoen icia at thi s time in res ponse to the Per sian
il l trcssion. A maj or Persian attack on Evagoras was launched in 382
Ill', hut Il akor co nti nued to lend practical suppo rt until the end of his
,,'i gll, inclUding , in 38 1, 50 shi ps (some modern account s call them
trl remes) . Although defeat ed , Evagoras was left in power on favor-
Ilhk terms. A new an ti- Persian allia nce was formed between Egy pt,
'1:1, and a rebel governo r. Gl os . Hakor hi red the Athe nian ge neral
I IlIlhnas to comma nd a for ce o f Greek mercenaries , but the Persian
I ununnndcr Pharn abazos ordered hi s recall to Athens . The death of
100 • I IARKI lUI ur., C. 2280 KC)
llakor was followed by the brie f reign of his son, Nefaarud II , who
was de pose d before the end of the yea r by Nakhtnebef.
HARKHUF (11. e. 2280 IIC). Offi cial of the Si xth Dynasty who served
the pharaohs Nemtye msa f I and Pepy II . The inscr iptions carved Oil
the facade of his tomb at Aswan are an import ant source of infonn n
tion on the trading expeditions of the Egyptians into southern Nuhln
and the politi cal changes takin g plac e in Nubia at that time. Alth ough
the texts do not descri be dir ect co nflicts bet ween Egypt and its nei gh
bor s, they relat e that the ruler of the Kushite kingdom of Yam had
gone to "s mite the Libyans ," and that he supplied an ar med escort
(perhaps mercen ary troops goin g to serve in Egypt) for the homeward
journey through Lower Nub ia. The narrati ves of the four expedition:
also chart the uni ficat ion of three chiefdoms in Lower Nubi a,
Wawat , Irtj et , and Satju , into a single, larger , kingdom.
HARONNOPHRIS (HAR-WEN-NOFER) (reigned 205-199 11(') ,
Rebel pharaoh in the reigns of Ptolemy IV and Ptolemy V. There has.
in the past , been confusion over the reading of the name of this rul er ,
Hurgonaphor and Harmachi s, appearing in earli er literature. The correct
reading is now recogni zed as (-Iaronnophri s (in its Greek form) , from
the Egyptian Harwennofer. The chronology and detail of the rebellion
has been clarified in recent years, The rebellion was based in Uppci
Egypt and apparently had some support from the priesthood ofThehcs
At Edfu, work on the construction of the templ e ceased between
2071206 and 176 ac . The rebellion broke out in 205/204 Be , at the VCI
end of the reign of Ptolemy IV (or perhaps at the announcement of hi
death). It must have gained rapid support , as the Greek soldiers Iell
Thebes and went to Abu (Elephantine) . Haronnophris controlled the n'
gion from Abydos (including the administrative center of Ptolemai s aml
Koptos) to Pathyris. The presumed death of Haronnophri s took plan '
in his sixth regnal year, after JUl y/August 199 BC. It is now clear that thr
regnal years begun by Haronnophris were continued by his successor
Chaonnophr is (Ankh-wen-nofer). following the rebellion , miliuu '
camps were es tablished at Krokodilopolis and Pathyris.
HARSIESIS (fl. 131 IIC), Theban rebel pharaoh under Ptolemy VIII
Euergctcs II . Harsiesis se ized power in Thehes during the time 01
• t () I
lhc civil war (dynast ic war) between Euergetes II and his sis/l' \
Kleopat r a II. Until Jul y 131 BC, Thebes was under the co ntrol of I
crgetes 11 , but by Oct ober the same year, either Kleopatra II or li ar
sicsis it. 10 November 131 BC, Euergetes II had rcga illcd
of t.he CIty, and Harsiesis had been expelled, fleeing \IOI'th ,
Iwo demotic papyri from Karara in Middle Egypt record him. IIc
13 131 BC and January 130 BC, Thebes was hd d hy
k lcopat ra II , Nothing furthe r is known of the rehellion.
IIARSIYOTEF (r eigned c. 380 IIC). Kushite king of Mcroc. Il arsiy
",tel reigned for at least 35 years , but it is diffi cult to place him pre -
cisely, A number of factor s suggest he reigned in the first half of lhc
fourth century BC. Har siyotef left a large stela with a long text writ-
len in Egy ptian hierogl yph ics, in the temple of Amlin at Ge bel
lIarkal (Napata) now in the Nubi a Museum , Aswan. The inscripti oll
records milit ary actions led or se nt by I-I arsiyotef in hi s regnal yeurs
.t, 5, 6, II , 16, and 35. The campaigns of yea r 3, 5 , and 6 were against
Ihc who occ ur in other Meroitic texts as nomadic peop les of
the Eastern Desert. [n yea r II , the army marched into Lower Nuhia
alld attacked Aqna, perhaps to be ident ified with Mirgissa. It then ad-
vanced on Aswan, where ther e was some sort of battl e with another
arm,y led by Braga and Sa-amani-sa . ln yea r 16, the army went
against Mekhuf, an otherwise unidentifi ed region . In years 18 and 23,
the Rehrehsa, appare ntly a nomadi c gro up. who are named in other
texts, att acked Meroe itself. In yea r 35, the army went
against the desert land s of Mekhty. How any of these events, parti c-
ularly those in Lower Nubia and Aswan, relate to eve nts in Egyp t ill
Ihc 30th Dynasty is, at present , impossibl e to know.
IIATHOR. Goddess, with many as pects. Hathor was the daughter of the
sun god Re. In her violent manifestati on (as the "Eye of Rc"), she is
identified with the lioness-headed goddesses , Tcfnut and Sakhnll'l.
This form was also later associated with the warlike Asiatic goddesses
Axtur t e and Anath when they were introduced into the Egyptian pall-
thcon . Hathor IS associated with foreign lands from the ea rliest times,
particularly the mining regions of Serabit el-Khad im in the Sinai and
102 • I IAT511EP5UT (REIGN ED C. 1472- 1458 ac)
later at Timna. The Egypt ians equated ll athor with foreign goddess
and as such, she became the image of "the Lady of Byblos."
HATSHEPSUT (reigned c. 1472-1458 II C) . Regnant queen, mill
therefore , correct ly, a pharaoh. Daughter of Thu t mose I , she was till'
Great Royal Wife of Thut mose 11 and acted as regent in the earliest
years of Thutmosc III before assuming full pharaon ic style. Duriup
the core ign with Thutmose Ill , there were perhaps as many as 1'0111
campaigns in Nu bia . The first , shortly after her ass umption of II Il'
kingshi p, was probabl y led by Hat shepsut in person. The others, to
ward the close of her reign, appear to have been comma nded by Thill
rnose III. One of these reached Mi u. A maj or trading expedition WII,
sent along the Red Sea to the land of Punt , in the Ethio pian highl und,
The rel iefs recordi ng thi s show a significant role played by contin
gents of the army. There is no di rect evidence for any Asiatic calli
paigns during this period , and the mi litary activities of Thutmose 111 \
sole reign were directed to that region.
HATTUS1L1 III (reigned c. 1264-1239 BC) , Great King of the 1111 .
titcs . As a local ruler in the rei gns of his brother Muwatalli aud
nephew Ur hi-teshub (Murs ili III) , Hattu sili fought campaigns in II Il'
northern part of Asia Minor , regaining considerable territor y. He then
deposed his nephew and ascend ed the throne. Ramesses 11 co nsid
ered lending his support to the exi led Urhi-Teshub, but he eventually
signed a peace treaty wi th Hatt usili in 1258 BC, sealed by dipl u
matic mar riage. Both the Hitt ite and Egyptian versio ns of this all'
preser ved . The peace was no doubt in response to the increas iur
power of Assyria, following the fall of Mit anni.
HELMET. Egy ptian troops are rarel y depi cted wearing helmet s. ul
thouah for mercenaries and foreigners they are frequen tly an identi
" -
fying featu re . Helmet s are, however, dep icted in various scene
showing the manu fact ure of military equi pment and also as part 01
the "foreign tr ibut e" presented to the pharaoh . Helmet s also occur ill
some of the Amarna Letters as part of the arms trade . Till'
pharaoh' s khepresh or " Blue Crown" is often called a war hel met ill
the literature, and although it may be worn in battl e sce nes , it is nol
the only crown to appear in those. Indeed , pha raohs are often shown
I-I1ERAKONI' 0 1l5 • 103
in batt le wea ring the doub le ostrich pl umes and ram' s horns, which
should alert us to the nonfact ual aspects of the scenes. There are de-
pictions of Egyptians wea ring helmet s in the battl e reliefs of
Ramesses 111 at Medinet Habu. In the scene of di stributi on of
weapons, there are helmet s the same shape as the lappeted wig, and
in the scene of the storming of Dapur, archers in long coat s wear the
more typical conical helmets. In several scenes , the pharaoh ' s chari-
oteer is shown with a con ical hel met ove r his lappeted wig. A similar
type of hel met , made of faience, was worn by the mummy of 1-101'-
l' samti k (now New York, Metropoli tan Muse um of Art).
The Hitt ites wore 3 pointed, conical helmet ; the Sha rdana a rather
nail er one wi th horn s and a spike and ball (or di sk) on top, and some-
limes with cheek guards. The PeIcse t (Philistines) are shown with a
icuthered or hor sehair crest. A papyrus apparently depicting Myce-
uaean troops seems to show the famous boar ' s tusk hel met.
IIERAKLEOPOLIS, The Greek name for the Egyptian town of Nell -
//( ',1/1 . the modern Ihnasya el-Medina in Middl e Egypt. It stands at a
poi nt ncar the entrance to the Fayum . It must always have
been au important center, but only fragments of its history are so far
known. II was Ihe seat of the rulers of Dynasties 9- 10, the last of
whom was overth rown by Mcnthuho tep II in his wars of reun ifica-
tion, l lerakleopoli s might have been attacked or besieged during these
actions. In the later 20th Dynasty, Li byans were settled in the reg ion,
:lnd the ci ty came to prominence again during the Third Intermediate
I'eriod. Osorkon I founded a fortress, Per-Sekhernkheperre, near the
city. probably to its north . In the late Libyan peri od , when Lower and
Middle Egypt was di vided between four Libyan pharaohs wi th the
Kushite king, Pi ye, controlling Thebes and much or Upper Egypt,
l lcrakleopol is was the capital of a kingdom. Its ruler , Peftj auawyhasr,
acknowledged Piye' s suzerainty, and when the coa lition led by Tel-
uukht marched south, he refused to yield the town. Herakleopolis en-
dured a lengthy siege , but was relieved by Piye' s army as it marched
north to Memphis.
104 • HITIlHS
HITTITES. The kingdom of Hatti in central Anatolia, with its ca pital al
Hatt usa (Bogazkoy) , became one of the great powers of the Late Bronze
Age and Egypt' s major opponent for control of north Syria in the la\l'1
18th and 19th Dynasties. Hittite history is divided into "Old Kingdon!"
c . 1650-1500 Be, "Middle Kingdom" circa 1500- 1430/ 1420 BC, and
"Empire" 1430120-1 200 BC. The direct contacts and conflicts with
Egypt came under the "Empire," and the dates for the Hittit e Great
Kings of this period are achieved largely through synchronisms with till'
Egyptian and other wes tern Asiatic powers (notably Mitanni and Bah)'
Ion). The first conflict came in the reign of Akhenaten when SUI'
pilulium a I detached Egypt' s north Syrian vassal: Amurru , ,i
some evidence that the Egyptians came into conflict with the Hittites m
the succeeding reigns. Achapel at Karnak of the reign of Th tankhanllln
carried a scene of an Asiatic batt le, and in the contemporary tomh III
Hore mheb at Saqqar a , Asiatics (incl uding Hitt ites) are dep icted II
t r ibute bearers. Following the death of Tutankhamu n, his wido«
Ankhesenamun sought a Hittite prince as her husband . Th is was agai n I
the policy operated by Egypt in diplomatic marriage and was appal
ently opposed by some court factions because the prince was rnurder«l
ell route to Egypt. The campaigns of Sety I and Ramesses II broupln
Egypt into direct mil itary conflict with the Hitt ites. Sety I attempted II I
regain control of Qadesh (year 5 or 6) and succeeded in ca pturing Ihl
city, but it soon returned to the Hitti te control.
When Ramesses II asce nded the throne, the Egy ptians co ntrolled
Canaan wit h much of the Phoeni cian coast and the Beqa Valley. III
the campaign of year 4, Ramesses att acked Arnurru, which once a lalll
became an Egyptian vassal. In retaliation, the Hittite king, Muwut ulll
(reigned 1295- 1271) , moved to recapture Arnurru. He assembled 111 1
army from Hatti and 16 provinces and allies, total ing 2.500 chari ul
and 37,000 men. As Ramesses had set his eyes on Qadesh , coni h' I
was inevitable. Despite the claims in his numerous inscr iptions el'l\
brating the battle of Qadesh, Ramesses achieved no significa nt gain
Although Ramesses II brought his armies into north Syria again. II .
years 8- 10, his later campaigns were directed much farther south.
Shortly after the battle of Qadesh, the king of Assy r ia , Adud-nruu t
I, attacked Hanigalbat , the remaining fragment of the old kingdom " '
Mitanni, and conquered it. He then wrote to the Hittite king seck in ' II I
liance and expecting to be treated on an equal level as a Great Kin
JIOREMI JEll (REIGN ED C. 1323/ 13 12- 1295 uc) • 105
Muwatalli spumed him. On the death of Muwatall i (c. year 8/10 of
Ramesses II) , he was succeeded by his son Mursili II , but Mursili was
and replaced by his uncle, Hattusili III. With a new king
JJl Assyna (Shalmaneser I), the king of Hani galbat moved to renew his
with Hatti and to shake off the Assyr ian yoke. Inevitably, As-
syna attacked , and Hanigalhnt was absor bed, leaving Assyria direct ly
border ing the Hitt ite empire, with no intervening buffer state
A peace treaty was finally concluded bet : een II and
the Hittites, and is recorded by two tablets in Babylon ian cu neiform
lound at Hattu sa (Bogazkoy) and a stela at Karnak . It was signed in
year 2 1, Ist month of winter, day 2 1. Also found at Bogazkoy were
26 letters from Ramesses to the Hitt ite king and 13 to Pudukhepa, the
quee n. Ramesses II ' s chief wife, Nefert ar i (Naptera ), wrote to
Pudukhepa and the Hitt ite king, as did the Queen Mot her , Mut -Tuya,
and. the Prince , Seth-hir-khepeshef (Shoutakhaps hap) . The
ended in yea r 34 when Ramesses marri ed the daught er
of Hanusil i. The Marr iage St ela survives in versions at Karnak Ele-
phantin e, Abu Simbe l, and Amara. '
! he end of Hittite empire is obscure . The last Gr eat Kings
guined control of part of Cyprus but suffered from the attac ks of the
on the ir eas tern borders. Hattu sa itself was destroyed in a
mass ive conflagmtion, and it was once conve ntional to asc ri be the
end of the Hitti te empire to the invasion s of the Sea Peoples and
other groups . The fragmentat ion of the Hitt ite Empire is para lleled by
collap.se of other great powers at the end of the Late Bronze Age .
Smaller kingdoms replaced them, and there were " Neo-Hittite" states
in Anatolia and north Syria, notably at Carchemish and Tarhunta ssa
some ruled by scions or viceroys of the royal house. '
!lOR-AHA (r eigned c. 3080 II C) , Pharaoh of the First Dynasty. A
woode n label from Abydos appare ntly shows a bound captive and a
n-ctang ular fortified structure, although the opponent is not specified .
!I0REMHEB (r eigned c. 1323/1312- 1295 II C) . Last pharaoh of the
IXlh Dynasty. Horemheh 's ori gi ns are obscure, and he does not claim
101:: directly related to the royal fami ly. He fi rst appears in the reign
01 I as one of the most important officials in Egypt,
therefore his career must have begu n in the reign of Akhenaten. His
106 • HORLMHEIl lrL. c. 1410- 1380 lie)
tomb at Sa qqa r a, decorated in the reign of Tutankhamun, accredi ts
him wi th some 90 titles and the ir variants , ma ny o f them milit ary,
Hor emheb was certainly responsib le for the militar y activi ties in Asiu
and Nubia that are known from Tutankharnun' s re ign , and he might
have led some of the m in person, Scenes in his tomb at Saqqara show
Horernheb introducing defeated Asiatic ru ler s and thei r tribu te bearers
into the pre sen ce o f Tutankhamun. Thes e inc lude Hittites bringi m,
teams of hor ses , There are also scenes of the army selli ng up camp,
After the short reign of Tutankhamun's successor, Ay, Horemheb hi m
self ascended the thron e as pharao h, There are rather few records from
the reign, which might have lasted as long as 28 years (a lthough some
Egyptologists favo r a shorter reign of aro und 10 years) , The reign s 0 1
Horemheb and his successors , Ramesses I and Sety I are often seen
as the culmination of the rise of the military in the 18th Dynas ty,
HOREMHEB (fl . c, 1410-1380 li e), Military official bu ried at T heb es
(IT 78) who also left rock inscript ion s at Ko nos so and Sehel in thl'
region of Aswa n and the First Cataract. Horernheb was a royal
scribe, scribe o f Recruits , and ge neral in the reigns of Amcnhotep II ,
Thutmose IV, and Amenhote p III , The paintings, similar in co ntent
and sty le to those of hi s e lder contemporary, Tjanu ni, show the Asi
atic t r ibute. incl uding large quant ities of weapons and ra nks 0 1
horses , Squadrons of troop s, so me Nubia n, are shown, with trum -
pet ers and a double-ended drum, On e scene shows the enro ll ing of
recruits in the army,
HORSE. The Hyksos are generally accred ited with int roducing the
horse int o Egypt, along with the chariot , in the mid-second millen
niu m Be, Both horse and chariot rapidly became a significant fac tor
in the warfare of the Late Bron ze Age , The skills req uired for both
mean t that they were co ntro lled by an e lite, known throu ghout the
Near Eas t and Egypt as muriyannu. The ma in sources of hor ses were
nort h Syrla . The horses of this period we re small and not wide ly used
as cava lry: thi s might have bee n because of difficulties caused by the
lack of sadd les, Occasi onall y, rider s are depict ed , but they are as-
sume d to have been scouts and messen ger s rath er than sold ier s , The
tomb of the fut ure pharaoh Horcmhch at Saqqara does show armed
riders , Capture following battle played an important role in the earl y
acquisition of horses by the EgyPtians , After M idd TI
' d 2041 I cgl 0 , iutmose
seize , iorses.
The trade in horse s soon became very irnpo t t TI A
' r an , i e marna
Letters reJer to horses sent to Egypt fro ki I'
' " m many lIlgs 0 western
ASia as part of the gift exchange that accompanl'ed I I tt 0
' " r o ~ e e ~ , ne
g ift of a chariot was specified as drawn by whi t I II
' " I e lOrses, . orses ap-
pea r m the sce nes of forei gn tribute fro m S .. h Mit '
, , yna, were • anm was
one o f the principal suppliers , The Hittite bri I . h
. s n ng iorses III t e
Saqqara tomb of the general, later pharaoh Horen h I I tl " d
' I ' , men . n te peno
10 lowmg the end of the New Kingdom Israel II d S I
, , • n er 0 omo n see ms
10 have gamed contro l of the trade in horses TI . ' id
, . . tere IS some eVI ence
i hut horses were bred in Kus h and were ex t d t A 'L
por e 0 ssyr ra, arger
breeds of horses were availab le to the Assyrians b: bl I' h
. . . • , pro .1 y rom t e
Iranian highla nds , and Urart u and this led to a ' . I I'
' , ' n mcrease( use 0 ca\' -
ai ry during the e ighth and seventh ce nturies IJC Th t ' I Ar
, . . e sa rap 0 I me-
ilia sent 20,000 hor ses per year to the Great K' I' P ,
, • mg 0 ersJa.
Because the Egyp tia ns used stallions rat he r than geldings, check
rowe ls were attached to the rei ns to dis tract I
. . " quarre so me teams ,
I hese we re wooden rod s with a cent ra l spik d di k I'
' . e IS 0 co pper,
1I0 RUS, Th e god most cl osely associ ated with the ki zshl II
, r., d . h " mgs I p, ge nera y
uepicte wrt a falcon s head . Horus Was the 1' 1. d
' , , , avenge r 0 li S mur ered
lather, restorer 0 /, divine , o ~ d e r , and therefor e war like by nature , Ho-
rus was also a deit y presid ing over fore 'lgn I· d d b '
' . . . an s an ecmne ass im-
iluied WIth so me loca l deities. So in Nu bia I th . I' d
" ' " te was e presl( mg e-
uy of the MIddle Kingdom fortresses o f Buh M' (A ib )
, en . Jam m a , and
Kubban. A later form was " Horus Lord of F ' L d " I hi
, , . orelgn an s. n this
gUise , he was an Image of the all-cOn(luel'I' llg di vi h id
' , me p arao 1 an as-
sociated With Mont h u ,
II< )ST (ARMY), Divi si on of the a r my
comprising two compa nies
each of five platoo ns (500 men) ,
II YKSOS, A Greek term derived from tile Egyp t' H KI
" ' " Jan eqa- W SIII
Ruler of Foreign Lands . the Hyksos (k nown as tl " I I d ki "
, " , . le s lep ler mgs
III ea rlier literature) rul ed lrom the ci ty o f A\' ' . th D I
" ' aris m e eastern e ta
I heir co ntro l over Egypt ex te nde d as far as tl b ' I . h I U '
, , , . le 01( er wit t le pper
ligyptian kingdom ruled from the The bes Obi t 'I
' jec s carrying t ie name
of the I-/ yksos pharaoh Khyan have been found in Crete und
Mesopotamia. On this ev idence, early Egypt ologists proposed a va, t
" Hyksos empire": this is now regarded as fallacious. However, excn
vations at Tell el-Daba have found Minoan- style paint ings, which an'
indicative of cross Medit erranean contacts in the late 17th--early I~ I h
The Hyksos kings maintained a diplomatic correspondence aliiI
extensi ve tradin g par tnership with the ki ngdom of Kush, which till
doubtedl y for med the basis of their wea lth. There are indicati ons thai
the African trade from Kush bypassed the Theban kingdom and went
through the Delta. It might have been to regain control of thi s trudc
that the Thebans bega n to expand. The ev idence suggests a largely
peaceful coexistence of the Hyksos in the north of Egypt and prince
dom of Thebes, unt il the later 17th Dynasty when Seqenenre Tao uml
Kamose began to expand their power.
Kamose launched a major offensive, attacking Avaris itself: he
might have bee n ki lled in battl e . There was then a lull in the conflict ,
probably because of the youth of Kamose' s successor , Ahmnsc I,
Ahmose took Avaris and drove the Hyksos from Egypt. The vilificn
tion of the Hyksos in the hist oriographi c record began in the reigu ul
Hatsh epsut (in an inscription at Speos Artemidos) .
HYPAITHRON. A Greek term for a "military camp" that is found ill
document s of the Ptolemaic per iod written in Egypt ian demoti c script
(as hapitres) . It was used spec ifically at a military center III
Krokodilopolis in Upper Egypt, which was under the authority 01
the (epi)strategos of the Thebaid. A subdiv ision of the hypaithron 01
Krokodilopoli s was at Pathyris .
IKAYTA (lKAYTJA). Nubia n terr itor y, probabl y in the go ld- mi ning
regions of the southern pari of the Eastern Desert , the Wadi s Alluqi
and Ca bgaba . It was the focus of the militar y act ion of Akhenatcn,
which ended with the capture of 145 live Nubia ns and 36 1 cattle.
The dead numbered 80. some killed in battl e , some executed oy
impal emen t.
(NAROS (fl. 463-454 uc), Ruler of Marea in the western Delta who
lead a rebellion against the Persian pharaoh Ar taxe r xes I. He was
probably son of Psamtik IV, who rebell ed against Xe r xes . The name
is the Greek form of the Egyptian Iret enhorru. Inaros allied himsel f
with Amy r t aios (I ) the ruler of Sail (Sa is) . lnaros appealed to
Athens for help (c. 460 BC) and an Athenian fleet was diverted from
Cyprus (459 BC) . This appears to have sailed along one of the Delta
branches of the river, probably the Canopic, to Memphis . The city it-
self was captured, but the White Ca stle Fortress was held by the Per-
sians and loyal Egyptians. A battl e was fought at Paprernis in the
Delta, where the satrap Achaimenes was ki lled. Before invadi ng
Egypt, the Persians tried to instigate a war in Gr eece itself , by en-
couraging Spar ta to invade Att ika. The Persian army was sent to
Egypt under the command of Megabyxus, satrap of Syr ia (perhaps in
456 BC) . Memphi s was recaptu red and Inaros and his Greek support
blockaded at Pro-sopitis in the Delta. The siege lasted for 18 months,
ending with the complete dest ruct ion of the 200 Athenian vessels. A
lew Greeks managed to escape and made thei r way back to Athens
via Cyrene. An Athenian relief expedition of 50 ships was destroyed
hy the new satrap of Egypt in the Mendesian Branch of the Delt a
(454 BC) . lnaros himsel f was captured and crucified, but the Persians
installed his son Thann yras in his place . The rebellion itself see ms to
have been confi ned to the Delta, and ev idence from Upper Egypt
suggests that it remained loyal.
INFANTRY. The bulk of the Egyptian army was. at all times, infantry
imenfat or menfytv. / n the Old and Midd le Kingdoms, the army was
entirely infantry. They ca me in continge nts armed with self-bows or
with spears, and with axes for hand-to-hand combat. With the intro-
duction of horses and ch ariots from western Asia at the beginning of
the New Kingdom, an elite chariotry cor ps was formed. The chariotry
played a signi fican t role in the battles of the New Kingdom, but the
infantry retai ned thei r importance co ming into play after the initial
confrontation of the chariotry. The ar my of the Old Kingdom was
mainly levies, with some mercenaries (often Nubian ar che rs ). The
army of the later New Kingdom had large contingents of mercenary
infantrymen: Li byans , She ke/esh, Pel eset , and Shar dana . These
broug ht their own types of weapons and armor.
110 •
IREM. Kushite kingdo m, perh aps located in the Dongol a Reach of th
Nile around Kenna, or, as mor e recentl y advocated , much farth"1
south, in the Bayuda Desert or the Berber-Shendi Reach of the riv"1
Irem is document ed from the 18th to 20th Dynasties as a sig nific.uu
power and potenti al threat to the sec urity of southern Nubia. Calli
paigns were sent agai nst Irem in the reigns of Sety I , Rarnesses II ,
and Ramesses III. See also KUSH.
IRON. The earliest surv iving iron wea pon from Egypt is the dagger Irnm
the tomb of Tutankhamun, but an almos t ident ical item is descri hnl
in the Amar na Le tt ers ,IS a gift from Tushratta of Mitanni to Amen
hotep III . The same letter incl udes some other iron weapons: a marr
arrowheads, and spea rheads . Iron did not become common unt il 11 11
first mill ennium Il C. The ascendancy of the Late Assy rian Empire hll
often been attributed to the use of iron weapons, but might have h," ' 11
as much becau se of superior mili tary organization and training. A
gro up of iron tools and weapons was found by Flinders Petri e III
Thebes - in assoc iation with what appears to be an Assyrian hel met
and was attributed by him to the Ass yrian sack of the city in 663 Il l ' ,
ISHKHUPRI (67Inc ). Si te of a battle bet ween the invading armies " I
Esarhaddon, king of Assyria , and the Egy ptian- Kus hite forces 1111
de r Tahar qo. It is recorded only in the Assyrian records, where its 10
cation appears to be somewhere in the Eastern Delta or on the Wu,\'
of Horus . It might perhaps be ide ntified wi th a place on the Pelusi.u
branch of the Nile, near Faqu s.
ISIDOROS. Priest , leader of the rebellion of the Boukoloi (also known
as the " Bucolic War" ) during the reign of Marcus Aur elius (c. 172 AI ' I
Isidoros supposedly gave the llesh of a Roman centur ion to his follow
ers. The rebellion eve ntually spread to cover the greater part of till
country and lasted for several years. During it, Roman troops were ,iI
feared and Alexa ndr ia nearly fell. The governor of Syria, Caius Avid
ius Cassius, brought troops to crush the rebellion but was unable to ell
gage in baltic, He did, however ,manage to bring the rebellion to an curl
ISRAEL. Kingdom of western Asia at first under the rul e of Saul
David , and So lomon, unit ed wi th Judah, but followi ng the schism
lUll us Al.EXANDER. Ill, C. 46 70 AD) • 111
ruled from the ne w ca pital of Samaria. Th e only reference to Israel in
Egyptian texts is in the "Israel Stela" of Merenptah , actually a
of that pharaoh 's repulse of a Libyan invasion, Under
Solomon, Israel was important in the trade in horses. The kingdom
came to an end when Samaria fell to Assyria in the rei gn of Shal-
maneser V or Sargon II (722/72 I BC) .
STELA" OF MERENPTAH. Monument al stela (now in
( .uro Museum 34025) ori ginally carved for Amenhotep III , but
later remove d to the temple of Merenlltah, where its verso was in-
vc ribed :-v
a text recount ing the defeat of an invasion of Egy pt b
a large I?rce of A second steJa set up in the temple of Ka:-
nak carnes a duplica te text ; a prose version was also inscribed in the
templ e. The is poeti c and highl y laud atory. The stela acquired its
n.une because It the only refer ence to Israel in any Egyptian
trxt , This reference IS, however, in the final hymn of praise in which
Israel appears simply as one of a list of defeated states, lncfud inc
«'an aan, Gezer, As hkelon, and Yanoa rn. 0
II' IJ US rn, 262 AJ) . The prefect of Egypt in the reign
,".1Gall.,enu s. /-Ie was proclaimed emperor by the mob in Alexandria.
I he acc?unt of the rebellion is cont ained in the notori ously
Historia AII!?lIs(a . Ae mi lianus struck his own coi nage in
Alexandria. He. was success ful against the B1emmyes in Upper
I:gypl , forces land ed in Alexa ndria and warfare in the city
1'lI uscd conslde r?ble devastati on . Shortly after ward, the Palmyrene
lorccs of Zenobm occupi ed Egypt.
II" TIBERIUS rn, c. 46-70 All). From an aflluent
family of Alexandria, Tiberi us lul ius Alexander abandoned Ju-
dlllSIl1 and rose in the ranks of the Roman provincial administration. /-Ie
Was procurator of Judaea (c. 46-48 AI.) and then served in Armenia be-
InrI' being appointed prefect of Egypt. A Jewish rebeIlion in Pale;tine
III (,c> AD led to widespread troubl e and there were clashes between
I and Jews in Alexandria. lul ius Alexander sent the army into the
"' WISh quarter to suppress the violence. In the crisis follOWing the death
" l lhe emperor Nero (68 AD), luiius Alexander supported Vespasian who
WliSIII the east, proc laiming him empero r at Alexandria on I July 69 AD.
112 • IULIUS CArSAR, GAlUS (100 · 44 HC)
JOPPA • 113
IULiUS CAESA R, GA lUS (lOO--44nc ). Roman politicia n, general, and
dict ator. Following earl y politica l and mi litary successes , Caes ar rose
to a posit ion of supreme power shared with Pompey and Crass us. Cras
sus was killed in Parthi a in 53 BC, and in 49 BC Caesar invaded Italy,
thereby provoking the Roman Civi l War. The foll owing year, Pompey
ned to Greece and Caesar went in pursuit, defeat ing him at Pharsal us.
Pompey now ned to Egy pt, where the young king Ptolemy XIII had
him murdered , On his arrival , Pompey' s head was offered to Caesar,
Caesar now took decisive action in the disput e bet ween Ptolemy and
his sister , Kleopatra VII , whom Caesar chose to support , Thi s resulted
in the Alexandrian War. Following the restoration of Kleopatra, Cae
sar left Egypt , advancing through the eastern provinces before return
ing to Rome, where he was murdered in 44 Be.
JERUSALEM. Ci ty in Canaa n, later the capital of Judah. It appears in
the Amarna Letters, when its ruler sought Kushit e troops Irom
Amenhot ep III. The biblical reco rd of the Book of Kings reco unts thl'
sack of Jerusalem by the pharaoh Shishak in the reign of Rehoboum
(c . 925 IJc ). Th is ruler is ge nerally identi fied wi th Sh eshunq I in lit
erature, although there have recently been di ssenti ng voices . as thl'
bibli cal nar rati ve of the campaign bears lillie relation to the triumphal
name-l ist of the Asiatic co nquests of Sheshonq I at Karnak, in which
Jeru sal em does not appear. In the reign of Hezekiah 0 15-687 BC) ,
short ly after the bat tle of Eltckeh, Jeru salem was besieged by a di vi
sion of the Assyrian army, although Sennacherib himsel f stayed al
Lachi sh . On this occasion, the Assyrian env oys warned Hezeki ah nol
to rely on the Kushite pharaoh (according to the bibl ical record ,
Taharqo) . The next major Egy ptian interference was in the reign 01
Neka u II . Nekau dethroned Jehoahaz and installed Jehoi akirn in 6()1)
BC. Jeru salem, and the kingdo m of Judah, eve ntually fell to Ncb -
uchadnezzar II , king of Babylon, on 16 March 597 BC. In 588 !lC,
Jerusalem was agai n besieged by the Babylon ians , and Wahibre led
an expeditionary force to reli eve it but was forced to wi thdraw, In 5Xh
BC, Jerusalem fell to the Babyloni ans, following which there was a
mass deportation of Jews to Babylon , Jeru salem was part of till'
I'tolerna ic possess ion of Coele Syria, but eve ntually became part of
the Scleukid kingdo m, before the es tablishment of an independent
kingdo m under Herod. It remained a focus for the Jews and had close
contacts wi th the community in Alexa ndr ia.
The revolt began in Cyr ene in 11 5 AD, in the rei gn
II I Fraj an . There was massive destruct ion in the ci ty. Th e revolt
quickly spread to Alexa ndr ia and other parts of Egy pt , Cy prus, and
lIaby lonia. Accordi ng to Euse bius , the revolt was wides pread in
Egypt outside Alexandri a; it was led by Loukouas and was very vio-
kill. There are reports (pro bably grea tly exaggerated) of Greeks be-
illg killed and ea ten. Th e Roman troops were defea ted and retreated
III Alexa ndria leaving Egy pt ope n to the rebels. There was destruct ion
ill the Fayum, Oxyrhynchite, Lykopolite, and Hermopolite nomes.
Ouinius Marcius Turbo, commander of the imperial fleet based at
I\lisenum (nea r Na ples) , was given the task of suppress ing the rebel -
Iious , which was achieve d in 117 AD.
,II ';\\'S. A community of Jewish mercenarics was stationed on Abu
(1:iL'phantinc) during the Persian period. document ed by a large nurn-
her of rext x in Ara ma ic, There were other gro ups throughout Egypt
Ihal are known from correspo ndence . Jewish mercenari es also served
ill Ihe Ptolemaic army. The act ions of Ant iochos I V when he ca ptured
lcrusnlem in the Six th Syrian War provoked the Maccabean rebel-
linn ( 167-1 64 BC). Ptolemy VI allowe d the Je wish high priest , On ias
IV. to settle in Egypt with a large group of followers , Onias was later
appointed to a command in the army, and his sons Che lkias and Ana-
nias were ge neral s in the Sy r ia n War of Kleopatra III. There is evi-
dence for Jewi sh settlement in the Fayum (one village bein g named
Magda la) and these might have bee n veter a ns , There was a substan .
civilian Jewish population in Alexa ndr ia, whi ch from the early
tirst-century AD was often invol ved in violent clashes with the Greeks.
The major incident was the Jewish revolt of 115-11 7 AD.
I( WI'A. (Mode rn Jaffa) Coastal city of Palestine . Joppa occ upied one
II I lew natural harbors on the coast. Altho ugh co ntac ts with Egy pt
began much ea rlie r, it was prob abl y duri ng Thutmose Ill' s ca m-
paigns that Joppa ca me under Egy ptian co ntrol. Th e town occurs in
114 • JUDAH
the topographi cal list of Thutmose III in the temple of Karnak , ill II I
was ca ptured in his first Asiat ic campaign of year 22-23. The 1'/111
Dynast y " Papyrus Har ris 500" (now in the Briti sh Museum, I:A
10060) carries a story relating the capture of Joppa by the army II I
Thut mose III in a precursor of the story of the Fort y Thieves. In
the pharaoh' s gener al Djehuty managed to ge t his 200 soldiers illtll
the ci ty by hidi ng them in basket s. Thutrnose III is not present and il
there is any ver aci ty in thi s tal e. it co uld refl ect a lat er recapture II I
the city. A gold bowl with the name of Dje huty and the tit les "OWl
seer of northern foreign lands" and " Overseer of the Army (Gc u
eral)" is in the co llection of the Lou vre Museum, although its all
thent icit y has been questi oned .
Joppa became an important Egyptia n gar rison and supply depot ill
the later New Kingdom. It is mentioned in the Amarna Letters
294 and 296) as having Egypt ian granaries, and it appears to have be\'11
di rectly administered , rather than having a vassal ruler. A 19th Dynasty
document (Papyrus Anastasi I) , in the form of a satirical letter , record
the visit of a young officer to a chariot repair shop in the ci ty.
J UDAH. Kingdom of western Asia, initially under Saul , David, aIII I
So lomon, united with Isr ael. It was ruled from Jer usalem . In the reign
of Rehoboarn (c. 925 BC), it was invaded by the pharaoh Sh ishak, USII
ally ident ified with Sheshonq I, who sacked Jerusalem . In the 25th Dy
nasty, the Kushite pharaohs supported oppos ition by Judah and neigh
boring states to the aggression of Assyria , Whe n Hezeki ah rebelled
agai nst Sennacherib. a joint Egyptian-Kushite army came to his aid,
confronting the Assyrians at the battle of Eltekeh (70 I BC) . Sennucherih
then besieged Lachish (which was sacked) and Jerusalem. Hezekiuh
yielded and once again paid tribute, losing some of his territ ory, EgYPI
interfered in the politics of the kingdom in the reign of Nekau II . On hb
way to confront the armies of Babylon at Carchernish, Nekau defeated
and killed Josiah at the battle of Mcgiddo. He soon after replaced
Josiah's son, Jehoahaz, wit h Jehoiakim. Jehoahaz was taken to Egypt,
and Judah made to pay tribute. The kingdom of Judah was brought til
an end by the campaigns of Nebuchadnczzar II , the fall of Jerusalem,
and the depor tation of the Jews to Babylon , in 587.
KAMOSE C. 1555- 1550 He) • 115
- K-
1':r.· KAB . See NEKHEB ,
Local ruler of Lower Nubia recorded in the insc rip-
IIIIIl of the king of Meroe, Nastasen . The Mero itic king sent a force
II I' archers aga inst hi m and captured his ships, lands, and catt le. The
text refers to places called Kar atep and Talaudy; the precis e locations
III' u.ncert ain . The episode is rather obscure. Earlier Egyp-
Ident ified !<ambasuden with the Persian king Cambyses .
1Ills can be safely disco unted as the buri al of Nastasen has now been
excavated and must date to the later fourt h century BC, Th e ident ifi-
,'ation of Kambasuden with Khabhash was favored by more schol-
ars, but is also to be rej ected . The Nastasen inscript ion makes it quite
e,lear that Kambasud en was a local ruler : it is highly un likel y that any
pharaoh would have been in Nubia wi th herds of ca ttle. The
idea (of Fri tz Hint ze) that Kambasuden represented a Meroitic tran-
scription of Khabbash was fanci ful.
I( " MOSE (r eigned c. 1555- 1550 IIC). Theban ruler of the 17th Dy-
nasty. Karnose continued the war against the Hyksos rulers of the
Ildt a that had been begun by his father. Tao. Event s of the war are
narrated in texts of the two Kamose Stelae and the Carnarvon Tablet
I. also allude to a mi litary campaign in Kus h against the
Kerma kingdom. Two fragment s of the First Kamose St ela were di s-
covered at Karnak in 1932 and 1935; the Seco nd Stela was al so dis-
covered, intact , at Karnak . Th e Second Stela launches into the midd le
II I' a speec h without any preamble and is clearly the continuation of
another inscr ipti on. Although the two Kamose Stelae relate to the
same events, they do not form a pair and another, now lost , monument
is ass umed to have ex isted as the prologue to the Second St ela. The
text 01' the First Stela relates closely to that of the Carnarvo n Tablet
u.urut ing the counci l of war, the announcement of the pharaoh ' s deci-
S ll lll to attac k the Hyksos, and the storming of Nefrusy. Th e Second
Sieia records the adva nce nor thward to Ava ris and the attack on the
city, with references to the letter exchange bet ween the Hyksos and
116 • ININTl l/ l lGHTl 1CENTlJRlrS Be)
Kushit e rulers in which a pincer attack on Kamose is proposed. Tl u
text of Carnarvo n Tablet No. I rel at es closely to that o f the fragnu-ni
of the First Stela , and it incl udes the council of war in whi ch lilt
pharao h announces his intent ion of laun ch ing an attack on the l lyks»
ruler o f Avaris and the beginning of the co nflict with activi ties in lilt
region o f Nefrusy in Middle Egy pt. Kamose may have been killed III
battl e , as there was, apparently, a cessat ion of host ilities during li lt
childhood of his successor. Ahmose I.
KARIMALA (nint h/e ight h centuries II C). Kush ite queen. Her IHIIIII
has also been read as Kadiinalo and Katimala . Karimal a left a hlll' \
insc ription on the facade of the temple in the fortress of Scmna . '1'111
texts are ve ry difficult to read but allude to rebellion or civil war ill
Nubia led by Makarashu, apparentl y again st the unn amed king wit"
was the husband of Karimal a .
KARl\1 A8 U-GI RG (30054' N 29°56' E) . A site on the western cd)',
of the Delta. about 20 ki lome ters so uth of Alexandria and 50 ki lo
met er s southeast of el -Gharbaniyat. Some monument s of Rarnessc
II were found here , and it is possible that the site was the locati on III
a fortress , part of the chain ex tendi ng along the coast as far as Zn
wiyet Umm el-Rakham, built as a defen se against incursions of 1111
Libyans .
KASHTA (reigned c. 750-736). King of Kush, who ent ered Upper Egypi
and was recognize d as pharaoh in Thebes . Th e detail s and chronolo ' ,
of the reign are obsc ure. It see ms that Kashta succe eded Al ara as
in Kush and had suffic ient milit ary and economic strength to invade
Egypt. There are very few co ntemporary monument s that name him , al
though a fragment of a stela was di scovered on the island of Ahu (Ek-
phant ine). Most of the references to him are slightly later. The inscrip
tions of Piye, who appears to have been Kashta 's direct successor. make
it clear that Thebes and Upper Egypt acknowl edged him as king at
accession, and Kasht a must therefore have brought the reg ion undci
Kushite rule and installed a garrison there. At Thebes, Kashta installed
his daught er Amenirdis as hei ress 10 the politi cally significa nt religiou s
office of God's Wife of Arnun, which was held by the Libyan pri ncess
She penwe pet, daught er of Osorkon III.
KERMA • 117
I( ,\ SSITES. Ruling dyn ast y o f Babylon (Sha nga r) in the Lat e Bron ze
from circa 1595-1 155 BC. Th e ki ngs engaged in lett er exchange ,
gilt exchange, and diplomatic marriage wi th the pharaohs of the
later 18th Dynasty. not abl y Amenhotep III and Akhena ten , dOCH-
mcnted by the Ama rna Letters. The gifts excha nge d included
horses and chariots . Earli er scho lars hip cl aimed that the Kassit es
wcrc. another Indo-European hor se- breeding aris toc racy, like the
l Iurrians who co nquered Mitanni . and that their conques t o f Baby-
Ion was similarly linked to their military superiority in the use of the
last . two- wheel ed chariot. As with the Hu rr ians , thi s idea is now re-
[cered. Th e Kassit es appear to have been a peopl e of the Zagros
mountai ns of western Iran , a lthough they are attes ted in Babyl oni a in
the Old Bab yl onian peri od (c . 1900-1 600 BC) .
I\EIIENET. A term for a type of ship . It der ives from the Egyptian name
lor Bybl os , Keben. The usage of the word in text s o r Late Period date
lias caused controversy because so me scholars und erst and kebenet to
mea n warshi ps of a non-Egypti an type , identi fying them as Greek
term is used in the text of a ste la from Abu (Elephan-
tine) 01the reign of Ah mose II. The admira l Wedjahorrcsne ca rries.
among ot!ler titles, that of Overseer of the kebellet-vessels of the King.
II recurs 111 the cana l stelae of Darius I and in several text s of Prole-
maic date. In one o f the se, the word was written with a de ta iled hi-
croglyphic sign showing a Hell eni sti c warshi p. However, kebenet also
seems to refer to cargo vessels and might si mply be a term spec ifyi ng
large sea-goi ng shi ps rather than riveri ne ves sel s .
1\ ERMA. south of the Third Ca ta r act in Upper Nubia. Capital
cuy of the kingdom o f Kush . Kerma may have also embraced the site
01 (or .Iater been named) Pnubs , on the isl and of Tabo. Archaeol ogi-
cal evide nce shows that the site was important from the time of the
Egyptian Old Kin gdom. Some scho lars identify it wi th Yam , the des-
uuun on of the ex peditio ns of Harkhuf. As a trading partner the
pharao hs of the 12th Dynasty probabl y supported it , but its power
grew and the Kush ite kings began to ex pa nd their contro l into
Wawa t . They captured and burned fort resses such as Sernna and
IIlIhen, lat er plac ing garrisons in them. The Kushite kings estab-
lished trading rel ations with the Hyksos rul ers or Avaris. Kamose
11 8 • KHABBASI I (REIGNHJ C. 338-33 5 Bel
and Ahmose I attempt ed to confront the power of Kush before II I
tacking the Hyksos, first gaining control of Buhen and then foundin '
a new fortress at Sai. Kenna was app arentl y burned at the time of 1111
campaign of Thutmose I, although rece nt excavation shows thai II
was extensively rebui lt and remained an important ce nter.
KHABBASH (reigned e. 338-335 uc), Last indi genous ruler of Egypl
Khabba sh estab lished himself as pharaoh opposing the power of 1" ' 1
sia, probably at the begi nning of the reign of Darius III (336-332 III
in Egypt). Littl e is known of the rebellion or the rei gn . Khabha. h
was appare ntly crowned at Memphis. Ptolemy I found it pol itic I"
acknow ledge him as a legit imate pharaoh and confirm one of his d,'
crees in his "Satra p Stela" and this remains the maj or historicnl
source for the reign. Although principa lly conce rned with land donn
tions for the temple of Buto, it alludes to upheaval at the t ime of till
invasion of Ar t axer xes III and to a tour made by Khabb ash to in
spect the water ways of the western Delta to prevent attac k by th
Persian fleet. Khabbash was incor rectl y ident ified in some earlier iii
erature with the Lower Nubi an ruler Kambasuden, who was d,'
feated by the Meroitic king, Nastaseii.
KHAFRE (reigned e. 2558-2532 IIC). Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty
and bui lder of the Second Pyramid at Giza, A fragment of rel ief sculp
ture depict ing a bound prisoner was reported from excavations in Iht'
pharaoh ' s pyramid temple, but is inadequately publ ished and its COil
text unknown. Another fragment of rel ief, which probably comes from
a private tomb at Giza of this reign, or that of Khufu, shows a group 01
live archers using self-bows. The arrows are detailed, showing tlu-
feathering and attachment to the butt. The archers wear the cross band
on the torso, which are typical of the mi litary in the Old Kingdom, The
fragment belongs to the earliest ba ttl e scenes to have survived.
KHARGA OASIS. The largest oasis in the Libyan Desert of Upper
Egypt. It stands on the Dar b el-Arba' in, the Fort y Days Road, the Illil
j or rout e for trans-Saharan trade in the medieval and early modern pe
riods.Although it is unli kely Ihat the full1en gth of the Darb el-Arbu'i n
was operational as far as Darfur and Kordofan in ancient times, then'
were connections with the Ni le throughout Nubia.
KHASEKHEMWY (RI:IGNW C. 2600 Be) • 119
Most of the evi de nce from Kharga Oasis comes from the later his-
tor ica l phases, from the Libyan period onward. At the southern end
"I' the oasis, the Roman fort ress of el-Qas r controll ed the road from
the south, but that of Dush related to the rout es to the Nile Valley and
lidfu, The temple in the main town (Hibis) is of Persian dat e as is the
small or iginal chapel wi thin the fortress of Qasr el-Ghue ida , which
domi nates the southern access to the town. The many monument s of
the Roman per iod incl ude the great fortress of ed-Deir , built in the
reign of Diocl etian, which controlled the road ac ross the desert
platea u north of Hibis to Girga (ancient Tj eny) . Another road north
"I' Khar ga ran di rectl y to Asyut (20 I kil ometers) and could leave the
depression through either of two passes, Rarnlia or Yabsa . There are
numerous we lls and cult ivated areas with many signs of
Roman-Byzantine sett lement in this part of the oas is. The road is
guarded by the fort of Qasr el-Labe ka and two sma ller forts or
watchtowers , So meir a and el-Gib , situated about two kilometers
apart. Although under Egyptian contro l for muc h of its history,
Kharga Oasis might have been occupied by Libyans as much as
During the problems at the end of the 20th Dynas ty, there
were certainly movement s of Libyans through the ot her oases of the
Western Desert , into Kharga and from there into the Ni le Valley of
Upper Egypt and Nub ia.
I\I IASEKHEMWY (r eigned c. 2600 IIC). Last pharaoh of the Second
Dynasty. Statues from Ne khe n (Hierakonpolis) depi ct the king wea r-
illg the White Crown of Upper Egypt and have figures of fallen ene-
lilies ca rved around the bases. These are signi fied as " northerners"
and the figure 47,209 is given. The evi dence , obscure as it is, has
suggested to some Egyptologists that there was some sor t of maj or
civil war during the reign, perhaps with a religious background in-
volving followers of the gods Hor us and Seth; others are more ci r-
cumspect. An alternative inter pretation regards this as an exaggerated
record of action in nort h Sinai and Palestine . A fragmentary stela of
the king suggests the subje ction of Ta-Set y, which is a name for Nu-
hia and for the first nome of Upper Egy pt. Because of its simi larities
10 the Shunet el-Zebib at Abydos, a large mud brick enclosure of this
reign at Nekhen was sugges ted by ea rly archaeo logists to be a
for t ress , but is probab ly a templ e enclosure.
12a • KIIII'fSIl
KHEPESH. The sickle-shaped sword. Although it is similar in shape til
the scimit ar. the khepes h was heavier and sharp along its outer rather
than inner edge . It was therefore used as a slashing or crushing weapon ,
The name der ives from its resemblance to the stylized foreleg of an ox
(the Egyptian word lo r which was khepesh) , A good exa mple of till'
weapon was found in the tomb ofTutankhamun. With a full length III
59.7 centime ters, the khepech, as well as its handle, is solid cast ill
bronze; the handle grips are of ebony. A smaller exa mple, 40.6 cell
timeter s long, is suggested to have been made for Tutankharnun as II
child. It is also solid cas t with attached wooden gri ps and has a sharp
cutting blade. A number of other good examples survive. The khepcsh
is frequently seen being present ed to the pharaoh by vario us deities,
such as Amun, Re , and Monthu, and wielded by him over groups III
foreign captives . The khepesh was in genera l use through western Axiu
and can be seen as part of the weaponry in the Asiatic t r ibute prescu tu l
to Akhcna ten in the tomb of Meryre II at Amarna.
KHEPRESH. The " Blue Crown" some times called (particularly ill
olde r literature) the "war crown" or hel met. Tall and bulbous, 1111 '
khepresh is usually colored blue, but ca n also be show n yellow. It is
covered with small centered ci rcles. whic h have been interpre ted as
metal or faie nce disks attac hed to a cloth or leather body , It is olt cn
but by no means always , worn in hatt ie sce nes. and is nolV reeof'
nized as a symbol of the phar aoh 's tem pora l rille and legitimacy.
KHMUNU. Important cit y in Middl e Egy pt . often referred to by its
Greek name, Hermopolis, the modern el-Ashmunein . Relativel y little
is known of the city's history, although it was an importa nt religio n:
center situated in an agricultur ally rieh part of the country. In the Sec
ond Intermediate Peri od , Khrnunu was the southernmost city COli
troll ed by the Hyksos rulers of Avar is. The inscriptions of Kamose
refer to an attaek by the Th eban prince and his army on the town 01
tort of Nefrusy, whie h was close to Khrnunu.
In the reign of Takeloth II , the high priest of Amun and Crown
Prince Osorkon was active in the city. Osorkon' s inscripti on is nol
explicit, but he states that he "c leansed" the city. an act that usuall
occurred after violent ca pture and bloodshed. Th is occ urred while the
prince was advancing south to cr ush a rebellion in Thebes , It there
fore see ms probabl e that Khmunu had sided wi th the Thebans.
KlEOPATRA II tc. 185- 116 Re) • 121
In the late Libyan period, Khmunu gai ned its own pharaoh, Nimlot.
southern of Nirnlot's kingdom was in the region of Tje ny
s? uth of which was the terr itory of Thebes, controlled by the
Kushite kings Kashta, and his successor, Piye , to whom Niml ot owe d
allegiance. Nimlot 's northern neighbor was the kingdom of Herak-
leopolis, When Tefnakht of Sau marched south with his coa lition of
DcIta dyna sts, Nimlot defected. Piye's army under the command of his
I-:cnerals, Lemersekny and Purem, engaged the coalition somewhere in
the vicinity of Khmunu. Thi s might have been seen as a cr ucial battle
by both sides because Nimlot , the pharaoh Iuput of Tent-remu , and
pbaraoh of Per-Bastet were present with many of the Delta dy-
uasts. The coal ition was defeated; some of the dynasts were killed in
battle, army ned north , and Nimlot retreated into Khmunu . Piye now
,'.ame 111 person to Egypt to finish the work his army had begun.
Klununu was put under extended siege, while parts of Piye's army cam-
paigned farther north. Eventually, through the intercession of Nimlot's
wile with the Kushite royal women, Piye accepted Nimlo r's surrender.
I( II l/ FlJ .(reigncd c. 2589-2566 IIC). Pha raoh of the Fourt h Dynasty,
.unl builder 01 the Grea t Pyrami d at Giza . A fragment of relief de-
pict ing a group of five archers using self-bows has been attri buted to
fhis reign . or that of Kh afre. The rel ief probably comes from a pr i-
,'ale tomb at Giza beca use the style differs from that of the royal
pyramid complex. The relief is very det ailed , showi ng the co nstrue-
lion of the a rrows . The archers are certainly soldiers rather than
hunters because they wea r the cross bands on the tor so, which is char-
acteristic in the Old Kingdom. The fragment is the earl iest hattie
scene to have survived, but its context is unknown ,
I,II YAN (r eigned c. 1590 IIC). Hyksos ruler of Avar is in the eastern
Delta. Because a number of objects carrying his name were found in
widely scattered sites in the Aegean and western Asia (e.g., Knossos
und Baghdad) . it was suggested by some early Egyptolog ists that a
" Ilyksos Empire" had stretched over part s of the Aegean and into
western As ia. This idea is now totall y di scredit ed .
I I,EOPATRA II (c. 185-116nc). Daught er of Pt ol emy V and wife, first
01her brother Ptolemy VI Philometor, then (fro m 145 BC) of her other
brother Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II . Euergetes later married Kleopatra' s
122 • KI.EOPATRA 1II 1C. 158-101 eCI
daught er by Phi lometor, Klcopatra III. In 132 BC, Kleopatra II begun
a dyn astic war and was recog nized as ruler in Thebes. She had Sil l'
port from certai n elements in the popul at ion of Alexandr ia, notahl\
the Jews . Euergetes II was expelled from Alexa ndria the Iol lowinj
year. but had returned before 15 January 130 BC, and was prepari ng :11 1
expedition against Kleopatra. The civil war caused serio us problem
throughout the country. A native rebel. Harsiesis, took advant age uml
seized power in Thebes . Her month is (Armant) was the last stronghold
in Upper Egypt to support Kleopatra. A form of reconci liation WII
reached and an amnesty decree (philanthropai was announced by 11 11
three rulers in 11 8 He. Followi ng the death of Euerge tes II in June I I"
HC, Kleopatra II continued to rule alongside her daughter and Ptolenn
IX Soter II, but Kleopatra II, loa . is last documented in 11 6 HC.
KLEOPATRA III (c. 158-1111 IIC). Daught er of Ptolemy VI
Phil ometor and Klcopatra II . Sh e married her uncl e Pto le my VII I
Euergetes 11 (by whom she already had a child) . Her life \VII
mar ked by dynastic wars , First ly with he r mo the r, Kleopatra II
and later with her so n. Ptolemy IX Soter II . Forc ing him out 01
Egypt in favor of her you nger son. Ptolemy X Alexander I , led III
tima te ly to the Syri an War of 103- 10 1 HC. Kl eoputr a III dil'd
shor t ly aft er her return from the campaign. Sh e and Ptolemy X all
last recorded togeth er on 14 Oc tober 101 , and by 26 Oc tober I()I
the king was associated wi th Kl eopat ra Berenike Ill. Ancien t
sources say t hat Kleop at ra was murder ed by her son in orde r III
gai n the support of disaffect ed mi litary officers, and perhaps Ill'
cause of her support of the J ews and des ire not to upset the Jewi sh
civilian populati on .
Ptolemy XII . Following the death of her father , she ascended lilt
throne with her brother Ptolemy XII I . but he soon ousted her alld
forced her to llee. First to Upper Egypt and then Syria. The events 01
the Roman Civil War now brought the two chief riva ls to Egy pt. Ti lt
ge neral Pompey was the First to land and was executed on the ordci
of Ptolemy. When lulius Caesar arrived in Egypt in pur suit of Porn
pey, Ptolemy tried to gain favor by sendi ng him the embalmed head
However, Caesar chose to suppor t Kleopatr a' s claims to joint mit-
KOS. BATI Lr. o r (SPRING 255 sc) • 12 3
The result was the Alexandr ian War, in which Ptolemy XII I was
illcd . The opposi tion at the Alexandrian cou rt to Kleopatra seems to
have bee n because of her pro- Roma n sympathies . Caesar now in-
' tailed Kleopatra and her younger brother , Ptolemy XI V, as j oint
rulers. Kleopat ra had become Caesar's mistress and bore him a son.
I 'iolcmy XV Caesar (or Kaisar ion). Caesar restored Cyprus 10
1\ lcopatra. She later j oi ned Caesar in Rome and was there when he
II' IIS assassinated in 44 HC.
l lcr later military activities were close ly linked with those of her
l.ucr husband , the Roman ge nera l and triumvir, and Caesar's political
Iu-ir .. Antonius (Ma rk Antony). Kleopatra supplied troops for
Ihe mvasron of Parthia . Antoni us did not , however, gra nt all of
1\ lcopatr a' s territori al wishes , leaving Herod in cont rol of Judea. The
rvlutionship with Antonius ultimately fuelled the co nllic t between
hilll and Caesar 's other heir, Ca ius Octavius . later the emperor Au.
J.: lIstIlS. This led to the civil wa r and co nfro ntation of their forces at
rh,' baule of Aktion (3 1 BC) . The foll owing year, Oc tavius marched
lIll whic h was ca pt ured. Antonius and Kleopat ra com-
IIIIlied suicide and Egy pt became a Roman province.
I (m. Defended sett lement of Middle Kingdom da te at the foot of the
Sl'cond Catar act in Nubia . On the wes t bank of the Ni le. Kor stands
,15 of the fortress of Bu he n, to whic h it was pro b-
uhly :lJlcJl I?ry, It IS north of the fortress of Mirgissa, and oppos ite
ll .. rgmar t l. A large "administrative bu ilding" carefully oriented
north-south might be a temporary royal palace used by a pharaoh on
military campaign . The settlement was defended by an enclosu re
wall with rounded bastions and loopholes simi lar to the first outer en-
r losure at Buhen. It is probably early 12th Dynasty in da te.
l OS, BATTLE OF (spr ing 255 lie ). Na val battl e in the Aegean that
',II IV the Egy ptian lleet of Ptolemy II , comma nded by Patro klos, de-
Il'aled by Antigonos Gonatas, King of Macedonia . This, wi th the sea
hattie near Ephesos, effective ly mar ked the end of Egy pt's naval
lngcmony in the Aegea n and eastern Med iterranean . The battl e prob-
II hly took place in spring 255 BC, late in the Second Sy rian War, al-
though some scholars have suggested that it was in 26 1 BC, toward
Ihl' end of the Chremonidcan War.
KROKODlLOPOLlS (EL-RIZEIQAT). Small town in Upper Egyp'
south of Thebes. Milit ary camps were established at Krokodilopolis alII I
Pathyris after the rebellion of Haronnophris and Chaonnophrls
That at Krokodilopolis was a hypaithron.
KUMMA. Small fortress at the head of the Second Cataract, standi ng Oil
the east bank of the Nile opposite the larger fortress of Semna, with
which it formed a unit , commandi ng the narrowest point on the rivet
Kumma was part of the defensive network at the southern border hllill
by Senusret III. Kumrna was roughly rectangular in plan, with oul"l
walls of mud brick on masonry found ations, some six meters thick
There was a river-gate and main fort ified entrance. Its accommodation
suggests a garrison of between 40 and 100 men, but wall length su '
gests defense needs of betwee n 175 and 350 men. Additional troop
could have been sent over on a daily basis from Semna. Kumrna was J'l'
occupi ed during the New Kingdom and again in the reign of Taharqo
KUSH. Kingdom in Upper Nubia. In the earl iest record s, Kush is,
specifically, the name of the area around Kenna. By the New Kill!'
dorn , Kush was used as a general term for the whole of Nubi a Ill'
tween the Second and Fourth Cat ar acts. Thi s was divided into two
part s; the northern , between the Second and Third Cat aract s was tlu-
Egypti an province of Kush, under the control of the viceroy and hi,
deputy (the idnll ) , with a fortress at Sai and later admini strati ve CCII
tel's at Soleb , Sesebi, and Amara; the region between the Third and
Fourth Cataracts was probabl y left as a buffer zone , under the all
thority of the viceroy, the Overseer of Bowmen of Kush. and variou
local princes. Kush became an eve n more gene ralized name for th"
whole of Nubia south of the Firs t Ca taract and is found as such in As
syrian, Persian, and biblical texts.
LIEU. Ethnic group, one of the major tribes of the Libyans . The Lihu
first appear in texts of the 18th Dynasty, but are first prominent as op
ponents of Egypt in the reign of Merenptah. They were the major el-
ernent in the Libyan invasion of year 5 of Merenpt ah and a lesser one
in the Libyan invasion s of years 5 and II of Ramesses Ill . In the Third
Intermediate Period, the Libu appe ar to have been settled in the west-
ern Delta, notabl y around the city of Sau (Sais). The 111 lers of Sau were
entitled Chiefs of the Libu as well as Chiefs of the Meshwesh (Ma),
I.IIIYA. A term used for the desert regions west of the Nile Valley and
the Med iterranean littor al as far as Cyrenaica. One of the traditi onal
enemies of Egypt. Egypt ian terminology for the Libyans changes
over time, with some archaic terms such as Tj ehenu continuing
alongside contemporary names of ethnic or tribal groups , such as
I.iIJII and Meshwesh , The early peoples of Libya were nomadi c or
scminornadic , probabl y pastoralists . Our archaeological knowledge
of Libya in the Bronze Age is still very limit ed. In the Iron Age,
Phoenici an and Greek co lonies were established on the north African
coast. In Libya. the most impor tant of these was Cyrene. Wahibre is
reported to have aided a native Libyan attack on Cyrene, which failed
and resulted in a rebellion of the Egyptian troops, the procl amation
of Ahmose II , and the dethronement of Wahibre. Ahmose II had the
support of Cyrene and concl uded a diplomatic marriage with the
royal famil y. In the rei gn of Darius I , the satrap Aryandes sent an
expedition against Barca, which invol ved a nine-month siege .
I' tolemy I gained co ntrol of Cyrenai ca, which with some phases of
independence remained a part of the Ptolemaic kingdo m unt il
l'tolerny Apion bequeathed it to Rome in 96 Be.
I.II1 YA PALETTE. Al so called the "Towns Palette ." Fragmentary cer-
cmonial slate palette of the Predynast ic Period or early First Dynasty
1I0 W in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, One side shows "heraldic" ani-
mals, incl udi ng a lion , falco n, and scorpion using hoes to destroy for-
tified enclosures. There arc also two standards with falcons. Seve n en-
closures are shown, square in form with bastioned walls. Inside the
enclosures are hieroglyphi c groups. It is assumed that the animals rep-
resent "clan" or "tribal" groups, and that the whol e is a record of one
pari of the unification process recorded on other near-contemporary
vot ive objects , such as the Gebel el-Arak Knife, the Scorpion Mace-
head. and the Nar mer Palette.
12 6 • LIBYANS
LIBYANS. "Libya ns" were one of the tradi tional enemies of Egypt 11 111 1
appea r to have been almos t any desert-dwell ing, nomadic or SCIl Il
nomadi c populati on , whi ch lived to the wes t of the Ni le valley. COli
flict between Egypt and Liby ans is sugges ted (if not fully at tested) 11 \
the " Li bya Palette," the reliefs in the pyramid templ e of Sahurc.uu.l
of Menthuhotep II at Deir el-Bahari. The archaic names Tjemeh allli
Tj ehenu are used throughout the dynast ic per iod , but, from the 1
Dynasty onward. spec ific tribal groups are named: the Seped , 1111
Libu, and the Meshwesh . These groups became a grave threa t III
Egypt. Set y I included scenes of his Libyan Wars in the cycle of hi
ca mpaigns de picted at Karnak (T hebes) . A string of fortresses III
co ntro l Libyan movements toward Egypt was built in the rei gn II I
Ramesses II . Stret ching westwa rd from Memphis along the western
edge of the Delta to Rakote and on through Kar m Ab u-Girg. 1'1
Gharbaniyat , and Alamein to Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham,the Iou
see m to have lasted only for thi s reign. Perhaps forced by famine III
find new graz ing land s. Libyan groups invaded Egy pt in the rei gn 01
Merenptah and Ramesses III.
Rume sses III settled Libyan sold iers in ga rrison towns. probahlv
around Bubasti s. The text of a ste la from Deir el-Me dina also rcfci
to the victories of these yea rs and suggests that Ramesses mi ght hav.
force d assimilatio n,
Late r in the 20th Dynasty, ther e were Libyan incursions int o Up
per Egyp t par ticularl y aro und The bes. A stat ue of Rarnesses VI
shows him leading a Libya n capt ive . The Libyans domi nat ed Egypt
du ring the Th ird Intermediate Period . with the dynasty founded III'
Sheshonq I. The Libyan dynas ts of the Delt a presented a majol
source of oppos it ion to the att empts of the kings of Kush and Assyrlu
to contro l Egypt. Psarntik I . probably a descend ant of Libyan d
nasts, led ca mpaigns aga inst the " Libya ns" ear ly in his rei gn. Lall'l
references are more specific about locations.
The principal wea pon of the Libyans was the bow. Onl y OIl<
Libyan in the bailie reli efs of Set y I ca rries a sword (of non- Egypti an
type) . but the batt le reliefs of Ramesses III show other we apons iuul
chariots . These weapons were clearly the result of the arms tnult'
and are probabl y to be associated with the presence of sma ll group
of the Sea Peoples . probably mercenary so ldiers. who fought alan'
side the Libyans.
LIBYAN WAR 01' SHY I • 12 7
LIBYAN WAR OF MERENPTAH (year 5 c. 12()811 2()7 lie ). The
princi pal records are the text of the Israel Stela from the pharaoh 's
temp le on the west bank at Thebes . the stela fro m Karn ak with a du-
plicate text . and the record on the east wa ll of the Courde fa Cachette
between the main temple and the Seventh Pyl on. The Libyans were
dominated by the Libu , led by Mari yu , son of Didi. They had pene-
trated Egypt . along the wes tern fringe of the Delta and a battle. last -
illg six hours, was fough t. The invasion was appare ntly meant to have
been synchron ized with a rebellion in Nubia and was allied wi th
groups of the Sea Peoples. The casualties of the spec ified groups are
relatively sma ll, co mpa red with Libyan cas ualties of 6.359 : Ekwes h
(2.20 I). Teresh (742) . Shekel esh (222) , Lukka and Sherden (200?) .
This suggests that the Sea Peop les are, in thi s case. mer cenary
lroops. The Libya n movement is specifically stated to have been
caused by famine in Libya.
I.IIIYAN WAR OF SETY I. Although co nflict with Libyans is docu-
mcnt ed from earliest times, the major Libyan Wars occ urred in 19th
I)ynasty. The first to be recorded by prominent battle scenes is that of
Sety I , formin g part of the cyc le of rel iefs on the nort h outer wa ll of
the Hypostyle 1-1 '111 at Karn ak (Thebes) . There are four sce nes. The
tirst shows Sety in his chariot . his forwa rd foot on the chariot pole,
the reins tied around his wai st . charging and about to kill the large fig-
lire of a. L i ~ y a n chief. Sety wears the khepresh and gras ps his strung
bow, wie lding the khepesh-sword for close combat. The chief, possi-
hly of the Meshwesh, wears the feather and phall us sheath. The roya l
chariot charges into the melee of wounded soldie rs who carry bows.
only one has a shar p sword . In the second sce ne, the pharaoh has de-
sccnded from his chariot and, trampling over fallen Libyans. grasps
the chi ef and is about to kill him with a short stabbing spear. Set y
wears the lappeted wig . The third sce ne shows the triumphant return.
The pharaoh . wearing the khepres h, dri ves his chariot. hold ing the
rei ns along with his bow. khepe sh, and whip. Th e char iot is decorated
with the heads of Liby ans. Before him . the pharaoh drives two lines
II I captives . their ar ms tied at the elbows . The final sce ne shows the
presentation of captives to the Theban gods, along with boo ty of elab-
orate vessels and two tusk rhyta, all of typi call y As iatic type. Th e texts
IISC only the generalized term Tehenu and are otherwise uninformative
12 8 • I IUYAN WARS 01 RAMI:SSIS III (YEAR 5 C. 1180 Be; YEAR11 C. 1174 Be) lITERATURr • 129
abo ut locale and enemy. The pharaoh is likened to Mon thu and 110-
rus and is described as " like Baal when he treads the mountains."
1174 IIC). The Libyan Wars of Ramesses III are recorded by relicts
on the nor th exterior wall and in the first courtyard of the pharaoh ' s
temple at Medine t Habu on the west bank at The bes . The first in
vas ion was an allia nce of the Meshwes h , the Libu, and the Se llC11
The scenes show the pharaoh setting out, with heralds and musicians
(trumpeters), and, in its own chariot , the standard of Amun. The
Egypti an army includes Egyptians with khepesh and shields; Nu
bians with throw sticks (or cudge ls) , spea r and axe; Nubian archers :
mercenari es from Asia and the Sea Peoples (mixed con tinge nts 01
Shardana and Pel eset ). The battl e scene includes the typical mello ,'
and a fortress called " the town of Ramesses who has repul sed 1111'
Temeh." The aftermath includes the military bureau cr acy counting
the seve red hands and phalluses of the enemy. In one sce ne. the pile
of genitals shows penis and test icl es, rather than the phallus alone.
The second Li byan War of year II (c. 11 74 Be) was led by
Meshesher, chief of the Meshwesh. The scenes show the hallie. in Ihl'
western Delt a , in which the Libyans use chariot s and foreig n weapons
The chariot s, notably, have wheels with four spokes . The Libyans wei"
defeated and routed. Pursued hy the Egyptian army. they Ilcd pasllwo
fortresses, one call ed the "Castle in the Sand: ' The inscr iptions sial"
that , in this pursuit, 2,275 Libyans were killed. The scenes of the pres
entat ion of captures to Ramesses III include the severed hands and
phalluses, captives , and a large array of weaponry, including long,
sharp swords of Asia tic type .
LITERATURE. A wide variety of literary source s can be used for till'
study of warfare , mi litary matters, and ci vil unre st in Egypt.
Egyptian Pharaonic. Historical Texts. Earlier Egyptologists gencr
ally treated historical texts as basically factua l accounts, but ac
knowledge d they wer e prejudiced through bei ng written by the vic
tor. Occasio nally. this led to the text being read as mean ing till'
op posite of what was said. So, for exa mple, in the Dream Stela 01
Tanwetamani , where it is stated that when the pharaoh asce nded the
throne " none stood up aga inst (him)," it was understood that he act u
ally faced serious oppositio n. A more sophisticated text criticism now
all offic ial roya l stelae as part of the liter ary genre of ideal king-
ship and roya l self-j ustification in whi ch the idea l merses with the
historical moment. It is also recogni zed that the date at the beginning
of a doe s not necessarily have any bearing on the date of the pro-
duction of the monu ment or , unless stated, of the events recorded.
Ilowever, such inscriptions do contain historical " facts" and have
value for the reconstruct ion of events.
Histor ical texts are , in fact, surprisingly few. Hardly anyth ing sur-
vives from the Old Kingdom that deal s with mili tary matters-a few
references, not all of which can be assigned to specific reigns, are to
he found in the Palermo Stone, otherw ise there are only brief texts
on labels and stelae. The Middl e Kingdom is equally sca nt in offic ial
documents. The doc ume ntation from the New Kingdom is far richer
with the Stelae of Kamose and other complementary texts: the Tum-
hos Stela of Thut mose I; inscripti ons of Thut mose II ; the Annals of
Th ut rnose III : the Amada Stela of Ame nhotep II ; the Sphinx Stela
" is more concerned with et hos ; fragmentary inscrip-
lions 01 I hutmose IV and Amcnhote p III relate to actions in Nu-
hia : the trugmcntary stela from Buhen record s Akhenaten's cam-
paign aga inst lkayt a: the battle scen es of Set y I carry some textual
information: the Amara Ste la and its para llel texts record Sety I' s war
with Ircm : the riche st arra y of materi al relates to Ramesses II and
the baili e or Qadesh: the Israel Stela and its parall el texts reco rd the
Libya n War of Mer enptah; and the Libyan Wa rs of Ramesses III
arc recorded by inscriptions at Medinet Habu. Relati vel y few com-
parable roya l "histor ical" inscriptions ex ist from the post-New King-
dom. The triumphal rel ief of Shesh onq I at Karnak shows the
pharaoh presenting cap tured ci ties to Amlin but lacks any acco mpa-
nying narrat ive text. The stelae of the Kushite kings Piye, Ta nweta -
mun i, Harsi yotef, and Nas tasen are mode led on New Ki ngdom
types and co uched in the same terminology. The stelae recording the
campaign of Psarntik II into Nubia also belong to the genre of his-
iorical inscript ions.
Private inscriptions, often referr ed to as "autobiographica l," are
valuable source but , like royal texts, are formed within a spe-
cIIIC .funerary. They act as just ification . and placing
the indivi dual In relation to the ruler, and also emphasize soc ial rank.
13 0 • lITlRATURE
Nevertheless, the inscriptions of Ahmose son of Ebana, Ahmose
pen-Nekhbet , Amenemhab, and others provide infor mat ion on mil
itar y acti vities that is otherwise lost. The text s accompanying tomb
sce nes of military officials such as Tjanuni and Horemheb giv«
some informatio n on military organi zat ion.
Poems and hymns. The local phar aoh , Peftjauawybast of Herak-
leopolis , sang a paean in honor of the Kushite pharaoh , Piye , after hi
besieged town was reli eved in the war against Tefnakht. Hymn s ill
honor of Senusret III have allusions to military conques t and might
but are couched within the typi cal phraseol ogy of royal j usti fication
The Poet ical Stela of Thutmose III and the "Poem of Pent awere" Oi l
the battl e of Qadesh arc simi larly nonspecific in terms of det ail.
Leiters ami administrative documents. The Sern na Despat ches is II
collect ion of detail ed report s of 12th Dynasty date, recording activiticv
in the region of the Second Cataract fort s. The best single source froII I
the New Kingdom is a collection of papyrus documents known as the
Anastasi Papyri and Saltier Papyri. Some of these are scribal exercis '
in the form of letter s from various military officials. They are assumed
to be copies of, or modeled on , actual texis. They are thus subject 10 tlh'
usual problems of inter pretatio n. Th ere are letters abo ut the Madjuy
and their employment in building works at Memphis , details of equip
ment and supplies for a campaign in Syria, and complaints about bon'
dom from garrison officers in Syria. The archive of letters of the scri uc
Dhutmose-Tja roy and his son Butehamun from Thebes are important
in reconstructi ng the eve nts of the civil war in the time of Ramessrs
XI. The archive includes letters written while Dhutmose was aCCOlI 1
panying a mil itary expedition in Nubia agai nst the Viceroy Panehcsy
The Wilbour Papyrus detail s the landh oldin gs of mercenary soldiers ill
Middle Egypt and the entrance to the Fayum in the 20th Dynasty
From the Per sian period , there is an extensive archive in Ararnuh
recordin g the activities of the garrison in As wan made up of meru
nuries, mainl y Jews and other Syro-Palestinians.
Graffi ti and rock inscriptions. These are some of the most inform
ati ve sources because they are situated in the places where the army
and officials went. Graffiti and inscriptions vary e nor mously in till'
amount and type of informati on they contain. So me are lengthy, PCI
haps taking the form of a stela with a sce ne at the top , usually show
ing the pharaoh smiting an enemy, and with a narrat ive text. Other
lIT1: RATURE • 131
are simply a per sonal name, or gro up of names and titl es, scratched
Some sites have a large number of gra ffiti indi cating
their religious and strateg ic import ance : the island of Sehel, near
Aswa n, in the First Cataract, has hundreds of rock inscriptions.
Many of these were wr itten by local priests, but there is a significant
group carved for the viceroys of Kush and their subordinates on their
way int.o NUbi.a . One set of 19th Dyna sty gra ffit i rel ates to a si ngle
lour of and the indi vidual s named left further inscri ptions
elsewhere m Nubia. Also on Sehel are records of the clearance of the
ca nal through the cataract. On the mainl and cl ose by, the mil itary
road from Aswan to the port near Shellal has records of the army go-
JIlg south. A number of points at the end of desert patrol routes in Nu-
Ilia carry inscripti ons. At Tangur near the Dal Cataract, graffit i record
the mi litary expedi tions of Senusret III and Thutmose III. The island
"Iumbos in the Third Ca tarac t, and Hagar el-Merwa beyond the
Fifth Cataract , were other places where officials left graffiti and kings
carved bounda ry inscript ions. Fewer sites in As ia are so far known to
carry Egy ptian lexts. Thutrnose I and Thutmose /II state that they left
bound ary inscript ions ncar the Euphrates, but these have never been
ident ified . The narrow pass at the Nahr el-Kelb in Lebanon is one
place where inscripti ons are preser ved . Here , Ramesses II left two
inscriptions (of year 4 and perh aps year 8) . Simil ar monument s were
carved later for Esarhaddnn (recording his defeat of Taharqo),
Nebuehadnezza r, and the Roman emperor Cara calla .
Literal)' Some stories have a specifica lly milit ary context,
whereas references and allusions to actual (presumably)
events or to military ethos. The story of Sinuhe beg ins with allusion to
the murder of Amenemhat I and later de tails Sinuhe's hand-to-hand
combat and the weapons he used . The "Instruction of Amenemhat I"
begins with a prologue detailing the pharaoh 's murder and includes ad-
vice on the construction of fortresses. The narrat ive of the capture of
J oppa by a ge neral of Thutrnose JIJ is assumed to have some basis in
reality. Another small fragment of a literary text descr ibes King Thut-
III in the midst of battle (perhaps Megiddo) . The Pedubast Cy-
d e IS set 111 the late Libyan period, although it ca nnot be used as a his-
torical source. and has stro ng influences from Gree k literature.
Western Asiat ic texts. From the New Kingdom, the principal foreign
texts are the Arnar na Letters. mostly written in the Akkadian language,
recording events in westem Asi a in the reigns of Ame nhotep III,
Akhc nate n, and Tutankhamun. A similar group of letter s and histori
cal narrati ves was preser ved in the archives of the Hittites at llattu sas.
So me other historical material comes from the archives of Ugarit ill
Syri a, notably relat ing to the Sea Peoples. The texts from the royal
palaces of Assyr ia are a valuable source for detail about rel ations with
Egypt in the Thi rd Intermedi ate Peri od and 26th Dynasty. Th ey suff ci
from the usual problems of ancient " historical" texts. The Royal Annab
from the palaces were carved on reliefs, and stone slabs in various edi
tions, and also on cl ay prisms. As the reign advanced , the events of thr
earlier yea rs could be epitomized and drast icall y abbreviated. In somr
cases eve nts recorded by one text are co mpletely omi tted in later vcr
sions. In addi tion to the annals, a mass of other clay tab lets incl uding or
acles and prayers to the sun god have been preserved. Many of these al
lude to the conflicts with Egy pt in the rei gn of Taharqo and the actions
of Assyrian offici als figure prominentl y. A large number o f Vassal
Treaties wi th the rulers of western As ia al so survive . A similar group 01
mater ial survives for the acti vities of the Kings of Babylon, addin '
some detail to their relations with Egy pt in the 26th Dynasty. Egy pt also
appears in some text s from Persia , but the events and conflicts of thl'
Persian period in Egy pt are more fully documented by inscr iptions and
archi ves from Egy pt itself and by the Greek narr at ive histori es.
Greek and Roman texts. The nar rati ve hist or ies in Greek prov ide II
large amount of information on Egypt , although this has to be treated
with cons iderable caution. The earliest and most famou s, although not
necessari ly the most reliab le , is the accou nt of Herodot os, which h a ~
stimulated a huge critica l literature . Herodotos includes accounts 01
the machimoi ; the invasion of Nubi a by Psamtik II ; the expedition 01
Wahibre agai ns t Cyre ne ; the Persi an co nques t of Egyp t by Cam by-
ses: and the rebellion of Inaros . Other Greek histories , such as that 01
Thucydi des, incl ude further incidents in the rel ati ons bet ween Egypt
and the Persi an Empire. The encyclopedic works of the Hell en ist ic
and Roman per iod s-many written in Greek, by Di odoros, St rabo,
and Pliny, amo ng others -extract fragment s from other wri ters . AI
though subject to numerous errors of tran smission , these sources call
add det ail and alert to us to events that are otherwise undocument ed .
Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt. The royal inscriptions that survive
from Ptol e maic Egypt are of tradit ional types , writte n variously in hi
L1TERATlJRI • 1:13
eroglyphic, Greek, and demoti c (a lat e cursive script used for writi ng
the Egyptian langu age) . Some inscriptions, such as the decree o f the
priests o f Memphi s of the reign of Ptolemy V (the " Ros etta Stone" ),
are wri tten in all three scripts . The Rosetta Stone and the Decree of
Phil ae allude to the suppression of the re bell ion of Upper Egypt led
by Cha on noph ri s and Haronnophri s . Th e "Satra p Ste la" of
Pt olemy I qu ot es from a document of the reign of Khabbash refer-
ring to the invasi on of Ar taxe r xes III.
The pr incipal so urces for reconstructing the events of the Ptol e-
maic period are the hist ori es writt en by Greek and Roman authors,
notably that of Pol yb ius. Although Pol ybius' s subject is specifi ca lly
the rise of Rome , his wo rk co ntains infor mati on on Pt ol emai c dynas-
tic affa irs and wars , includ ing a de ta iled account o f the battl e of
Ra phia. Ptole mai c Egypt also fig ures prominently in the works of
the Roman hist ori an, Li vy. Plut arch ' s lives of vario us Hell eni st ic
ruler s and Roman generals, not ably Marcu s An tonius (a nd hence
Kleopat r a VII ) , were co mpi led fro m ea rl ier so urces. Arr ian wrote
the best-p reserved (a nd ge nerally cons ide red most reliable) narra tive
of Alexa nd er the Great' s campaig ns . He compiled hi s accou nt from
a number of early Il ellenisti c works , including one written by
Ptolemy I. There are co ntempora ry accounts of events in Egypt, al-
though with authorial bias, writte n by Roman s who took part . lulius
Caesa r's "Civil War" gives an acco unt of the events leading up to the
Alexa ndr ian War, and an acco unt o f the war itself was apparent ly
wr itte n by one o f Caesar ' s ge nerals. Strabo narrates the con fl ict be-
tween Rome and Meroe in the ea rly years of the reign o f Augus t us.
Archives of papyru s doc uments are very rich in information on indi-
vidual soldiers and thei r role in Ptolemaic Egypt. Such document s from
the Fayum detail the lives and landholdings of c1eruchs , and similar
material is known from Upper Egy pt, notably Pathy ri s . Some literary
works, such as those of' Theokritos in praise of Ptolemy II, are not
strictly historical. For the later Roman period , there are fewer inscri p-
tions, although the represent at ions of Roman emperors in templ es con-
tinue the pharaonic traditions o f the uni versal ruler, Most information on
eve nts comes from literary sources, histori es, and papyrus documents,
and the ev ide nce of coins. Imperi al biography, in the form of the noto-
riously unrel iabl e Historia Augusta, continues to the time of Co nstan-
line. Of more value is the history wri tten by Ammianus Marcellinus (the
134 • LUKKA
surviving books cover ing 354-378 All ) and the Notit ia Dignitatum" k
tailing the Roman garrisons throughout Egypt.
LUKKA. In Egyptian texts, the name appears as Ruku but should proh
ably be vocalized as Lukka . They are to be ide ntified with the inhuh
itant s of the "Lukka lands" 01" Hittite texts and those 01" class ical 1.'1
cia in southwestern Asia Min or . Some served in the Hittite army ill
the batt le 01" Qadesh and they appear as Libyan allies (probahl
mercenaries) in the record of Mer enpt ah ' s Libyan War of year
They are therefore includ ed in the " Sea Peoples ." The name Pa-LI/AII
occ urs as that 01" an official of the reign 01" Ramesses III .
MACE. One of the earliest wea pons 01" war and symbols of till
pharaoh' s might. Numero us maceheads in different shapes and \III
usual stones sur vive from the earl iest periods. The ceremonial mal'!'
head 01" king "Scorpion" atte sts the significance 01" the object , ami II
is the wea pon [avored in all early ima ges 01" the king smiting his "II
emies (e.g., the Nar mer Palett e; Label of Den) . In the New Kill '
dorn , the mace is frequently (but not always, see e .g., the pylon II
lid s at Medinet Habu) rep laced in such sce nes by the khepesh
although it remai ns an essential royal attribute.
MACHIMOI. According to Herodotos (II 164) , the Egyptians wen: dl
vided into seven classes, 01" whic h the military (the machimoii II l1d
priests ranked highest. The milit ary class was divided (by place of 11I1
gin) into the Kal asirians, who numbered, at their most numeron
250,000 men and Hermotybians, at most 160,000 . They were I"orhIt I
den to follow any other trade or craft, had an exclusively mili tary l'lllI
cation and training, and were heredit ary in the male line. This wank«
class had certain privileges, and only the priestly class had similil l
Each man was granted 12 arouras 01" land , free of tax. A thousand fllli.
each group served as the king' s bod yguard, with grants 01" food, Thl
description 01" a military caste does not fit the evidence lrom the Nl
Kingdom , although it has inOuenced interpretation 01" the evidcru
However , the term recurs in papyri from Ptolemaic Egy pt and il h..
MARCIl • 135
been assumed that ' s account reflects a Late Period develop-
ment that II1to the Ptolemaic period , The evidence actually
to be lar less clear. Alt hough some writers have taken Ptolemaic
references to machimoi to refer to the Greek standing army, the evi-
deuce from the papyri was argued by both Jea n Lesquier, and by
Berna rd Grenfel l and Ar thur Hunt , to mean the native Egyptia n mili -
tary c.aste. It has been argued further that, followi ng the battle of
these machimoi were settled as c1eruchs, receiving
grants 0 1 land , notably 111 Fayum villages, such as Kerkeosir is.
The na,me or iginall y indicated an ethnic group from Nubia .
ldenti ficati on With the modern Bej a of the Eastern Desert has been
't lgges.ted, on a similarity of names. Fro m the Middle Kingdom on-
ward , It refers to an official group of quasi- mi litary nature in Egy pt ,
apparently mostly of Egyptian origi n, who are genera lly de-
scribed as "police" in the liter ature . They are de picted in the tomb re-
liefs at Amarna. The small numbers of Madj oy who appear in texts
II l1 d of thei r associations, suggest that they were some type or
specialized force . A small number was att ached to the protect ion of
the royal at Tbe bes and resided on the west bank. The
might also have had a role as frontier guards , in the fortress
III Sen.mut and Wadi Tumilal. Fifty Madj oy took par t in the
expedition of Rarn esses IV to the Wadi Hamrnamat. The
ulfice of. "Chief of the Madj oy" in the later New Kingdom was one
III the high offices of state. Me n hold ing the title are often found
work s in which numbers of troops are employed.
I here IS little evidence of them after the 20th Dynasty.
1,\ IIARRAQA. The modern name for the temple and front ier town of
l lirra Sykaminos (Holy Sycamore), which marked the southern limit
III the and the political border between Egy pt un-
dn , Ptolematc. and Roman rule and the Kushit e kingdo m of Mer oe
until It was Withdrawn by Diocl eti an to Aswan.
I,\RCII. The campaigning of the Egypt ian ar my in Asia and Nubia
luvulved very long marches, mostly through terrain completely di f-
to that of Egypt. Within Egypt , river travel was the norm , and
Ihl' seems to have appl ied to conveying the army into Nubia also.
HAB U. Modern name for the temple co mp lex of
I{amcsses III on the west bank at Thebes . The templ e, in common
with si milar struc tures , was enclosed within a massi ve mud-brick
wull, also housed the administra tive bui ldi ngs of the temple
l' sl:Jlcs, with houses for officials and priests associated wi th the tern-
I'k , Toward the end of the 20th Dynasty, the situation in the Theban
Il'gion, with bands of Libyans and unrest , caused the workers on the
royal tombs to remove from their vi llage in the foothills close by, to
lit" protection of the temple enclosure . Eve n this did not prove suffi-
l' il' lll, and letters indicate that ma ny vi llagers crossed the river to the
ci ty of Thebes. At Medinet Habu, the enclosure walls are par-
11l'1I1:lrly we ll preser ved , standing in places 16 meters high and 10 .5
uu-ters thick at the base. The stone-bui lt eastern entrance to the whole
1' lI l'1 osure took the form of a Syrian for tress-tower (Migdol).
:I'ltc te,mple is also important for the rel iefs recording the cam-
I'l1l gllS 01 Rarnesses III . These commence on the exter ior wes t wall
11 11l' rear of the templ e) wit h the ca mpaig n in Nubia , and continue
1I 10llg the northern exterior wall with As iatic campaigns and the
1.I".I'an culminating wit h the battle wi th the Sea Peopl es, Re-
lid s deplctlllg the second Libyan War decorate the First Court. The
I ulumns of the. court carry conven tional imagery of universal roya l
"Olllllllon, which co mpleme nt the " historical" scenes, On the
, uhunns or.the south colonnade, Ramesses IIJ is shown smiting for-
I I rn ruler s In front of dei ties. and the bases of the co lossal statues of
IIII' pharao h, which do mi nate the nor thern colonnade, depi ct the royal
1I11 11 1C clutching captive rul ers.
10 have been ge nera lly applied to those who were tra ined as chariot
warriors, even if the horses and chariots were supplied by the state.
TELL EL- (WADI TUMI LAT). For t r ess of 26th Dy-
nasty date, 2 10 meters by 2 10 meters with walls 15 meters thick. It has
cel.lular construction to Tell Dafana (Da phnae), Mi gdol (Tell el-
Iklr,.50 kilometers to the north-west), and the Palace of Apries (Wahi-
bre) III northern part of Memphis . It is identified by most Egyptol-
IIglStSwith Per-Alum, the classical and biblical Pi/hom, Heroiinpolis of
texts: It stands at the eastern end of the strategically signifi-
c.mt Wadi Turnilat by the canal of Nekau II and Da rius I.
The inscr iptions of Inyotefiqer in the early 12th Dynasty, and of
Thutmose I in the 18th , imply that the river was the mai n artery.
However, Thutmose I seems to have reached Kurgus and Hagar el-
Mer wa in the region of the Fifth Ca tar act by the desert road , rather
than the Nile route , and the campaign of Thutmose III to Miu prob-
ably foll owed the same route. The campaign of Sety I against Irem
also went across the desert.
For some of the Asiatic campaig ns, troops were take n by ship to
Byblos or Tyre, when the action was dire cted at north Syr ia, Cam-
pai gns farther south ge nera lly invol ved a march along the Ways of
Horus to Gaza, and then through Palestine.
In 605 RC, the army of Nekau II marc hed as far as Car che mish on
the Euphrates and thus equalled the ma rches of Thutmose I and Thut-
mose III. In thi s instance , Nekau fought battl es at Megiddo and
Harnath , whic h lie along the main north-south rout e .
With the limited evidence avai lab le, it is suggested that the army
marched at approximately 22-24 kilometer s per day. The deta ils 01
one specific march are known. In order to achieve his preferred place
of battl e , Ptolemy IV made a force d march from Pelusion to Raphiu
in five days. To cover the di stance of 180 kilometers requi res an av
erage dail y march of 36 kilometers. This was in Jun e, with an army
of around 70 ,000 , accompanying baggage, and elephants .
Although var ying interpretations have bee n offered , the texts 01
the Qadesh ca mpaign of Ramesses II see m to indicate that the Iom
divisions of the army marched separa tely, in two parall el gro up,
Thi s would have ensured that the rear divisions camped at di fferent
sites to those in the van and hence woul d have had access to un
touched for aging .
MARIYANNU. It was once thought that the term was of Indo-Iranian
origin describ ing an elite cas te of horse and char iot-owni ng soklici
These peop le were supposed to represent an Indo-Aryan aristocnu:
that introduced horses, two-wheeled chario ts, and composi te bows inl"
the Near East at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age . They were aiM
supposed to have been the ruling elite of the Hurrian kingdom of MI
tanni , the system, and possibly the cas te, spreading into the other kin
doms, even Egypt. The theory is now ge nerally discredited and nuu
recent research has shown t hat lll ariywlII lI is a Hurrian term that seem
MEGIDDO. Town in northern Canaan, ca lled Mkt in Egy ptian text s.
Megiddo , the modern site of Tell el-Mutesc llirn, stands at the south
wes tern corner of the Plain of Esdrael on (Jez reel Valley), guardin '
the entra nce to the Wadi Ara (Nahal Iron ) through the Car mel Ridge
Megiddo was strateg ically situated on the Via Mar is and was , in COI l
sequence , the site of some significant anci ent battles . The most im
port ant battl es invol ving Egy ptian forces were those of the reign 01
Thutmose III (see Megiddo, battle of [c. 1456 II C]) and Nekau II
(see Megiddo, battle of [609 II C]).
Although Megiddo had contacts with Egypt from early times, il
did not come under Egyptia n control unt il Thutrnose lII ' s first Asiuti.
campaign in year 22- 23 . Foll owing its ca pture, Megidd o remained 111 1
Egyptian vassa l and figur es prominently in the Amar na Letters lEA
242-246,365) . Its rul er, Biridi ya, ex presses concern about the thn',l1
posed by the ruler of Shechern to the town and requ ests Egy ptian mil
itary prot ecti on , in another lett er ask ing spec ifically for 100 archer
Meg iddo remained an important Egypti an base throu ghout the 11 111 ,
and 20th Dynast ies . Excavations at the site have recovered lall"
quantities of Egy ptia n materi al , includ ing an objec t with the 1);111 11
and titles of a roya l envoy of the reign of Ramesses III. The lal<' I
Egyptian royal name is that of Ramesses VI. and the end 01 Iii .
Egyptia n dominat ion of Canaan is att ributed to his reign .
Me gidd o appears in the topographi cal list of Sheshouq I at K,II
nak , and a sma ll frag me nt of a stela with the kings name was liuuul
at the site . The destructi on of Level YA/ IYB has been attributed II
Shcs honq's campaign. Megidd o was an important ce nter of the kin
dom of Israel unt il it was captured by Tiglat h-pileser 1II of Assydll
From thi s time on, its importance decl ined, although it maintu im
strong contacts wit h Egypt . and large quant ities of imported EgYl't
ian obj ect s have been found in the later archaeo logical level s. '11i
city decl ined fur ther during the Persian peri od and was abandruu
about the time of Alexander the Great .
MEGIDDO, BATTLE (c. 1456 II C), On his first campaign in wesl'"
Asia, Thutmose III confronted a coalition of the rulers of Ca naan ,Ill '
Syria led by the princes of Qadesh and Megiddo. The battle i- I
ported in the king's annals in the temple at Karnak and the text III
stela from Gebel Barkal, The annals report the council in which II
MrM l' l li S • 139
generals propose that the army should use one or the longer routes, but
the pharaoh chose the narrow road through the Ar una pass, which gave
an e.lement ?f surprise. The ar my defeat ed the enemy chariot force
outside the city, but a seve n-month siege followed. Th is included build-
illg a wall , using timber from felled orchards, and digging a ditch , the
whole called "Menkheperre encircler of the Asia tics ." The city's fields
were harvested and some given to the soldiers. The annals det ail the
('aplures of peopl e and goods. Thi s included 924 chariots, some deco-
r.ucd with gold; horses; coats of mail; and 502 bows. Durin g the siege,
fl U people came out of the city because of hunger and were pardoned .
BATTLE (609 lie). On their way to confront the army of
lIal.lylon at Ca r chemish, the Egypt ian forces of Nekau II engaged
lnsiah, king of JUdah, at Megiddo. The bibl ical record (2 Kings
1\:29- 30; 2 Chr? n: 35:20-24) states that Josiah was killed by Egypt-
111 11 arche rs, but It IS unclear whether this was on the field of battle or
whether he was executed at Neka u's orde r.
II':INARTI. Island at the Second Cataract , thought to be the site of a
flll'lr·css. Meinarti stands bet ween Dorginarti and Buhen. The ex-
remains included quantit ies of Ptolemaic-Roman pott ery.
II,,· site Itself might be of New Kingdom date , but there are few signs
' " indicate a Middle Kingdom structure. -
II\I\II· HI.S.. form of the Egyptian Men-n o/ er .) One of the princi-
pil i and royal residence ci ties of Egypt, its foundation,
" the lortress, lubu -hed], the White Walls, or the White Fortress , is
II IIl' 01Ihe eve nts a.sso:iated with the es tablishment of the united Egypt-
111 11 " ate at the beginning of the First Dynasty. Its importance must have
Memphis a.focus '"?r mili tary attention in times of civil war, dy-
111"'''' war , and foreign invasion, although only a few specifi c sieges
II ldhallles are document ed , and all belong to the later periods.
Ihe largest number.of records of sieges and attacks on the city belong
I" IIIl' troubled late-LIbyan and Kushite periods (24th-26th Dynasties,
" I I. (J -(,50 fl.C). The forces of the Saite ruler Tefnakht occupied Mem-
dlll'lng his march south into Middl e Egypt. Tefnakht stocked the
II I' with supplies, garrisoned it with his best troops, and ensured thaI
"" II'll lls were strong. Following his siege of Hermopol is (Khmunu)
140 • MINI S
and relief of Herakleopolis, the Kushite king Piye advanced on Melli
phis. The narrative of Piye's " Victory Stela" clai ms that the king' s gell
erals sugges ted different methods of taking the city, but Piye's own \VII
followed with success. This involved breaching the walls where the
came close to the waterway s by sailing ships up to them and using till"
masts as scaling ladders . Later in the 25th Dynasty, in the reign 01
Taharqo, the king of Assyria. Esarhaddon, ca ptured the city alii I
looted it. Taharqo's successor, Tanwetamani , regained control of tlu:
city, possibly following a battle there with the ruler of Sau, Nckau I.
Memphi s was ca ptured by the Great Ki ng of Persi a, Camhyses,
and was attac ked in the anti-Persian revolt of Inaros. The Macedon
ian adventurer, Amyntas , gained a temporary victory ove r the 1" '1
sian satrap outside the ci ty but fail ed to take it. Memphi s ceded it,
role as premi er city to Alexandr ia and as a strateg ic point for COli
trolling the Della to the for tress of Babylon.
Far less survives of the monument s of Memphi s than of Thebe
but there are fragme nts of relief sculpture relating to mi litar y matn-i
from the pyramid complexes of Old Kingdom pharaohs and N,:II
Kingdom mi litary offi cia ls buri ed in the vas t necropol is of Saqqurn
MENI. Acc ordi ng to the Egy ptian king lists, Meni (in Gree k: Mcnc I
was the founder of the united Egy ptia n state and Memphis. Egy ptol
og ists have identi fied Meni with Nar mer , but he could be a 11'/'
enda ry figure co mbining a number of early kings ,
MENTHUHOTEP II NEBHEPETRE (reigned c. 2055-2004 lie) . 1.11
cal ruler of Thebes who reun ited Egypt circa 2040 Be. He is recog uiz« l
as the founder of the Middle Kingdom. In ancient king lists, he appcm
with Meni and Ahmose I as one of the three founders or re-fou nders 101
the Egyptian state. The reunification of Egypt, built on the campaign
of his predecessors Intel' I and Intel' II. took 40 years and culminated III
his defeat of the rulers of Herakleopolis. He also led campaigns jlllt'
Nubia, Sinai , and against the Libyans. He was perhaps responsible II"
the first stages of fortress building at Buhen and the Second Cataruet
and def enses at Nekhen and Gebel Silsila. In one of the king's calli
paigns, a large number of his soldiers were killed and taken hack t.
Thebes , where 60 of them were buried in a communal tomb. The lxu!
Mm CENARll:S • 1.11
iI'Shad wounds, which showed that cause of death in most cases was hy
arrows, and sugges ted that the soldiers had lost their lives in an attack
Oil a walled town or fort ress. Some of the bodi es had suffered post-
s:avenging by vultures. The decorati on of the templ e attached
III his burial place at Deir el-Bahari (wes tem Thebes) included battle
mostly very fragmentary and without surviving
uiscnpnons. The fragments include figur es of slaughtered Libyans,
bowmen with feathers in their hair (ei ther Libyan or from Si nai), and
captive Syria n women with their children in baskets on their backs. A
broken piece of text refer s to the Amu and Mentju , generalized and ar-
rhni c terms for the peoples of Sinai and southern Canaan.
There is ev ide nce for mercenary troops at all peri-
ods of Egyptian history from the First Intermediate Per iod onward
II 11 d it is reasonabl e to assume that they played a part even earlier. The
hcst-doc umenter] ea rly mercenar ies are the Nubian troops attes ted
1111111 GebeJein and Middle Egy pt. In the New Kingdom. use of mer -
rvnary troops see ms to have increased , even though there was a
larger standing army. A fragment ary papyrus of later 18th Dynasty
dille seems to show Mycenaeans, who might be mercenaries. There is
1II0re explicit evide nce for various groups from western Asia and
Lihyans ; these include the Shekelesh, Shardana, and Peleset. Nu-
Itialls continued to figure promi nentl y, too . Some of these mercenar-
b were gra nted land as veterans , notably in the southern Fayum
uuainly Asiatics) and Middl e Egy pt (the Sharda na) .
From the 26t h Dynasty onward, Egy pt recei ved more troop s from
II Il' Greek world . Psamtik I employed Ca rians, Lydi an s, and Ioni an
" Il'ekS. and garrisons were es ta blished at Tell Dafuna (Da phnae)
111 11 1 Na ukr at ls , Names of Greek mercenaries fro m var ious towns in
western Asia Minor ar e carved on the co loss i at Abu Simbel record -
III ' the ca mpaign of Psamtik II into Nubia. The independence
uiuvcments agains t the rul e of Persia brou ght larger Greek armies
III I:gy pt, AtI!ens le ndin g support to Inaros . Lat er , an army led by
/\ I'l'silaos. Ki ng of Sparta. played a decisi ve role in the dynasti c
li l li' Ihat brought Nakhthorheb to the throne, Also from the Persi an
I"" iod. a large archive of papyri discovered on Abu (Elephantine)
" !'ords the affairs of the ga rr ison, mostl y Jews and other wes tern
\ ' i:l lics , this time employe d by the Pers ian authoriti es . The large
1'llIdlllg army of the first Ptolemi es was made up of Greek or
142 • Mm [ NI' TAI I I Kr IGN LlJ c. 1212-1 202 , C)
M[KQ[ • 143
Macedon ian mercenaries, but afte r the battl e of Raphia (2 17 1H' 1.
many more Egy pt ians were enrolled. Je ws , too , appea r in the arm
fro m the time of Ptolemy VI. Th e Gauls we re another gro up em
ployed , notably by Ptolemy II .
MERENPTAH (r eigned c. 1212-1202 BC). Pharaoh of the 19th Dy
nasty, son and successor of Ramesses II.There are two major miliuu
actions documented in this reign, Th e Libyan War of yea r 5 was pl't I
voked by an invasion of the Lihu. They were accompani ed by gro up
of the Meshwesh , Seped, and "Sea Peoples," the last probably II
mercenaries . The con flict is recorded on the Israel Stela. Th e Libyun
invasion was apparently intended to co incide with a rebellion ill Nil
bia, which was suppressed. The Li byans, driven by famine, were CII
ter ing Egy pt from the wes t. The Rarnessidc fort resses at Zawly ur
Umm el -Rakham and Alamein had ei ther ceased to funct ion by thl
time or were unabl e to withstand the eastward movement of Libyan
Although not document ed , there must also have been military activi
ties in Palestine preceding the king's fifth year. The paean at the clld
of the Israel Stela suggests that the Egyptians had regained conuul
over Canaan, As hkelon, Gezer, Yanoa rn, and Israel.
MEROE. City and kingdom of Kush, situated on the banks of the Ni le III
the central Sudanese savannah. The ear liest archaeo logical evi dem I
from the site belongs to the early first millennium BC, but it is likely tluu
there was an important center at, or near , Meroe, from much ear lier.
Meroe' s histor y is conve ntionally di vided into two hislorirul
phases "Napatan" (c . 1000- 300 BC) and "Meroit ic" (c . 300 BC- C. ,11111
AD) after the two princi pal cities , Na pata and Meroe.
The early Meroiti c state (ca lled variou sly Napatan, Kingdom "
Klish, or Kurru kingdom) conquered Egypt in the mid-seventh ceuuu
Be in the reign of Kashta. His successors, Piye, Shabaqo, Shebltq«
and Taharqo ruled there (as the 25th Dynasty) unt il the Assy rian inv«
sions and rise of Sa u under Psamtik I forced a Kushite withdrawa l III
the reign of Tanwetamani. The Napatan kingdom continued, and II
end is mar ked by the last burial. that of Nas tasen, in the pyramid CCIII
ter y at Nuri , near Napata, Although a fairl y full sequence of rulers I
known, relative ly few historical eve nts can be placed in the per iod ii,
tween 650 and 320 BC. The army of Psamtik II , includi ng Greek allil
Carlan mercenaries, invaded in 593 BC, fight ing at Pnubs and pcrhup
sacking Napata. There is evi dence from I-Ierodotos, and circ urnstan-
tial ly from Meroe, that Kushites were serving in the army of the Great
King of Persia, which attacked Greece in the reign of Xerxes. Inscrip-
lions of later Napatan kings, written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, record
their military actions agai nst various desert-dwelling groups who
the settleme nts of the Thi rd-Fourth Cataract region, and,
occasionally, Meroe itsel f. Of these, the most import ant are the in-
scr iptions of I-1arsiyotef and Nastasen , both of whom led their armies
;11 10 Lower Nubia, as far as the Egypt ian frontier at Aswan. Nastasen
an opponent named Kambasuden, who was incorrect ly
It lentlf!ed by some scholars with the Egyptian nat ive ruler Khabbash.
There were doubtl ess milit ary act ions on the Egyptian- Meroitic
Iroutier in the early Ptolemaic period, although the activities of
!"nlemy II seem to have been essent ially peaceful and to have re-
IIpened extensive trade. There is some indication of Kushite if not
specifically Meroite, support for the rebellion of Haronnophris and
( 'hannnophr is in the Thebaid in the reigns of Ptolemy IV and V.
Mcroi tic expansion in Lower Nubia might have caused conflict in the
Il'ign of Ptolemy VI. Following the Roman annexation of Egypt in 30
1II ' , Ihe Romans apparently tried to install a client king (tyrannos) in the
Ilndckaschoinos . Thi s failed . In 25 BC, the prefect , Ae lius Gallus,
lnuuched an expedition to Arabia, taking nearl y half or the forces sta-
tioucd in Egypt. A Cai us Petronius, was installed. Shortly
III ILT. an armed Meroite force attacked the region of Aswan (including
l'hilae and Abu). In the succeeding conflict, Dakka was the Meroite
hl'adquarters. The army was led by the Kanda ke (reigning queen, or
qlll'en mother), perhaps Amanirenas. The fortress of Qasr Ibrim was
nttuckcd. The Roman army led by Pet ronius claims to have marched as
Iill as Napata. Peace was concl uded at the treaty of Samos and the Iron-
11(" was drawn at Maharraqa (Hiera Sykaminos). A peaceful period
, usued with much trade in the first and second centuries AD.
The later thi:d century witnessed the beginning of the various prob-
1"1I 1S that contnbuted to the fragmentation of the Meroitic kingdom: the
" (' 0 1. Aksum; the incursions of the peop les from the surrounding re-
lnus mto the NIle Valley, notably the Noba and the B1emmycs . The
Itkll llnyes became a major force in Lower Nubi a and frequent ly raided
11110 lJpper Egy pt. The emperor Aurel ian had some successes against
111"111 , hut Diocletian withdrew the fronti er to Aswan, The Meroite
iii 'dom finally fragme nted sometime in the mid-fourth century.
144 • MI 511Wl SII
(As wan) denoting the limi ts of Egypt. Fo llowing the sack o f
Jerusalem by the Babyloni an s, man y Jews ned to Egypt , so me tak-
ing up thei r residence in Migd ol , perhaps as mer cena r ies . Migd ol
was the site of a battl e between the army of Neka u II and the invad-
ing forc es of Neh uchad nezzar II king of Babyl on. A medi eval
lort ress was on the same site . Migd o l has been identifi ed by Eliezer
Ore n wit h the archaeological site "1'.2 1," whic h is one kilo me ter
north of l'e ll el-Heir, It is squa re wi th a mud- brick enc losure wall 200
meter s on eaeh side and 15- 20 met ers wide .
Hurr ian ki ngd om of north Syria, usually called in Egypt ian
Il' xts Naharin. The evide nce for its polit ica l history, culture, and so-
ciety is still ve ry limited. Mitanni was Egypt' s main rival for control
" I' nort h Syr ia in the 18t h Dynasty, bu t was also a maj or so urce o f
ho rses and of the wood (e lm and as h) and bark (birch) used in the
Illallufacture of chariots . If not from Mitanni itse lf, t hese comrnodi-
til'S came from the regions to its north .
The Humans occupied the far north o f Syri a and Mesopotami a
probably from prehistoric times but did not bec ome a pol itical force
1III Iil the Late Bronze Age . Earlier scholarship saw them as a mi grating
truup from farther no rth or ea st that arrived in this reg ion around the
17th/l 6th centuries BC. It was also sugges ted that the Mitann ian kings
were esse ntially leaders of an I ndo-Iran ian (Aryan) warrior ar istocracy
with a Hurrian subject populat ion . As such, they were identi fied with
the chariot-owning mari ya nnu . Many scholars now reject this view.
Archives from Nuzi (Yorghan Tepe) and Alalah (Mukis h) , both sub-
jl'l'I cities, shed some light on Mit anni 's political history. At times,
Large fortress on the wes t bank of the Nile ,near the foot of
the Sec ond Ca taract. Mi rgissa stands near one of the most diffi cult pas-
' ages through the ca taract and was one of a group of cont rolling fort s.
()n the islands in the river were Dabenarti , Meinarti , and Dorginarti.
It was part of a signa ling network that co nnec ted with Askut and the
1(1I1s at the head of the cataract. A slipway of timber, plaster , and mud
allowed ships to be taken from the water and pu lled aro und the most dif-
licull part of the rapids. They could then sa il to the supply depot at
Buhen. The fort ress is a large rectangular struc ture, sharing many fea-
turcs in co mmon with the other co ntemporary f0I1s in the region .
MESHWESH. The most prominent tri be of the Libyans in the later New
Kingdom. The name Meshwesh is later abbreviated to Ma . There wen:
movement s of different tribes of Libyans, often jointly, along till'
Mediterranean coast in the reig ns of Set)' I and Ramesses II. The Egyp
tians tried to accommoda te sma ll groups and settled the Meshwcsh
around Per-Bastet (Bubastis), employing them as mercenaries , PCI
Bastet later became their main ce nter. In the Thi rd Intermedi ate Period,
the Meshwesh dominat ed Lower Egypt. The hereditary chiefs , and grc.u
chiefs , of the Ma gained pr inci palities in the eastern and cen tra l della,
but owed some allegiance to the pharaohs who ruled from Tani s aIII I
Bubast is . Sheshonq I was a great chief o f the Ma before he bccamr
pharaoh. These great chiefs still figure prominently in the record of til
co nfl ict of Piye and Tcfnakht , and in the co nfl icts between Taharqu
and Tanwetamani and Assyria, but the ir power seems to have been
cu rbed by Psamtik I, probabl y during the first decade of his rei gn ,
MIGDO L (BATTLE 601 uc ). Battl e close to the fronti er fo rtres s III
Migdol (Tell e1-Heir) in whic h Neka u II opposed Ncbuchad nezzm
II ki ng of Babylon . The batt le is recorded by the Babvloniun Chrou
ide and by the Greek Historian He rodotos (11.159) . It took place ill
the mon th of Kisiel' (November-December) 60 I BC. Ne buc had nezzm
had advance d along the Ways of Hor us , allowing Nekau to mobili»
his troops and ma rch to meet hi m. The ba tt le seems to have been II
sta lemate . Ne buc hadnezzar withd rew, but was pursued by Ne kau
who recaptured Gaza. There we re Greek mercenaries in Nekau '
army . Following the campaign, t he pharaoh ded ica ted his armor ill
the temple o f Apo llo at Did yma (sout h of Milct os in Ionia) .
MIGDOL. Se mitic wo rd for a fort ified tower, whic h was ado pted illill
the Egyptian lang uage , probab ly early in the 18th Dyn ast y. It is found
in a number of fort ress n ames of the 19th and 20th Dynast ies . It wn
spec ifica lly the name of the fortress at the archaeologica l site o f Tell
el-He ir. Migdol is also the term ap pli ed to the ma in Eas tern Gate 01
the temple complex of Medi ne t Hahu at T hebes .
MIGDOL ('f ELL EL-HEIR). Fronti er fortress, pa rt o f t he net wrul
protecting Egypt 's eastern border, between Pe lusion and Tj aru , III
the bibli cal book of Ezekie l (29: 10 and 30:6) it is paired wi t h Sycm
146 • Mill
MlI WATAl Li (Rf IGNED 1295-1 271 Be) • 147
Il IWATALLI (reigned 1295-1 271 IIC). Great King of the Hittites .
l Indcr Muwatalli. the Hittites retained co ntro l of wes tern Anatolia
II l1 d perhaps increased it. The king also re newed the ag ree ment wi th
Aleppo. Hittite interest s in north Syria had resulted in conflict with
1111' Egyptians in the rei gns of Horcmheb and Sety I , often wi th the
l'ily or Qades h as its focus. In the first years of his reign , Ramesses
II sought to reassert Egyptian authority in the region . and Muwat all i
Il'lal iated . Th e cul mi nati on was the ba t tle or Qadesh ( 1274 BC),
which bot h sides claimed as a victory. It was Muwatalli , however,
who was ab le to sec ure Qadesh and Amurr u and to gai n co ntrol of the
I uuuascus area. See also QADESH . BATTLE OF (c. 1274 BC) .
in a show of stre ngth and the pharaoh hunted a rhinoceros . The chil-
drcn of its rulers were se nt to be raised at the Egy ptian co urt.
Falc on-headed solar god closely associated wit h Horus .
Monthu was ident ified with the warrior phara oh fro m the Middl e
1\ingdom , if not ea rlier. The falcon-headed sphi nx (hieraco-s phinx or
J.: r iffon) was also equated wi th Mon thu . The pharaoh is often de-
scr ibed as appea ring as Mont hu in batt le and in hunting. On one of
the ceremonial fans fro m his tomb, Tuta nkharnun is shown hunt ing
ostriches, and on his retu rn from the hunt , he has sprouted the wi ng
plumes of Monthu. On the cha riot of Thutmose IV , that phara oh is
shown with Mont hu behind him in the chariot , guiding his arm as he
looses his bow aga inst the As iatics . The image is int ended to show
thc assi milation of the warrior pha raoh and god.
lSICl ANS. Mi litary musicians are dep icted accompanying religious
fl·slivals. such as thc Opet at The bes (e .g., in Luxor temple). These
;I ll' trumpeters and Nuhian drummers playing the large double-ended
tl llt tll . Tr umpeter s arc see n with co ntinge nts of the army in the tom bs
of Tj a nuni and Horcmheb at Thebes. Tru mpeter s also appear wi th
tlil' ar my in scenes of the ba ttl e and camp at Qadesh and in the
li hyn n Wa rs of Ra me sses II I at Medinet Habu. Two such mi litary
1IIIIllpCts were rou nd in the tomb of Tutankhamun. It see ms that
1111' )' were used to give a rhyt hmic code , probably on a single pitch .
A Nubian playing the doubl e-end ed drum is also depicted in a mili-
tal y context in the tomb of Horemheb at Thebes.
Mitanni had co ntrol of Alep po and Emar (Tell Meskene) , Assyr ia
(probably only briefl y), Cilicia, and Ugarit on the Syrian coast. The
main centers of the ki ngdo m of Mitanni, Washshukanni, and Taide arc
known only from textual sources and have not been identitied with .11
chaeological sites , Ame nhotep I and Thut mose I directed ca mpaign
toward Mitanni and cla imed to have left inscriptions on the banks 01
the Euphrates. The eighth campaign of Thutmose HI , in year 33, WH'
directed agai nst Mitanni , and, accordi ng to the autobiographical in
scri ption of Arnenemhab, involved three batt les. The evidence i ,
richer from the reign of Sausht atar (c. 1430/ 1420), a co ntemporary 01
Amcnhotc p II, onward. The vass al-treaty of the later king Shattiwu/ n
states that Saushtat ar had conquered Ashur in nort hern Mesopotamia,
and other sources indicate that he controlled Nuzi and Alalah, Ug.uil
on the nort h Syrian coast, and Kizzuwadn a (Cilicia).
One of the Amarna Letters det ail s Egy ptian-Mi ta nnian rel ati ons,
showing that from the time of T hutmose IV, the two powers had
been allied through diplomatic ma rriage: Thutrnose IV married tlu
dau ght er of Artatarna, his son Amenhotcp I II mar ried first thl'
da ughter of Shutt arna and then the daught er of Tushraua .
Mita nni suffered at the hands of the rising power of the lIillik_
Problems bega n wi th the reign of Tushratta . and the Il ittites suppor!l'd
a ri val claimant to the throne. Artatarna II. The territ ory seize d hy AI
tatama II in the eas tern part of Mi tann i soon alt er lcll into the hHnds 01
the Assyrians. The Hitt itc ki ng, Suppiluli uma I. seized some of Mi
tann i's western territory and sacked Washshukanni. Tushratt a was Illlil
dered by one of his sons and another son, Shattiwaza, fled to Suppiluli
urna, The Hittite ki ng now installed Shatt iwuza as a vassal ruler in wluu
was left of his kingdom and gave him one of his daughters in marr iage
As allies of the Hitt ites , troops from Mitanni fought on the Hittit e sid
in the batt le of Qadesh. Hitt ite help was unabl e to prevent the risin .
power of Assyria completely absorbing the ki ngdom ( 1250 IJc ).
MIU. Territory of Kush. Miu ' s exact locat ion is uncert ain, although II
seems probable that it lay in the Ber ber-Sh endi Rea ch of the Nile , 0 1
per haps in the Bayuda Dese rt. Miu is named in the inscriptions on tlu
great rock at Hagar el-Merwa , near the Fifth Cataract, suggesting
that its border (probab ly northern ) lay nearby. Miu was important in
the later 18th and 19th Dynast ies. Thutmose II I led his ar mies then
14 8 • NAHARIN
-N -
NAHARIN. The name frequ entl y found in Egyptian texts for the llur
rian kingdom of Mitanni in north Syri a. It is a West Semi tic word
mea ning "river land ."
NAHR EL-KELB. The " Dog River" south of Byblos and 15 kilometers
nort h of Beirut in Lebanon . Where the river enters the Mediterranean,
it leaves only a narrow road, along which many ancient armie
marched. The cliffs served as an ideal place for inscript ions, not abl
for Egypt , by Ramesses II, Esar haddon, and Nebuchadnezza r .
NAKHTHORHEB (NECTANEBO II) (reigned 359/358-342/341
IIc ). Pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty. A grandso n of Nakhtnchel',
Nakhthorheb was serving as a mi litary officer accompanying his 1II1
c1e , the pharaoh Djedhor , on the Syr ian ca mpaign, when he was pro
cl aimed pharaoh by his father, Tj ahepimu , who had been left as regent
in Egypt. Immediately, a rival claima nt appeared in Mendes (pe rhap
a member of the family of Hakor of Dynasty 29). Nakhthorheb n-
turned to Egy pt , accompanied by Agesi laos , the King of Sparta, wh«
was the leader of a Greek mercenary force, but the new pharaoh hl'
came besieged in a Del ta town. The advice of Agesi laos led to the dl'
feat of the rival cla imant and ensured Nakhthorheb's position .
In 351/50 BC, after an internal dynasti c strugg le, Ar t axer xes I II
was sufficiently in control to lead an attack on Egypt. Thi s failed, uml
as a result much of the Leva nt (and perhaps As ia Minor also) rebelled
agai nst Per sian rule. However, in a second attempt in 343 BC, Egypl
fell again to Persia and Nakhthorheb ned , reputedly to Nubia .
NAKHTNEBEF (NECTANE BO I) (r eigned 379/378-362/361 Ill ') .
Pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty. Before his accession, Nakhtnebef WII
a genera l. A stela set up by the pharaoh at Hermopol is carries a vei led
reference to a military coup. In 373 ac , Ar taxerxes II sent an an uv
commanded by Pharnabazos and an Athenian, Iphi krates (CO ll i
mander of Gre ek mercenaries), from Acre . Having fail ed to CIII<'1
Egy pt via Pelusion, they breached the Mendesi an barrier. A dis put
bet ween the co mmanders gave Nakhtnebef the advantage and he WII
ab le to surro und and bes iege them. Th e Persians were then forced III
retreat by the inundation.
NAI'ATA. Fortress , lat er town , in Upper Nubia in the regi on of Ge bel
/lar kal near the foot of the FOUl1h Cataract. It is first referred to in
the year 3 inscr ipti on of Amcnhotep II , where it is stated the pharaoh
had the of an As iatic prince hung from its walls as a warning to
the Kushites. It IS ge nera lly assumed that Napata is to be identified
With the fortress of Sema-khasut , built by Thutmose III in the same
regio n. To date, no archaeological remains can be associated with ei-
ther. Napa ta was later used to designate the region that incl uded the
temples of at Ge bel Barkal, but mos t scholars have supposed
that the townsite lay some distance away from the reli gious center,
perhaps at Sanam Abu Dom. Napata was a maj or center of the king-
doms of Ku s.h and Mer oe. Th e town was one of the principal cen-
and place , of the Kushite kings who conquered Egypt:
Kushta, Pi ye , Sha baqo, Shehitqo, Taharqo, and Tanwetamani.
II might have sacked it during his ca mpaign of 593 Be. Af-
11'1' IhIS, became the main royal reside nce, but the kings, such
as Hars lyotef , were still crowned and buried at Napata unti l the
. k alh of Nas tasen. The Roman emperor Aug us t us clai ms that Nap-
uta was dest royed during the campaign led by the prefect , Petronius
(25 Be). although it see ms unlikely that they advanced so far south.
NAI{ MER (reigned c. 3100 II C) . Narmer was the first pharaoh of the First
I The Palette, found at Hierakonpolis (Nekhen). shows
king weanng the White Crown of Upper Egypt smiting a prisoner
:1 A subsce ne shows two slain enemies and a rectangular
I"'·hhcahon . On the obverse, the king, now wearing the Red Crown of
I"," ver E.gypt and preceded by standard bearers, approac hes two rows
,,' decapi tated enemies . At the bottom of the palette, a small scene de-
picts the king as a bull crushing another enemy, its head lowered at the
buttressed of another fortified structure. The whole grou p of scenes
Is as evidence for the unification of the two part s
,,' Narrner IS the first pharaoh to be depicted with the crowns of
""Ih .Upper and Lower Egypt. He is usually equated with the pharaoh
l\.h·1II ( Greek , who stands at the beginning of the Egyptian
',lng-lists as the lounder of the state, and of the city of Memphis.
(reigned mid-later fourth century II C). King of Meroe.
'I I,' rC.lg_n mar ks the end of the Napatan period in the history of Nubia.
II I' diffi cult to place Nastasen precisely. He len a large granite stela in
the temple of Amun at Gebe l Barkal (Napat a) dated to his ei ghth yeui
The scene, which decorates the upper part , is in a style typical of thl'
30th Dynasty and early Ptolemaic period in Egypt. The text , in Egypt
ian hieroglyphi c, records various military activities, the first apparcntl
shortly after Nastasen' s coronation at Napata. confront ed
army and ships of Kambasuden, somewhere III Lower Egypt. Earli ' 1
Egyptologists incorrectly identifi ed Kambasuden with allli
later with Khabbash. Neither is possible, The other actions arc 11111
dated and mi ght have taken place in subsequent years. The
sent against the " rebels" of Mekhi ndeqei'i(t) and captured us dlll'l
Iyoka. They also seized Luboden. chid of Reba.la, wh«
was rich in gold and cattle (a total of 806,323 IS claimed III the text)
Ot her razzias were dir ected against telTitories named Irrasa, Makhsh
erekhti, Mayoka , Sarasara , and Tamakheyti. The only places tHlnl l'd
that can be conlident ly located are Maha (certainly Abu Sirnbel) :11111
Medi ye (probably Medja) . Nastasen might have taken advantage of 111\
troubled situation in Egypt duri ng the per iod from the end of the 3(11 11
Dynasty and reconquest by Artaxcrxes III (343 Be) to the satrapy III
Ptolemy I (323 Be) to gain some control of Lower Nubia.
NAUKRATIS. Delta town of 26th Dynasty date. A Greek tnulill
co lony, supposedly founded in the reig n of Ah mose II , II
chaeolog ical evidence indicat es it could have been ear lier ,
under Psamtik I. It was suggested that the Great Temenos III Ih
southern part of the site, with the massive brick insidl: II
known as the Great Mound, might have been a mi litary inst allutiou
Thi s is si milar in construction to other Late Period monument s, I
as Tell Dafana (Daphnae) , that had been identified as militar y
lations . Recent research , however , proposes that the Gre at Mouml !
a templ e co mplex of Ptolemaic date.
NAVY, The river was the main transport route in Egy pt and the
ation of boats with mil itary actio n is found in art works from the 1'1
dynastic Peri od onwa rd. Among the earliest such depicti ons arc II
sce nes in the Painted Tomb 100 at Nckhcn, on the Gebel el-A) I
Knife, and the rock inscription of Djer at Gebel Sheikh Suleimnu I
Nubia. In these cases, the ships were used for moving troops. ' I I"
was generally the ca se with internal conflict in Egypt throughout II
dynast ic period . However , fighti ng from ships also took place. ' I"
NAVY . 151
is less well documented , but certainly was significant in the attac ks
hy Kamose and Ahmosc on the Hyksos capital of Avaris and in
campaign though Middl e Egypt. The record of Piyc' s war de-
' cn hes the method of his assa ult on Memphis, using the masts of the
ships as sca ling ladders for mount ing the city wall s.
.The development of Egyptian sea-going ships might have bee n
stimulated by co ntacts with wes tern As ia, which was the main source
" I' the timber used in such large vesse ls. The term kebenet der ives
Imill the name of .port of Bybl os, Egypt' s main Levantine trading
partner. However , It IS uncert ain whether the vessel was an Asiat ic
or whether the name alludes to the town as a source of timber.
II:e Amarna incl ude one requesting the king of Alashiya
(( ypr us) to bui ld ships for the Egypt ian navy.
dep icti ons of sea-go ing ships show litt le difference be-
tween cargo vessel s and those used in war. The Egypt ians used trans-
1',,11 ships for takin g the army to western Asia, thus avoid ing the long
along the Ways of Horus . Sce nes in the pyramid temple of
:-i llhurc at Abusir (Fifth Dynasty) show a sea-borne fleet being used
tu convey the ar my to Syria . The inscri ption of Weni (Sixt h Dynasty)
1II II Iarly refers to troops being taken to Palestine by ship. Seve ral of
11 11' major campaigns of Thut mosc III in northern Syri a involved the
III Ill Ybeing take n by shi p to one of the port s, Byblos or Sumur, which
I ere developed as Egyptian bases. Farther south, Gaza and Joppa
W"ll' unportant Egyptian-controlled port s.
action in Nubi a exploited the Ni le route, despit e the dif-
for navigation posed by the ca taracts . Rock dra wings of
I 1'l'l'ttan vesse ls are found in the regio n of the Second Ca taract in the
l'II' dynast ic Per iod , although there are no indic ations that these were
II l'd tor rather than trading, purposes. At the beginning of
III,' (l id Kingdom , however, the Egypti ans were taking their armies
11\' h" al into Nubia, as is shown by the Gebel Sheikh Suleiman in-
,dplion. The fleet was certainly important in the wars of Se nusret I
1111 1 Amc ncmhat I , whi ch extended Egy ptian rule over Lower Nubia.
' ''.l'k Inyotefiqer tell s how he sai led through Lower
uhiu III his flagship "the Great Oar," slaughtering the population,
. 1I III g the harvest , and cutti ng down the trees.
I Il l' pharao hs of the early 18th Dynasty al so used the fleet in their
uhiuu campaigns. Ahmosc son of Ebana tell s how he was on the
"' 111 1Jlagship taki ng Thutmose J in his attack on Kc r rna and of his
152 • NAVY
bravery in the pharaoh ' s presence when the ship was towed through
the cataract.
Although there was lighting of SOlt S from ships, perhaps usinfl
archers in attacks on towns such as Avaris , the fi rst predominantl y naval
baitIe recorded is that of Ramesses III against the Sea Peoples . This en
gageme nt is depicted in a series of large reliefs on the north external wall
of the pharaoh's temple at Medinet Habu. The ships used by Rarnessc
In' s navy do have some structural deve lopments, such as long, low hull
with raised bulwarks to protect the rowers and a raised gangway so thai
the whole length of the ship could be used as a lighting platform h
marines running its length. These could be Egyptian development s and
are not necessarily a foreign influence. Some of the ships have prow
with large ligureheads in the form of a roaring lion' s head, but they lII"
not early examples of battering rams: the construction of the ships i
conventional , and they could not have withstood ramming.
There were certainly signilicant changes in naval warfare in till
Late Period. Thi s was the culmination of a period of considerabk
naval deve lopment and marit ime expansion by the Phoen ici ans and
Greeks, and Egypt was itself focused on its Medit erranean coast. Dill
ing the Late Period , Egypt developed strong contacts with the Grce
world, not abl y through the foundation of the trading center III
Naukratis . The introd uctio n of the Greek trireme has been attr ibuted
to the 26th Dynasty, although some authorities thin k that it was nlll
used in Egypt until Ptolemaic times. The dispute centers on the ternu
nology and meaning of kebenet-vessel s. Nekau II reput edl y engag '.I
a Phoenician fleet to circumnavigate Afr ica and began the cannl
throu gh the Wadi Tumilat connecting the Nile with the Red Sea.
The invas ion of Egypt by Cambyses, the king of Persia, in 5"
BC, included a large Phoeni cian fleet. In the later conllicts bet WI' ' I
Persia and the Greek city states, naval batt les became co mmon, th
first taki ng place at the island of Sa lamis, near Athens. A much
type of wars hip, the quinquereme, was now developed and becam
the characterist ic vessel of the Hell eni st ic navy. The "Satrap Ste la" II
Ptolemy I records that the king brought ships from Phoeni cia, but ill
tel' 200 BC, none of Egypt's warships were Phoeni cian built , or hllill
of Phoeni cian wood , the region bein g under the control of the S.
leukids . The timber Egypt used for ships now came mainl y from II
own possession , Cy prus .
NEIMRUD 1(R[l GNED399/398 -394 /393 Be) • 153
Ptolemy I and Ptolemy II gained control of most of the eas t
Egypt , for the first time, a maj or naval power.
I hey acqul re.d signi fica nt naval bases throughout the Aegean and
a!" ng Ioni an and Asiati c coastline, and eve n on mainland Greece.
1,.gYI?t s hegemony to an end late in the reign of Ptolemy
II with considerable losses 111 the Second Syrian War and defe at at
the hat tIe of Kos (c . 255 BC) . Ano ther naval defeat, that of Marcus
" " l.(lIlius and Kleopatra VII at the battle of Akt ion, led to the fall
II I I:gypt to the Romans under Augustus. The presence at Aktion of
II,,· Ptolemaic fleet of quinqueremes is suggested to have been a con-
I' ihntory factor in the defeat.
NEil l II (reigned 604-562 IIc). King of Babylon, As
", " w,n pm.lce, Nebuchadnezzar led the Babylonian army to victory over
till' I:gyptllln forces of Nekau II, which had established themselves in
C 'urchernish (605 BC? and gai ned a furt her victory over the retreating
III IllYncar Hamath. HIS father, Nabopolassar, died during the campaign
11 111 1 Ncbuchadnezzar had to return to Babylon to ensure his own sue-
, "" ion. In .the following decade, eight out his nine campaigns were in
western ASIll , to prevent Egypt regaining a position. In 601 BC, he took
Ii" army as far as the Egyptian front ier, where a battle at Mi gdol re-
III1l'd 111 heavy. losses for both sides . A peace treaty might have estab-
II Iu-d the frontier between the two powe rs at the Brook-or-Egypt. Neb-
", hndnczzar ousted those Levant ine rulers who had Egyptian support,
, 11 1'1IIIcd and deposed Jehoiachin (598/97 Be) without any
I I' '1'11: 111 mtervennon. A fragment of an Aramaic letter, discovered at
uqqura, ISfrom one of the Levantine princes seeking military aid from
" I' 1'1. gained Nebuchaclnezzar 's assistance in an attempt to
" tore hun to his throne but was killed during the campaign.
1C' 110 , See NEKAU.
I I' " '' IWI) I (reigned 399/398-394/393 IIC). Pharaoh of the 29th
u vuusty. In 396Ilc ,Agesilaos, king of Spa r t a sought an alliance , but
154 • Nl.m USy
thi s was refused . Howe ver, the following yea r, Nefaarud supplied th,
Spart an (leet , which was at Rhode s , with equipme nt for 100 trireme
and 500.000 measures of corn. These fell into the hands of the Pel
sian comma nde r, Kon on .
NEFRUSY. Town or fortress in Middl e Egy pt , near Khmunu (l lc:
mopoli s) . The preci se location of Ne frusy is uncert ain , but it appeal
to have controlled access from the north or sout h to Khmunu . It rip
ures twice in accounts of milit ary act ivit ies in Middl e Egypt. Durinj
the Second Intermedi ate Period , the Hyksos rul ers of Avaris COli
troll ed the Nile Va lley as far as the territor y of Khmunu . The inscrip
tions of Kamosc recounting his wa rs with the Hyksos begin wi th Ih"
Theban advance north into the regi on of Khmunu. Kamose states thlll
he sent his Madjoy troops to besiege "Teti son of Pepi" and his l Iyk
sos for ce wi thin Nefrusy. Tet i was presumabl y a local vas sa l ( pcrhup
the ruler of Khmunu itse lf) of the Hyksos. In the lat e Libyan per iod
the pharaoh Nimlot ruled Khmunu as a vassal of the Kushit e kill!'
Pi ye. With the advance of Tefan kht of Sau and his coalition ann
Nimlot defected and had the wall s of Nefru sy pull ed down . Thi s SUI'
gests that the town was a defe nsive one contro lling access 10 Khmuuu
NEKAU I (reigncd c. 67(,-664). Rul er of Sau in the western Della. I II-
is assu med to have been a de sce ndant of the ea rl ier Sui te rulers . Tl'l'
nakht and Bakenranef', who opposed Kushit e ex pansion into Egypl
Ne kau might have been install ed as an Assyrian vass al by Esarhml
don , The list of Egy ptian rul er s fro m the beginning of the reign III
Assurbanipal ca lls him king of Sau and "Mirnpi " (Memphis) . IIt
was usuall y an ally of the Assy rians but joined wi th Sha rru ludari aml
Pekrur in seeking help from Taharqo in their rcbellion. Foll owiu '
their de feat , Nekau and the other Delt a dynasts were taken to Nin
eveh, but unli ke them (ma ny of whom were executed) , he was selll
back to Sa u, and hi s so n Psamtik I set up as ruler of Athr ibis (l lut
hery-ib) . Nekau was de feated, and probabl y ki lled , in baili e with
Taharqos successor, Tanwetamani .
NEKAU II (reigned 610-595 lie). Phara oh of the 26th Dynast y, son 01
Psamtik I. Sho rtly after hi s accession, Nekau co ntin ued the Cal li
pa ign ini tiated by Psamt ik I in western Asia . The bibl ical Book 01
Kings (2 Kings 23:29-35) records Ne kau's interfere nce in the afluh
NEKAU II (REIGNED &10-5 95 Be) • 155
III' Judah and the imme nse power he was able to exert in wes tern
Asia. army to the ai d of Ashu r-uball it II , king of Assyr ia ,
Nckuu killed JOSiah of Jud ah en route at the battle of Megiddo (609
11(' ) . Josiah was succeeded by his so n Jehoahaz, but three months
later, Nekau repl aced him wi th his brother Jehoi akim. Jehoahaz was
iakc n .to Egyp.t and Jud ah forced to pay tr ibute. The co llapse of the
Assyr ian empire had created a power- vacuum in wes tern As ia , and
Nekau to take advantage of this . In 606 Be, the Egyptian
almy bes ieged Kirnuhu , near Ca r chcmish ; later the sa me year, the
Hahylonian forces were defeat ed at Qurarnati . The Egyptians were,
however, de feat ed by the Babyl on ians, led by Crown Prince Neh-
uchadnezzar at Carchernish in 605 , He then defeat ed a second
I':gypti an ar my at Harnath .
The death of Na bopo lassar and acc es sion of Nebuchadn ezzar II
hl'llught a bri ef respite for Egypt , while the new king conso lida ted his
I'lIIver in Babyl oni a. Nebuchadnezzar launched his attack on Egypt in
(oil I li e. There was a hatti e c lose to the fortress o r Migdol , but there
were heavy casua lt ies on both sides and the Babyl oni ans wi thdrew.
':ollo\\,cd the Babyl oni an ret reat and was able to recapt ure
(, al.a . I'oll owlng the co nfrontation, Ne kau dedi cated his a rmor in
Ihe Icmpl e or Apollo at Didyrna , on the Ion ian coast of As ia Min or. It
'<... ,ll S likel y that Nekau had employe d mercenaries fro m thi s region.
'I he co nt inued activit y of the Babyl oni an armie s in western As ia de-
Inred Nckau from further ca mpa igns .
, 111 Ihe.l ater part of his reign, Nekau pro ba bly laun ched an ex pedi -
11011 agai nst Ku sh . A fragmentar y inscript ion from Aswan refers to
II llcc t sai ling int o Nubia. One can o nly spec ulate that the Kushite
had taken advantage of Nek au's As iatic amb itio ns to make ad-
vunccs into Lower Nubia, or even Upper Egypt. Apar t from some
Iullow-up by his successor Psamtik II, Nekau's reign
ruurks the fina l atte mpt by the 26 th Dyn ast y pharaoh s to re build
I:gypt's old empire and influence in we stern Asia. Ne ka u's consid-
rr uhlc successes were fi nally frustra ted by the milit ar y supe riori ty of
Ihl' Babylonians . Nek au is also suppos ed to have co mmissioned a
l' hocn ician fleet to c ircumnavigate Africa . Further naval interests
nrc shown by the cutt ing of the canal a long the Wadi Tumilat to the
lhod Sea. Th e ca nal, whi ch mi ght not ha ve been co mpleted, adde d a
turt her de fense on the ea stern border . with the fortress at Te ll e l-
I\l11sk hut a . The ca na l was enlarged by Darius l.
15 6 • N[KHEB
NEKHEB. Town on the eas t bank of the Ni le in Upper Egy pt , the III
chaeo log ica l site o f el- Kab. It stands opposite Nekhen. It has massi"l
defensive wall s of mud brick, 540 meters by 570 met er s and 12 ml' h' I
thick. The wa lls have no co mer towers or bast ions and are buill usin
the pan-bedding techn ique , to give stability. The date of the walls is 111 1
ce rta in and various dates have been proposed. Th ey co uld have bCClI llI 1
early Th ird Intermediate Peri od de fense , marking Nekheb as the south
ern border of the territory o f Thehes and paralleling Teudj oi ill 1111
north . It has also been suggested that the walls we re built during Ihl
reign of Taharqo - as a de fens ive measure agai nst the high Ni le f1 0lld
(the site stands within the flood plain )-or in the reign o f Neklu horhct.
The tombs of the early 18th Dynasty carry the import ant autohl«
graphical inscriptions of Ahmose son of Ebana and Ahmose-I'eu
Nekhbet, who took part in the campaigns of Ahmose I against Ihl
Hyksos , and those of Amenhote p I and Thutmose I.
NEKHEN (H IERAKO NPOLIS). Town on the west bank of the Nih
in Upper Egypt, the modern archaeol ogi cal site of Kom el-Ahmar, III
the Predynastic Period , Nekhe n wa s the seat o f the earlies t kings 11 1
Upper Egypt. Excavations her e produ ced some import ant moun
ments of t he period of the un ificat ion o f Egypt, suc h as the ma c, " '
Ki ng "Scorpion" and the Narmer Pal ette , wit h its scenes o f COli
qu est. The Pred yn ast ic Paint ed Tomb 100 has some of the earlit' I
scenes of co nflic t .
At the entrance to a wadi is a large rect angul ar defensive enclosun
of the reign of Khasekhemwy. Similar to the Shu net el-Zebib at Ahv
dos, it was thou ght by ea rl ier arc haeo logists to be a fortress . The I' ll
closure has outer and inner wa lls , origina lly plaste red and paint '01
wh ite , 2.34 meters and 4.87 meters thi ck respecti vely. The wa lls, whi h
we re niched , survive to a hei ght of 11.0 meters . It is now thou ght th,ll
the structure , like the Shu net el-Ze bib, was a va lley temple for a roY1I1
buria l or cenotaph situated farther along the wadi . Nevert hel ess, just a
the architect ure of comparab le New Kingdom temple enclos ures (SUI h
as Medinet Habu) resembled contemporary military installat ions , 11 11
Khasekhemwy enclosure must be similar to early defensive structure
Nekhen wa s defended by Men t h u hotep II duri ng the troubl es tluu
led to the reunificat ion of Egypt at the end of the First lmermcd i.u,
Peri od. Ther e is no lat er ev idence for a mi litary role for the town,
NII\ILOT (fl . 720 Be). Local rul er o f Khmunu (Hermopo lis) , who as-
Slimed full phar aoni c style . He was an ally of the Kushite king and
ruler of Upper Egypt , Pi ye , but cha nge d his allegiance whe n Tef-
uak ht , ruler of Sau, ad vanced wi th his army into Middl e Egypt.
Ni mlot had the walls of an outlying town, Ne fr usy, pulled down to
show Tefnak ht that he was not hosti le to him. Nimlot was lat er be-
sieged wi thin Kh munu by Piye and his army . After his ca pitulatio n,
Nimlot was chas tised for the treatmen t of his horses during the siege .
II is uncl ear whether thi s is the sa me Nimlot who is referred to in the
Assyrian list o f the rul ers of Egyp t in 667 as "La mintu" of Khrnunu,
Id os t Egyptologists have ass umed that he was a successor (perha ps
I' ralldson) of Piye 's ally.
NINE BOWS. The " Nine Bows" sig nified the traditional ene mies of
I:gypt. In Egyptian, three is the plura l, and nine is a usual way o f in-
dicati ng plura lity. The enemi es we re peopl es o f Nubia , Libya, the
Ill'serts , and weste rn Asia. The nine bows we re use d as a mot if on t he
pharaoh's footstool so that he could sit wit h his ene mies beneath his
"'1.' 1. The mot if also appears painted onto the floors , across which the
pharaoh mi ght walk, and on his sa ndals . The bows co uld be rendered
ill human form as the ac tual ene mies , wi th their arms bound be hi nd
their bac ks.
NI\' . Locality in Syria, probab ly in the northern part of t he Orontes
Valley. A very damaged text re fers to Upper Ret enu, Niy, and el e-
ph ants . Tbis ca n proba bly be asc ribed to the re ign of Thutmose I
II III I wa s perhaps associated with the pharaoh' s ex ped ition to Na-
hur in. It was a precursor of T hut mose Ill 's expedi tion or year 33
when that pharaoh also hunt ed elepha nts in Ni y, an event also
iccorded by Arnenernhab.
(I TITIA DIGNITATUM. A Roman record of all of the civil and mili-
rury offices of the empire as they were in 395 AD, preserved in four later
,·opies . The surviving vers ions are more det ailed lo r the western than
Ihe eastern empire . The Notitia co ntains details or the units co m-
uuuided by the ge nera ls and the forts . It thu s provides a valuable source
1111: the mil.itar y in Egy pt in the later Roman Empire. There were major
II II lis (Legions) at some of the key strateg ic points, s uch as Memp his ,
158 • NUBIA
Babylon, and Koptos . It shows an incr ease in troops stationed ill
Lower Egy pt , perhaps agai nst invasion from the east (Rhinocolnrn ,
Pelusion , Busi ris , Nai thu). Th e unit s in southern Upper Egy pt WCIl '
c learly a defense agai nst the 81emmyes. They we re placed at Phil nr
(Fi rst Cata ract) , Aswa n and Ab u (Elephant ine) , Silsila, and KOIII
Orn bo . Alae (caval ry unit s) we re stationed in both Kharga Oasis alld
Dakhla Oasis in the We stern Dese rt. Unit s were stationed throughout
Upper Egy pt (e .g., Thebes, Hermonthis [Armant] , Abydos) , Middl «
Egypt (Speos Artemidos, Thmou, Kusas), and the Fayum (NIII
mouthi s, Arsi noe , Dionysias). See also Ar my, Roman period.
Num A. The region immediat el y to the south of Egy pt, stre tc hing lruII I
the First to the Fou rt h Cat a r acts. It is d ivided int o two part s, Low ' 1
Nubi a be ing the region from the Fi rst to Second Cata rac ts and Uppci
Nubi a from the Second to Four th. Nu merous names are employed 1111
the whole region and its parts, reflecti ng internal poli tical chanur
th roughout the 3,000 years of rel at ion s . Egy pt ian mil itar y act ion III
Nu bia is first docu me nted in the Fi rst Dy nasty , in the reign of Djl"
Other ca mpa igns foll owed in the Ea rly Dynasti c Period and Old
Kingdom, which appear to have forced the small sett led population
to take up a nomadic lifest yle in the surro unding reg ions . A mu]r u
campaign is known from the reign of Sneferu, but thi s mi ght hal"
been di rected south of the Second Cataract. The ev ide nce fro m Iii
Fi fth and Sixth Dynasties shows that a sett led population had I.
turned to Lower Nubi a and that there were three pr incipal "c hid
doms" ther e. These are named in text s as: Wawat , Irt jet , and Sutj u
Another Nubia n "chiefdom" was Yam, which lay so ut h of the Second
Cataract , but its exact locati on is sti ll di sputed .
The internal problems of Egypt du ri ng the First Intermed iate Pcril,d
allowed the Nubian states to devel op wi thout externa l interfercm,
During this period the re is considerable evidence for Nubian n1l'I'I"
naries being employed by the local rul ers of Egypt. A part icul nrl
large body of ev ide nce lor them comes from Gebelei n, in soutlu-u
Upper Egypt. By the ea rly Middl e Kin gdom, the Upper Nubian pllU
ci pa lities of Kush and Sh aat (Sa l) had emerged, and Lower Nubi a WI'
perhaps united under one rul er who ass umed a pharaonic style.
The firs t of a new series of Egyptian campa igns in Nubia was I ,I
by the ruler of T he bes, Ment h uhotep II, who mig ht al so haw ,
NUBIA • 159
tahl ished so me of the fortresses that became impor tant in the 12th
Dynas ty. The first rulers of the 12th Dyn asty, Amenem ha t I and
Sen.usr et I , ca mpa igned extensively in Nubia , red ucing the whole
rerntory as far as the Second Cat aract. Th ey prot ect ed their new
southern border wit h fortres ses at Askut , Buhen, Kumma, Mir-
gissa. Semna, Shalfak, and Uronartl , and others at the stra tegic
of Aniba and Quban fart her north. In the 13th Dynast y, Egypt
aga m frag me nted, and contro l of Lower Nu bia was lost to the
Kusl!ite kingdom of Kerma. Some of the fortresses suffered damage
hy lire. The Kenna kings es tab lished garr isons in so me of the
tortresses and there is ev ide nce that there we re Egy ptian command-
IT S working for the Kushites.
A t the end of the Second Intermediate Peri od , it was again the
pri nces of Thebes who moved to reunite Egypt. Before attacki ng the
111 the Delta , they set about securing contro l of Lower Nubia.
II IS possible that Ta o II led a campaign. but there is cl earer ev ide nce
Irom the reigns of Kamose and Ah mos e I. The autobiographical in-
SCription of Ahmos e son of Eba na records the defeat of Aa ta, who
might have been a local ruler in Lower Nu bia . Ahmose I led hi s ar my
south of the Second Cataract , de feat ed the ruler of Shant, and estab-
,Ii.' hed a new on isl and of Sai. Furt her military actions by
I hutmose I es tab hshed Iirrn Egyptia n co ntro l over Lower Nu bia and
destroyed Kenna. Th ese we re foll owed up in the joint reign of Hat-
shepsut and Thutmose III, but Upper Nub ia south of the Th ird
( 'alaract retai ned its independe nce until the so le reign of Thutmose
III. who es tab lished hi s new border at the Fo urth Cataract.
There major mil itary actions in Nubia in the lat er 18th Dy-
lIasly. The indicat ions are that the ca mpaigns of the reig ns of Akhen-
utcn, Amcnhote p 11, Amenhotcp III, and Thutmose IV were di-
/('cled aga ins t the peopl es of the Eastern Desert, rat her than the Nile
Valley. Furt her campa igns are known from the reign of Tuta nkhamun
/('l'llrded by reliefs in the chape l at Gebel Si lsila and the Mernphit e
IIIII I /) of Horemheb.
III the New Kingdom, the whole o f Nubia as far as the Fourth
C 'ntaract was broughlunder Egy ptian co ntro l and placed under the au-
Ihorily of the vice r oy of Kus h , and the Overseer of Bowme n of Kush
111 11 1 div ided into two provinces. Wawat and Kush . In addi tion , the re
were many ot her princ ipal ities, some of them wit hin the Vicerega l
160 • NUBIA
I Il( HASSE (NUKHASHSHE). Regi on of north Syria, eas t of the
I Imnl es, between Al eppo and Qatna. It was sig nifica nt in the Lat e
Ilmnze Age , the Egyp tian New Kingdom . The territ ory stood on the
nuirgins of Egypt ian influ ence in north Syri a. It was ori ginall y subject
10 Ihe king of Aleppo but became a vassal of the kinudom of Mitanni.
' I.'he Thutmose III record the ph:raoh' s ca mpai gn
il l' wnst Mitanni 111 his year 33 and the foll owing yea r 's attac k on
Nukhasse. The Ama rna Letters (EA 51) indi cat e that Thutmose III
lor pnss.ibly: although less likel y, Thut mose I V) set up an Egy ptian
I'lissal king m Nu kha sse . The military ex pedi tion of yea r 7 of Amen-
link" II crossed the Orontes, and al though there was no pitched bat-
I ll' , I he pharaoh orde red the deportation of 15,070 people of
Nukhasse . In the rei gn of Tushratt a of Mit ann i, a di spute arose with
Iii .. v.assal Sarrupsi, who then allege dly so ught help from Sup-
pllnl iumu, King of the Hittites, who se nt an army. There was a battl e
ern part , from Aswan to Maharraqa. was administered by Egy pt with
the name Dodekaschoinos. For a period , this was extended even far-
Iher. south, the Tr iakont aschoinos, but was rega ined by Meroe. Fol-
lowing the fall of Egypt to the Romans under August us there was
confl ict between Meroe and the ar mies of the Roman prefect lir st
Cornelius Gallus then Petronius, Once a peace treaty between the
two states was agreed, a period of prosperity began that lasted fo r the
lirst two of Roman rule in Egy pt. The maj or Mer oitic ce nter
III Lo,:,e r Nubia was at Faras where the viceroy resided. Lat er, ten-
\Ions increased with the appearance in the Nile Valley of the Blem-
myes . These are reveal ed in the incre ased number of units in southern
IIpper Egy pt in the Notitia Dignitatum and co nflict in the reig n of the
emperor Aur elia n. Shortl y after, the empe ror Diocletian was forced
10 redraw the frontier at the First Cataract.
Nubia was at all times occupied by black peoples. ge nerally re-
lcrrcd to today as Kushit es (to di stin gu ish them from the mod ern Nu-
" ian-language speakers) . In Egyptian text s, they can appea r as Ne-
and luntiu-Set iu, and more spec ifically accordi ng to their
locatio n, such as the Madjoy (peoples of the Eastern Desert ) . There
were several documented movements of population into the Nile VaJ-
ley (and probably many that are und ocumented) , not ably those of the
Noba and the Blemmyes .
do mai n and others outside . Of these, the most signilicant we re h " '11I
and Miu . Th e locat ion of both is uncert ain, but curre nt opinion sill'
gests that they lay outside the Egy ptian-co ntrolled provinces of Iii,
Ni le Valley, probabl y in the Berber-Shendi Reac h of the river.
Egy ptian control of Nubi a appea rs to have remained fairl y stahl.
throughout most of the later New Kingdom. Mil itary actions in tli.
reig ns of Sety I and his successor , Ramesses II , were di rected again I
Irem . The reign of Merenptah saw a rebellion in Lower Nubi a, oI l'
pare ntly timed to coinc ide with an invasion by Lihyans. lrem WI
again the principal thr eat in the re ign of Ramesses III. The Egyprinn
abandoned Upper Nubi a in the lat e 20th Dynasty, redrawi ng their luu
der at the Second Ca taract. In the re ign of Ramesses XI , part of tli.
army from Nubia was active in Thebes and Upper Egy pt. This wn
foll owed by militar y co nflict between the viceroy, Panehesy, and tli'
ge nera l and controller of Upper Egypt, Paian kh, in Lower Nubia . ' I ii
general historical circumstances , and the allegiances of the prot a 'II
nists, remain obsc ure but are best characterized as civil war. The lilll
of Qasr Ibrim mi ght have been fort ified during this per iod . By Iii
end of the civil war, and the death of Rarnesses XI , Egypt appears I,'
have lost co ntro l of the whole of Nu bia .
Following the end of the 20th Dynasty is a peri od (or which tlw III
chaeol ogical evidence and histori cal recon structions have become I
subject of deep controversy. It is likel y that there was a vio lent prm','
of state form ation. Some hint of the eve nts is foun d in the inscriptuu
of Karimala at Semna. This alludes to rebelli on against a Kushit c hili
and civi l wa r. The res ult was the emergence of a powerful , and appal
ently unifi ed , state covering (eventually) the whole of the region 1'1111 11
the Third Cataract into the ce ntral Sudanese savannah aro und M"I ""
This ki ngdo m conquered Egypt in the reig ns of Kashta (c . 750 II
IJ c ) and Piye (c. 736- 7 12 IJ c) and ruled there until 656 IJ c (the 25th (I
nasty) . The last two decades saw the invasions of Egypt by the unuu
of Assyr ia (in the rei gns of Taharqo and Tanwetamani ). There w, I
Egy ptian invasions of Nubi a in the rei gns of Nekau II , Psamtik II
and, perhaps , Cambyses. The Meroitic king Harsi yotef and Nnstu I I
took their armies to Lower Nubia and as far as Aswan.
The Kushite kingdo m continued until the fourth century AD, III Iii
Ptol emaic per iod , the region bet ween As wa n and the Second Cuuu.»
was more intensively cultivated and sett leme nts increa sed, The nlllih
in which both Mitanni and the Hittite s claimed victory , but the result
was thai Nukhasse became a Hillite vassal. However, Tushrat ta WII
abl e to send booty of a ca ptured ch a r iot to Amenhotc p II I , recorded
in the Amarna Lellers (EA 17) , Other let ters in the Amarna archive ill'
from other kings of Nuk hasse: Addu-nirari, Akizzi of Qatna, and Ak:
teship of Niy, who sought to become vassals of Egy pt.
There was press ure on the coasta l town of Ugarit , which Ih('11
sought help from the Hittites. In response, Suppi luliuma and III
armies invaded Nuk hasse . The result was a Hitt ite claim on terr il"
ries in north Syria and, ulti matel y, wa r wit h Egy pt. Fo llowing 11 11
breakup of the Hitt ite Empire , the Nukhasse lands become par i 01
what are known as the " Neo- Hitt ite" ki ngdoms.
OMENS AN D ORACLES. The ev ide nce for the use of omens and 01
acl es in Egypt begin s wi th the New Kingdom, but the practi ce cOlild
be considerably older. Oracles were used for official ap pointment
and some pharaohs attribute thei r elevation 10 the oracle of a 'od
(usually Amun). Hatshcpsu t sought the oracular pro nounce ment " I
Amun on the best route for an expedit ion to Punt. The use of onu II
lar consultation mi ght therefore be ex pected in the context of Will
fare . There is , howe ver, lillie direct ev ide nce for it. Pharaohs stal,
that a god (usually Amun) commanded them 10 "conquer" (as '1'11111
mose III di d); or they prayed 10 a god during bailie (as Ramesses II
did at Qadesh ), but ther e is no re ference to requests to oracles for lid
vice on strategy or when to ca mpaign. Ge nerally, the conduc t of Will
and its successful outcome , was the responsibi lity of the pharuuh
even if he had divi ne aid . Whet her , in pract ice, pharaohs did 5l', 1
oracu lar adv ice is a different issue .
The ev ide nce fro m Ass yria during the Late As syrian Em!,11
(ni nth-seventh ce nturies BC) is very di fferent. A huge number of 111 ,1
cle and ome n texts survive . These are mostl y addressed to the 511 11
god Shamash and seek adv ice on the best time to laun ch a camprupu
where it should be direct ed ; and whether it wo uld be successful, VI ,
specific requ ests are common. The responses were mainly given
Ihrough di vi nati on and examination of the entrai ls of sacri ficed ani-
mal s , An important group of detailed omen texts relates to the con-
duct of the war of Es arhaddon with Ta ha r qo.
OSORKON (fl. c. 850-785 IIC). High priest of Arnun and crown
prince, son of the pharaoh Takeloth II . A series of inscriptions carved
dllri ng his pontifi cate records benefactions to the god, but also the vi-
ulcnt suppress ion of unrest in Khmunu (Hermopolis) in Middle
Egypt and in Thebes . The pri nce, who was also a general and Go v-
vruor of the South, seems to have resided at the fortress of Teudj oi
on the border of Upper and Lower Egy pt.
The opponents Osorkon faced are never per sonalized, but are gen-
orally assumed to represent a ci vil war and ap peara nce of a riva l ruler
ill Thebes . The first r eb ellion was in year I I of Takeloth II when the
land "had fall en into turmoil. " Osorkon suppressed Khmunu before
advanc ing on Thebes. The text Slates that various " irregularities"
were judged and the gui lty exec uted and burn ed . The "ca tac lysm"
r.u nc In year 15 when the "children of rebell ion . .. stirred up strife"
II I both south and north . Thi s seems to have continued for several
j ears. Osorkon went to Thebes in year 25 of his father 's reign, in a
Il'Iigious capac ity, hut renewed host ilit y bro ke out. Events are now
daled by the reign of Sheshonq III , which overlapped that of Takeloth
II. Arter a long period in which noth ing is recorded, Osorkon and his
11I lIIher the ge neral, Baken ptah , aga in appea red in Thebes and "over-
threw everyone who fought agai nst them." This was in year 39 of
II.!. Shortly after, Sheshonq III died , and, in all probabi lity,
rill' I " gh Priest Osorkon now ascended the throne, as Osork on III ,
I' \ I.ERMO STONE. The name given to fragments of a broken rnonu-
nu-nt (or per haps two similar monuments) of black basalt that
Il'l'llrded anna ls of the kings from the first to the fift h Dynast ies. The
111I f:Cst fragment is in the Palermo Mu seum; wit h a further five frag-
nu-uts in the Egy ptian Museum, Cairo , and one in the Petrie Mu seum
II I lI niversity College, London. Unfortunately, the monument is too
164 •
badl y damaged to provide a co mplete source for thi s earl y peri od 01
Egyptian history. There are references to mi litary actions in the reign
of Sneferu and some in reigns of kings who can not be ident ified.
PANEHESY (11. c. 1089-1069 IIC). Viceroy of Kush in the rei gn 01
Ramesses XI. He brought troops from Nubia to Thebes to suppres
some major civil di sturbances. The events are record ed in a series 01
papyrus letters and official docume nts , which, as is so typical 01
Egy ptian mater ial, do not reveal the whol e picture. Consequentl y
there are varying interpretati ons of the evi de nce . The arrival of Pum-
hesy and his troops followed the " suppression" of the high priest " I
Amun , Amenhotep. There was con siderabl e looting, notably III
Medi net Habu, and most of the villagers res ident there ned to tlu
west bank. Panehesy held a series of trial s and executed people.
At a later stage, Panehesy led the army fart her north into Middl,
Egypt and per haps into the Delta , where there was possib ly a ballI '
It was probably duri ng his absence in the north that some of the royul
tombs in the Valley of the Kings were violated. Panehesy is often a
sumed to have been working on behalf of the pharaoh, at least im
tially. However, he returned to Kush, and a new power appeared III
Thebes, the General Herihor , who also ass umed the titles of hiI'II
priest of Amu n and viceroy. A series of letters records a military :II
tion aga inst Panehcsy by Herihor' s succes sor, Paiankh . The army "I
Pai ankh certainly established itself in the for tress of Quba n, II I
though Panehesy is assumed to have held Aniba, as his tomb w,
built there, and his name is undamaged . It may have been during 1111
ca mpaign that Qasr Ihrim was fortified . The outcome of the co nlllu
is unknown . The return of Pai ankh and his army to Thebes I
recorded in the last year of Ramesses XI, but neither he nor Panch,' \
are attested afterward . A recent reor dering of the relevant docu ment
by Kar l Jan sen-Winkeln places Paiankh before Her ihor.
PANION (200 IIC). Bat tle in the Fifth Syrian War betwe en the anu k
of Ptolemy V and Antiochos III. The battle took place at Pan ion (I ltll 1
called Caesarea Philippi) at the nor thern end of the Golan Heights II l1d
the foot of Mount Hermon, on a level site (the Banyas plateau) ',I
leered by Antiochos III . The Seleukid forces incl uded elephant s. Tli
Ptolemaic army, commanded by Skopas, had regained co ntrol "I
Coele Syria, which had been seized by Anti ochos the previous year
then marched north from J erusal em through Galilee. An account
01 the was written by Polybius (16.18- 19) allowing some re-
c,onstructlon of course of the battl e, which, because of the topog-
raphy, took place III two aren as. The Seleukids were ultimately victo-
rrous and Skopas retreated with 10,000 survivors to Sidon,
I'AIJREMIS (459 HC). The site of a hattie in whi ch the forces of the
prince In aros clashed with those of the Persian satrap,
0challne nes , who was killed. Herodotos claims to have visited the
site of the batt le. Papremi s is the Greek form of an Egyptian place-
name (perhaps Pa-pa-remt wy} in the Delta, It has been ident ified
with Pelusion at the entrance to the eas tern Delt a, but also with a site
10 the east of Darnanhur in the western Delta.
I'ARAITONION. Front ier town, the modern Mersa Ma truh. In the
Ptolemaic and Roman periods, Parai tonio n (Latin, Paraetoni um)
marked the border bet ween Egypt and Cyrenaica . In the late New
Kingdom, it seems to have served a similar function becau se close to
Mersa Matruh is the Ramesside fort ress of Zawi)'et Umrn el-
Rakham. The fort stands in a strategic posit ion controlling the
coastal routes . Mer sa Matruh has a large natural harbor. Excavation s
on Bates's Island in the harbor have fou nd ev idence of tradin g co n-
.t;.lctS between vesse ls from Cy pr us and Crete and the local Libyans.
I hese be dated to the late 18th Dynasty. Altho ugh there is no di -
rect evidence, the town might have become significant in the Late Pe-
riod , when contacts bet ween Egypt and Cy renaica intensified .
Alexander t he Great is repu ted to have met with amb assadors from
here, while on his way to the Oasis of Si wa. The desert roads
lor Siwa leave the coast at this point. Parailonion was occ upied by the
lorces of. Magas of Cyrene during his rcbellion aga inst Ptolcmy 11 .
i\ long with Cyrene, it returned to Egyptian control, and at some un-
k,nown point was protect ed by a city wa ll. Following the batt le of Ak-
tinn, Kleopatra VII and Antoni us landed here , and it was here that
Cornelius Gal/ us destroyed the remai nder of their fleet. The town
agai n occupied by Vespusian. In earl y Byzantine times , Parait o-
111011 the capital of the Eparc hy of Lower Li bya and was rc-
torrified by the emperor Justinian (reigned 527-565 AD) .
1 6 6 •
PATHYRIS. Greek name for Gebelein in Uppe r Egy pt , fro m th,'
Egy ptian Per-Harbor. Fo llow ing the r ebellion of Haronnophris alld
Chaonnophr is in the rei gn of Ptolemy V, a military ca mp was
tabl ished at Pathyr is. It was a subdivision of the hypaethron " I
Krokodllopnlis . A substantia l papyru s archive records the fami ly III
a Greek cavalry officer, Dryton , who served here from circa 152 III
The end of Pathyri s as an important cen ter seems to be associa ted
with the rebell ion in The bes suppressed by Ptolemy IX Sot er II ill
his year 3 (88 IJ c) . Pathyris and Apollonopolis Megale (Edfu) had rr
mai ned loyal to the Ptol emies , but Pathyris was presumably capturr. l
by the rebels and then suppressed by Soter, after whic h it becau u
subordinate to Hermon this (Armunt) .
PEACE T REATY. Forma l and legal documents of relatio ns bet ween
states-actually between the rulers -are attested from the Lall
Bron ze Age (New Kingdom) and pro bab ly began much ea rlie r. Till
Ama r na Letters refer to agreeme nts made by the predecessors " I
Arne nhotep III and Akhenat en wi th the kingdom of Mitanni uiul
othe r territ ori es of Syria and the Levant. Tr eat ies made by the killl'
of the Hittites with variou s vassa ls survive , as do copies in hllih
Akkadian and Egy ptian hierogl yphic of the peace that followed II"
Egy ptian- Hittite Wars of the reign of Ramesses II ,
Ma ny peace treaties (and other treaties) were formally ratified hI
diplomatic marriage. All forms of relationship in the Late Bronze A,"
(and probabl y into later times , as indicated by the Victor y Stela of I' i,\'I"
were regar ded as lasting for only the lifet imes of the relevant part ies: "
the Amarna Letters seek to renew good relations on the death of AII II' II
hotep III. The stela of Kamose records a lett er from the Hyksos ruler ,01
Ava r is to the king of Kush , which asks why the new Kushite ki ng hll d
not written to him of his accession, and seeks to renew the relat ioushq
of the two co untries, The stela of Piye ends wit h the oath of fealty SWOIII
by Tefna kht in the temple of Neith in Sa u in the presence of the dill r
lector priest and a general. This cont ains all of the elements of a writu II
treaty and was equ ally binding in a simi lar way.
There are many exa mples of treat ies between the kings of Assy rlll
notably Esa r haddon, and thei r vassals in western Asia. These cOIII llI1I
threat s of retribution and the invoca tion of numerous deities as gW1I 11I 1
tors, A formal treaty probably negotiat ed the transfer of pOWCI II
Thebes from the Kushites to Psamtik I. This was sealed wit h the in-
stallation of the Princes s Nei tiqert as heiress to the most powerful
priestly office in the city. Numero us peace treat ies tried to resolve the
territorial disputes of the diadochoi and of the Ptolemies and Seleukids ,
A treaty was agreed on Sa rnos bet ween the represe ntatives of Mcroe
.md the emperor August us , foll owing the conflict on the southern bor-
der and the military actions of Cornelius Gallus and Petronius .
I'lm UHAST CYCLE. A series of stories preserved in papyrus docu-
rncnts written in the de motic script. The surviving texts date from the
l'tolemaic-Rornan peri ods but were set in the late Libyan period (sev-
rut h century BC) . The stories refer to real historical figures , but also in-
d ude from.Greek,mythology and heroic literature. Although
Ihc historical context IS the nme of the Kushit e pharaohs and the inva-
vions by the armies of Assyr ia under Esar haddon , there are anac hro-
uistic references to the Medes, Per sia, and India betraying the later
writing, or adaptation, of the cycle. The principal stories , in various de-
,' rces of preservation are : Inaros and the GrilTon; The Co ntest for the
lv ncfi ce of Amun; The Cont est for the brea stplate of Inaros; Egy ptians
lind Amazo ns; and Nan ferka sokar and the Babyloni ans, The Greek in-
tIncnce is notable in epi sodes , such as the heroic single combat for the
hrcustplate of Inaros, reflecting the contests in the Iliad,
I' EI,ESET. The Phili st ines , The Peleset appear as both enemies (wi th
rhL' Sea Peoples) and as mercenaries in the Egyptia n army in the
1\' 1I,: n of Ramesses III. They are ident ified by their characteri stic
headdresses , which are perh aps made of horsehai r. They we re the
pl'ople of the southwes tern Asiatic coast, bet ween Gaza and Joppa,
"1-:1 :I'AST. Light skirmishi ng infantry of the Ptolemaic army , The
n-un was origi nally used of Th racians , derivi ng from pella, a sma ll,
li)'ht shield. The peltast 's pri nci pal wea pon was the javelin. The term
Is considerably less precise in the accounts of the Hell eni st ic peri od,
II l1 d peltas ts are often found inc luded among the phalanx, indicating
II different definit ion .
I' I,LI /SION (TELL EL FARAMA). Fro nt ier fortress 0 11 the eastern
horr ler . Pelusion (Pelusiurn in Latin ) was part of the chai n of defenses
168 • 1'[1' 1' II IREIGNW C. 2278-2 184 Be)
that protected the access to Egypt along the Via Ma ris or Wa ys of 1111
rus. It was once incorrect ly identi fied with Avaris and Per-Ramesscs,
and its Egyptian name is unknown. It was the scene of battles wlu-n
invading and Egy ptian armies clashed. The well-documented invn
sions all belong to the later periods of Egyptian history. The armies til
Assyr ia under Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal passed this route Oil
several occasions. There was conflict here when the Babyloni an kill •
Nebuchadnezza r attempted to restore Wahibre. The army of CUIII
byses of Persia defeated that of Psamtik III at Pelusion in 525 III
bringing Egypt into the Persian Empire. It was the site of further II I
tempted Persian invas ions by Artaxerxes II agai nst Nakhtne bef ill
373 BC, and by Ar taxer xes III in 35 1/350 BC. Artaxerxes Ill's second
invasion in 343 BC was successful, and the defeat of Nakhthorheh
brought Egypt briell y back into the Persian Empire. The garrlsun
yie lded to the Macedoni an adve nturer, Amyntas , in 333 BC and III
Alexander the Great the followi ng year. ll ere, Ptolemy I fended 1111
the invasion of Antigonos I Monopthalmos in 306 BC, but that of All
t iochos IV in 169 BC was successful. The Roman general Marru
Antonius seized Pelusion when he and the Gabinians reston«l
Ptolemy XII (Auletes) in 55 BC. In 47 BC, it was captured by Mi thn
dates of Pergamon and his army, marching to jo in Julius Caesar al ii"
time of the Alexand rian War and conflict bet ween Ptolemy XIIl alid
Kl eopatra VII . Pelusion appears in the Antonine Itinerary on Ih
route Pelusion- Magdolo (Migdol)- Sile (Tj ar u). It has recently b""11
the subject of archaeo logical survey and excavation.
PEPY II (reigned c. 2278-2184 IIC) . Pharaoh of the Si xt h Dynast .
buried at Saqq ara , near Memphis . The reliefs in his pyramid tel1ll'l,
show him smiting a Libyan chief , but thi s is co pied directly from ih
temple of Sahure at Abusir and ca nnot be considered "historical
Other fragments of relief show the capture of cattle and refer to a 1111, 1
aga inst the peopl e of the eas tern border. Two kneeli ng limestone II '
ures, probabl y from the temple, depict capt ives wi th their ar ms bmuul
at the elbows behi nd their backs. The figur es have no inscriptions IIl1d
their ethnicity is not di stinguished .
PETRONlUS, CAlUS (fl. 25-22 IIC). Roman prefect of Egypl al'
point ed by August us as successor to Ae lius Ga llus (Prefec t 2(, 'I
I'IYE (REIGNED C. 736 -712 8e) • 169
BC) when the latter was sent on an expedi tion to Arabia. Gallu s took
nearly half of the Roman force stationed in Egypt: about 8,000 of the
16,800 in the three legions and 5.500 auxi liary troops . An armed
Meroite force att acked the region of Aswan shortly after Ga llus's de-
parture . Thi s might have bee n part of a local upri sing aga inst Roman
rule in Lower Nubia. Statues of Augus tus were pull ed down and pris-
oners taken. The succeeding eve nts are unclear, and the authority of
the con tempora ry account of Strabo has bee n questi oned . Strabo
claims that Pet ron ius led the Roman army into Nubi a, reach ing Nap-
at a . The king of Meroe, Teriteqas , see ms to have led or sent military
aid to the rebellion . Pctr onius apparently fortifi ed Qasr Ib r im on his
return northward, and this was held by the Romans unt il the events
of 22 HC, when the Kandake (ruling queen) led the Meroite army
northward. There seems to have been no conflic t and a pea ce treaty
was concl uded at Samos the foll owing year (2 1 BC) .
I'IIALANX. The main infantry element of the Hellenistic army. It con-
sisted of lines of soldiers with long pikes. The use of the long pike, the
sarissa , was developed in Macedonia by Phi lip II and used with great
effect by Alexander the Great. The phalanx continued to be the main-
slay of his successors, notably the Ptolernies and Seleukids. Details of
the equipment used by the phalanx are unclear, although it is thought
that the long sarissa was favored: this could be six meters in length. The
depth of the phalanx cou ld be varied accord ing to the numbers avai lable
nnd the nature of the site. The deepe r the line , the more difficult it was
III maneuver. At the battle of Raphla , Ptolemy IV had 45,000 infantry
available and they were probably arranged in a phalanx 32 lines deep.
The phalanx was generally placed at the center with the light infantry
(such as peitast s) on the Ilanks and the ca valry on the wings.
I'IYE (reigned c. 736-712 IIC). King of Kush, acknowledge d as ruler of
Thebes and Upper Egypt. /-I e was probably the immediate successor
tlr Kas ht a, who had established Kushite control ove r Upper Egypt.
The great " Victory Ste la" or black granite (Cairo .IE48862) , dat ed to
l' iyc' s year2 1, was discovered in the templ e of Amun at Gebel Barkal
(Sudan) in 1862. Carryi ng a text of 159 lines. it recount s the conflict
1 70 • PLATOON
PORPHYRION (218 Be) • 171
bet ween Piye and the coa lition of princes led by Tefnakht , the rule:
of the Delt a ci ty of Sau, and the rebellion of Piye' s vassal, Nimlot III
Khmunu (Herrnopolis). The inscription is an import ant record of thl
political geography of Egypt in the late Li byan peri od, and of the Cll il
duct of the campaig n, wit h many references to sieges and pitched bal
ties. Piye was in Nubia when the news of Nirnlot ' s adva nce south
ward was brought to him. At first he ordered his army based in Thcb«
to res pond, but when they failed to defeat the coa lition Piye took II
seco nd army to Egypl. Although Piye advanced nort h throu gh Egypl ,
capturing the great cit ies of Khmunu , Ni nsu (Her akleopolis), Melli
phis , and other smaller centers and fort resses , he did not defeat l'l'I
nakht in a pitched battle, Piye recei ved the submission of the lilill
pharaohs, Nimlot, Osorkon, luput , and Peftjauawybast, and of all III
the other Libyan dynasts at Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) . From there, III
launched an attack against Tefnakht , who sued for peace. Tefuakln
swore his oath of fealty in the temple in Sau in the presence of till
chief lector priest and a general. There was presumably a wriucu
peace t reaty also.
The date of the war with Tefnakht within Piye' s reign is uncertain
Most earl ier Egyptologists assumed that the Victory Stela was set up IlI1
Piye's return to Napata, and that the campaign took place in the kin];'
regnal years 19 and 20. A number of factors sugges t that the campaign
might have been earlier. perhaps in year 4. Another stela from Gel'"1
Barkal indicates that Piye had been active in Egypt prior to the calli
paign ofTefnakht, and it is certain that the Kushites were acknowledged
as rulers of Thebes and Upper Egypt and maintained garrisons there,
PLATOON. An army unit of fifty men , com prising five squads, und" 1
a co mmandi ng officer called "the greatest of fifty."
PNUBS. Town in Ku sh . south of the Third Cata r ac t. Pnubs is nanml
in texts from the time of Pi ye and the 25t h Dynasty on to the Mero itu
period . It was once identified wi th the site of Tabo on the island II I
Argo , but might be the late name for the site of Kerma, which i
close to Argo. Pnubs was the si te of a battle between the army III
Psamtik II and the Kushites in 593 BC.
POEM OF PENTAWERE. The name given to one of the accounts of till
victory of Ramesses II at the battle of Qadesh. It survives in
copies. inscribed on the walls of the pharaoh' s templ es at Abydos, Kar-
nak, Luxor, Abu Simbel, and the Rarnesseurn , and on papyri . " Poem of
is, in fact, a misnomer: one version of the text (Papyrus
Saltier III) was copied by a scribe named Pent awere in the reign of
Merenptah. The "poe m" is di vided into three sections, the two outer
lines in prose and, most scholars agree, the central one metrical.
"OETI CAL STELA OF THUTMOSE III. A granite stela from the
temple of Amun at Karnak (Thebes) now in the Ca iro Museum
(340 10). It is a record of the pharaoh's victories and expansion of the
empire and as such rel ates to the Annals of Thut mose III. The co m-
position is not a histor ical nar rati ve but sets the victories within a
myt hological context. The pharaoh ' s deeds are explained as a revela-
lion of the will of Amun-Re, The text di vides into three part s, the cen-
Iral one being a metri cal "poe m" in which the hieroglyphic script has
been cleverl y used in a symmetrica l composition.
I'OLI CE. In Egyptian, the term for the pol ice force is Madj uy , and it
seems likel y that these peopl e of the Eastern Desert were origi nally
used as a specialist force. By extension, the term was retained for
people serving in this "police" force. The commander was ca lled the
"Chief of the Madjoy" and was a very powerful official. A valuable
source of information is the tomb of Maim at Arnarna in Middl e
E,gypl. served Akhenaten, and his tomb has scenes showing
hix duties 111 the city. His troops have a standard bearer and are
in the usual style of soldiers . One scene shows the provi-
sionmg of a small guard post . in which an Asiatic mercenary is
shown. Mahu takes instructions from the vizier and is shown bring-
illg prisoners to his house. The Madj oy were probably responsib le for
the internal security of import ant towns. In Rarnesside papyrus doc-
the chief of the Madj oy in Memphis was commandi ng sol-
diers who were used to bring stone for templ e build ing in the ci ty.
1'( IMOERI UM. A road that allows rapid movement of troops around
the walls . It is found in fortress architect ure, notably at Buhen.
1'0I0'HYRION (2 18 HC) . Battl e of the Fou rth Syr ian War between
lite forces of Ptolemy I V and Antiochos Ill. The batt le was part of
Autiochos's att empt to regain Coele Sy r ia . Failing to break through
1 72 • PRIHCT
the Ptol emai c fortresses that guarded the Mar syas Vall ey, the army
too k the difficult and na rrow coasta l rout e. Th is was easy for the
Ptol emaic forc es to defend , but Tyre and Acre in their rear had de
fect ed to Anti ochos, along with the Pt ol emaic mer cen ar y officer,
Th eodotos the Ae tolian. The Pt ol ema ic force was near the Pur
phyri on pass (Ras Nebi Younes so me 25 kilometers so uth 01
Beirut) , with a second defense line at Pl at anos (Cap Sakhre) fivI'
kilometers farther on , and a Pt ol emaic fort ress at Sidon. The Reman
histori an , Pol yb ius (45. 1-46.5,6 1.3- 62 .6) det ails the di spositi on 01
the troops , with archers and sli ngers on the stee p northern slope ,
and troop s prep ared for hand-t o-hand combat on the shallower
western slope . The opposing fleet s appro ac hed each other nearby,
The Scleukid success was sa id to ha ve res ulted from Theodot os,
who led a co nti nge nt up the mountainside and overcame a Prole
mai c troop , the n descended e nabli ng the other forces to breal
throu gh the pass.
PREFECT. Chief officer, mi litary and civil. of the Roman udrn inisun
tion of Egypt. Unlike the other Roman provinces. whic h were gol'
er ned hy a se natorial lega te, an official of eques trian rank ruk d
Egypt. Thi s emp has ized Egy pt's role as a per sonal possessioll of Ih.
emperor, not the Roman peopl e. Th e prefec t was rcspon vihlc for 11 11
sec ur ity of Egy pt; hence the largest garrison wux at the politica l cc n
tel' of the co untry, Alexa nd r ia, rather than its suu tcgic ce nter, Hah )
Ion . The first prefect , Cains Cornelius Gallus , a friend of Augustn
was appoi nted in August 3D IIC. He suppressed a rebellion in Upp ,
Egy pt in 29 BC and then took the ar my into Lower Nubia , whl'l
Meroe see ms to have bee n trying to gai n adva ntage . Ga llus's SUI
cesso r as prefect , Ae lius Gallu s , was soo n sent on an ex pedi tion II
Arabi a. The next prefect , Cai us Petronius, was also invo lved in ill
tivit ies in Nubia after the Meroitic Kand ake (queen) , probahl
Amanirenas , established her ar my at Dakk a. There was a Roman n
sault on Qasr Ihrim, where the Roman ca mp has been identified " "
a headl and opposite . In the reign of Nero, Tiberius lulius Alexa nder
was responsible for suppress ion of confli ct between the Gree ks 111 1 I
J ews in Alexa ndri a and later procla imed the ge nera l Titus Flavin
Vespasianu s emperor. A later prefect , lulius Acmilia nus, was pi"
claimed emperor by the Alexandri an mob .
I'SAMTIK I (Rrl GNl'IJ 664 · 610 BC) • 173
PIUMIS. The Latin name for the fortress of Qasr Ibrim in Lower Nubia.
I'ROSO.PITIS. Greek for m of the name of an isl and in the Delta where
the prince against the rule of Per sia, along with the
lIeet se nt to aid him by Athens , was besieged by the forces of the
siege lasted for 18 mon ths (456-454 BC) before the flee t
0120Dshi ps was captured and l naros sent to Per sia, where he was ex-
ecuted. Prosopitis lay between the Ca nopic and Sc bcnnytic branches
01the NIle .
"SAMTIK J (r eigned 664-610 BC) . Rul er of Sau (Sa is) who later re-
united the Whole of Egypt and is recogni zed as the first phar aoh of
the 26th Dynasty. Li ke his father, Nekau I , Psamti k was originally a
vassal of Assyria, being install ed by Ashurbanipal as ruler of the
Ill'll a town .01' Hut-hery- ib (Athribis) with the Assyri an name Nabu -
On the death of his father . probably in battl e with the
pharaoh Tanwetamani. Psumt ik ascended the throne in Sa u.
flight after the invasion of Ashurba nipal,
I the ruler of the whole of the northern
p,all 1I 1 I:gypl. Succeeding events are unknown, but by his year 9, the
Ku-hitcs were prepared to cede Thebes and Uppe r Egy pt, which was
IIII :i1l1ed Iilploma liea lly and form al ized whe n Psamt iks yo un
d' II ').!I ller ."I.as se nt to Th ehes to be adopted as the eventual
11I Ihe religio us office of God 's Wife of Amun.
There are .some large gaps in the record for the remaind er of this
\ c"y Illng relg.n. but it is clear that Psamt ik ultimately quashed the
I" III'IT of the Libyan dynasts of the Delt a and reasserted that of the sole
pharallh. In yea r II, he was fightin g in the wes t against the Libyans,
I,", It ISu.nclear exactly how strong the Libyan threat was .
1 .01 the most aspects or the reign is Psamti k's foreign
J ol icy and use of mercenaries. These were mainl y from the ci ties of
Greece and Psamt ik also sought he lp from Gyges of L _
dill , in western Anatoli a. The "Babylonian Chronicle" (the annals
Ih,' kings of Babylon): refe.rs to the allied Egyptian-Assyrian army in
1""""I01the Babyloman king, Nabopol assar , on the Euphrates . Egy pt
, "illS to have cho.sen to bolster the rump-state of Ass yr ia in oppos i-
" " " III power ? f Babylon . Having reu nited Egypt and
I ' uupo scd the authority of a smgle pharaoh, Psamtik I appears to have
174 • r SAMTIK II (RLIGNED S9S S89 acl
atte mpted to re-exert so me control over wes tern Asi a. Thi s support fOI
Assyri a, and ex pansion into Palestine, co ntinued in the reign of hb
so n and successor, Nekau II. See a/ so KUSH .
PSAMTlK II (reigned 595-589 II C) . Pharaoh of the 26th Dynast y. I k
conti nued the pol icies of his predecessor Nekau II. In year 3, Psamtik
launched a campaign agai nst Nubia , the most import ant event of th,'
rei gn . It is me ntioned in Herodotos (2.16 1), and recorded by a group
of gruffiti at Abu Simbcl . as well as thr ee orricial stelae from Tanis,
Karn ak , and Aswan. Th e Abu Simbel gra ffiti were carve d by me rcv
naries and tell us that the ar my was di vided into two part s; the Egy pt
ian force was led by Amas is (Ahmose, not the later pharaoh ) and th,'
Greek mercenaries by POlasimto. Various individuals len their name
and places of ori gin , which incl ude Teos, lal ysos , and It i
unknown whether the ca mpaign was a res ponse to any Kushit e at
tempt to invade Egypt. Th e inscription s state that there was a
at Pnubs , although whet her the army went on to sack Napata I S still
a point of co ntroversy. Psarntik also involved himself in the affa irs 01
we stern Asia maint aining some sort of treaty alliance wit h .Judllh
(nnw under Zedekiah, uncle of lehoi akim, insta lled by Nc buchml
nezzar) . A text of yea r 4 of Psamtik record s an ex pedition to Kluu
(Syr ia) , but thi s does not appear to have been mi litary.
PSAMTIK III (reigned 526-525 II C) . Last pharaoh of the 26th Dy
nast y wi th a very brier rei gn of six months . As the rei gn extended
over the Egyptian New Year , Psamtik was asc ribed a full year and II
part in the record s. The rei gn was do minated by the invasion of Egy pi
by C:nnbyses , ki ng of Persia. There was a batt le. at Pel usion ,
Egyptian army havi ng large contingen ts of soldiers from Ionian
Greece and Caria . The Eg yptians were defeated and wit hdrew t"
Memphis, whic h was captured. Herodotos recount s how Psamti
Ill ' s life was spared , initiall y, but he was lat er put to death after th
"discovery" of his role in a plot. Cambyses ignored thi s rei gn, back
dati ng his own rule in Egypt to the death of Ahmose II .
PSAMTlK IV (fl. c. 486-4711 BC). Psamt ik was a rul er of the wcs tci n
Delt a. He probabl y did not aspi re to the Egyptian royal titles , al
though there are small monuments of various obscure rul er s ca lk"
PTOLLMY II PI IILAIl /l1'1lOS(RLIGNED 285-24& Bel • 175
/ >.wlIll!k during the time of Persian rule . Psamtik might have led the
re bellion that broke out at the end of the reign of Dari us I and was
by Xerxes (486/485 BC) . Psamtik' s so n, Inaros, led a rna-
,or rebe llion agai nst Persian rule on the deat h of Xer xes .
I'TOLEMY I SOTER (367/366 II C, satrap 323-305, pharaoh 305-282
11('), Macedonian general who served Alexa nde r the Great. On
deat h al Babylon in 323 BC, Ptole my seized Egy pt , acting
tirst as satrap for Alex ander IV and Philip Arrhidaios, then, followi ng
lite precedent of other.diadoC/lOi (the "Successors") , proclaiming
IlIlIlsel.fking (and 111 Egy ptian co ntexts, pharaoh) in 305 BC. Short ly af-
I'T taking Egypt Ptolemy sent a military expedition to Cyrene, which
became part of the rap idly expandi ng Ptolemaic Empire. In 32 1 BC, he
u-pulsed the invasion of another of the diadochoi, Perdikkas. The major
monument from the early yea rs is the so-called "Satrap stela," which
u-I crs to the co nquest ofCyrene and to the reign of the last Egyptian op-
?f the Persians , Khabbash . The stela also refers to Ptolemy'S
111 312 BC at Gaza and his acqu isition of kehenct -vessels . Jn 306
11< ' , Egypt faced an invasion from Antigo nos I Monophthalmos (the
t luc Eyed). The wars of the diadochoi and their changes of alliance ,
mnuy sea led by diplomatic mar riage, saw considerable gains of terri -
lilly by Ptolemy. His ar my occ upied Palestine and Cocle Syria, wh ich
was 10 become a focus of the Syrian Wars bet ween his successors and
the Scleukids of Sy ria, Ptolemy brought cities along the coast of Ioni a
\ lI l' h as Miletos, Hal ikamassos , and Knidos under Egy ptian rule . His
....nlrol of the Island League based on Delos , and of the island of Samos
nuulc Egypt the principal sea power. Ptol emy was invo lved in mainland
I hcccc, supporting Athens aga inst Macedonia (events bet ween
287 BC) . Ptolemy was the only one of Alexander's successors to
dll' a natural death .
I' n II ,EMY II PHiLADELPHOS (reigned 285-246 II C). The reign of
l'tnlcmy I! saw the consolidation of Ptolemaic over seas territories by
wur and diplomacy, Pto lemy' s po licy in general seems to have bee n to
Iii, lip for Macedonia, acting as the champion of the Greek
I Illes Its In the First Syrian War of 276 BC, Egypt
IVII\ defeated by Antiochos I. Short ly after , in 274 BC, Antioc hus co n-
I mpl.ui ng the invas ion of Egypt , formed an alliance with Mag as of
Cyrene, who married his daughter, Apama. Magas moved on Egypt,
capturing Paraitonion, and near ly reached Alexandria . His adva nce
was aided by a mut iny by Ptolemy' s Gauls. Magas was forced to n-
treat by a rebellion of the Libyans. The stela from Pithom ('1\'11
el-Maskhuta) records an inspection of the town' s defenses in 27·1
Egypt suffered an invas ion by the Arabs, and by 269 a prot eci inp
canal and wa ll had been constructed. The First Syrian War came to uu
end in 272, leaving Ptolemy in possession of Cilicia west of the Ca l
cydnus; the eastern coas t of Pamph yli a with Phraselis, and perhap
Aspendes; and Lycia south of the Mi lyad. In Car ia and Ion ia, he Cllil
trolled the cities of Caunu s, Hali kamassos, Myndus, Knidos, awl
probably Miletos; in the Aegean, he held Samos, Thera and the ( 'y
clades, Samothrace, and Itanos in Crete; in Coele Syria, he retuinc.l
the Marsyas Valley. He acquired Aradus and Marathus. thereby
ing all of Phoenici a Egyptian. Egypt was aga in invol ved in main land
Greece betwee n 267- 261 BC, during the Chremonidean War . Till
Second Syrian War (259-253 BC) agai nst Antiochos II brought M' I
backs, including the loss of Mil etos and Sarnos. At the naval batt le III
Kos (probably in spring 255 BC) , the Egyptian Ileet commanded Ii\
Patroklos, was defeat ed by Antigonos II Gonatas, king of Macedon
About the same time , the fleet commanded by Chremonides was III
feated by the Rhodians, at the naval batt le of Ephesos. Thi s elllit'd
Egypt's command of the sea and prot ectorate over the Island Leugu.
The peace treaty concluded in 253 saw Milctos, Samos, Ephcsn
Pamphylia, and Cilicia pass to the rule of the Seleukids.
Ptolemy II was also active on his southern fronti er in Nubia . Then
are no record s of milit ary activities, but he certainly reopened cxteu
sive tradin g with Meroe, and there are report s of expeditions far 111'
the Ni le into southern Sudan.
PTOLEMY III EUERGETES I (reigned 246-221 lie). The dipl u
matic marriage of Ptolemy 1\1 wi th Beren ike daught er of Magus III
Cy rene renewed Egypti an co ntrol of the north Afri can coast far iill"
Libya. The Thi rd Syrian War (246-24 1 BC) aga inst Sel eukos II dillII
inated the rei gn. Ptolemy III marched from Antioc h to Seleukeia '"
the Tigri s. The ge nerals of the eastern satrapies ack nowledged lIilil
and one inscript ion claims that he conquered Asia from Ba bylon Ii ,
Bactria. An uprising in Egypt forced Ptol emy to return to Egypt ( I I
PTOI.EMY IV PI i1l 0 PATOR(REIGNED 221- 205 BC) • 17 7
BC) . He that he took back boot y and 2,500 statues of Egypt -
Ian gods, had. been taken by Cambyses . Thi s could be propa-
ganda to his support of the Egypti an peopl e in response to
the rebel ho n. In any case, the removal of statues to Persia is more
to have bee n an acti on of Artaxerxes III than Cambyses. In
-46 or 245 BC, the Egyptian fleet commanded by the king ' s half-
brother , Ptolemy Andro machos, was defeat ed by Antigonos II Go-
natas of Macedon at the batt le of Andros . In 24 1 BC, peace was es-
tabl ished bet ween the Seleuk ids and Egypt. The war ended with
Egypt gaining significant towns in Syria and Asia Minor, allhough
xome were lost aga in.
!n 229/228 BC, Ptolemy established a mil itary alliance with the Ae-
tolian League. of northern Greece. Thi s was an anti -Macedonian move.
In southern Greece, the rapid rise of Sparta under Kleomenes III die-
laled a change of Ptolemaic policy. Ptolemy 11\ ceased subsidies to the
League, which had become pro-Macedonian, and supported
1\ Jcomenes: assurances of Ptolemaic support. At first
' liecessfu.J III h!s actions, Kleomenes was later defeat ed by the
Macedonian king Antigonos III and ned to Alexandr ia . The end of
I'rolcrny's reign saw a renewed Seleukid threat to Coele Syria.
"TOLEMY IV PHILOPATOR (reigned 221-205 II C). The accession
II I' IV, aged 20, came shortly after that of the equally
oung Antiochos 1/1 III Syria (reigned 223/222-1 87 II C) and the 17-
year old .Philip V in Maced on (reigned 22 1-1 79 BC) . At the begin ning
III Ihe reign, there was an attempted coup in Alexandria. Kleomenes
III, king of Sparta, an ally of Ptolemy Ill , had been defeat ed by
Autigonos 11\ of Macedon and had ned to Egypt. Ptolemy IV impri s-
OIK'd Kleornenes, who managed to escape and started an upri sing.
soon collapsed and Kleomenes committed suicide (220-2 19 BC) .
I he Fourth Syrian War began in 2 19 BC when Antiochos 111 at-
Coele Syria , enrolled native Egyptians in the army,
Winch, had been previously domin ated by Greeks and Macedonians.
Ihi' of this army at the batt le of Raphia (2 17 BC) was to have
oI l1l1l1atlc in Egypt toward the end of the reign. Ptol emy
IVwas politi cally acuve in Greece and was instrument al in the peace
"" 111 )' at Naupaktos. He later tried to medi ate in the war bet ween
l'hilip Vol' Macedon and Rome.
178 •
The lat er years of the rei gn saw maj or opposit ion to Ptol emai c rule
in Egy pt itsel f. The " native revolt " beg an in the Delta, supposedly
begun by the Egyptian military caste (ma chimoi) . Thi s was followed
some what later by the rebellion of the Thebaid, where an Egyptian
pharaoh , Haronnophrls, was procl aimed ki ng . Altho ugh he surv ived
an assass ination atte mpt during the Syrian War , Pt ol emy wa s mill'
dered in a palace co up invol ving the famil y of his mi stress , whose
broth er, Agathokles, seized power. Ptolemy' s death wa s kept secret
for se veral months and the queen , Arsinoe, was murdered to prevent
her becomi ng regent for her infant son. Th ere we re riots in Alexan
dria, and eventually Agathokl es and his relati ves were killed.
PTOLEMY V EPIPHANES (r eigned 204-180 li e). Ptol emy ascended
the throne as a minor, with Upper Egypt in rebellion . Shortly aftc:
wa rd, Antioc hos III and Philip V of Maced on moved to divide 1111
Ptol emaic Empire between them , on an east- wes t line. Th is resulte.l
in the Fifth Syrian War (202-195 Be) , The war ended with a pcnrr
treaty sea led wi th the diplomatic marriagc (winter 194/193 II c) III
Raphia , of Ptol emy to Anti ochos's daughter , Kleop at ra I. Coeh
Syria was her dowry, but rema ined in the hands of Antioc hos . Afll'l
the death of Antioc hos III in 187 BC, Ptol emy V began plans to rcguru
Coele Syria. In 185 , the eunuch Ari stonikos was recruiting soldiers III
Greece. In 183/182, Aris tonikos led a naval ex pedition to Syria , III
180 BC, Ptol emy was poisoned by his generals.
PTOLEMY VI PHILOMETOR (reigned 180-164, 163--145 111 '1
Ptol emy VI Phil ometor began his rei gn as a minor, associated with
hi s sister-wife, Klcopatra II. The Sixth Syrian War beg an in 1/11
Be. The regent s sent an embassy to Rome see ki ng support for Egy pl
cl aim to Coele Syria. In 169 II C, Ptol emy VI' s uncl e, the Seleukltl
king, Antiochos IV, invaded Egy pt throu gh Pelusion and qu id I
gained control of mu ch of Lower Egypt. Ptol emy VI went to make II I
agree me nt directl y with his uncl e , but the Alexandrians immedi uul
proclaimed hi s yo unge r brother, Ptolemy VII I Eucrgetes II , as kill
alongside Kleopatra II. When Antiochos IV returned to Syri a ill 111 1
tumn 169, Ptol emy VI returne d to Alexa nd r ia and all thr ee sibliu
were proclaimed as co rulers . In respon se, Anti ochos IV invtuk
Egypt again in sp ring 168 BC, tak ing Memphis and much of 1.11\\
I' TOl f MYVl 1i W [ RGfTfS II (Rfl GNfO 169- 163. 145-116 RC) • 179
Egypt and sending a Successful expedi tion to ca pture Cyprus . He
seems to ha ve attempted to es tablish a Sel eukid protectorate in the
of Ptolemy VI. Antioc hos marched on Alexa ndria, but Rome
Caius Popilius Laen as for ced Antioc hos IV to leave
and Cy prus was returned.
In about 165 BC, the rebellion of Dionysios Petosarap is spread from
,1\/exaJ,ldfla to the countrys ide and was followed by an upri sing in the
I hebaid. Regaining of the Theba id was relat ivel y easy, al-
though It a long siege to capture Panopol is (Akhmi m) . The later
years o.f the reign were marked by dynastic di sput es between the broth -
Phll omet or was forced to leave Egypt in 164 nc, but was res tored
II I 163 nc, when Euergetes II went to Cyrene. The aid of Rome was
reg ularly in both, internal and externa l affai rs. Following
the rebellion or the Jews against Ant iochos IV the l ewish I ' I . ' t
() '" I d " " ug 1 pnes
, 1I1" S.selt e III WItha large foll owing. Onias , and later his sons.
I and Ananias, as genera ls in the Ptol emaic army.
Ioward end of hi s rei gn , Phil omet or again bec ame invol ved in
,:venls In Syria. The Sel eukid family was engaged in dynastic wars
l," lllpounded by th,e successes of a usurper named Alexander Bal as .
1.llIlometor lent his suppo rt (sealed by marri age to hi s daught er
1\ Thea) to Alexander Bal as , but used thi s as an excuse to re-
SY,ria. The Egyptian army and navy arr ived in Syr ia in
1, 17 /lC, and Phll.ometor IIlstall ed garrisons, FollOWing an ass ass ina-
11t'1I Phil omet or changed his support to Bal as 's ri val , a Se-
prince. Demetrios II. The co astal cities as far as Sel eukei a in
I rena now over to Phil ometor, and the new all iance was sea led
h Ihe of Demetri os II and Kleopat ra Th ea , who left Bal as .
Ilhllugh Phdometor aspired to the Seleukid crown himself, he did
11,,1 Wish 10 ant agonize Rome so he yielded 'It to De tri k '
uu l v r' ' , me nos, ee pmg
, Coele Syria (145 BC) . Alexander Bal as now atte mpted to regain
YI I;, hut was defeat ed by Phil omet or and Demetrios at the ri ver
I 1l lIllparas . fled , and was kill ed . Phil omet or himsel f
:It S lal:llly 1Il1ure.d III battl e. dying a few days later, As a result,
I Ildl' Syria rema ined III Sel euk id hands .
III I. EMY VIII EUERGETES II (reigned 169-163,145-116 ne) .
tuun 169 /l C, Euergetes II was coruler wi th his brother Ptolem VI
l'h llullIctor and his sister, Kleopatra II . He rei gn ed for a year ;rter
18 0 • PTOl EMY IX SOTlR II I REIGNED 116 107. Be)
Philomctor was ousted , but himsel f went to Cy r ene when Phil omc
tor was restored. Followi ng Philometor' s death ( 145 BC) , Euergetes II
returned to Egypt, marrying his widowed sister, Kleopatra II. I'"
soo n murdered her son and marr ied her daught er, Kleopatra III. 1'11\'
troops were recall ed from the last thr ee Ptolemaic bases in th,'
Aegean, Itunos, Thera , and Methana, redu cin g Ptolemaic influence (0
Egypt and the Dodekaschoinos, Cyrenaica, and Cyprus . The 1'01
lowing decades were marred by dynastic wars. Kleopatra II began II
rebellion in 132 BC and was recognized in Thebes . The populace 0 1
Alexandri a was di vided in its support and there were milit ary actions
throughout the country. Toward the end of the trouble , a rebe l king.
Harsi esls , seized power in Thebe s. As c1eruchs were ca lled up to
serve . land fell out of cultiva tion, resul ting in agricultural problems
parti cularly in the Fay um. The war ca me to an end in 124 BC and a
form of reco nci liation was agreed wi th amnesties iphilant hropa) pro
cl ai med in the names of all three rulers.
PTOLEMY IX SOTER II (reigned 116-1117, SS-SfI li e). Followiup
the death of Ptolemy VIII Eucrgctes II. his widow, Klcoputru III
chose their elder son, Sot er II, to rule with her. She lorced him out 0 1
Egy pt in 107 He. He went first (0 Cyrene , but was ejec ted from there
and Iled to Cy pr us , where he ruled from I06!10S li e . In IOJ 11(', hi,
aid was sought by the Palestini an city of Ptolcmui s. which was
besieged by the force s of the Jewi sh High Priest . Alexander Junnuc us
Thi s was the beginning of the Syr ian War ( 1113- 1111 IIC) , partl y a le i
ritori al and part ly a dynastic war. Soter II returned to Cyprus when'
he continued to rule until he was recall ed to Egypt in 88 BC. I'"
rei uned there until his death in 80 Be. There was, during this period,
a major rchellion in The bes.
PTOLEMY X ALEXANDER I (r eigned 107-SS IIC). Foll owing the ex
pulsion of Ptolemy IX Soter II, Kleopatra III recalled her youn ger
son Alexander I from Cypr us and assoc iated him with her as king. II
played a leading role in the Syr ian War of 103- 101 BC, cornmandi nu
the fleet .He fled Egypt followi ng ajoint rebellion by parts of the ar my
and the Greek population of Alexandr ia incensed by his pro-Jewish at
titude. He tried to re-enter Egypt with a Syri an army, but again ned , til
Lycia. He was killed in a sea battle off the coa st of Cyprus.
PTOLEMY XI ALEXANDER II (re igned SO li e). With the death of
Pto lemy IX Soter II , his dau ghter Kleopatru Berenike III became
queen, but after a few month s the Gr eek popul at ion of Alexa ndr ia
demanded that she see k a corege nt. The Roman dictat or. Lucius Cor-
nclius Sull a, insisted that Ptolemy XI Alexander II , the son of
I'tolemy X Alexander I , be inst alled as coruler with his cousin (and
step-mother), who now became his wife . Aft er 19 days, Alexand er
had Kleopatra Ber enike murdered . The enraged Alexa ndrians
dragged him from the pal ace to the gymnasium, where he was torn to
pieces . It was later clai med that he had bequeathed Egy pt and Cyprus
10 the Roman Republ ic .
PTOLEMY XII NEOS DIONYSOS (re igned S0-5S, 55-51I1c). Co m-
called "Auletes" ("Oute- player") , he was a son of Ptolemy IX
Snter II . Auletes generally followed a pro-Roman policy. In 58 BC,
I{mne attacked Cy prus . and Auletes made no move ei ther 10 defend
It or send aid to his brother who was ruling there. As a result , hi s
"!tl ther commiued suicide and Cyp rus was lost. The Alexandria ns
ere cnragcd and forced Aul etes to nee. He went to Rome for support.
1:\ l'III U.Ji ly. Aul ctcs was restored by the governor of Syri a, Aulu s
( ;;dliniLi s. who entered Egyp t with a large military force, the cava lry,
l'Oll1 l11anded by Marcus Antonius . Gabinius left a unit of Roman le-
!' iollaries (the Gabinians ) in Alexa ndria to support Auletes,
"II ILEMY XIII (re igned 51-47 li e). Son of Ptolemy XII Aulet es
luul brother of Kleopatra VII . The will of Ptol emy XII named Rome
li S the guarantor of a joint rule by his chosen children, but soon after
his accession, the 12-year old Ptolemy XIII was ousted by his sister,
who reig ned alone for 18 month s . In autumn 50 BC, Ptolemy was re-
instated alongs ide Kleopatra. However , the events of the Roman
( 'ivil War soon invol ved Egypt. In 49 BC, the son of the Roman gen-
n al Pompey landed in Egypt seeking ass istance for his father who
It ad retreated to the eas t to build up his for ces for the war with Iulius
( 'nesar . The Alexand rian court wa s under obligat ion to Pompey as
l'iolcmy XII had established a pol itical friends hip wi th him. He was
therefore supplied wi th 500 cavalry from the Gabinians and 50 war-
hips. Short ly after, Ptolemy forc ed his sister to flee Alexandr ia
IIirst 10 the The baid, then to Syri a) and enjoyed a period of sole rule.
182 • PUNT
In defi ance o f Ptol emy XII ' s wi ll , Pompey and the Roman se nate in
the east recogn ized Pt ol emy XIII as so le legitimat e kin g.
Caesar and hi s army pursued Pompey, defeat ing him at Pharsal os
in northern Greece (48 BC) . Po mpey, wi th 2,000 sold iers, ned to
Egypt for aid. He arrived near Pelusion , where Ptolemy XIII and his
army had advanced to prevent Kleopatra' s atte mpt to regain her
thron e. Pompey se nt envoys to the ki ng, but was executed on the or
ders of Ptol emy, who wi shed to gai n favor with the victor ious Cue-
sal', who had foll owed in pursuit. However, Cae sar ch ose to suppor t
Kleopatra's claims to j oint rule . Caes ar also named their younger
broth er, Ptol emy XIV, and sister, Ars inoe, as joi nt rulers of Cyp r us ,
although they did not leave Alexandria . Cyprus remained a Ptol emaic
possess ion until after the batt le of Akt ion .
Caesar ensured that Kleopat ra was reinstated, but Ptolemy was pop
ular in Alexandria, and when his courtiers recall ed the army from Pclu
sion and stirred up ant i-Roman feelin g in the city, a nat ionali st move
ment soo n developed. The result was the Alexand r ian War . Duri m:
thi s, Ar sinoe joined Ptolemy XITT with the Egyptian army and was uc
claimed queen . Mithridates of Pergamon , leadin g an army to relieve
Caesar, advanced along the coast from Gaza toward Pelusion . It in
eluded cavalry from the Nabataean kingdom of Petra and 3,000 Jewish
soldiers . Pelusion wa s captured. Caesar and his army joined with thl'
new force and Ptol emy XITT was killed in the subsequent battl e . Kleopa
tra was reinstated as queen. with Ptole my XIV as coruler. Arsinoe was
displayed in Caesar's Roman triumph, then held in captivity in Ephesus
until her murder by Marcus Antonius, at Kleopatru' s request.
PUNT. A co untry of east Africa. situated on the wes t coast of the Red
Sea. The Egy ptia ns se nt ex peditions to Punt from the Old Kingdom til
the end of the New Kingdom , and although the ge nera l geographical
locat ion was do ubtle ss the same , its political nature mu st have
changed . Earli er scho larship identi fied Punt with the Horn of Afri ca,
but it is now beli eved to lie fart her north some where in eastern Sudan
and northeast Ethiopia . Exca vations in thi s regi on , in the Gash Dell a,
have identified archaeo logical remai ns that might possibl y eq uutr
with the Punt o f the Lat e Bron ze Age (New Kingdom). Egypt' s rcln
tion ship with Punt was based on trade. prin cipall y in ince nse and other
precious co mmodities . Expeditions sa iled along the coast of the Rrtl
Sea and then trave led some way inland. The most de tailed infor mation
QAlJrSII. BATTLE0 1'«; 1274 Be) • 183
co mes from the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari (Thebes) ,
which has fine reli ef sculptures of her expedition . In this continge nts
II I. the army are shown. Punt co ntinues to be referred to after the New
Kingdom. but in ideolog ical or myth ol ogical , rather than histori cal
contexts . Th e ki ngdo m of Meroe controlled the east Africa n trade in
the lat er first mill ennium BC, and Aksum came to dominate much of
the sa me geographical area as Pun t in the first ce nturies AD .
() A.J>ES H. City of north Syria. ge nerally identifi ed wi th the archaeo logi-
l ,d site of Tell Nebi Mend, on the Orontes Ri ver . The name is often
spe lled " Kades h" in Egy ptologica l literature. The Semitic name qadosh
IlICanS."a sanctuary" and was rendered into Egyptian hierogl yph ic us-
III g a sign now generally transcribed as qd.
Qa desh has a strategi c posi tio n, con tro lling the Beqa Va lley. It first
appears 111 Egyptian text s as the leader of a coalition of about 330
towns 0.1' Ca na a n and Syri a that opposed Thutmose III at the battl e
II I Megiddo. After Thutmose Ill 's victory, Qudesh still opposed his
advances, altho ugh its rul er ackno wledged Egyp tian authority when
Amcn hotcp .11 approached the c ity on his first As iatic ca mpaign.
Oade sh remained an Egy ptian vassa l until the reign o f Akhcnaten
when the became active in the reg ion , destab ilizing the king:
dum of Mlta nni. Qadesh and its ruler occur in a number of the
" ma r na Letters. Th e Hitt ite ad vance led to open wa r with Egypt ,
lind Qa desh became a focu s for the campaigns of both Sety I and
II . Sety I's att ac k on the c ity is depicted in his battle re-
lief s In the temple of Karn ak (T hebes) . Despite hi s success, Qadesh
1I:ld to Hittite co ntro l by the accessio n o f Ramesses n. Th e
vuy IS famous as the site of the battl e in year 5 of Rarnesses " be-
tween and Hittit e armies (see following entry) . Despite
t!ICclaims of a victory by Ramesses ll , Qa desh rema ined under Hit-
IlIc.controlunt il it was destroyed in the 12th century. This is usua lly
uttributed to the Sea Peoples.
I i\UESH, BATTLE OF (c. 1274 nc ), Battle in year 5 of Rarnesses II
hctween the Egy ptian ar my led by Ramesses II and the Hittites un-
dl' r Mu wa ta lli . Allho ugh the outco me was inconcl usi ve , Ramesses "
III ;I( ldition to these grou s th
''',,11 some of the coastaf co ntingelllS of infa ntry
Arubs, one of the earliest record Lc camels. from a ruler of the
ore s 0 ca mels used In war. There was a
I)ARQAR (BATTLE 853 fie) In 853
Assyr ia , defea ted a' of the III , king of
II00 dad-idri. king of Damascus. 0 western Jed . by
the terr itory of Urhilina (l rk huleni) k' t: l
, as atlemptlllg to bri ng
. , mg 0 arnath under Ass .
, II /,erall1 ly. The forces o f th I' , . ' . ynan
. e coa ItIon are de tailed on tl " K kh
1I 10no" th" and it is 'I va luab l f te ur
I ios of chariots de or our understanding of the ra-
, ,an III antrj: at thi s ti me.
QARQAR (ilATTI E, 853 Rei • 185
able to j oin in, and remarkabl h E '
dr ive the Hittite ab le to
rived toward the end of the battl e and was abl t e of Ptah ar-
. . ',., e 0 j om m mo .
operatIOns: capturing prisoners and boot y and , . ppmg-up
The account of the fo llowin dav i co untll1g the dead.
pret ation . Many scholars h g a,y IS to more than one int er-
, ave uncerstood It 1 h
If resumed the batt le , but that the arrni .0 mean 1 at Ra.mess
reading of the tex t proposes tl IR es dIsengaged. A differe nt
, 1<1 ame sses act ually t k .
unation of so me of hi s own so ld ' 'h I 00 ' part in a dec-
on the preceding day. aba ndo ned the confl ict
refuse d to yi eld his clai ms to Qades h p e were opened. Ramesses
open host iliti es again Th e E ' . and Amu rru but agreed not to
Muwat' /J' f ' '. gyptHI!lS re turned home lea ving
, a I ree to secure hISc t I f Q '
insta lled a new vassa l ruler, on ro 0 adesh and Arnurru, where he
10, 000
10, 000
cl aimed it as a great victory, and a pict orial and literar y account was
carved in many of hi s templ es . Rel iefs depict the battl e in the templ es
of Abydos, Karn ak , Luxor, the Ramesseum, and Ab u Simbel. There
we re ce rta inly comparable battle sce nes in t he temples o f Memp his
and ot her northe rn ci t ies that have now been destroyed. The pict ori al
accounts are accompanied by two literary accou nts kno wn as the
" Bulletin" and the " Poem of Pentawere." The poem emphas ize s the
hero ic role of the pha rao h, and is an express ion of kingshi p ideology,
but fra med within the hi st orical co ntex t. This survives in papyrus
co pies as we ll as temple inscri pt ions . The Bulletin, found alongside
the pict ori al acco unts, is rather more fac tua l, but still gives the lead
ing ro le to the phar aoh . These Egyptia n accoun ts are supplemented
by the equally biased Hitt ite account on tabl ets from Bogazkoy.
There is a large Egyptolog ica l lit erature on the sources and recon
structing the course of t he batt le.
In hi s firs t years of reign, Ramesses II con tinued Sety I ' s cam
paign s, which had reasserted Egyptia n aut hority over Ca naan into
Lebanon . In year 4, Ramesses had so me succ es s in regain ing co ntrol
of Amurru, whic h led the Hitt ite king, Muwatalli, to retaliat e . He as
sembled an army from Hatt i and 16 o f its pro vin ces and allies . He pili
a tot al of 2,500 ch a r iots and 37,000 me n in the fie ld.
Ramesses II marched his army north throu gh Ga za , Ca naan. alld
Galilee int o Lebanon and t he n up the Beq a Va lley. The march ton],
one month . The four ar my di visions were named after the principal
dei ties: Am u n, Re , Ptah, and Se th. Ramesses went ahead wit h the dl
vis ion of Arn un, forded the Orontes , and began the advance townul
Qa de sh. Two " spies" were capt ured by the Egy pti ans and said tluu
the Hittites were at Aleppo , whe n, in fac t, they we re al read y 01 1
Qad esh. Th e divi sion of Amun arrive d and se t up camp whe n 11'1"
more Hitt ite spies were capt ured and the truth revealed . Messenger
we re sent to hurry the arrival of the division of Re , whic h wa s th
closest, probably about hal f a day ' s march away, and the di vi si on "I
Ptah , which was a little farthe r be hind. The di visi on of Se th 11111 ,
have been more than a full day's march behind.
The Hitt ites launched thei r attack while the chariotry of the di visinu
of Re was co mi ng across the plain and Ramesses and the divisio n ,,'
Amun were sti ll unprepared. Ramesses was able to muster the chariou
and engaged the enemy. A rel ief force , the "Ne 'aren" arrived and 1'1 I
184 • QADESI I, IlATTI E o r «; 1274 Rei
186 • QAKQAR(ilAn l E, 720 Be)
contingent of " I ,000 men from Musri" Egypt. This is the first known
Egyptian intervention in western Asia since the campaigns of Shes houq
I and "Shishak" more than 70 years earlier. It is notable that the Egypl
ian force was small and not assoc iated with a named ruler. Whichever
pharaoh was responsible for sending this assistance (Egyptologist s all'
divided on his identity) clearl y hoped that the massed army of the COOl II
tion would be sufficient to keep the Assyrians from further advance
into westem Asia, but was unwilli ng or lacked the resources to supplv
greater strength. A later record of Sha lmane ser III . the "Black Obelis""
(London, British Museum), lists and depicts the tribute of the west II'
ceived by the Assyrian king. This include s the tribute of Musri , and it i
clear that following the batt le of Qarqar and Shalmaneser III' s later vi
tories over the coalition in the campaig ns of 849, 848, and 845 sc .tln
pharaoh felt the need to bow to Assyrian superio rity.
QARQAR (BATTLE, no IIc ), The second battIe of Qa rqar was III
720 IlC. Shortly after his accession, Sargon II marched wes t to Sill'
press the rebellion that had broken out on the dea th of Sha hnmll:M'1
v. Sargon defeated Yau-bi' di of Hamath at Qarqar, befo re rnovuu
south to engage Egy ptian forces at Raphia .
QASR. Southernmost fort ress in Kharga Oas is, standing where III.
Darb el-Arbain (Forty Days Road), the great ca rava n route from 1):11
fur. enters the oasis bas in. The walls sta nd 9 meters high, enclosi u
an area of 30 x 20 meters . The associated pottery is Roman, althollfdl
not yet more closely dated . Whether the fort was bui lt to control lrllli
along the desert road or prevenlmi litary attacks from the south, Cll1l
not be det ermined without exc avation. In Medieval early Modr 11
times. there was an Ottoman garr ison in the same region .
QASR EL-GHUEI DA. Qasr el-Ghueida stands in a commanding I'"
sition on a hilltop south of the town of Kharga. The large . square I ' l l
closure, with walls some 10 meters high, is now filled wi th buiklin
and a temple complex. The original small chapel dat es to the rei gn "I
the Persian pharaoh Da ri us I (521-485 BC) , and was considcrunl
enlarged in the Ptolemaic period . The Roman garrison at Kluu
(Oasis Mag na) is refe rred to in the Notitia Dignitatum. and undonlu
edly this fortress is a contender for its headquarter s.
() A.SR IBRIM (PRIMIS). Hilltop fortress in Lower Nubia . Qasr lb-
nm. the f:ortress-town of Aniba (Miam), although
there IS no evide nce for Middle or New Kingdom for tifi cati on of the
site . All of the New Kingdom stonewor k found on the site was
brought from Arriba, mainly from the temples. The earli est phases of
the have been excava ted only recentl y. There were
seven Identified phases of rebuilding, the last being contemporary
with a of the Kushite pharaoh Taharqo (680-665 BC) . Radi o-
carbon sugges ts a date of 920-800 BC for phase 3. The earl y
construcuo ns incl ude a terrace of stone and a substant ial mud-brick
defensive wa ll with stone inner facing. A circular tower of cut sand-
was later bui lt over the entrance in the defensive wa ll and was
itself later encased in a polygonal bast ion of mud brick . This was fol-
lowed by the work associated with Taharqo. Following the Kushit e
withdrawal from Egypt (656 BC), there is no clearly dated evid ence
known from Qas r [brim unt il the extension of the enclosure wa lls in
lhc Ptolemaic and Roman periods.
There is evi dence for a number of templ es, and Ibr irn' s primary
lunction a has now been questioned. However, it certainly
!,I:l yed a Significant role in the Roman conflict wit h Meroe . Accord-
.. IO the Roman prefect , Caius Petronius , captured "Prern-
Ill S on his ma.rch to Napata and aga in on his return , installing
II J.: ar n son and supplies. It is possib le that he had intended [brim as
new frontier between Roman Egyp t and the Meroi tic
instead the Ptolemaic frontier at Mahar raq a (Hiera
S -kaminos). A advance northward may have captured [brim:
II to ret urn to Nubia . Recent excavat ions have iden-
new evidence relati ng to this phase and show that
'"l iler Ideas that It was a Roman military outpos t until circa 100 AD
",,' wrong. The Roman pottery evidence is ent irely cont emporary with
1'.'lnlllllls' expedit ions. A significant site on a headl and down river of
l " Ii Il,1 discovered surveyed in 1990. The site has two dry
tunc enc!osures, one with a cleared area, interpreted as a parade
Illllllld with emplacements for military standards . Low stone walls
a layout of tent ed barrack blocks. Following the Meroitic
,I. put.uron t.o front ier was re-established at Ma harraqa.
11 '","1remained m Meroit ic occupation throughout the later Roman
I" I!lI d and became an important Christian center, with a cathedral, and
18 8 • QASR FL·LAAr KA
in early modern times, the site of an Ottoman gar rison (wi th Bosnian
troops). See also MEROE.
QASR EL-LABEKA. Roman fortress in the north of Kharga Ousl-
controlling the Darb el-Arbain (Forty Day s Road). Roughl y 12 I11l'
ters square, with circular corner towers, the design is s.imil.ar to
forts in the region, such as Someira and el-Gib . The lort IS part 01II
group of related rui ns wi th a temple enclosure , tombs, and aqueducts
QUBAN. Fortress in Nubia standing at the mouth of the Wadi el-Allnql ,
the principal gold-mining region of Nubia. It was founded in the e.'nl
12th Dynasty by Scnusret I. It was a large rectangul ar struct ure smu
lar in plan to the contemporary forts of Aniba and Mlrgissa. The II'
main s were already suffering considerable destruction in the 19th ccn
tur y AD and relati vel y little excavation was carried out before the hll;11
loss of the site, Its history and archaeology is, therefore. less wrl ]
known than that of the Second Cat ar act fortr esses . At the end of 11 11
New Kingdom , Quban appears to have been occupied by the Iorccx "I
the general and high priest of Amun, Paiankh . when he directed hi
campaign against the viceroy of Kush , Panchcsy . in the la,t year, "I
the reign of Ramesses Xl.
QUEENS. Several women ruled in Egypt: Neitiqert at the end of the ( lit!
Kingdom; Sobekneferu at the end of the 12th Dynasty; Hatshepsn!
(and perhaps Smenkhkare) in the 181hDynasty; and Tawosret 'II the ('1111
of the 19t h Dynasty. These women , however , assumed full pharuunn
titul aries and regalia and shoul d be properly regarded as pharaohs, Ih
Egyptians having no concept of a queen-regnant. The women of tlu
Ptolemaic family were active in political life and some , such as Kl enpu
tra II , Kleopatra Ill , and Berenike Ill , were regnant queens, Kit-II
patra VII assumed the full pharao nic style, but was always depicted II
a woma n (contrary to Hatshepsut). These Ptolemaic queens became II I
volved in dynastic wars in Egypt and Syr ia , and in civil wars.
South of Egypt , there were female ruler s in the Kushite kingdom III
Meroe. They used the distinct ive title Ktkl . from which we deri ve Iii
Greek for m, Kandake, more usuall y found in literatu re . The Kundn'
RAKOTC • 189
can be in the traditi onal pharaoni c style, smiting her enemies ,
alld from wri ters that one of them (probably
III be. ide ntified With Amamr cnas) led her armies into battle,
With the exception of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut , there is no
for led by Egyptian queen s of the pre-
I tolernaic per iod. Despite this, a distinctl y vio lent image of quee n-
vhip was devel oped in the later 18th Dynasty. Tiye, the wife of
Amenhotep III , and Nefertit i, the wife of Akhenaten, were bot h de-
-",Icled as a female s phinx trampl ing the female enemies of Egypt.
1,Iye . IS as a for m of the goddess Tel'nut in her temple at
In with the . "Great of terror in the forei gn
lauds. Nefe rtiti IS. shown smumg the fema le ene mies of Egypt with
" khcpesh. These Images were modified to a more conventional pas-
'1ve. for. later queens who accompany or watch their husband s
I'l'I"lonmng Violent acts, An ostracon depict s a queen in a chariot in
ru mhat with a male. but there is no acco mpanying text
I,. elucidate Its histori cal or mythological co ntext. An actual role for
IIYl'm dipl omati c affairs is attested in the Amarna Letters and let-
It' ,, Irnm thc royal archive at Hauusa show that the wife and mother
" 1_Ramesses II were engaged in a similar dipl omatic corres ponde nce
1111 the Wile 01 the king of the Hittites, Peaceful relati ons bet ween
1'.)' Yl't and the Hittit es was confirmed when Ramesses II entered into
II dipl omatic marriage with the daughter of the Hittite king.
I 1I IN()UEREME (Greek : pent e res] , Larger than the trireme, the
'llllllljuereme was a charac teristic vesse l of the Helleni sti c navy, with
IllI lT banks of oa rs. It first appea rs in the navy lists of Athens in 325
": ' and . ad.opted the Romans (on the model of captured
I II llhagll1lan ships) during the Puni c Wars . Th e size of such vessels
uuulc them difficul t to maneuver. It has been ass umed that the use of
11.-11 large and unwi eldy ships at Akt ion, from Kleopatra VII' s
llrvt , was a contributory factor to the defeat of Marcus Antonius .
\ I\ OT E. .The name (Raqode in hierogl yphi c , Rakote in Co ptic .
I IllI klltlS III Greek ) of a coastal town , and perh aps fortress , in the
190 • RAMESSrS II IREIGNED c. 1279 - 1212 DC)
western Delta standing on a spur of land between the Mediterraneall
Sea and Lake Mareot is . Rakote wa s the site chosen by Alexa nder till'
Grea t for hi s new city, Alexa nd r ia . No pre-Ptol emai c archaeologl
ca l remains have been excavated here , but it is possible that Rakou:
formed par t o f Ramesses 11's defensi ve net work along the 01
the western Delt a and coast , includi ng Alamei n , e l-Gha r ba lll yat ,
Karm Ab u-Gi r g, and Zawi yet Umm el-Rakh am .
RAM ESSES 11 (rei gned c. 1279-1212nc). Pharaoh of the 19th Dynast .
son of Setv I wi th whom he was associated with man y of the attr ibute
of ki ngship (except his own regnal years) . Ramesses was active SOIlU
of hi s father 's milit ar y campaigns and might have been solely 111 COlli
mand of an expedition to Nubia. For a pharaoh whose monument s pili
mote him as great warrior, there is remarkabl y little de tai l abou t mall\
of the campaigns, and even the chronology of some is unc ert ain .
The first ca mpaign Ramesses II led as pharaoh was In year 4 . III
ar my marched al ong the coast of Canaa n and Lebanon to
turning via Bybl os , Tyre , and the Nahr cl-Kelb (n? rth ofBe lrllt ), I h
following year, the pharaoh att empted to. regall1 , Qadesh . Oil Ih
Orontes and fought with the Hittites . Despite the II1concluslve 0 11 1
come of the battle , Ramesses ce lebratcd hi s " vict or y" in tempJ,
throu ghout hi s kingdom and in a literary account known as the I'UI'III
of Pcntawcre. The campaigns of the foll owin g yea rs were di rected
littl e farther south. in Edom, Moab, and the Negeb , and there was II'
atte mpt to regain Qadcsh. The ex pedition o f yea r 8 ensured E ' '1'1
ian control of the coast al cities of Tyre , Si don, Beirut , and Byblos I,
year 10 , the pharaoh le ft a rock-cut ste la at the Nahr e l-Ke lb , pro" I
bly on the return from Tunip and Dapur . .
Around year 18 or 20 , the death of the Hitt ite kin g, Muwatalll , l
to a change in relations bet ween Egypt and her pr incipal riva l. III \ 1 0
2 1, a peace treaty was agreed. rec orded by two tablets 111 Babykun
cuneiform found at Hat tusa (Bogazkoy) and a ste la at Karnak. I )Ipl
matic corres ponde nce bet ween Ramesses II , his mother, chief \\ II
and crow n prince , and members o f the Hitti te roy al fami ly rcvvul
easing of the situa tion. In year 34, Rarnesses entered into a ellpl
matic marriage with the daughter of Hattusil.
The events and ca mpa igns in western Asia are those most d l " I
documented, but there were als o militar y actions on the wester n "
RAMESSES III (REIGNED C. 1184- 11S3 IIC) • 191
southe rn front iers. There is evide nce for a string o f fortresses along
the coast to Zawi yet Um m el Rakham, acti ng as a
defense. agal.ns t the Libyans . No surviving insc ri ptions record mi li-
tary actions 111 this reg ion. It is significa nt that the archaeol ogi cal ev-
sU:Elges ts that these forts wer e in use for a limited period , and
It ISce rta m that Ramesses sett led so me Li byan s in the eastern Delta,
aro und Per-Bastet. It is quit e possible that the Egypt ian s we re unab le
III halt the movements of Libyans, which co ntinued to pose
a problem 111 the reign of his so n Merenpt a h .
The Nub ia is equa lly sketchy. An early campa ign,
probab ly 111 the re ign of Set y I, is recorded in the temple at Bei t e l-
Wah: There was a r ebellion by the most powerful of the so uthern
Nubian Irem, around year 40. The military ex pedition se nt to
crus h thi s was led by the vic eroy and two o f Rarnesses' sons .
1.11 (reigned c. 1184-1153 IIC). Phar aoh of the 20th Dy-
lI asty., Hi s reign was mark ed by the invasion s of the Sea Peoples and
Libya n ,,:ars,. .military expeditions of the rei gn are depi ct ed
III a cycle 01 reli ef s III the pharaoh's temple at Medinet Habu
(Thebes), A a ca mpaign in Syria includes the siege of
Arzawa and 0 1 l ump and the capture of an unnamed Syrian fort ress,
IhTause these are not menti oned in other texts, doubt has been ca st
11 11 Ihcir. veracity, some Egyptologi sts going as far as to state that they
1I1l ' copied from now lost reliefs of the rei gn of Mere npt a h . The ar-
o ha\' ologica l evidence from western Asia shows that Ramesses III d id
10' establish authority throughout Ca na a n. In co nseq uence ,
II,,· hatt ie reliefs ca n be assumed to have some basis in historical re-
lill y. The reality of a Nubian campaign has also been doubted and
II II' relie fs it inter pret ed as either a piece of symbol ism (to
, the uni versa l co nquests of the king), or as copied from an
o ," IICf phar aoh 's Altho ugh the Nubi an re lie fs are bad ly
oI '"l1l gcd . the spec ific locale , Irern , had been a pers istent threat to the
terri tor y of the viceroy since the reign of Sety I and was to
lIl1 ' II I1 IC to be so . There fore , so me mi litary act ion, even minor seems
'1" I1t · plausible, if not likel y. '
II", most significa nt militar y enco unters of the reign , and those
I ' II greatest promi ne nce at Med inet Habu, were the Li byan Wars o f
" II , and II and the battl e with the Sea Peoples in year 8.
192 • RAMESSr S IV IREI GNW C. 1153- 1147 IICI
Ramesses III might have been assassinated in the "harem conspir-
acy," which is documented from the record s of subsequent trial s.
There is no evidence for a dynastic war , although had the plot
achieved all of its goals, such a co nflict might have broken out.
Among those impli cated in the conspiracy was the Chief of Bowmen
of Kush, the head of the army in Nubia.
RAMESSES IV (reigned e. 1153--1147 IIC). Pharaoh of the 20th Dy-
nasty. Although no military act ions are documented for the reign, thc
inscriptions carved in the Wadi Hammammat , in the eastern desert of
Upper Egypt , are an important reco rd of a qua rrying expedi tion, de-
tailing the number s of people involved and the role of the army. The
inscr ipt ion of year 3 lists the members of the expedition sent to
quarry stone, under the command of the high priest of Amun. These
include numerou s di gnitaries and scriba l sta ff and the deputy of the
army, scribes of the army and of the deputy, various officers, 50 char
ioteers, 5,000 infantry, and 50 Madjoy. The whole tot all ed 8,362 per
sons . An additional 900 dead are reco rded.
RAMESSES VI (reigned c. 1143--1136 IIC). The archaeo logical evidence
shows that the Egyptian empire in western Asia came to an abrupt end
in this reign. There is evidence of destruction by fire at important gal' -
rison towns, such as Megiddo, Beth Shean, and Gaza. The destruct ion
is often attributed to the Sea Peoples and the Philistines. A statue of tlu-
pharaoh shows him bringing a Libyan captive, and accompanied by hi,
pet lion, possibly alluding to an action against the Libyans. There b
some evidence for infiltration of the Nile Valley by Libyans, particu
lady in Upper Egypt , but it is unclear whether these were forceful.
RAMESSES IX (reigned c. 1126-1108 IIC). A letter of the high pries:
of Amun addresses Nubian troops from Ik ayta who are accompany
ing gold-washin g teams in the Eastern Desert. It reports successe
aga inst the Shasu , who came from a place ca lled Muqed on the Red
Sea, and states that these Shasu had previously att acked "the land 01
Egypt ," presumably indicating the Nile Vall ey.
RAMESSES XI (reigncd c. 1099-1069I1c). Last pharaoh of the 20th Dy
nasty. His reign saw the "suppression" of the high priest of Amun,
Amenh otep, anarchy in Thebes, and ended with civil war in Egypt alld
RAI'I IiA !BATTLE. 720 BC) • 193
Nubia . The viceroy or Kush, Panehesy, brought his troops to Thebes,
he restored order. Later, Panehesy led the army farther north into
MIddle Egypt, perhaps as far as the Delta. There are some indicat ions
that a battle took place. Panehesy eventually returned to Nubia and a
new power is found in Thebes, the General Herihor, who also assumed
the of. high priest of Arnun and viceroy of Kush. The appearance
of III Thebes is marked by a new dating system for the reign,
which to year one of "the Renaissance," equal to year 19.
Following Henhor ' s death, his successor as high priest and general. Pa-
rankh, launched an attack aga inst Panehesy. The army of Paiankh
marched into Nubia and gained control of the fort ress of Qubnn. Pane-
hesy seems to have held Anihn, It might have been at this time that
Qasr Ihrim was fortifi ed. The outcome of the conflict is unknown. The
return of Paiankh his army to Thebes is recorded in the last year of
Ramesses XI, but neither he nor Panehesy are attested afterward .
I{ A.I' H.IA. Coastal town of Palest ine . the Egyptian Repeh and Assyrian
Rapi khu , bet ween the Brook-or-Egypt (Rhinocolur a, modern el-
I\rish: 36 kilomet ers) and Gaza (32 kilomet ers). Site of confro nta-
tions bet ween Egy ptian and invadin g armies. The first maj or
recorded battl e.was that between the forces of Sargon II of Ass yria
and the Egyptian commander, Ree. Later Assyrian invasions of
Egypt went through the town, notabl y that of Esarhadddon in 67 1
11( '. but thi s was without battle or att ack. The army of Nebuchadnez-
zur II also passed through Raphi a, having captured Gaza , before con-
Imntin g. the army of Nekau II at Migdol. The most signi fica nt battle
al Raphra was that betwee n the armies or Ptolemy IV and Antiochos
Ili on 23 June 2 17 BC, during the Fourth Syrian War,
IIAI' HlA nO.II C). In 720 /lC, the king of Assyr-ia , Sargon
II . marched hIS army mto Syri a defeating the king or /-I amath at
Qurqa r and recapturing Simirra. Damascus, and Samaria before
moving south toward Gaza. The Egyptians had restored the ruler of
ia/.a, to position. Now he engaged the Assy rian army
'" hallie, WIth the aid of an Egyptian army under the command of
I{ l ' 'e . The Egypti an force was defeated, and Sargon claims to have
Ili ken Khanunu his own hand ." Khanunu was taken ca ptive to
Asxyria, and Raphi a was looted and "des troye d." The Assyrians now
, oilirolled the Brook-or-Egypt and access to the Via Maris or Ways
194 • KAI'I IiA IBAITl r . 217 BO
of Horus. They pl aced the reg ion under the control of the local bedu-
oui n, probably Ar a bs .
RAPHI A (BATTLE, 217 Be) , A battle of the Fou rth Sy r ia n Wa r be-
tween the ar mies of Ptolemy I V and Antiochos III , on 22 June 2 17
Be. A detai led acc ount of the batt le is given in the histories o f Poly
bius (a lthough there are still di fferences over its int erpret at ion ).
Ptolemy IV' s army arr ived at the site of t he ba ttle after a for ced
march, which covered the 180 kilome ters fro m Pelusi on in fivr
days , in order to arrive at a site that he co ns idered favorable . I k
seems to have wa nted to avoid the narro w Ji radi Pass , whi ch i,
flanked by the sea dunes and desert sa nd, and which would have I'll
vo red the Seleuki d ele p hants and hindered the Egyptia n in fantry,
The chosen site was suitable for him to use all o f his troops .
Th e Egyptian infantry vas tly outnum bered that of Antiochos , which
was reduced because of events in the east of his emp ire. In caval ry
nu mber s, the sides we re almost equal: Ptol emy had 5 ,000 and Antill
chos had 6,000 . The Ptolemaic army alt ogether numbered 70,000 . Ik
sides the Greek infa ntry and cava lry were 20 ,000 nat ive Egyptian troop
under the co mmand of Sosib ios. Ptolemy's other troops incl uded Thrn
clans and Ga latians (Gauls) , and Cre tans. Antiochos had 62,000 ill
fantry at his di sposal, incl udi ng 10 ,000 Nabataean Ar abs . Both sid,'
had a large number of elep hants. The Se leukid elephants, nurnbcriu
102, were from Indi a . The 73 Ptolemaic elephant s were African and 11 1101
bee n brought fro m Meroe or Ethiopia. Thi s was the first time that III
Ptolema ic army had used elephants . The Se leukid phal anx (heavy ill
fan try) was posted in the ce nter with the cavalry on the wings and liflll
infantry on the flank s bet ween the phalanx and cavalry. The right will
was the stro nger, wi th an advance block of cavalry led by Antioch«
himself. Ptolemy and his guard faced Anti ochos direc tly. The Ptol cnuu
phalanx was numericall y superior (45,000 ). It wa s placed in the cc111
and formed a deeper line (perhaps 32 deep) than its Seleukid 0 PPOIll'1I1
Antiochos ga ined the first advanta ge when the 60 elephants Oi l II
righ t wing cha rged the 40 on Pto lemy' s left. Pto lemy' s wing /1 11
way and Antioc hos led a succ essful cavalry att ack , which he pursue:
Ptol emy successfully left his cavalry and return ed to the fie ld to p
sonally lead a counteratt ack wit h the infan tr y. The Pt olema ic ri 'I
wing successfully pushed throug h the Se leukid left. The Ptol cnm
victory was pro babl y caused in part to Antiochos's abse nce froII I II
KEBr l liON. KIVOIT • 195
fiel d in pursui t of Pt ol emy and his cavalr ' . . .
had managed to li . . y, not realJzlIlg that the klllg
s rp away. This success {/ E .
(Ma chimoi) s howed them tl . " or ie gypuan troops
Egypt, there was a power and after the return to
ron .
li E. So lar god of lu nu (H li ti
li e ca n be seen IS), usuall y depi ct ed with a falcon head.
phar aoh in reliefslllT
, usuall y .the khcpesh, to the
. re name wa s combi ned ith ,
such as Am un (as Amu R ) . . WI ot ier gods
Ile-I-Iarakhty). Th'e e of the sun god
lI1a nifest ation as a s p hi nx the " II led with Re-I-Iarakht y in his
, ce es ua co nqueror.
, L , n ancient Egy pt " b I/' "
l'Cl llllllitted against the ph ar aoh h ' re e Ion wa s an ae t
- uon i w 0 represe t d divi
Many rec ords of militar ' . . n e cnvme rul e on earth,
lite Ne w Kingd om , y ca/.mpalgns by pharaohs , parti cularl y durillg
, are pre ac ed by tl
II l1 d the pharaoh's angry ie anno uncement of a rebel lion
"rag ing like a leopard") 1 to It (he is usuall y descri bed as
, . n act ua ny the accession f I
WII S a normal ti me for rebellion b ' sub' 0 a. p 1araoh
only of Egypt but most " y '. jeer rulers . ThI S IS true , not
, ancienr empires Th e As '
11I1'cd rebell ion by their provi . syrrans cons lantly
rovmces , or vassal ru le S .
were actually di . ' . rs. omet lmes these
COOl' mat ed . there I S eVIdence di I
1Il 'Iwecn the rebel king of B b I " . or Ip omatic contacts
. a y on and the king of Jud h . I .
fl lll'l ron on one fro nt as sis ted bid s f . a , so that dis-
"";1I 1t of the Grea t Ki ng f P . ' . or IIldependence on ano ther, The
' "' hl' lIion of many of th 0 was also freq ue nt ly fo llowed by the
, e provlllces of the em ' . .
Ilil/llest fro m the center U ' II pil e, pa rtIcu larly those
IIII' l i ves of bot h parties's suha y, a peace t r ea ty was va lid only for
, , 0 w en a phanoh or sub' t I .
11 "lI ly was no lon ger va lid , " .I
c ru er, di ed , the
I )lIring the pe riod of the E t"
N" w Kingdom ther e were c gyp la? Empi.re in western Asia , in the
-, lreq uent rebell " b
, II statcs . particularl y those II t . Ions y vas sal ru lers and
, . . ra were 111 north Syr! d
I I" 1'l'l"Iphery of the kingd /. "I" ra an were on
oms 0 IV itanni and the H'II"I N
,lIl1 ollg these was Qadesl hi h . ' J J es . otab/e
• I , W IC oCcupIed a strateo ! . .
\ '" t'llllstantly cha ngi n
II . ' . egic posuron and
, e a egiance In Nubia to it
1111 " 'lTitories on the peripi / ' , 0 , I was ge nerally
iery, sue 1 as I r em and M ' th b
11," , rehellion, in the re ig I Me ' IU, at re elled.
n 0 IV erenp la h was ap I
11 01 \'" been coordi na ted with the Li b an : . y meant 10
"" IIIl' ls between vassa l rul e y. IIlvasJOn , IIldlcat ing close
rs .
There are hardly any indi cations of rebellion or revolt against any
pharaoh by the Egy ptian peopl e , but thi s is because of the nature o f the
ev ide nce . Most oppos ition to pharaohs was probably pal ace-centered ,
and took the for m of d ynastic war. Although there is evide nce for co n
flier bet ween different region of Egypt. not abl y in the lntermedi at e Pe
riods, the se are also motivated by elite factions , rather than bein g civil
war in the true sense . Even lat er , revolts and rebellions focused around
spec ific di saffected (or ambitious) indi vidual s and groups , rather than
being large-scal e pol iticall y and philosophically mot ivated uprisings.
Although the rekhyt people generally were one of the groups that
the pharaoh had to control , there is relative ly littl e evide nce for rebel
lion s by named individuals wi thin Egy pt. This is certa inly a manifes
tati on of Egyptian ideology. One of the few instances is the record 01
the rebe ls Aata (who mi ght have been a Nubian local rul er ) and Tell
an, who oppose d Ah mose l. In thi s case, Teti -an mi ght re present 11
factio n opposed to the The ban atte mpts to reunite Egypt. Presumabl y.
much opposi tio n was suppressed violently and left unrecorded.
Some pharaohs are known to have come to power as a result of rr
bell ion against the rei gning monarch, and ther e were probably muu
than we actuall y have ev ide nce for. Inevit abl y, the vict or became " lc
gitimate" ruler, and most of our ev ide nce comes from non-Egypt ii111
late sources. The only we ll-doc umented earlier instance is that 01
apparently a son of Sety II , who seized power follow
ing the death of Mer enptah and rei gned for several years . Thi s miplu
have been concurrently with his father , but confined to Upper Egy pt
Sheshonq I probabl y used force to gain the throne because he is
referred to by his Lib yan title at Thebes in his second year. Ahmosv II
was procl aimed pharaoh by the ar my in a rebelli on agai nst Wahilll'
Ahmose might have been a member of the royal fami ly. Persi an rnlr III
Egy pt saw many rebellions in which local dynasts ass ume d Egy pllll i
royal style: Pedubastlll (in the reign of Darius I) , Psamtik IV and 111
son Inaros , Amyrtaios. The 28th and 29th Dynasties were a pCII" I
when rival dynasts as pired to the throne , and vio lence frequently II
co mpanied the accession . Dynastic problems persisted throu ghout II
30th Dynast y when Nekh t hor heh was procl aimed as rul er by I
ther , the brother of the rei gning pharaoh, Djedhor . They were freqw I I
in the later Ptolemaic peri od , in the rei gns of the queens Kleopatrll II
Kleopatra III , and Kleopatra VII , and their assoc iated kings .
RETABA, TEl L [ L- • 197
Self-inte rest pl ayed '1 I' .
of Nimlot rul er of KI' arge part In many rebelli ons . The rebelli on
, ununu , against Piye . .
preach of a large coalit ion arm of Lib was prompted by the ap-
away in Kush S' ' 1' I' Y 1 ya n rul ers , whi le Piye was far
. . i mt ar y, 111 the later years o f Kush ite r I .
the Libyan dynasts of the Delt a ield It ' . u e 111 Egypt,
armies entered Egypt but sub ' Yt d ec .0 the Assynans whe n their
, nu te to Taharqo : d T '
when they regained control. an anwetamam
A sense of nationalism did develo . I . .
riods and mani fested its If ' I P 111 t Persian and Ptolemai c pe-
Egy pt under o f Thebes and Upper
Roma n feel ing played a s'lgn'lfi' t and Harsiesis. Anti-
. . . ican part 111 the AI x dr] W
l igious differences fueled the rebelli on of the ; . ar. Re-
pncst Isidoros, and the Jewish revolt . ou 001, ed by the
Jews led to civil di stu rbances and . '. Greek s and
period of Roman rul e. Th e city, for the
ern Medit g, t e most Important 111 the east-
erranean, was also the center fo .. I .
ing to the imperial purpl '1'1 r ge nel.'1 s and officials aspir-
e. ie emperor Vespasian I .
the ci ty by the Prefect I I' AI . , was proc aimed in
II IUS exander but tl
<'nssius, lulius Aemilianus " Fir mus " ' te of Avidius
und Aurelius Ac hi lleus (in th . , ?nd o! Dornitius Domitianus
. e rergn of Diocletian) all failed .
IlEI\IIYT, A term used for the eo Ie of E
wing. It is possibl e that in P:ed ?ypt, re presented by the lap-
rrkhvt signified a popul at ion of tl or Ea rl7 Dynasti c Period ,
lu-ndof king Scor pion sho I Ill
e. ta, or LI.byans . The mace
ws ueac apwings hangi fr
vunnounted by the emblems f tl 0 . ' . ng 10m standa rds
o ie names (distri cts),
1I 1':SIIEI'. God origi nating in S ria II' . .
IKlh Dynasty. He is us ually ;? introdu ced IIltOEgy pt in the
Ili n depictio ns he still wear tl S II1g an axe or mace. In Egypt-
, s ie ynan style of b db '
P'f' yptian white crown with a aazelle h I I , I ear , ut With the
0' eat allac leu at the I' d I
uc.uners . He is referred to on the "S Jhinx S . " ront an ong
II 'l'lln lin" the pharaoh 's I" I . tela of Amenhotep II
o . exp oits as a pnnce a d I' I '
"II istic ethos of the per iod I tl ' an orrnu anng the rnili -
u. n ie record o f the L'I , W .
, Ra messcs III describes hi h ' .1 J) an ar of his year
I ,' , hep." . s c nriot-wamors as " powerful as
1'''IIA TELL EL R' . , -; ames side fortress in the Wadi Tumilat .
198 • RIH NLJ
RETE NU. A term found from the Middl e Kin gdom onward fOI
Syria-Palesti ne. It is specified as Upper Ret enu , a region coverinr
northern Palestine (Ca naan) , and the later kingdo ms of Israel and
Judah, and Lower Reten u, Syria. In Egyptian (and English trnn
scriptions), the name ca n appear as both Retenu and Retjenu.
REWARD. Reward was given on the field of batt le and after a ca mpai gn
Reward could take the form of gold jewelry (gold flies being speciti
cally ment ioned) , slaves (people captured during the campaign), cap
tured chariots and other mi litary equipment , and land . The autobio
graphica l inscri ptions of the 18th Dynasty, notably that of Ahmose SUit
of Ebana, provide good evidence for the practice. Ahmose son III
Ebana fought in the Nubian campaigns of Ahmose I , Amenhotcp I
and Thutmose I, from which he records bringi ng eight hands of siallt
enemies, He also took male and female captives , some of whom Wl'11
given to him. others were exc hanged. When he capt ured a charilll
horse, and soldier, he gave them to Thutmose I and was rewarded 1'01II
with gold. It is significant that the pharaoh kept the chariot. as lhcy Wl'll
probably still quit e rare in Egypt at this time , Ahmose was rcwankd
with gold on seven occasions. As for slaves, he was given a lotal of I"
captives: one male from Avaris, eight persolls (sex ullspccificd) pll'
sumably Nubians (five were in exchange for two warriors ca ptured I, ( II
the spec ified women captives, three were trom A\'aris. lwo were Asialh
four Nubian (two were in exc hange for two mule ca ptives givc n III 11 11
phm'aoh). He was also given five arurue or land in his home tOWIi II I
Nekhe b. A text in the tomb of an orticial named Mose, of the reign III
Ramesses II. records a lengthy legal dispute arisi ng among the desccn
darns of another soldier who had been gra nted land by Ahmose I.
The Wilbour Papyrus provides evi de nce for veterans settled Wi th
small landhol dings in Middle Egypt in the 20th Dynasty. The policy II
settling veterans continued into Ptolemaic and Roman times, especlnll
in the Fay um, where Greek eleruchs and Egyptian machimoi Wl'O
give n land. Ramesside hattie sce nes (e.g., Qadesh; and the scenes , I
Medi net Habu of Ramesses Ill' s war s agai nst the Libyans) d' pl
scribes making multiple records of the severed hands and pha lli or tli
defeated . This not only provided an acc urate record of the slain, 111 1
was no doubt also related to the dist ribution of rewards.
RHINOCOLURA. The Greek name (in some sources Rh iIl OCOl'lI rt1 ) Ii
the modern town of el-Arish , at the end of the Wadi el-Arish in nlll
SAl l URE(REIGNW C. 2487- 2475 ac) • 199
Sinai. Rhinocolura stood on the Wa ys of Horn . d i ,
same as the town of the Brook-ol'-Egypt that tl Sh b
twee E d h . renner e-
n gypt an t e empire of Assyr ia , and later Egypt and Babylonia.
IIOME. Although Rome I d I .
PI I' . . ia eng-standing eco nomic co ntact s wi th
. 0 emm.c Egypt . It did not become actively involved in its pol itics un-
theI r\eE lgn of Ptolemy VI. When the Seleukid kin" Antiochos IV
mvac cc gypt the b "
Inl f of th ' ?overnment appealed to Rome to interve ne on be-
: di e young king Ptolemy VI, which it eventually did . With ex-
IMn II1g Roman interests in the eastem Mediterranean a d I
slant dynastic wars in Egyp t the tw c , n a most con-
TI f . 0 powers were drawn ever closer
ie rrst Roman force to enter Egyp t was that of the R I .
S .: A I G . . s tnat or tne rcoman ega te of
, Yl la: u us abinius, who rei nstated Ptolemy XII A It O .
occas ro 1 th I . u e es . n this
, , I , e cava ry was under the command of Mar u A t '
R ' f ano or ivrarc s n onms A
orce, ca lled the Gabinians , was left in Alexand r ia and I .
a,S1gl1l ficant role in later events. The Roman br " p
( acs ar to Egypt with an army, His su ort of K ar rought Juhus
her brother , Ptolemy XIII , result ed in VII a
phases of the Roman Civil War, and Kleopatra's ti ar. The later
' A ' ' asxnctn Ion With Mar
'I .I IS nto
nhlus, led to further conflict, culminating in the battl e of
lUll ant t e fall of E ' t t A ,,-
or the Roman E . . g:,p I 0 ugustus. Egypt then became a province
mprre anc was placed under the rule of a prefect.
\ !lURE (re i d 248 . eigne c. 7-2475 lie ). Pharaoh of the Fifth D '
ill S pyramid temp le at Ab usir nea r Mem hi s wa . .
,' Iahorate r r f I whi P s decor ated With
e. ie s, 0 w rich only fragments survive These sh
a chief of. the Libyans; par t of the' o'r
S1,I. II1C u II1g two Synan bears' soldiers runni .
" ship; and chiefs of the Nubia ns . The of
-Iuplicuted in the temple of Pepy II Th yan c lie was
'l' lations of E" t duri . . . . e suggest the fore ign
I Ih " . d A ,:,yp unng this lelgn and hint at mi litar y activi ties in
, ) .1 <I n sra, the latt er using the navy but wit hout . .
III cri ptional evidence, nothing more ca n
1:"'111 .,Sahure als.o se nt an expedition along the Red Sea to
I ,Is W,IS to acquire preci ous commod ities , not abl incense ' '
II lVas doubtl ess accompanied by soldie rs . y " although
200 • SAl
SAl. Island in the Nile between the Second and Third Cataracts . Sai was
the seat of the Kushite kingdom of Shaat, document ed in Egypti an
records from the Sixth Dynasty to the Middle Kingdom. It may have
been absor bed by Kerma, to which it appears to have been vassal. II
also served as a northern buffer zone between Kenna and the Egypti an
Middle Kingdom border at Semna. There is a large cemetery of the
Kerma culture on the island . An Egyptian fortress and settlement was
established here in the early 18th Dynast y. The names of Ahmose I and
Amenhotep I sugges t that the fort was founded then, following thl'
Egyptian recapture of Buhen and the Second Cataract. Initially, the
early 18th Dynasty pharaohs appear not to have aimed at conquerin '
Kerma. The inscription of Thutmose I impli es a relati vel y peace ful
phase during which the garrison pastured their cattle in the lusher tcr
ritory of Kerma. Sai must have formed the main base from which thl'
attacks on Kush were launched in the reigns ofThutmose I, Thut rnose
II, Hatshepsut , and Thutmose III. In the later 18th Dynasty, new
towns were built a little to the south of Sai , at Sedei nga, Soleb, and
Sesebi. These were foundations of Amenhotep III and Akhenaten,
which focused on large temples. In the 19th Dynasty, Set y I founded :I
fort ified town near Sai , at Amara West. Sai was presumably abandoned
by the Egyptians at the end of the 20th Dyna sty, as was Amara.
SAIS. See SAU. ·
SAKHMET. Belligere nt lioness-headed goddess , identified with the
" Eye of Re" (hence with Hathor and Tefnut). She was the personi
fication of divi ne rage . She was the wife of the god Ptah of Memphis,
but in the 18th Dyna sty was also equated with the goddess Mut , con
sor t of Amun. In the temple of Mut in Thebes were more than 7011
statues of Sakhmet. Many of these carry epithets revealing the god
dess' s fearsome nature: " fla me of Mut ," "s miter of the Nubians ." 1\1
the battl e of Qadesh, Ramesses II was identified with a number 01
belli cose deities, notably Monthu, Seth, Ba al, and the griffon, allli
he is also likened to "Sakhmet in the moment of her rage ." His cue
mies warn that Sakhmet is with him and that her fier y breath bum
those who approach him. This association goe s back to the Middk
Kingdom when the wrath of the pharaoh again st rebels was " like till
raze of Sakhme t" and Sinnhe said that the fear of King Amenemhnl
I was "throughout the land s like Sakhmet in a year of plague."
SARGON II <REIGNED 720-7 05 BCI • 201
SANAKHT (fl,c, 2686-2667 nc), A pharaoh of the Third Dynasty. A
fragmentary sandstone relief from Wad i Maghara in Sinai records
Sa nakht. This depict s the king smiting a now-lost figure and presum-
ably relates to a ca mpaign in the vicinity of the turq uoise mi nes.
SA.PP.ERS. Men are shown with large stakes undermining the walls of a
fortified settlement in the late Old Kingdom tomb of Inti at Deshasheh
and the contemporary tomb of Kaemheset at Saqqaru. The reliefs of the
attack on Lachish by the king of Assy r ia, Sennacher ib, in 70 I Be
show a similar, if more sophisticated, attempt to undermine the walls.
flecause Egyptian fortifi cations were of unburned mud brick, under-
mining was possible, although most fortress wa lls are extremely thick.
SAQQARA. The mai n necropol is of the city of Memphis standing on
Ihe desert plateau ove rloo king the Ni le Valley. The site is dominated
hy the pyramid complexes of pharaohs of the Th ird, Fifth, and Sixth
Dynasties . Some of these (User kaf', Unas , and Pepy II ) contained
scenes depi ctin g soldiers and military action. The late Old Kingdom
lomb of Kaemh eset is one of the earlies t to depi ct an attack on a
fortress . with scaling ladder s and sappers undermining the wall s . A
of tombs of military officials of the late 18th and ear ly 19th
Dynasties have been excavated, and more will doubtl ess be identi fied
as this of the site is explored further. One of the most significa nt
of these IS the tomb of Horemheb, which was prepared for him be-
lore he became pharao h. Dating from the reign of Tutankhamun,
was the leadin g genera l, the tomb has important re-
lic/ decoration showi ng the rewa rd followi ng mi litary actions in Nu -
hia and in Syria agai nst the Hittites . Close to Horemh eb' s tomb is
Ihal of his close contemporary, Ramose. There is also the tomb of the
urmy scribe Huy, who lived in the early 19th Dynasty. Sculptured
from New Kingdom tombs were found near the pyramid of
lct i and include sce nes depi ct ing the manu facture of arrows and
Ih-i11 exercises (from the tomb of Ipuia).
AnGON II (re igned 720- 70S IIC). Emperor of Assyria , At Sargon's ac-
cession, rebellions broke out throughout the empire. In Syria, Yau-bi 'di
killg of Hamath led the rebellion of Arpad, Damascus, and Samaria, but
Sil rgnn swiftly marched his armies west, confronting the coalition at the
hilllic of Qarqar (720 li e) . He then moved south recapturing the rebel
202 • SATRAP
cities and advanced on Gaza where the Egyptians had restored their
vassa l, Khanunu . He continued toward Egypt, defeating an Egyptian
army, led by a general, Re' e, at Raphia (720 IIC) , which was looted and
destroyed. Sargon did not advance farther in this campaign, but in 716
BC, he installed an Arab leader of one of the tribes of north Sinai in Ihc
"city of the Brook-of-Egypt ," giving him some control over the
of Horus. In the same year, the Assyrians record tribute of horses paid
by an Egyptian ruler called "Shilkanni," who must be the pharaoh a s
orkon, probably of Per-Bastet (Bubastis) .
Sargon received further trihut e of horses around 712 BC, from till'
rulers of Egypt and Guza, These rulers were certainly Libyan dynast,
of the Delta. Some time after 712 BC came the rebell ion of Yarnuui,
ruler of Ashdod. The date of this is still uncert ain; most scholars as
sumi ng the period 712-7 10 BC, but in the light of a recently published
rock inscription at Tang-i Var (in Iran), a dat e as late as 706 BC ha,
been proposed for the subseq uent events. As the Assyrians approached
Ashdod, Yamani ned to "Melu hha" (Kush) , but was extradited by till'
ruler. The incident is important beca use it is the first recorded direct
contact between the Kushite rulers and Assyria . The identit y of the
Kushite king is still unclear: it could be Piye, Shabaqo, or Shebitqo.
The eve nt must have take n place before Shabaqo had defeated Tel'-
nakht of Sau and brought all of Egypt under his rule , after which till'
Kushit es appear to have become hostile to Assyrian ambitions .
SATRAP. The term used for the Governor of Egypt when under the mi l'
of the Great Kings of Persia (525-332 BC, with interrupti ons) . TIll'
Satrap was responsible for hoth civil and mil itary matter s. Th e firsl
satrap , Arya ndes, was appointed by Cambyses. According to a lall'
literary tradition , Aryundes was driven out of Egypt foll owing till'
death of Cambyses (522 BC) , perhaps when an Egyptian prince (pos
sibly Peduba st III ) attempted to make himsel f pharaoh. Arya ndes wns
restored in 518 BC by Darius I and sent a military expedition agai nst
Barca in Cyrenaica . According to Herodotos, Aryandes was exc
cuted by Darius I in about 496 BC, being repl aced by Pherend atcs
who might have heen ki lled in the rebellion of 486-85 BC.
On his accession, Xerxes I (486-465 BC) suppressed the rebelli on
and installed his broth er, Achaimenes, as satrap (c. 486-85 BC)
Achaimenes purs ued a more suppressive pol icy, and his reign (c
SATRAP ' 203
48.6/ 85-459 BC) saw further bids for independ ence hy local Egyptian
pnn ces. Psamtik IV , the ruler of the far western Delt a, led one re-
(per!Japs 486 BC or c. 470), followed by the much larger re-
hellion of hIS son Inaros , which broke out at Xerxes death (465 BC).
Inuros and Amyr taios ( I) received aid and mercenari es from
At hens. They had some successes, capturing Memphis. Achaimenes
was killed at the battle of Papremi s , but the rebels were besieged for
J 8 month s at Prosopitis , befo re being captured. Foll owine the death
"f Achairnene s, Megabyxus, satrap of Syria , commanded the Persian
lorces in Egypt. There were other Egy ptian princes operating anti-
policy wi th support from Athens, another Psamtik and Amy r -
lams (2) of Sau (probably the later pharaoh).
The next document ed satrap. also a member of the royal famil y, was
Arsames, appo inted by Ar taxer xes I (c. 428 BC) , Arsames supporte d
Darius II in the brie f dynastic war that followed Artaxerxes ' death (424
lie' j, Evidence from the archive of the Jewi sh mercenaries on Abu
(Hlephantine) indicates that Arsarnes was abse nt from Egypt for an ex-
trudcd period (c. 410-407/406 BC) , apparently some of the time being
spent on his estates in Babyloni a. Arsa rnes appears to have died before
the great rebellion on the death of Darius II (404 BC) , which gained in-
deJlendence for Egypt under the pharao h Amy r taios.
The satrap headed the administration from his main res idence in
Memphis. Di stri ci governors tfraturakai were subordinate to the
salrap, but also officia ls who repor ted on his act ions: satraps fre-
qucutly attempted to make their satrapies kingdo ms, and themsel ves
illgs. Such moves usually took place on the death of the Great King,
when disputed succession and rebelli on throughout the empire were
uxnnl. In Egypt, only Aryandes seems to have been deposed for as-
uming too roya l a style.
The satrap was also respon sibl e for the garrisons that are well
docllmented in the Persi an period . There were Jewish mercenaries at
/\1," (Ele pha ntine) and other Asiatics at As wan . Other garrisons were
III Pclusion and Marea in the wes tern Delta. The fortress of Babylon
\VIIS constructed at thi s time .
With the reco nques t of Egypt by Ar taxerxes III a satrap , Pheren-
dlli t's was aga in appointed (343 BC) . His succe ssor, Sabaces, was
IIIit'd foll owing the Per sian cl efeat at the battl e of Issos (333 BC) .
When the Macedonian adve nturer, Amy ntas, entered Egypt later in
204 • SAU
the same year, he claimed that he was the new satrap appointed hy
Dar ius III. The real appoi ntee, Mazaces, defeated Amyntas hili
yielded Egypt to Alexa nder th e Great. Alexander made a number 01
appointments in Egypt . placing the civi l and military under different
officials . He acknowledged Kleomenes as satrap of Egy pt. Follow in '
Alexander 's deat h at Babylon (323 s c) , Egypt was sei zed by the gen
eral Ptolemy (Ptolemy I ), who put Kleomenes to death and ass umed
the title of satrap himse lf. Ptolemy reigned as satrap for 18 years, ac
know ledging the nominal authori ty of the Macedoni an ki ngs Alexa n
del' IV and Phi lip Arrhidai os, before followi ng the example of thl'
other di adochoi and proclaiming himself king (305 uc ) ,
SA U. Cit y of the western Delta, standing on a bran ch of the Nile. It
gcnerally known by the Greek form of the name , Sais. Of anc ient ori
gin. it came under the rul e of Li byan dy nas ts in the Third Intermedi
ate Period and was the seat of Tefnakht , who expanded his power III
Memphis and into Middle Egy pt , provoking the ca mpaign of Pi y«
Tefnakht ' s success or, Buk cnranef', assumed royal style and the lat"1
rul er of Sais, Nekan I , was a vass al of Assyr ia . However , whcn
Nekau change d sides , the Assyrians invaded the De lta and attacked
Sa u, flaying the rebe ls and hangi ng their skins from the wa lls . An
other As syrian text states that the heart s of the rebe ls were impa led
on stakes around the city. Nekau's son Psamtik I reunited Egypt and
threw off the Assyria n yoke, estab lishi ng the 26th Dynasty. Durinr
this period, Sau was one of the main royal residences and the
enco uraged the Greek trading center at Na ukratis nearby.
SCALING LADDER. Scaling ladders are found intermittent ly I II
Egyptian military records. They appear in the Old Ki ngdo m sce nes II I
attacks on wa lled sett lements in the tombs of Inti at Deshasheh alitI
Kaemheset at Saqqa r a ; being used agai nst Egyptian towns in tlu
ea rly Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan ; and in Ramesside ill
tacks on the towns of Sy r ia . The Victor y Stela of Pi ye refers to sCill
ing ladders in the attacks on the wa lled towns of Middl e Egy pt. In lilt
attack on Memphis, the masts of the ships were used as a form III
scaling ladder to brea ch the wall s . The rel iefs showi ng the attack hv
the army of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, on Lac hish (70 I s c) :II II
show sca ling ladders.
SEA PEOr LEs • 205
A curved sword, with the cutting edge on the inner side .
I he Egy ptians did not use the true scimitar, although the term has
bee n applied to the kh epesh , whic h was a simi lar shape but was a
heavy slashing wea pon. '
SCORPION .(reig.ned c. 3200 DC). The name used in Egyptological li t-
crat ure to Identi fy a king of Upper Egypt of the late Predynastic Pe-
nod (now called Dynasty 0), who dedicated a ceremonial mace head
nt Thi s carries sce nes inc ludi ng the royal standards wi th
birds hanging from them , suggestive of defeat of peoples in
the unifi cat ion of Egypt.
SEA PEOP.LES. A term app lied to a number of ethnic groups who were
involved 111 conflict with Egypt in the 19th and 20th Dynasties. The Sea
Pcoples. have also been associated with mass movement of pop ulation
and major destruction of si tes throughout Anatolia and wes tern Asia at
the end of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1200- 1J50 s c). The peoples in-
were the Peleset , Lukki , She ke lesh , Wes hesh , Shar dana,
l'[ekker , Teresh , and Ekwesh . Some of these peoples are known in-
dcpenden tly from a variety of Egyptian sources from the late 18th D _
onwa rd. Some of the names ca n ce rtai nly be assoc iated wi th
cific places (such as the Pelese t and Palestine), others have genera ted
more controversy (and are noted in the appropriate entries here). How
we choose to understand the geographica l associations of the names is
Itll.ldame ntal to our interpretation of the nature of the Sea Peoples
l'IJl sodes. For the name Shan/alia (or Shenleni is ge nera lly
nrccpted as being co nnected with Sa rdin ia: but whether the Shardana
r. uue from the island we call Sardinia or whet her they went there from
the eastern after these events is cen tral to the problem.
. In the evidence comes from the inscr iptions relating to inva-
111 5 of and yea r 8 of R3messes III. The groups
.1I.lvolved JI1 the II1vaSlOn of year 5 of Merenptah were the Shardana,
lcrcsh, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, and Lukka, The majority of the force were
however, Li byans and the Sea Peopl es were less than a third of the to-
In this instance , it seems most likel y that the Libyans were
the prune movers , accompanied by the other groups as mercena ri es . ln
W il l' 8 of Rarnesses III, the Libyans were not invol ved and the invaders
Were the Shardana, Teresh, Shekelesh, Peleset , Denye n, Weshesh, and
206 • SEKHEMKl lrT (REIGN ED C. 1&48- 1&40 BC)
Tjekker. The presence of carts carryi ng wo men and children has sug-
gested that this invasion represents a movement of population in searc h
of somewhere to settle by both land and sea.
The scholarly view of the Sea Peopl es that developed in the late 19th
and early 20th centuries , and which ca n be found in many histori es, was
that of invasion s from the north displaci ng populations in Anatolia who
were then forced southward into Syria and Palestine . The effect was to
destabilize the Hittite Empire and cause massive destructions in major
sites along the coast, such as Ugarit. The collapse of Mycenaean Greece
is also attributed to the same ultimate ca use. The reassessment by
Robert Drews suggests that many of the peopl es came from the places
whose names they appear to carry, and that they were mercenaries, pi
rates, and raiders, rather than a mass population movement.
SEKHEMKHET (re igned c. 2648-2640 II C) . Pharaoh of the Third
Dynasty. A relief from Wadi Maghara in Sinai shows Sekhernkh ci
smiting with a mace . This is one of a series of reli efs of the Third aml
«o urt h- Dynasties that record Egyptian ac tivities in Si na i. related III
the turquoise mines. Although conventional roya l images. the y pel
haps indicate some mil itary activities .
SELEUKI DS. On the deat h of Alexa nder th e G re a t 'II Bahylun in 32 \
II C, the generals recogni zed hi s hal f-brother and infunt "1Il as his k
gitimate heirs , but in actualit y partitioned the empire among Ih.elll
selves . The succeeding two decades saw the power strugg les 0 1 1111
diadochoi ("Succes sors") for contro l of parts of, or attempts to n:
unite , the empire , Th e contest culmi nated at the battle of Ipsos in 311 1
BC. Thi s left Sele uko s I as " King of Sy r ia ," although his empi re ill
tuall y stretched as far as Indi a.
The heirs of Se leukos I , most with the names Antiochos and S('
leukos, co ntrolled parts of Asia Minor, north Sy r ia , Mesopot an uu
and Per sia, with their major citi es at Sardes in Lydia, Anti och nea r Ih
mo uth of the Orontes , Babylon, and Susa. There were frequent Cll il
flict s wit h the Ptolernies for cont rol of Coele Syr ia. which had hl'I'II
occ upied by Ptolemy l. These Syrian Wars culminated in the Egypl
ian vic tory at the batt le of Raphia. Although the Syrian question WII
largel y resolved by the marriage of Ptolemy V wi th Kleopat ra I. tlu
co mplex intermarriages of their descendants , various Kleopauu
SEMNA • 207
with rival Seleukid kings, resulted in dynastic wars . This was furt her
by the conflict of Kl eopatra III and Ptolemy IX in the
Syn a n War of 103-10 I BC.
The Sel eukid Empire lost its easternmost provinces to the Indian
ruler Chandragupta Maurya and Greek and Macedoni an adv enturers
who es tablished sma ll ki ngdoms in Baktria. Later, the Part hians, the
in Per sia, removed the central part of the empire fro m the
Sc leukids . Seleukids used elephants in thei r armies , a prac tice
that was cop ied by the Ptolemi es.
Nubi an fortress , somewhere in the vicinit y of
( rd): ' and the Fourt h Ca ta r act. It was built by Thutmose III
IS referred to. on a stela later erected in the temple of Arnun at
Gebel Bar kal. This text states that the fortress had a chapel ded icated
to the god Amun. No archaeolog ical remains that ca n be associated
WJl.h.the fortr:ss have ye t bee n identi fied in the region . There is a pos-
" hllity that. like most 01 the fortresses farther north in Nubia , Serna-
khavut stood on an island , l lowever, such a theor y ca n only be con-
III'111ed hy survey. It is ge nerally assu med that Se ma-khasu t is
idcnticu! wilh Napata in the inscri pt ion of year 3 of Amenhotep II
:II Anuula. The fortress name mea ns " Des troying the forei gn lands."
,' /':I\INA,. Nubian fortress at the head of the Second Ca ta r act , co ntrol-
Illig. With Kumma and the outpos t of Semna Sout h, a narrow chan-
nd through a rocky go rge at the head of the ca taract. Semna
slood In a co mmanding posi tion on the west bank of the Nile at a
I'O,lIIt that mark ed sou thern fronti er in the Middle and early
New Kingdoms. It stoo d rn one of the most desol ate part s of Nuhia
so.uthern end of the Batn el-Hagar (Be lly of Rock) . Se mna was
within ? istance of the island fortress of Urona r ti and par t
III a co mmurnca uo n network goi ng to Mirgissa.
Semna built by Senus ret III . It had an L-shaped plan dict ated
hy Ih: eminence on which it was built. The 1'011 was surrounded by a
ditch on the. north, west , and. south sides. On the east. the rocky
I xcarpment sloped down to the ri ver. The massive mud -bri ck walls
II,X meter s thi ck, were built on mason ry foundati ons and had proje ct-
Ili g towers. The north and south ga tes, of co nve ntiona l desi un with
tuner and outer gates and space between , stood at ei ther end of the
208 • Sf MNA
" ma in street," which itself formed part of the pomoerium. The ex
tern al access to both ga tes was uphill. Th e only othe r ga te was the
much sma ller water gate that gave acce ss , down 131 steps between
defensive wall s , to the ri ver. The main walls were over I0 mete rs
high , although nowhere preserved to their original hei ght. They wen'
built on a foundati on of grani te rubbl e and in places on the natural
bedrock . The wa lls we re of un baked mud brick strengthe ned with
timbers . Th ese timbers ran through the wa lls both parall el to the faces
and through the thi ckness . As in so me other Nubi an fort s, some 01
these st rengthe ning timber s had burned (perhaps during an attack I,
resulting in the firin g of the mud bri cks of a large area of the wes t cnd
of the for t. Th e wall s have ba sti on s at the corners , gateways and otlu»
defensive points .
Th e accommodat ion at Semna is dominated by barrack-styl e COl li
plexes of three rooms , and held the largest garrison south of Mil'
gissa. These co mplexes co uld have housed bet ween 4 and 10 men
each, allowing a rough es timate of between 2 16 and 540 for the west
wing alone (the excavator, George Reisner, gave a rather co nserva tive
maximum of 300 men for the whole fOI1). A recent assessme nt of tilt
defense needs of a fort , at one man per met er of wa ll. provides a much
higher figure, 800 men. Even if this was necessar y for full defense
that ca pac ity may only have been reached occas ionally. If we allow I
to 2 met ers of wall per man , Se mna wo uld have required about <l OO
men , con sistent with the higher estimate of barrac k potenti al.
There we re remain s of thr ee templ es , associated with the three nm
jar period s of occupation during the Middle and New Kingdoms alld
the reign of the Kushite phar aoh Taharqo (69 0-664 BC) . The faca dl
of the New Kingdom templ e (built by Thutmose III ) carries a rel ict
and inscription of the Ku shite queen Karimala re ferring to civil WII'
in the co untry (probab ly to be dat ed so meti me during the 9th- Hth
ce nturies BC) .
The fortress name was Sekhcm-Khakaure, "Kha-kau-Re is POWl'1
ful ," Kha -kau-Re being the thron e name of Senusret III. The Ii III
marked his southern boundary. The Semna stelae (now in the Bcrhu
Museum) give an account of Senusret Ill's command to his troops III
protect the border and the role of pharaoh to extend the boundaries 01
Egypt. One role of the fortress was to control Kushit es pass ing north
ward by land or river and allowing only those who had come to lrad,
(which was carricd out at the great depot of Mirgi ssa) . A papyrus docu
I (REIGNED C. 1965- 1920 Be) • 209
mcnt, the Semna Dis patches (London, Briti sh Museum), details the ob-
servations made of peopl e passing the fort in the late Middl e Kingdom.
A sma ll outpos t, Semna South, stood on the wes t bank about one
kilometer to the south of the main fort, controlling the access to the
narrow rive r gorge. Su rrounded by a stone glacis 10 meters wide, it
had an outer girdle wall of mud brick four met ers wide and a dry dit ch
.50 met ers wide , Inside thi s was the main encl os ure with square bas-
lions. The walls , 12 meters wide at the base, were built on an artific ial
terrace cut into the alluv ium, All of these defenses enclosed an inter-
lIal area measuring 34 met ers by 33 met ers , but without any penna-
' lent structures. There mi ght have been spur wa lls in the river to make
the channels deeper and therefore eas ier for navigati on , and to direct
ships toward the narrow roc ky chann el. Se mna South also prevented
allYenemy troops landing c lose to the main fortress .
.... ENMVT. The name of a fortress in the regi on of Aswa n and the First
( 'ataract . It has often been equ at ed with the large island of Bigga, at
I he head of the cat aract, and there is evide nce that the island had that
u.une in the Ptol emaic and Roman periods . However , it has recentl y
been suggested that the earli er fort ress of Senmut might actua lly be a
II :IIne for the who le region enc losed by the wall that ran from Aswan
to the head of the catarac t, and which probably dat es to the j oint reign
or Amenemha t II and Senusret II .
I':NNACHERIB (reigned 704--681 IIC). Emperor of Assyria, of the
Sargonid dynasty. Senn acherib ascended the throne on the death of his
luther, Sa r gon II. In response to the " rebellion" of Hezekiah of .lu-
duh, Se nnacheri b led the Assyrian armies wes twa rd in 70 I Be.
IIczckiah sought help from Egypt , and an army was dispatched, ac-
to the bibli cal nnrrati ve , under the command of Taharqo. The
1l'Ignlllg pharaoh was probabl y Shabaqo. The Egypti an force was de-
h'ated at the battle of Eltekeh and wi thdrew to Gaza. Sennacherib' s
II l1 l1y div ided, one part besieging Lachi sh and the other Jerusalem un-
Iii Ilc zekiah The later yea rs of Sennacheri b's rei gn
tucoccupi ed With events in Babylon, allowi ng Egy pt under Shebitqo
li nd Taharqo to expand their influence in Sy r ia and Palestine.
I 1965-1920 IIC). Pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty.
MUSI bgyptologlsts think that there was a joi nt rul e bet ween Se nusret
210 • SENUSRfT II (RUGN ED C. 1880 -1874 Be)
I and his father Amenemhat I , lasting for 10years. This would haw
included some of the majo r mili tary act ions in Nubia . Senusre t I con-
tinued the Egyptian expansion into Nubia begun by Menthuhotep (I
and A menernhat I. This began with the conquest of Wawat, as far
Gir gawi, foll owed by the journey through the southern part of Wawat
by the Vizier Inyotefiqer to "pacify" the country and a final advance
to Buhen and the Second Cataract. Senusret I was responsible for tlit'
construction of some of the Nubian fortresses: Kubban, Ikkur , aml
Aniba, between Aswan and the Second Cataract, and Buhen. The Nil
bian ca mpaigns are recorded by the rock inscrip tions of lnyotefiqci
and ot hers at Girgawi , and by inscriptions of high officials from vari
ous parts of Egypt. Among those who took part were Arneny, the no
marc h of Beni Hassan in Midd le Egypt , and Sirenput I of Aswan . Two
stelae in the Florence Museum also record the victories . Se nusrct I
was also active in the amethyst mines of Wadi el Hudi in Lower Nil
biu, the Wadi Harnmamat and desert route to the Red Sea . A fragmcut
of a battl e scene was recovered from his pyramid complex at Lisht.
SENUSRET II (reigned e. 1880--1874 Be). An inscription of the olf
cia l Hepu, dated after Se nusret Il's year 35, is carved on a rock Oil
which the wall from As wa n to the head of the First Catar act is COli
structed. This suggests that the wall was built at that time.
SENUSRET III (r eigned c. 1874-1855 li e). Pharaoh of the 12th Dy
nasty. Senusret III con solidated the Egyp tian expansion into Nuhln
and control of Wa wat and the Second Cataract. There was an ad
vance south of the catarac t into the territor y of Kus h, but this was 11 0 1
followed up. The eve nts are document ed by rock inscriptions from
Aswan to Dal , by private stelae of offic ials, and by two stelae from
Se mna, now in the Berl in Museum. The first campaign was in year
8. This established the boundary at Semna and saw the construction
of a fort there. The canal through the Firs t Cataract at Sehel WII
cleared for shippi ng. A second campaig n might have taken place ill
year 9. A third expedition in year to went south of the Seco nd
Ca tarac t. It is recorded on its return j ourney at Da l, but there is no n-I
erence or indication of military actions (althoug h doubtless large COli
tingents of the army acco mpa nied it) and it might have been peu«
Iul , or a show of stre ngth south of the border . Year 16 saw th
SETY I (REIGNED C. 1294- 1279 Be) • 211
compieuon of the fortress of Urona r ti and the setting up of the sec-
stela <11. Se mna. A rock inscription at Uronarti and a private stela
of the official, Saseret, record a mil itary action in year 19. Sen usret
w mpleted the construction of the Second Catarac t fort s, most no-
(ably those protecting the narrowest point of the river, Semna, and
Kllmma: The t':o stelae in Berlin define Se nusret's att itude toward
(he front ier and Its defense. There was one Asi atic campaign, doc u-
mented by the stela of Sobekhu now in the Manchester Museu m
(3306) . Thi s invo lved an attack on Shechem. A fragment of a battle
scene was recovered from the pyramid complex at Dashur,
SFI' ED L' .
. , • . ibyan tribal group. The Seped were associated with the Mesh.
wesh, and the Libu in the Libyan War of year 5 of Ramesses III,
SESOSTRIS or SESONCHOSIS LEGEND. The legend of the world
conqueror Sesostris appears in a number of Greek and Roman sources
II ISclearly based upon Ramesses II and his throne name Usemlaetre:
SETH. Bell igerent dei ty ass ociated with deserts and storms. Seth was
the of the goddess Nut, from whose body he violentl y ripped his
entry II1t o the world. He was depicted wi th an animal's head wi th a
IOllg snout :tIlt.1 tall , straight, flat-ti pped ears. The Egyp tians had an
attitude to this de ity, although he was favored in certain
and at certain periods. Se th became associ ated wit h the Syr-
ran thunder god Baal , and texts will ofte n parallel the two, so in a lit-
l" r:: r
to Thutmose Ill 's Syri an Wars, the horses of
pharaoh. s enemies become Baal and Seth. Ramesscs II , however,
Is himself likened to "Seth great-of-strength, Baa l in perso n" at the
hattIe of Qadesh. Other inscripti ons of the pharaoh 's rage in bat rle al-
.Iude to Seth as "the son of NUl" without act ually naming him
Ihrough the equation with Baal , Seth became associ ated with the
'oddesses Anath and Astar te.
c. 1294-1279 Be). Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. Sety
II.IS.1 military officer and governor ofTjar u in the reign of Horemheb.
Iloremheb appears to have appointed an elderly military official as his

21 2 • SETY I (REIGNEDC 1294- 1279 sc)
successor. who ascended the throne as Ramesses I, although it seems
certain that he took a longer view and intended the throne for Sety and
his sons. In his first year Sety led a campaign against the Sh asu . This
involved a march from Tj aru to Gaza along the Ways of Horus . The
rul er of Hammath sent troops to occupy Beth Shean. In response, Sety
sent divisions against Hammath, Beth-Shean (where a stela was set up).
and Yenoam. all of which were captured. The effect was to secure the
Esdraelon plain and nort h Jordan Valley. Sety was now probably able
to occupy Galilee and the coast as far as Tyre.
In succeeding campaigns, Set y led his armies to Yenoam and Dam-
ascus, and along the Sea Coast through Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and
Sumur. The third or fourth campaign involved an engagement with the
Hittites . In year 4 or 5 Sety led his army westwa rd aga inst
the Libyans. This was the first major offensive recorded against the
Libyans for a considerable period of time. This action marks an Egypt-
ian response to the eastwa rd movement of Libyans, a process that con-
tinued in the reign of Ramesses II and culminated with a Libyan inva-
sion of Egypt in the reign of Merenptah. The import ance that Sety
accorded to his Libyan campaign is indicated by its inclusion among
the other wars, which were depicted in relief on the nort h exterior wall
of the hypostyle hall of the temple of Amun at Karnak (Thebes) .
In year 5 or 6, Sety I directed a campaign agai nst Qadesh . This was
part of the continuing host ility betwee n Egypt and the Hittites ,
had begun late in the reign of Akhe naten and had come to conflict 111
the reign of Tutankhamun and also, perhaps, that of Horemheb . TIl<'
ar m)' was probably transpOlted by ship to the Phoeni cian coas t, from
where it marched inland. Qadesh was captured and a stela set up
within it. The city seems to have come under Hittite control again
shortly after and a peace treaty may have been drawn up. However.
hostilities broke out again ear ly in the reign of Ramesses II.
In year 8, attention was directed to the south, when lrem in Nuhin
rebelled. Two stelae, from Amara and Sai , record that the army ieu
the Nile Valley and crossed the desert. Followi ng a batt le, they rc
turned with captives and booty. Th e text is typically imprecise, and II
numbe r of alternative locat ions for lrern , and hence di rection of thr
expedition, have been sugges ted. Argument s have been made in I'll
vor of the oases to the west of the Nile in the Abri-Delgo Reach, till'
Bayuda Desert itsel f, or the Berber-Shendi Reac h of the Nile.
SIiABAQO (REIGNED C 711-695 BC) • 2 13
The of Sety I marks a return to a much more active military in-
volvement In western As ia following the relative peace of the later 18th
Dynasty when Egypt was recognized as pre-eminent. This is a direct
resulto f the. collapse of the kingdom of Mitanni and the expansion of
the I-Ilttlte.s .Into north Syria. The battle reliefs at Karnak vividly depict
the and are some of the most important of such scenes to
survive . The temple of Rarnesses II at Beit el-Wali in Nubia also has
showing Nubian, and Asiatic wars. Because the temple
W,IS very early In Rarnesses' s reign, these military actions
can be ascribed to the period when he was active as crown prince.
SETY II (reigned c. 1202-1196 BC). Pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty. son of
M.erenptah. Although Sety is attested as crown prince in his father's
reign. there was a dynastic war following Merenpt ah' s death, in which
Amenmesse seized power in Upper Egypt. It is still not entirely clear
the four-year reign of Amenmesse preceded. or was entirely
that of Sety. No of incident are known, although it
to have been effective , part icularly in Thebes and in Nubia.
Sety II suppressed it, and the usurper ' s monument s were reinscr ibed.
(reign.ed e. 711-695 nc ), Kus hite pharaoh of the 25th Dy-
nasty (the ISoften spelled Shabaka) , Accordi ng to the Graeco-
tradition, Shabaqo invaded Lower Egypt and defeated the
Suite pharaoh Bakenranef (Bocchoris) in battle. then put him to
death. Dated contemporary monuments show that Shabaqo was ac-
knowledged throughout Egypt in his second regnal year. There are
h w . . . '
o eve r, no mscnpnons recording the milit ary activit ies that must
established In Ku sh and Upper Egypt, Shabaqo
IV,IS the successor of Piye, The text on a large commemora tive scarab
III Toronto (Roy al Ontario Museum) can be read as the record of mil-
.acti?n in Sina.i, otherwise there are no known military texts
III this rergn. The biblical and Assyrian sources reveal that Egy pt un-
d.er became actively involved in the poli tics of western Asia .
III Shabaqn's reign, Yarnani, the ruler of Ashdod who had re-
belled aga inst Sar gon II , was extradited to Assyr ia , and it was un-
doubt edly Shabaqo who later supported the rebellion of Hezeki ah of
.I,lIdah ag.ainst the Assy rians. Although it see ms unlikely that
Shabaqo himsel f led the army, an Egypt ian-Kushite force was se nt to
214 • SI IALI AK
I-I ezekiah' s aid and engaged the Assyrians at the battl e of Eltekeh
(701 Be) . Thi s change of polic y was undoubtedl y connect ed with all
increase in Egyptian influence in western Asia , and perhaps al so with
the change of ruler in Assyria itse lf.
SHALFAK. Fortress of the Second Catar act. Part of the defen sive net
wor k of Senusret III . Th e fortress is simil ar in plan to Uronarti arul
likewi se dictated by the topography of the site . The fort was situated
on the wes t bank, and its defensive spur wa ll had towers on the desert
side . Internall y, it was regul arl y planned . Its garrison accommoda tion
was been between 60 and 150; its defense need s 180- 360 or 220-4HII
incl uding the spur walls. It was within signaling di stance of boil:
Uronarti, to the south, and another island fortress , As kut , to the north
SHANGAR. The name for Babylonia as it appears in the Amarna Let »
tel's, with its ca pital at Babylon (Karduniash) . At the time of till'
Amarna Lett ers, the Late Bronze Age of the Nea r East, Bubylouin
was ruled by the Kassites (c . 1595-11 55 Be) .
SHARDANA. One of the Sea Peoples who also appear as merccnaric
in the Egyptian army of the late New Kingdom. In documents of thl
20th Dynasty they are found settled as vet erans in Middle Egypt. II I
the region of Herakleopolis. The name Slumlanu ( or Shell/ell) is !ll' lI
erally thought to relate to that of Sardinia . The usual intcrp rctution I
that , followi ng the repulse of the Sea Peoples in year 8 of Rumessv
Ill , the diffe rent groups were forced back into southern Palestiuv
Some groups, such as the Peleset (Phi listines) settled there, but oth ' 1
sai led west . and settled in new homelands (e.g., the Shardana). A II l ' lI
interpretatio n, by Robert Drews, suggests that the Shardana act ualh
came from Sardinia-and should be rega rded as pirates, mercenaric
and raiders- at the close of the Late Bronze Age. In Egy ptian relicl
from the time of Ramesses II and Ramesses III, the Shardana huv.
disti nctive facial feat ures and wea r a horned helmet. They CaITy ShillI'
swor ds , spears, and a round shie ld. Bronze figures with si mih»
horned helmets and weapons have been found on Sardini a, leudiu
we ight to an association of the Sharda na with the island.
SHARUHEN. Ci ty of Canaan, its identit y with surviving arc hacul«
ical sites is still not absolutely certai n: Tell el Far' a, Tell el Ajj ul, alld
511EBITQO (REIGNID C. 695-690 ' el • 215
Tel Harer, all bei ng proposed . The evide nce from the whole reg ion
that there was a rapid process of large-scal e and highl y organ-
urban settlement in the Middl e Bronze 11-/11 periods. All the
large and small, coastal and inland, were fortifi ed . They were
situated at average of 10 kilomet ers apa rt , which is a high density
lor .the environment al conditions. Sharuhen became the chi ef cit y of
a kingdom flank ed on the north by the kingdom of As hkelon and on
the eas t the kingdom of Hebron . The kingdo m of Sharuhen was
closel y connected wi th the Hyksos kingdom of Avar is. The autobio-
text of Ahmose son of Ibana states that after the capture of
Ahmose I pur sued the fleeing Hyksos, who took refuge at
Sharuhen. There was either a siege last ing three yea rs, or three con-
secutive campaig ns , before the ci ty fell. Sharuhen is later mentioned
in the list of towns captured by Sh eshonq I.
SIIASU. A term used for nomadic peoples. Bedouin , of the eas tern bor-
der Egypt. Sinai. Ca naan. and the Negeb. It is found in Egyptian
texts from the IRth Dynasty to the Kushite period . Unlike more mod-
ern com parnhle groups, they did not have the camel as transport or
pack allllna ls. /\s with other pop ulations that were not permanentl y set-
tled and could not therefore be controlled by the centra l authori ty
te.g.. the Libyans ), they were considered a threat and ofte n associated
in the bureaucratic mind with cr iminals and malcontents. Nomadic
are attested as entering Egypt along the Ways of Horus in the
Old Kingdom. in order to pasture their flocks duri ng times when their
own water sources dried. The texts locate the Shasu in Transjorda n,
Moab, and Edom. TlI1l11a, the copper mining region of Sinai was al so
part of the Shasu lands. Seasonal movement s and raids were poss ible
along a number of routes into north Syria and toward the coas t. Of
thro.ugh the Jordan and JezreeJ Valleys was controlled by the
ligypt ian garrison at Beth-Shean . Military actions by phar aohs agai nst
the Shasu are document ed for the reigns of Scty I and Ramesscs II . A
text probably of the reign of Merenptah reports that the Shasu had
heen given controlled entry through a frontier fortress to the wells of
the Wadi Tumilat. There were settlements of Shasu in Middle Egypt
at Spermeru , 111 the 20th Dynasty, and at Atfih, See a/so ARABS.
SIIEBITQO c. 695-690 nc), Kushite pharaoh of the 25t h Dy-
nasty (the name IS often spelled Shabaraka). Because of uncertaint ies
2 1 6 • 511[ KU [ 5' 1
about the precise length of his reign , it has been proposed that he was
the pharaoh who was responsibl e for sending an ar my to the aid of
1·lezekiah of Judah , whi ch confronted the army of Sennacherib, king
of Assyria, at the battle of Eltekeh in 70 I Be. However , it seems more
likel y that this was his predecessor Shabaqo. The bibli cal record con
fuses the issue further by attributing the action to Taharqo. Shebitqo
adopted an imperialist titul ary, although there are no firml y docu
mented campaigns during the reign . He is also shown being present ed
with the khepesh-sword by the god Amun in reli efs at Thebes . An in
scription of the rei gn of Taharqo states that Shebitqo summoned him
to Egypt , along with other princ es and the army.
SHEKELESH. Ethnic group who served as mercenaries in the Egyptian
amlY. Also one of the Sea Peoples. Their name associates them with
Sici ly. Earlier Egyptologists assumed that they eve ntually setlied on Ihr
island , although it has more recentl y been sugges ted that they cunu-
from Sicily as raiders and mercenary troops in the Late Bronze Age,
SHESHONQ I (reigned c. 945-924 li e). Libyan pharaoh of the 2211 d
Dynasty, Apparentl y rel ated to an earlier Libyan pharaoh , Osorkuu
(known in literature as "Osochor" or "Osor kon the elde r") , and d("
sce nded from a line of increasi ngly powerful and influent ial Libyuu
chieftains, Shes honq I established a new dynasty. Hi s center of pOW"1
was in the eas tern Delta, at Per-Bastet (Bubastis), where Libyan s hlld
been sell led in military encampme nts during the rei gn of Ramessr
II . It took some time for Sheshonq to assert his authority over till
whole of Egy pt because he is stiII described as the "Chief of the Mn,'
a Libyan tribal titl e, rather than by royal titl es, in an inscripti on of III
second year at Karnak , Hi s highest known regnal year is 21 ,
The principal military record of the rei gn is the large reli ef on 11 11
south exterior wall of the great hypostyle hall in the templ e of K:II
nak (Thebes) , Thi s de picted Shes honq on a vast scale, smi ting his " II
ernies before an equally large figure of the god Amun , who gra sp
the lines of loop s that co nta in the names of ca ptured town s and COli II
tries. Altoge ther, 154 towns are named, ma ny of wh ich ca n conli
dentl y be identified . It is, however, mor e difficult to recon struct th,
actual course of the ca mpaign. Th e toponyms fall into several di st ill' I
SllfSIl ONQ I (REIGNEDc. 945 -92 4 Be) • 2 1 7
and it has been concluded that , aft er a coastal march Ihrough
Ruphia and Gaza, the army split into two or more div isions, one
marchin g through southern Judah and the Negeb, the other through
Israel. Th e southern army might have split into eve n smaller unit s: it
certainly "captured" Shar uhen. The north ern army march ed alon g a
well-used rout e through Gezer, Aij alon , Beth-Horon 10 Shechem ,
Tirzah, Succoth , and eve nt ually up to Beth Shean, Taanach and
Megiddo, before turning back south to Aphek .
At Megiddo, Sheshonq set up a stela, of which only a small Iras -
ment survives. Thi s is the on ly archaeological evide nce that co nfin; s
the campaign, alth ough att empts have been made to ident ify destruc-
lion 1
vel s at throughout Palestine with it. The equation of de-
s.tructlon level s With events recorded in literary sources is al ways di f-
ficult : and rarel y acc urate, relying as it does on the interpretati ons and
of.the excavators. [t is also likely that many of the towns ca-
pllul a.ted .wlth forc e being required (especially if
they received littl e military assistance from the Israelit e or Judaean
.Sheshon.q 's is certainly the most aggressi ve Egypt-
Illllr.tary action III wes tern Asia since late Ramesside times (the
reign of Ramesscs VI , if not that of Ramesses III ), but does not ap-
pear to had any last ing result s, St atues of Sheshonq I and two of
his Immediate successors suggest that Egy ptian tradin g relations with
/lybl os continued, but the internal politi cs of Israel and Jud ah with
the of Damascus and Assyria, (and perhaps also tile in-
of the pharaohs themselves) pre vent ed further Egypti an
consolidatinn of Sheshonq 's expedition.
It has been widely assumed that Sheshonq I led only one Asi atic
campaign and that this came late in his rei gn . There are very few
dated of events in this reign and there is nothing to preclude
a much earli er date for the campaign. It is also possibl e that the Kar-
nak record in fact includes several different actions. If we are to as-
sume that the Karnak Jist is of one sea son, then Shes honq must have
had reserves to be abl e to separate his army into
so many di visions. A series of more concentrated expedi tions, over
perhaps three seasons, would have enabled him to dire ct the whole of
his army again st the fortifi ed cities of Isr ael.
The cam.paign of Shes honq I has generally been identi fied by Egyp-
tnlogi sts WIth that of the "Shishak, king of Egypt " recorded in the bib-
lical record (I Kings, 14:25-6; 2 Chronicles 12:3-4) , Shi shak is said
218 • SHIELD
to have ca ptured Jerusalem in the firth year of the reign of Rehoboam.
which can be dated qu ite co nfidently to 925 Be. Close exami nation n\
the two records shows that the ca mpaigns are ce rtai nly not the sa me.
Nevertheless , the equ ation of " Shishak" with Sheshonq I is still gcn
erally recognized and has served as a chronologica l fixed- point.
SHIELD. The shield (in Egyptian ikem) was use d as a defense aga inst
most weapons in hand-tn-hand comba t and aga inst arrows . It con i
pri sed a wooden frame with anima l hide stretc hed over it. Thi s was
frequentl y ox hide, indi cated in depi cti on s by the color ing and pal
terning and in writing by the use of an ox hide in the spelling of till'
word. Sce nes of the tribute of Nubia depict shields covered wi th
more exotic animal skins , prob abl y chee tah and giraffe . Shields with
ox hide we re also part of the Nubi an tribute, leather worki ng being II
product of Kush . Most shields were wo rn attached to the left arm and
we re Oat along the base, wi th a poin ted , arced , or semicircular top.
Some shields tall enough to conceal a man are shown in Middle
Kin gdom sce nes. Circular shields we re used by the Sha r dana, th..
Hittites. and the Ass yrians . In chariot wa rfare, the shield was cal'
ried by the dr iver of the chariot. Ramesses II names his
at the battle of Qadesh, and in the scenes of the batt le, the Egypti,nl
camp is surrounded by a palisade of shields . Fou r functio nal and foiu
ceremo nial shields we re found in the lomb of Tuta nkhamun . TIll'
ce remonial shields have gilded openwork scenes in woo d , show in r,
for example, the pharaoh as a victorious sphinx or slayi ng lions. TIll'
functional shields were covered with cheetah and antelope skins. Tu
ta nkhamun' s ceremonial shields were betwe en 0 .83 and 0 .89 meter
and the functional ones about 0 .79 met ers hi gh . There is evidence
that figure-o f-eight shaped shields , used by the Hittites , were also
manufactured in Egypt , but the rul es af fec ting depi cti on of Egyptian
means that they do not appear in scenes of battle .
SHISHAK. Pharaoh of Egy pt referred to in the biblical record ( I Kin '
14: 25-6; 2 Chronicles 12: 3-4) . Shishak is said to ha ve invaded .J".
dah in the year 5 of king Rehoboam, captured .Jerusalem. and taken
the furnishings of Solomon's temple and palace as tribute, instead III
destroying the city. Th e event can be acc urately dated to 925 III
Shishak's army comprised 1.200 cha r iots , 60 ,000 parasiim (taken til
SIAMU N (REIGNLD C. 978- 9S0 lie) • 219
" h " ) d mean . an a number of fore ign troops: Libyans, Sukiirn,
and Kuslutes . If parasiim is really to be understood as "ca valr y," it is
large number at a time when char iot war fare was still
favored III Egypt . and the ar mies of Assyr ia depl oyed only small num-
bers of cavalr y, mainly as outriders. Rehoboam had fortifi ed 15 cities
Judah, all of which were captured in Shishak 's advance. Egypt olo-
have always identi fied Shishak wi th Sheshonq I and related the
biblical record to that of Sheshonq's Asiatic ca mpaign recorded at Kar-
nak. Some dissenting voices point ed out the fundamenta l differences
betwe.en the campaign of Sheshonq I as document ed by the Karnak in-
scn puon and that of in the biblical narrati ve. The campaign of
Shes honq I was certainly di rected toward the Negeb region of Judah in
the south and toward the kingdom of Israel , rather than to cen tral Ju-
dah. Of the towns captured by Sheshonq I, onl y Ai jalon is found
among those that fell to Shishaq. Eve n if "Shishak" is to be ident ified
With Sheshonq I, it is certain that the bibl ical account and the Karnak
inscr iption record two completel y different campaigns .
SIIUNET EL ZEBIB. Early Dynastic monument at Abydos , also
kno": n as the "Middl e Fort." It is a large rect angular enc losure with
wa lls of mud brick, ori ented to the ca rdinal points. It is sirn-
111 design to, and probably close ly co ntemporary wit h, a mud-
structure of the reign of Khasekhemwy at Nekhen (Hierakon-
Both structures were thought by ea rl ier archaeologists to be
but. are thought to be reli gious , rather than military,
edifices, associa ted WIth the burials of the Ear ly Dynastic pharaohs.
NeveI1.heless , the architect ure must have close si milarities to early
defensive structures .
(reigned c, 978-950 BC) . To thi s obscure pharaoh . an Asiatic
ca mpa rgn has been attributed on sca nty ev idence . A rel ief block from
Tanis Siamun smiting a figure of which only the hands are
Sia rnun been identified as the unn amed pharaoh who,
according to the biblical account of I Kings 9: 16. ca ptured Gezer,
and gave It as a to his daught er who marri ed So lomon, king of
Isr ael. The Tani s reli ef fragme nt is cited in support of the biblica l
record. It is claimed that the fore ign figure hol ds a double-headed axe
reminiscent of a type used in the Aegean and western Anat olia and
220 • SIEGE
that it therefore rep resents a Philistine or one of the Sea Peoples .
a res ult , it is stated that Siamu n purs ued a war in Phil isti a and was all
ally of Israel. The equation of Siamun wi th the unnamed biblica l
pharaoh is based so lely on the as sumptio n that the da tes calculated
for the rei gn s of Solomon and Siamu n are correct, which they proh
ab ly are not. In conseque nce , Si arnuu's militar y activities and pol iti
cal involvement wi th Israe l are unsubst antiated . The rel ief is mos:
probably a co nve ntional smiting sce ne .
SIEGE. Attacks on fortificat ions are de pic ted in the lat e Old Kingdom
in the tomb of Kaemheset at Saqqar a and Inti at Deshasheh. These
em ployed scaling ladders and sa p pe rs to undermine the wa lls . Sim
ilar attacks on fortified towns appear in the lat e First Intermedi at e 1\ ,
riod and early Mi ddle Kingd om tombs at Ben i Hasan.
Physical evi dence o f att ack comes from the fortress of Buhcn ill
Nubia . Such attacks may have followed sieges, but the di rect evi dence
for siege is in the literature. In his pursuit of the Hyksos , Ahmose I
besieged Sha r uhen for three years, or in three campaigns. Th ut mnss
III besieged Megiddo for eight months, Piye laid siege to Khmunn ,
whi le his vas sal , Peftjauawybast, was himsel f besieged wit hin Herak
leopolis . These, and other siege s report ed duri ng Piye 's campaign,
were relat ively short , probably lasting between days and months .
The length of a siege was di ct ated by pract ical fact or s of how 10111'
the occupants could wit hsta nd, de pendi ng on food supplies stonx!
wi thin the city and access to water. Tcfnakht prepared for Memphis It,
be placed unde r siege by Piye, ens uring that the walls were in good 0 1
der, the gar r ison eq uip ped , and food brou ght into the c ity. Hczekiah t Il
Judah prepared for the assault on Jerusalem by Sennacherib by COli
structing the Si loam tunn el to gain access to a good water supply. Tlu-
sce nes o f Se nnac herib's assault on Lachi sh , foll owing the siege of till'
city, show the use of siege towers, sappers, and batte ring rams. Resi
tance by the besieged includes the usual weapons and a rai n of light ,,"
torches bei ng thrown down on the attacki ng army.
Sieges we re apparently accompan ied by int ensi ve dipl omati c :1\'
t ivit y involving royal envoys to e ncourage capitu lation. /\1
Jerusalem, in an atte mpt to encourage internal op position, S,' II
nache rib' s en voys broke protocol by using Hebrew to address th,
popul ation gathered on the wa lls directl y, ra ther than the d iplonuui.
SINAI • 221
langu age . At Khmunu , the royal women of both sides ac ted as inter-
mediaries between the besieged Ni ml ot and Piye.
mou.ntaino us .peni nsu la lying immediat el y east of Egypt. It
IS roug hly tnangu lar III shape, fla nked by the northern bran ches o f
the Red Se.a, .the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. The northern
coa sta l plain IS sandy and was difficult to cross in ancient times . Th e
<:nast. road, the Ways of Horus , or Via Mari s ra n fro m the Egypt ian
I o f Tja r u (Te ll el- Hebwa) and Pelusion to Brook-
(Rh moeol ur a) and Gaza. The d iffic ulties of th is road
g.ave Egyp.t prot ecti on from invasions , but not complete secu-
nty, and significant battl es occurred along its route. The southern
parts of the .penins ula have some important mi neral resources , no-
tab ly turqu oi se and coppe r. Si nai was inha bited by Bedouin Ar a bs
alld entered Egypt, sometimes seasonally, and
the fort ifica tions , III the Wadi Tumilat might have been , in part in-
tended to contro l the m. '
The.Fi rst Dynast y pharaoh Den mi ght have bee n active in Sinai,
and evidence from the rei gn of Khasekhcmwy, at the end of the Sec-
has also been interpreted as referrin g to military actio ns
In the regi on..Rock inscripti ons of the Ol d Kingdom at the turquoi se
of Wadi Maghara usuall y depi ct the pharaoh in the act of srnit-
:. 111 "enemy," althou gh there are no det ailed records o f military ac-
Do ubtles s any mining expedi tion was accompanied by con-
I:nge nts of the a r my. The pharaoh s a tte sted are Sa na k h t ,
Sckhem khet , and Sneferu.
" led one or more ca mpaigns int o
S111<11 after hIS reulllftcatlOn of Egypt. Durin" the Middl e K' rd
' , e mg om,
was at the turquoi se mi nes of Wadi Maghara and
Scrablt,el-Khadlm, A defensive sys tem, ca lled the Walls of the Ruler
was bl." lt by Amenemha t I to defend the Egy ptian border. Th ere is
extens ive evidence for the New Kingdom defen ses of
'.he region , at Egyptia n mining ac tivi ty was
concenu at Serabi t el-Khadim for turq uoise and Timna for cop-
per. The from Timn a spans the 19th and 20th Dyn ast ies
Irom the rei gn 01 II to that of Ramesses V.
222 • SINUl lf
Most of the later ev ide nce rel at ing to Sin ai is co nce rne d with thr
coastal roa d, rather than the peninsula proper. A scarab of the Ku shitv
phar aoh Sha baqo suggests mil itary ac tion agai nst the Shas u. Th e As-
syr ia n e mpe rors, Sa r gon II, Esarha ddon , and As hur ba nipa l, in
vade d Egypt and engaged Egyptian ar mies at Gaza and Raphia. The
Babylonian king, Nebuc ha d ne zza r II , also invaded Egypt using lhb
route, as did the armies of Persia, the Macedon ian adventurer Amyn-
tas , and Alexander th e Gr eat. Along the coast , the Ptolemies co n
fronted invasion by the di adochoi , and various Se leuki d ki ngs 01
Sy ria, most imp or tantl y when Ptolemy IV repulsed Ant iochos III 11 1
the batt le of Raphia (2 17 BC) .
SINUHE. The Tale of Sinuhe is a literar y work of Middle Kingdom dat e,
surviving in numerous copies . The narrat ive beg ins wi th the death 01
Amenemha t I , while his son and co rege nt, Se nusret I , was on a mil
itary ca mpaign against the Li byans . The narrat ive tell s that Si nuhc i,
with the expedition and overhears the plotti ng of one of the princes
he flees . The remainder of the tale recounts his time abroad and even
tual ret urn to Egy pt. Si nuhe spends his time with seminomadi c tent
dwell ers in Ret enu. Th ese would be co mparable with, although till' '
are not ca lled, the Shasu. Sinuhe becomes comma nder of troops 1'01
the rul er of Ret enu. He has to fight with the cham pion of Ret enu, Si n
uhe lists the weapons he uses: the se lf-bow tpedj et i , dagger (bages/ll,
javelin (Ilywy), and axe tminb). In the combat, they begin wi th haul
axe and shield and end with bow and a r row. Having slain his oppo
nent , Sinuhe shouts his war cr y, then takes his goods and his cattle.
SLING. A simple but e ffec tive weapo n for tiri ng stones. The sling i
shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middl e Kingdom
tombs at Beni Hasan . Exa mples found in the tomb of Tutankha mun
were made of linen . Despi te its rare appearance in battle scenes , II
was probab ly widel y used . At the siege of Lachish, the army of Sl'n
nacherib, king of Assyr ia , inc lude s soldier s usin g the sli ng. Aslin
shot from the Ptol emaic and Roman peri od s could be mad e of IClld
and carried inscr ibed messages for the unfort unate recipient.
SNEFERU (r eigned c. 2613-2589 lie ). Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynusr v
There are some indi cati on s that this reign mi ght actually have been III'
to 48 years . record s a campaign in Nubia agai nst
the which the ki ng captured 7,000 peop le and 200, 000
cattle. ThI S might have been into the Eas tern Desert, where there we re
cattle herders or south of the Second Cataract , into the
region lat er known as Kus h . A roc k-c ut scene of the king smiting an
enemy was carved at Wad i Mahgara in Si nai, probably in rel ation to
the turquoi se mines . The king is also known to have construc ted a
large fleet, includi ng sea-going vess els built with cedar from Lebanon .
li e built a forti tied de fense on the eas tern border ca lled the "walls of
the Southland and of the No rthland called the Houses of Sneferu "
This might be a precurso r of the Walls of the Ruler and the defense
with a canal of the New Kingdom known from the 12th Dynasty,
.'it m EKHU (fl.c, 1860BC). Mi litary offi cial whose career under Senus -
ret I II is document c:d by a stela now in Manchester Museu m (3306) .
Sobekhu was a warnor of the roya l bodyguard and comma nded seven
men of the Kin g' s Residence. I le later became a fo llower (Shemsu) of
the ruler wi th the co mmand or 60 me n. He finally rose to be an in-
vtructnr of retainers wilh a co ntingent of 100 men "as a reward." He
-crvcd wi th the pharaoh on both Nubi an and Asiatic campaigns .
SOCIAL AI>VANCEI\ IENT. Still a conlroversial subject in Egyptology,
I here ,IS a hel d view that the New Kingdom mi litary service en-
ahled individuals to ga in soc ial advancement. The ev idence seems to in-
dicate a very closed elite, but nevertheless, both milit ary and scribal tal-
might have led to soc ial advanceme nt, as in other soci eties. Even
111 closed elites . ability plays an important role, and with only a very lim-
number of top j obs , it must have been significant in an official' s ap-
porntment. Reward was a refl ecti on of, but also an aid to, advancement
There is good ev idence for the award of plots of land to soldiers who '
even if originally of quite humble origi n, might thereby have acquired
enough economic power to gain entry to the scribal class . The son of a
soldier, Ahmose son of Eba na also began his career as a soldier, rising
10 become a crew comma nder. Active in many campaigns , he was re-
With go ld, slaves , and land . His tomb at Nekheb was at least
partially decorated by his grandson, Paheri, who was a scribe of the
treasury and mayor of the towns of Nek heb and Esna. It could be that
Ahmose was the founder of the fami ly fortun es .
224 • sa l
SOLDIER. Although there must have bee n some men who became full
time soldiers in the Old Kingdom, the bulk of the a r my was COli
scri pted for spec ific pur poses. The Egyptians emp loyed mercenaries
from a very early da te, and these always formed a sig nificant proper
tion of the army. The first mercenary troop s attested are Nubians; latci
large numbers of Libyans and As iatics, not abl y some of the Sea Peo-
pl e , such as the Sha r dana, were recrui ted. In the Late and Ptolern uic
Periods, Gree ks from the Aegean and Anatolia , and J ews , also served,
Egyptian literature compares the hard life o f the foot so ldier with
that of the bureaucracy who had the power to co nscript levies ami
had a re lat ive ly easy life . Ce rtai nly tra ining and drill was rigorous .
but it was possible to ac hieve some wealth thro ugh reward after II
battle , incl uding parcel s of land . Veterans (in the Ptol emai c period,
ca lled cleruchsi were also given land and this perhaps led to sociII I
adv ancement . The Greek writer Herodotos desc ribes the rniliuu '
caste , ca lled the machimoi , of the Lat e Period, altho ugh there is 11\1
evidence of it in earl ier periods . Eve n though Egy pt had a large fleet
and na vy, it was ordinary so ldiers that foug ht on the ships ,
SOMEIRA, Sma ll fo rtress or wa tc h tower o f lat e Roman or Byzantim
da te, in the nort hern part of Khar ga Oasis. The fort sta nds on 11 11
pl ain about two ki lometers south of the almost ide ntica l tower of " I
Gi b . 1t is roughly square, 14 meters each side, with round corner tow
ers (now co llapsed) and an entrance on the south side . The inter im I
inaccessib le, bei ng a mass of falle n br ickwork.
SPARTA . Ci ty and kingdom of southern Greece . Sparta was the donu
nant ci ty of the Pel oponnese and main political rival of Athens. It wn
at times supported by Persi a- and as a monarchy was co nsi de red pil I
Persian- compared wi th Athens' usual anti-Persian posi tion, Spallll
had direct invol vement with Egy pt in the reign of Nefaar ud I. In .I""
BC, the Spartan king, Agesilaos II , sought an alliance wi th Nefuuuul
prior to leading the Greek army aga inst the Persi ans. This was relu s 'II
but in the follow ing year, Nefaarud supplied the Spartan fleet , whk h
wa s at Rhodes, wi th eq uip ment for 100 triremes and 500,000 1111' "
sures of corn. Nakht ne bef ent ere d into an anti- Persian alliance wllh
Sparta and Athens . Agesilaos II co mmanded a large force of (In', •
mercenar ies when Dj edhor invaded Palest ine in 360 BC but lent Iiis 11111
to the r ebellion of Nakhthor heb later the same year.
In th . SP/I INX • "" "
e rei gn of Pt I ' - ,
Kleomenes III (re ] 0 emy III , the rapid rise of S
' reigned c 235 2 parta I
maic policy on mal I " - 22 BC) dict ated a cha nge I' ,:
Egy t b r In ant Greece Kleo 0 lo/ c_
pt , ut , oll o Wing hi s def . menes was supportcd
Alexa nd r ia . At the b . . ea t by the Macedonian kin g he 11 hy
tempted a coup in of the of Ptolemy ' IV I c,d 10
cOlTl mitted suic ide (220 xandlJa, but this collapsed and KI ' tc at-
-219 BC) . eOl11cncs
,'WEAR, A Slabbing weapon the .
rnct ed on the lat e Pr e I . ' . spear (111 Egyptian hem \') is r .
survive It beer t yndst lc Hun ter 's Pa lette and .: Irst dc-
. arne a pri . , , many flin: bl
used by chariot w . Iln cl pal weapon of the infantr y b I adcs
r arnors A lar d ' u was 'II
. spearme n for . . ' ge woo en model of a cantin" , so
In the 12th Dynast med a co mpanion to one of Nub' gent 0 /
C . ' Y tomb of M I ti Ian areh
,11 m Muse um) . The bla .ese I I at Asyut (these are now i rs
with a tang for athch ade , leaf -shaped, was of copper alloy (b n thc
New Kingdom The mem. Blades with sockets are commo n r ron;-.C)
short. Battle handl e of the spear could b thc
stabbing wea p'o n' S, IOW the Short- handled spear be' e ong Or
. ' II I Cose co nn ' t C1 ' ' /I1g used as
usmg a short-hand led st bbi IC . ia not warriors are a/so sh" a
lance) is also shown. Th e spear. The long-handl ed spe,; r
conflici between Sin uh g I-
rowmg spear (ja ve lin) appears ' re
reign of Sety I ' I . e ant the cha mpion o r Retell F 111 thc
" qUIver for jav I' . u . II
C lariot. Th e Ptolen . . c e Ins IS shown attached t tl IC
in Macedonia the ldlc.army used the cx tre me ly long Pike
, san ssa This ceve 0llc I
rows of soldiers alld . .. . was organi;-.ed in the ph I c
, , IS a co J I . a aux r
lhut of ea rlier per iods TI mp ete y di ffere nt mili tary format' 0
Ptolemy IV at the b';11 Ie phal anx was used with not able ' to
a e of Raphia (2 17 li e) . success by
Solar image , uS11'I1l . .
body. The sphinx was th: i Y com buu ng a human head with a lio
queror, The sphi nx could Image of the pharaoh as the celesti'I' . 1S
) hi a so have a falco I d ' , COn_
. on '. w ich Usually identi r d . . ' n lea (hieraco-sphinx .
sphinx) , Ident ified with Am re It with Monthu; or a ram-he'Id c .' 01
members of the roya l famil Female sphinxes co uld represe n't fc(n
associated with the good y dnd usually wore a wig with tw I 1,llc
male sphinx was (he In the later 18th
'Icfnut. Tiye , queen or of the.
p , was depi cted as a fClllalc
226 • SQUAD
sphinx in the temple at Sedei nga in Nubia , where she was worshipped
as the "Great of Ten'or." Nefertiti wife of Akhenatcn was also depicted
as a female sphinx, trampling the female enemies of Egypt.
SQUAD. The smallest unit of the ar my , comprising 10 men. Five
squads formed one platoon.
STANDARD, MILITARY. The standard was a square or rectangular
plaque carried on a pole. It is shown as carry ing a scene that is rele-
vant to the name of the part icular troop. The poli ce also had standa rds.
Royal standards acco mpanyi ng the pharaoh CatTy images or emblems
of deit ies. These are usuall y the can ine Wepwawet and falcon Horus.
SUPPILULIUMA I (reigned c. 1344-1322 nc ), Great King of the Hit -
tites . The reign of Suppi luliurna saw Hitt ite expansion into north
Syria, at the expense of Mita nni and Egypt. Evidence for eve nts
comes from a number of sources, notab ly a later text ca lled "the
Deeds of Suppilul iuma ,' several peace treat ies, and the Amarna Let-
tcrs . The campaigns were not initially success ful, and the king of Mi-
tanni was able to send a cha r iot as gi ft to Ame nhotep III from the
captur ed boot y. Later actions involved the sack of the capital of Mi-
tanni and campaigns aga inst Nukhashshe, Amurru, and Aleppo. The
result was that former allies of Mitanni became vassals of the Hittites
and, in some cases, were ruled by l!ittite princes.
There is some indication of hostilit y late in the reign of Akhe naten
and indication s of conflict in the reign of Tutankha mun. Hitt ite ca p-
ti ves and tribute are shown being presented by the genera l,
Horemheb , to the pharaoh in his tomb at Saqqara . Following the
death of Tutankhamun, the pharaoh' s widow apparently sought a Hit
tite prince in diplomatic marriage. Suppiluliuma at first di d not be
lieve the request, but a prince , Zannanza, was eventually sent III
Egy pt. He was, however , murdered en route. Th is led to the renewal
of hostilities, which came to a head in the succeeding reigns of Sct y
I and Ramcsses II and the Hittite kings Muwata lli and Mursi li II.
SUPPLIES. Large amounts of foodstuffs and equipment were needed
for the army, either when it was on campaign or stationed in a fron
tier for t ress . Textual and pictorial evide nce shows that when the army
SYRIA • 227
went on camp'Jigll it .
, , I was accompanied by mill . b k
ers, who were responsibl e f tl I . ers, a ers, and brew-
There were also butchers. e rations of bread and beer.
the tomb of Tjanun! Su I' k .mpany the army are shown in
, . pp res ta en with the I
supplemented by forage and b I . ar.my wou d have been
quered territories Spares for ch
1; seizure 01 harvests from con-
horses, and mate; ials and an.d wheels), fodder for
wcapons all accompanied the ex ie and manufacture of
personnel would have been a p d n. Within the fortress, these
, ccommo ated al . I h '
the Second Catar ac t , the island I' ongs rr e t e garnson. At
served as a main grain res ortress of Askut seems to have
erve storage for a b
whereas the large forts of Buhen and Mir i a num er .01' the fort s,
ply depots and might have included th g ssa were equipped as sup-
e support services.
SWORD. The Egypt' d
larger version (Ovelra4nOswc ort' (ca lled tnesu and /lekell) was basica lly a
en Imeters) of the I
and thrusting in close c b S (agger, used for stabbing
om at. Words wer ' I f
(bronze) and only much late [ I T e mace 0 copper alloy
, r 0 Iron he CUlt' . I .
was a later introduc tion Th E ."" mg 01 s ashmg SWord
the sick le-sha ped : ,J gyp.tlantype of the slashing Sword was
peafl ng in the New Kingdom.
SYRIA. A loose term for the region of we . .
with the modern states of S ' d stern ASia largely coincident
' . yrra an Lebano 1'1
names for d ·/'r . n. tere are numerous
I ierent regi ons and st t . .
Nukhashshe N' DI' h . . a es, mcludlll g Amur r u
, IY, lJa y, Takhsy Tuni D '
Damascus , Syria embraced di lTer; nt re f' Hamat h, Aleppo,
along the coast high steppe th a g ons of forested mount ains
, . ' , e rontes Valley and d
I he trading ci ties ofTyre Bybl B ' .' esert to the east.
, os, eirur Ugant a dS
wast, are known under the name Ph '. ,' .un umur along the
with Egypt from the Earl D' . ' and some had contacts
y ynasuc Period The E' .
over much of Syr ia in the New . ' gypnans gained
pargns of Amcnhotcp I 1'1 t KlI1gdom , through the cam-
• IU mose I Thut JII
hUlcp II , but their influence I I' . mosc , and Amen-
am contro 01the 11 1/ .
tested by the ki d . " 01 tern parts was con-
II1g oms of Mita nm and th Hit tl
periods. EgY/Jl' s attempts to ' . fl e I rtes. In the later
regain 111 uence ' S "
hy Assyr ia and Babylon M" . b . 111 yna were opposed
li.nght at Qad esh Q' , .1) 0 1 attles lor control of Syr ia were
, , a rqar, and Ca rchcn ' I S .
the rule of Persia from whom : liS I. yna later came under
, om U was taken by Alexandc r the Grcat.
Following hi s death, much of Syria became part of the empi re of the
Se leukids , although Coele Syria was mainly ruled by the Ptolemies
and was the focus of dis putes in the Syrian Wars .
SYRIAN WARS (PTOLEMAIC). There was regular contlict between
the Ptolemies and the Seleukids for contro l of Coel e Syr ia , which
had been seized by Ptolemy I.
First Syrian War (274-27111(;) . Started by Ptol emy n. In res ponse,
Antioc hos I mobilized to invade Egypt. Ptolemy ensured the de fenses
of the eastern Delt a , but circumstances caused Antiochos to abandon
his plans. A pea ce treaty retained the status quo,
Second Syrian War (260-253 IIC). Agai nst Antioc hos II. In 259/258
BC, Antiochos gained control of Milet os and Samos, and later, follow-
ing the defeat of the Ptolemai c na vy at sea , Ephesos. A second naval
defeat at the battle of Kos (255 BC) ended Ptolemaic control of the Is-
land League. Ptolemy II led his army into Syr ia in 257 BC, but the
progress of the campaign is unknown. Peace was concluded in 253 BC
and sea led by diplomatic marriage. Ptolemy II yielded no terri tory in
Syria , although Antioc hos made substantial gai ns in Anatolia.
Third Syrian War (246-24 / II C). Also known as the Laodicean War,
thi s began as a Seleukid dynastic war. On the (suspiciou s) death of
Antioc hos II , his former wife, Laodike , proclaimed her son , Seleukos
II , king. In response, Ant iochos 's second wife , the Ptolema ic
princess , Berenike, proclaimed her own you ng son, and sought the
help of her brother Ptol emy III who had j ust ascend ed the Egypt ian
throne. Ptolemy sa iled to Syria, where Beren ike controlled the heart
of the kingdom, the cities of Se leukeia in Pieria, at the mouth of the
Oro ntes , and Antioc h. Arri ving in Antioc h, Ptolemy found that
Berenike and her sons had been murdered. Instead of returning to
Egy pt , Ptolemy III marched through Syria to the Euphrates . The
king's record s of the war (the Adulis incr ipt ion and a papyru s from
Guro b) claim he conquered Baktr ia. Ptolemy was forced to return in
245 BC, because of a rebellion by the nat ive Egy ptians .
Se leukos II moved to rega in the lost terri tory, was soon recogni zed
in Babylon, and then throughout the kingdom. A late source says that
Sele ukos attempte d to invade Egypt, but this is unsubstant iated.
Ptol emy III and his army were active in Asia, but there were also con-
flict s in the Aegean . Ptolemy' s half-brother, Ptol emaios Androma-
c 1 ~ o s , lost the naval battl e of Andros aga inst Anti gonos Gonatas , king
of Macedon , (perhaps in 246 BC) , but in the same year, Ephesos was
recaptured and remained a Pto lema ic possession until 197 BC. At the
end of the war , Ptolemy III could claim that some territory had been
gained or reclaimed. One of Ptolemy's most important gai ns was the
vital port of Se leukeia in Pieria, close to his new territories in Cilicia
and Pamph yl ia and the old ones of Cypr us and Coe le Syri a. This ef-
fective ly gave Egypt contro l of much of the Medit er ranean coast
from the western border of Cyre naica to Thrace.
Fourth Syrian War (219-217BC). The amb itious young Seleukid king,
Antiochos III (reigned 223/222- 187 BC) , planned to restore the empire
of Seleukos I and pursue old claims to Coe le Syria. The prologue to the
war began in 22 1 BC, when, despite threats to his rule in Anatolia and in
the east of his empire, Antiochos took advantage of the problems at-
tending the access ion of Ptolemy IV to move on the provi nce. In the
Beqa Valley. Ptolemaic forces under the commander-in-chief of Coele
Syria, Theodotos, held Gerrha and Brochoi and prepared for attack by
erecting a blockade with rampart and ditches. Antiochos suffered great
losses but failed to advance. He withdrew with news of defeats in the
east of his empire, granting Ptolemaic forces a reprieve.
In 2 19 RC, hostilities were opened when Antiochos III reasserted Se-
leukid control over Seleukeia in Pieria, cap tured 27 years before by
Ptolemy III. Theodotos, who had fallen from favor through intrigues at
the Alexandrian court, now offere d to give Coele Syria to Antiochos.
The Se leukid army marched south, taking Tyre and Ptolemais (Ake)
and seizing 40 vessels of the Ptolemaic /leet . Antiochos' s advance was
slowed by local resistance, forcing him to lay siege to a number of
towns . Antiochos failed to capture Dora and Sidon, and a truce was
agreed by both sides for the winter 219/218 Be. The four-month break
in the war allowed preparations for an Egyptian response. Most signif-
icantly, this involved the formation of a force of 20,000 nat ive Egypt-
ian soldiers, trained as a Macedonian phalanx. At the end of the truce
in 2 18 BC, Antiochos 1II retumed to the offensive , but Ptolemy IV held
back until his preparations were complete. The ar my' s progre ss along
the coast was shadowed by the fleet. ASeleukid victory by sea and land
at the Porphyrion pass near Beirut enabled Antiochos to march on
Philadelph ia (Rabbat Ammon, modern Amman) and from there to
Ptolemais (Ake), where they wintered (2 18/2 17 BC) .
Anti ochos continued hi s march alon g the coast toward Egy pt , bill
Ptolemy IV was now prepared. On 22 June 217 BC, the two armi es
clashed at Raphia. The Ptolemaic victory forced Antiochos to ret reat ,
With the possi bility of increased dynas tic problems in Anato lia, An
tiochos sought a swi ft resolution. Ptol emy IV apparently conceded
Seleukeia in Pieri a, whi ch was expensive to hold , but added further
pressur e by a raid in Syri a in late summer 217 Be. Foll owing Raphin,
Antioc hos III evacuated Coele Syria and Lebanon but reassert ed his
authority ove r the eas t of hi s empire and over Anatolia.
Fifth Syrian War (202- /94/3 II C). Shortly after the accession 01
Ptolemy V as a minor , Antiochos III of Syria and Phi lip V of Mace
don moved to divide the Ptolemai c Empire between themsel ves,
Philip V was to take Cy r ene, the Ioni an coast of Asia Minor , and the
Cyc lades; Antiochos was to have Egy pt and Coe le Syria. In 202 Ill ' ,
Antiochos III began the march south. Ca pturing Dama scus and much
of Palestine in 20 I, he advanced on Gaza. The Ptol emaic commander
in-chi ef of Coele Syria and Phoeni cia, Ptolemaios son of Thraseas,
went ove r to the Se leukid side . Antiochos established garrisons and rc
tired lor the wint er of 201 /200 Be, but the Ptolemaic army, with new
recru its from Greece. under the comma nd of Skopas, an Aetolian, rc
occ upied much of Coele Syria during the wi nter of 200 BC.
On the Macedonian front, Phil ip V took Sa mos in 20 I BC, foll owed
by the capture of Ptol emaic possessions in Thrace . In 200 BC, RIIIIII'
moved to support Ptol emy to prevent the forma tion of a large anti
Roman state and to prevent the alliance between Macedon and Syria,
Rome attacked Philip in 200 BC, but Anti och os was still free to attack
Egypt ian territory. The two ar mies came to co nfront eac h other in ti ll'
su mmer of 200 BC. Skopas appare ntly marc hed north from Gaza to
Jeru salem, Sa maria, and through Galilee. Advancing farther north to
ward Damascus , the Pt olemaic force encountered the Sel eukid arm
on the slopes of Mount Hermon , at Panion . An account of the bautc
is given by Polybius (16: 18-1 9). Th e Ptolemaic force was defeated
Skopas and 10,000 survivors took refu ge in the Ptol emaic stronghold
of Sido n, hop ing to be evacuated by sea. The Egypti an navy was til'
layed, Sidon bes ieged, and Skopas and the army were force d to SUI
render , after which they we re allowed to leave (200/ 199 BC).
Anti ochos gained contro l of south Syria (198 BC) before turning III
As ia Minor, where he ca ptured Ptolemaic possessions in Ci licia, Ly
SYRIAN WAR (SIXTH 170/ 169-1 68 Be) • 23 1
cia, Caria Myndos, and Halik arnassos) , and Ioni a (Eph-
esos) 111 197 BC. Direct Roman inter venti on in Macedon (the Second
Mace donian War) culmi nated with the de feat of Philip V at the batt le
of Kynoskeph alai ( 197 BC) . The Syrian War ended wi th the Peace of
Lysimachei a (late 196 or early 195 BC) . at whi ch Rome repr esent ed
Ptolemaic Egypt. Antioc hos III , however, deli vered a dipl omatic
coup: announcing agreements with Ptolemy V and the fort hco ming
marri age between Ptol emy and his daughter, Kleopatr a I. Thi s took
plac.e at Raphia , The princess received Coele Syri a as her dowry, but
III ret ained contro l of the territory. The Fift h Syr-
Ian War e nded with Egypt's loss of Coele Syria and the coastal bases
in Anatol ia, As a resul t, the importance of the remai ning Ptolemaic
possession , Cyprus. increased enormously.
SYIUAN 170/169-168 lie ). Connict between Ptolemy
VI and his uncle Anllochos IV ove r ownership of Coele Syria, The
for Ptolemy VI entered into the war to regain CoeJe Syria
without the appropriate preparat ions. Both Ptolemaic and Seleu kid
envoys were sent to Rome Where the senate att empted to be co ncil-
iatory without taking sides because it was preparing for war wi th
Macedon. It was Ant iochos IV of Syria who moved first, marc hing
past Gaza and defeating the Ptol emaic army bet ween MOUn! Kasios
and Pelusion , whi ch was bes ieged. Ant iochos IV qui ckl y took co n-
trol of large parts of Lower Egypt. Ptolemy VI went to see Antiochos
in person in his ca mp, but the Alexa ndr ians immedi ately hailed his
brother, Ptolemy VIII, as so le king . In response, Anti ochos besieaed
Alexand r ia, and the governme nt sent an embassy to Rome seeking
help (su mmer 169 BC) . The ann ual inundation made the attack on
Alexa ndria eve n more di fficult , and Antiochos left Egy pt in the au-
tumn of 169 BC to deal with matt ers in Syri a or Palestine.
Ptolemy VI now returned to Alexa ndria, where he was associated
with his brother and si ster as joi nt rul er. In response, Antioc hos IV
marched back to Egy pt in spring 168 BC, ga ining Memphis and much
Egypt. An expedition sent to Cy prus successfully ca ptured
II ./0 1' the Se leukids . Antioc hos was acti ng as king of Egypt and he
might have been crowned at Memphi s. In June 168 BC, he marched
Oil Alexandria, Vict ori ous in the Mac edonian War , the Romans now
intervened, sendi ng Cai us Pop ilius Laenas to Egypt. In luly 168 BC,
232 • SYRIAN WAR1103- 101 IlCi
Antiochos was forced to leave Egypt, sailing from Pelu sion , and
Cy prus was returned to Egyptian rule. Rome' s intervent ion had saved
Egypt as an independent kingdom , but the royal fami ly increasingly
relied on Roman support in their dynastic disputes.
SYRIAN WAR (103-101 uc ), Partly territor ial, but pr incipally a dy-
nast ic war , of Kleopat ra III and Ptolemy X Alexander I agai nst
Ptolemy IX Soter II . The confl ict also involved the rival Scleukid
kings, Antioc hos Cyzice nus and Antiochos Gr ypus (bot h of whom
had marri ed daughter s of Kleopa tra III) , and the Jewi sh high priest
and king, Alexander Iann aios. Docu ment s from Pathyris reveal that
troops from Upper Egy pt were being mobilized by June 103 uc .
The war began when Iannaois moved to conquer Ptolemais (Ake) in
the late wi nter of 103 IJC. Its inhabit ant s appea led to Soter II who ar
rived from Cyprus wi th an al111Yof 30,000, but the city refused to ad
mit him. Iannaios proposed to Kleopatra III that they launch a joi nt 'II
tack on Soter [I. Soter II now divided his army, part of it laying sic!.:!'
to Ptolemais, which was captured. Soter marched with the remainder
of the army into Judea to punish lannaios, defeating him at the hall 11'
of Asophon near the River Jordan . He sought the aid of one of the twn
fe uding Seleuk id kings, Antioc hos Cyziceuu s, whom he had support ed
in the past. Kleopatra took moves to neutralize the riva l Scleuk id. An
tiochos Grypos, sending her daughter Kleopat ra Selene to he hi, will'
Kleopatra III and the army, under the co mmand of the Jewish gen
e rals Chelkias and Ananias, set out for Palestine by land . Alexander
I, co mmandi ng the neet , left a littl e late r. Kleopatr a and Ananias iJ' d
their forc es to Ptol ernais. which they besieged, while Chelkias went
in pur suit of Soter II, on which mi ssion Che lkias was killed . Iannaiu
ca me to an agreement with Kleopat ra, which had the added advan
tage for her of creating probl ems in the future for Cyzicenus. Willi
both his mother and brother in Palestine , Egypt lay open to Soter II
who now struck for Pelusi on . Alexander I, who was lead ing a forr
to Damascus, turned back in order to repul se his brother ' s advano-
in which he was successful.
Soter ' s ambit ions thus ca me to an end , and he returned to Cy pru
Wary of Rome's reaction, Kleopatra dro pped her ambition of regain
ing Coele Syria or of making Judaea a province. She installed a gnl
r ison in Ptolernais and ret urned to Egypt sometime in 102 BC, leal
ing Iannaios to expand his power fur ther.
TAHARQO I REIGN[IJ 690 -64 4 Be) • 233
TACTI CS. The evidence for the tactics employed in Egyptian battles is
very limited for the pharaonic per iod . There are accounts of the bat-
tles fought by Thutmose III at Megiddo, and Ramesscs II at
Qadesh , which give some idea of the events leadi ng up to and during
the battle . Both battles have been reconstructed on the evide nce , and
even though the sources are recognized as highl y prejudi ced royal
apologia, they do appear to have some basi s in the histor ical moment.
One tact ical move at Thutr nose Ill ' s siege of Qadesh is described in
the autobiographical text of Amenemha b: the prince of Qadesh sent
a mare into the Egyptian chariotry to cause chaos among the stallion s.
The Victory Stela of Pi ye also gives some idea of military opera-
tions, aga in wi th an emphasis on the wis dom of the king (and doubt-
less owi ng something to the earlier accounts as a literary crea tion) .
There is more ev ide nce from the Ptolemaic per iod for the battl es of
Raphia , Pani on , and Akt ion. There is con siderable evidence for Ro-
man tactics, even if not related directly to events in Egy pt. The 1'0 1'-
malizcd natur e of Egy ptian hattI e scenes allows only the broadest
conuncnt-, to he made on the use and disposition of chur iots , in-
Iunt r y . and the pursu it of siege and storming of fortresses . The co n-
lIation of numerous different eve nts spread over time, into one im-
a!!c, further com plicates interp retati on .
rAIIA RQ O (reigned 690-664 nc), Pharaoh of the Kushite 25t h Dy-
nasty, lIi s name is oft en spelled Taharka. Taharqo supported the
uui chinutions of the wes tern Asiatic rulers against the ambitions of
Assy r ia , which eventually led to direct co nflict. Esar haddon
marched his armies toward Egypt in 679 Be. He captured the Brook-
or-Egypt and took the rule r to Nineveh, where he was publicly hu-
uriliated. Taha rqo might have responded wit h an acti on in southern
Palestine as Esarhaddon returned to atta ck Sidon in 677 ne. An un-
rc rtain entry in the annalistic text known as the Babvlonian Chroni-
rl« indi cates that Esarhaddon's army was defeated in' battle in Egy pt
ill 674 IJC, pro bably in the region of the border at Tj aru. A maj or as-
sallit on Egy pt was launched in 671. The Assyrians marched past
( ;aza, engag ing Taharqos army at Ishkhupri. Three battles were
IOll ght as the Assyrians pushed toward Memphis. There was batt le
olltside the city, which was then stormed. Resistance from the peop le
234 • TANWrTAMANl tREIGNrD 664- 656 Be)
and troops withi n Memphi s result ed in grea t carnage . Taharqo fled
south, but many people, includ ing members of his family, were de-
ported to Assyria.
The Libyan dynasts of the Delta init ially acce pted Assyrian rule
but soon sent messages to Taharqo, who rega ined Memphis. In 669
BC, Esar haddon and his army set out for Egy pt again, but the king
died in Palestine granting Egypt a respite.
Esarhaddon's successor, Ashur banipa l, marched on Egypt in 667
BC. He marshaled the princes of Syr ia and Palestine to accompany
him. The Egyptian army was defeated at Kar-baniti (an Assyrian name
for an unidentified place) , and the Assyrian ruler captured Memphis.
Perhaps wounded in battle, Taharqo again fled south: the Assyrian,
now followed but had to return when the Libyan dynasts rebelled. The
Assyrians attacked Sau, and other Delta towns, fl aying the inhabitants.
The dynasts were taken to Assyria, where many were executed.
Taharqo' s position in Egypt was made difficult by the self-interest
of the Libyan dynasts of the Delta, who constantly changed their al-
legiance. The principal anti-Kushite and pro-Assyr ian ruler was
Nekau I of Sau, although even he j oined with other dynasts in the re-
belli on again st Ashurbanipal. The det ai ls of the conflict bet ween
Taharqo and the Assyrians are document ed in official Assyrian in
scriptions, including a rock-c ut stela at the Na hr el-Ke lb and records
of omen s responding to requests to the sun god Shamash. Although
it is generally thought that the Assyrian fighting machine was better
equi pped and trained than that of Egypt, Taharqo showed remarkable
ability in assembling new forces and some success in open battle. TIll'
interna l political intr igues of the rulers of the Delta and western Asin
played a significant role in the succes ses and failures of both sides .
TANWETAMANI (re igned 664-656 uc ). Las t pharaoh of the Kushltr
25t h dynasty. His name can be rendered as Tanutamun or Tantamani .
Arter the death of Ta har qo and his accession, Tanwetamani led his
army to Egypt. The coa lition of Delta rul ers fled to their hometowns
and Tanwetarnani regained control of Memphis . He supposedly de
feared Nekau I of Sau in battl e. Ashur banipal mustered his army,
and in 663 BC marched to Egypt, acco mpanied by Nekau's SOli ,
Psamtik I , who hoped to be installed in his father ' s place . Ashurba
nipal appears to have received little oppos ition, and he pursued Tall
TEFNAKHT (RLIGNED C. 727-72 1 Be) • 235
from Memphis to Thebes, which was sacked. Ashurbani-
pal withdrew, but the Thebans sti ll acknowledged Tanwetamani as
pharaoh. In the north, Psamti k I ascended the throne in Sau and
Egypt divided bet ween the two powers. Ashurbanipal now faced
m of Assyria n Empire, and Psamt ik began to
consolidate hIS posruon . HIS succes ses ended with a Kushite with-
drawal from Upper Egypt , achieved through dipl omatic means in the
year 9 of both pharaohs.
TANWETAMANI, DREAM STELA OF. Stela found in the temple of
Amun at Gebel Barkal (Sudan) in 1862 and now in the Nubia Mu-
s: um, Aswan (Ca iro JE 48863). The 42 lines of text describe the
kmg' s accession and his contlict with, and victory ove r, the Libyan
dynasts of the Delta.
TAO (reigned c. 1555 IIC). Ruler of The bes in the 17th Dynasty, with
the name Seq enenre (by which he is called in some books). He
led his army against the Hyksos , and a literary work names his op-
ponent Apepy. There are no detai ls of his military actions , al-
though his body has wounds ca used by axes and spears . It was as-
that he was killed in battle, but of the body
suggests that he might have survived a first violent attack, but died
later, perhaps also through violence . There is no certain record of mil-
il:,lry actions in Nubia , although these might be expected as a defense
01 the Theban rear before ca mpaigns in the north . The wars agai nst
rhe Hyksos were cont inued by his son Kamose .
'J'EFNAKHT (reigned c. 727-721 RC), Ruler of Sau in the western
Delta. began to expand his power, first ly gai ning acceptance in
then advancing on the towns of Middle Egypt that were
to Kushite king Pi ye, who contro lled Thebes and Upper
the rul er of Herakleopolis , was besieged and
king of Khmunu, went over to Tefnakht' s side. In the ensu-
IIlg conflict with the army of Piye, there were battles near Khmunu
Middle Egypt. With the fall of Memph is and the ca-
of the rulers to the Kushite king, Tefnakht fled to Sau. He
dIdn ot to Hut-hery- ib (Athribis) to pay homage but swore an oath
III fea lty In the principal templ e in Sau. This was in the presence of
236 • H FNUT
Piye' s and a chief priest. A peace treaty was probabl y also
concluded . See also KUSH.
T EFNUT. The "Eye of Re," The sun god Re-Harakhty sent forth hh.
burni ng eye, in the form of hi s da ughter Hathor, to destroy mankind ,
This vio lent aspect of Hathor ass umed the form of a lioness . The IlIlh
Dynast y Queens Ti ye and Nefert iti we re identified with Tefnut II
vanquis hers of Egy pt's fema le enemies and were there for e dep icted
as a female sphinx . The vio lent lioness was also given the nurur
Sakhmet , " the power ful one. "
TENT. There is remarkably littl e ev ide nce surviving , and no known ex
amples are preserved (or recogni zed) . The tent mu st have bee n
regul arl y as temporary accommodation for the pharaoh and officials
in routine progr ess aro und Egyp t (a ttes ted in a text of Akhenateul .
as we ll as on military campaign. There are sce nes of mil itary tents ill
the tomb of Horemheb (lat er pharaoh ) at Saqqara and in the picto
rial representations of the Egyptian camp at the battle of Qadesh
Th e royal tent was a grand affair with wooden pol es and full
equi pped with folding beds , headrests , tabl es , and stools. 'I' hut mosv
III capture d the tent of the pr ince of Megiddo, whi ch had seven
of mery-wood, decor at ed with silver.
TERESH (TURSHA). Asiatic ethnic gro up. They are listed amo ng th,'
Sea Peoples and were all ies of the Li by ans in the Karn ak inscrip
tions of Merneptah, where more than 700 are acc ounted slain in the
wa r of year 5. A text from Deir el- Medi na of the reign of
III cl aims ,that the Teresh and the Peleset jointly attacked Egypt arul
were Their place of origi n is still debated , bu t a co nnec tion
with Tyrsenia (Tyrr he nia) on the so uthern and western coasts of Hal
see ms possib le . The relativel y small numbers involved in the militar '
actions lends support to the idea th at thi s was not a mass mi gration
but that many of these groups we re mercenaries.
TEUD.JOI. The modern archaeological site of el-Hiba . Teudjoi, mean
ing "T heir walls, " wa s a fortress in nort hern Middle Egypt , built
the high priest of Amun Men kheperre in the 2 1st Dynast y. Teudjm
marked the northern li mit of the territor y of Thebes and formed a dl'
TII WFS • 237
fens e again.st any thr eat fro m the princes of Herakleopolis . Teu dj oi
the residence of a number of ge nerals and princes in the troubled
Int er medi at e Period, most not ab ly the crown prince and high
of Arnun, Osor kon. It was also known in documents as 1/111 ,
:,The Camps ," and "The Crag ," so metimes mor e spec ifically
The Crag of Amun. The nat ural defensive features of the site were
used '?adva.ntage, so me 600 met ers of mud brick wa ll, 12.6 me-
ters thick, still survive to a height of 10 meters .
THEBES.. na.me. for the principal roya l residence, burial place,
and city III Upper Egypt. Ori ginally ca lled Waset, it first
10 rmport ance under its loca l rulers during the First Intermed iate
I enod. One of these (Intel' I) appears to have rebelled aga inst the
of Herakleopoli s and adopted some royal style. Expansion by
his success or, Intel' II, brought Upper Egypt as far as Tjeny north of
Abydos under Theban control. Civil war continued, invol ving the
rulers of Middle Egypt , but the Theban pharaoh Menthuhotep II even-
crus.hed opposition and reunited Egypt (the Middle Kingdom).
111 the Second Intermediate Period , Waset had its own rulers,
descent from earlier pharaohs and using roya l style. However.
their realm was constra ined by the power of the Kushite kingdom of
Ker ma to the south and the Hyksos in the north . Wars launched against
by and Ahmose eventually reunited Egypt
maugurauug the most Important phase of the city's history.
As a roy,.t1 buria l place and ancestra l home, Thebes wa s lavishly
endowed With temples to Amun, whose imp ort ance had overtaken
Ihat of local god, Mont hu . During the later New Kingdom ,
,MemphiS the Delta cities were more import ant - even though
I hebes remai ned the royal burial place and endowme nts co nt inued to
he made to Amun. Th ebes was apparently the ce nter of the rebellion
aga inst Se ty II. In the 20th Dynasty. the Th eban re-
suffere d from incursion s of Libyans , and during the re ign of
Ramesses Xl there was a maj or civi l war involvi ng the vicer oy of
Kush , Panehesy.
Under Li byan pharaohs were period s of Theban rebellion. most
notably du ring the ponti ficat e of the crown pr ince and high priest of
A lI UIll , Osorkon. At so me point in the mid-eighth ce ntury Be , Th ebes
II l1d Upper Egypt we re occupied by the Kushite king Kashta . The
238 • T1 ll:Bl S
cit y was sacked by As hur banipal , king of Assyria , duri.ng his
flict with Tanwe ta mani. The importance of Thebe s dec lined during
the Late Period because the principal political and population ce nters
were in the nor th, and Thebes was no longer a royal burial place . The
loss of Nubia as a territor y probabl y also affected the city's impor-
tance. A furt her blow to Theban prestige was dealt when the
Ptolemies established a new admi nistrative center for Upper Egypt at
Ptolemais [-I ermi ou , but the city continued to be a focus of rebelli ons
throughout the Ptolemaic period .
The Theban kings Haro nno phr is and Chaonnophris led the ma
jor rebelli on of Upper Egy pt in the reign of Ptolemy V. Later , till'
civil and dynasti c war between Ptolemy VIII Eue rgetcs II and
Kleopat ra II saw thei r armies taki ng and retaking the city, while an
ot her Theba n rebel pharaoh, Harsiesis , also tried to impose his OW II
rule. In the rebellions, the cities to the south, Pa th yri s and Apo llo
nopol is Megale (Edfu) , remained loyal to the Ptolemies. There wus
further unrest in Thebes in 123-1 22 BC and furt her dynastic troubl es
affec ting the city between 10 1 and 88 Be bet ween Ptolemy IX Sot er
II and Ptolemy X Alexande r I. When Egypt fell to the Romans in 311
BC, Co rneli us Gallus , the prefect appointed by August us , had til
suppress rebellions in the Theban region. By this time, the had
decl ined to be little more than a collection of vi llages and a tourist ill
tract ion, but the Roman emperors continued to add to the temples II I
Amun, and a garrison was stationed in the town. With the increased
problems on the southern horder because of raids by the Blemmyes.
a for t ress was bui lt around the temp le of Luxor.
The monument s and discoveries in Thebes have supplied much ill
formation on warfare in Egypt. The walls of the temple of Arnun III
Karnak carry battle scenes , notably the wars of Sety I. The Annal
of Thutmose III are inscribed around the principal sanctuary , and till
pharaoh' s Poeti cal Stela was found nearby. Other reliefs and ill
scriptio ns record military activit ies by Karnose, Ramesses II ,
Merenptah, and Sheshonq I. The templ e of Amun at Luxor also ern
ries reliefs of the wars of Ramesses II. The so-called " mortuary" tem
pies on the west bank also have cycles of reli efs, the best-preserved
being in the temples of Ramesses II (the Ramesseum) and Ramcssv
III (Medinct Habu). Numerou s fragment s have been excava ted
from other temples such as that of Menthuhotep II. The hundreds III
THUTMOS[ I (REIGNED C. 1504- 1492 Be) • 239
private tombs include those of important military offi cials, such as
Userhet, and Tjanuni. Private and royal tombs have
been a principal source of well-preserved mil itary equipment, such as
and ch ariots, the bigge st collection being from the tomb of
I utankhamun. Thebes has also been the finding place of some of
the best-preserved literature relating to mil itary activities.
Identifying actual military sites in Thebes is difficult because most
of the ancient city lies beneath the modern town of Luxor. The Ro-
man fOl:t the templ e of Luxor is well preserved, but no
p.haraolllc fortifi cations have been discovered , although text s refer to
city wall s . Massive defensive brick walls, probably erected by
Nakht ne bef, surrounded the temples. The " Place-beloved-of-Thoth"
might be a small garrison fort in Thebe s. It is document ed from the
19th Dynasty onward. Its officials have connections with the main
Theban temples and are also called Chief s of Soldiers. It perhaps
stood near later cult center ofThot h at Qasr el-Ago uz on the west
bank of the river some distance south of Medinet ll abu . As such, it
would have controll ed access along the valley from the south. In the
later Ptolemaic period. a garrison was stationed at Medinet Habu.
A common weap on used in warfare and for fowling.
f he on the Hunt er 's Palette of the late Predynas-
lie Period and 111 the battle scenes in the ea rly Midd le Kingdom
tombs of Khety Khnumh otep at Beni Hasan. In the temple of
IIatshe ps ut at Deir el-Bahar i (Thebes) a contingent of soldiers is
shown on ceremonial dut y, some carrying throwsticks, the others
A contingent in the tomb of Tjanuni is also armed with throw-
sticks. There were 21 throwst icks in the tomb of Tuta nkhamun
probably for fowling, rather than war. '
'I'lI lJTMOSE I . (reigned c. IS04-1492 li e). Pharaoh of the 18th Dy-
nasty. He continued the Egyptian expansion into western As ia and Nu-
hia . The reign began with a campaign into Nubia. which is docu-
mcnted a number of sources. There are rock inscriptions at Tumbos
(al the Thi rd Ca taract), Tangur (south of the Second Cataract) , and at
" swan, where the canal of Senusret III was cleared. The autobio-
graphical inscription of Ahmose son of Ebana refers to the pulli ng of
the royal barge through a cata ract, although opinion is divided as to
240 • TlI UTMOSE II IRUGNW C. 1492 - 1479 RC)
whi ch it was. Thutmose launched an offensive against Kerma, proha
bly using Sai as his base . The evide nce from Kerma shows that it wa,
burned about this time. and it has been assumed that this campaign
marks the end of the kingdom of Kush . Recent excavations haw
show n that there was extensive rebu ilding work and the creation of II
new "royal" cemetery, suggesting that , although the Kushite ruler WII
defeat ed and the capital sacked, a vassal was installed . The royal record
of events states that a Kushite ruler , perhaps the ruler of Kenna him
self, was killed in battle and his body hung upside down from the prow
of the roya l flagship for its ceremonial return to Thebes . lnscr iptiou
at Hagar el-Mer wa allest the presence of the army at the point where
the desert routes regain the Nile near the Fifth Cataract. It is more
likely that the army used the desert routes than the river , which is al
most unnavi gable from the Fourt h to Fifth Cataract s. Thi s inscription
paralleled that which Thutrnose I set up at the Euphrates and was situ
ilarl y copied by Thutmose III. The inscriptions define the limit 1I 1
Egypt's frontier across the desert in rel at ion to the power s of th
Berber-Shendi Reach of the Nile (perhaps Miu and Irem). AlthOlIt' 1i
Kenna was attacked. the border seems to have been cstahlished at tli '
Third Cataract and a fortress built on the island of Tumhos .
The campaign in Asia took the army,,, far as Nuhur !n (1\ l ita llllll
It is prob abl e that Thutmose' s army was co nveyed by the llcct I II II '
bios, rather than marching through Palesti ne and Canaan. In, n ip
tionaI ev ide nce suggests that the army marched from Byb los til
Surnur, across the mountains of Lebanon , into the Orontes Valko '
Fro m ther e, they adva nced north thro ugh the Syria n steppe 10 IVII
tanni . The pharaoh set up hi s stela at the Euphrates (" the river which
goe s south in go ing north") , an act whic h mar ked the farthes t limit 1I 1
Egy ptian milit ary ex pansion and which was copied by Thutmose III
THUTMOSE II (reigned c. 1492-1479 II C). Pharaoh of the Igth J)
nasty. son of Thutmose I. At his accession . a "rebellion" broke out ill
Kush. Thi s was led by the sons of the ruler of Kush. The rebellion I
recorded in the accession inscr iption of the pharaoh . Rebellion 01'11' 11
occurred at the change of ruler, partl y because any peacc treaty wn
regarded as valid on ly for the lifetime of the signatories and because II
was always a point of weakness. The report of rebe llion was also as",
ciated with the pharaoh ' s role of re-establi shing order in the univci
T1 IUTMo Sr Il I IR[l GNro C.1 479 _1425 RC) • 241
and a symbolic act as well as demonstration of act ual power. The
ca.mpmgn recorded by the inscripti on of Ahmose-pen-Nekhbet. The
furnishes the first .evidence for Nubian princes being taken to
Lgypt as hostages to be installed later as Egyptian vassals.
T1.'.UTMOSE III (r eigned c. 1479-1425 HC). So n of Thutmose II ,
I hutmose III ascended the throne as a minor , with Hatshepsut as re-
gent later coruler. There were proba bly as many as four cam-
paigns into Nubia in the core ign with /--I at shepsut , Thutmose IIJ lead-
III g at I.east two in per son . One expedition, recorded by a stela from
rel iefs on the pylon of the templ e ofAr mant, was directed agai ns t
.1\.' III , where a rhino cer os was hunt ed . Inscripti ons on the rocks at
Iilngur, sOl.nh of the Second Cataract , attest the young pharaoh 's
prese nce With the ar my.
In his sole. reign . foll owing the death of Hatshepsui Thutmose /II
III western As ia almos t annually. There were a total of 17
from yea rs 22--42..His predecessors, notably Amenhotcp
I. nnd Thutmose I. had cstablished Egyptian influence as far as the
h lphr:ltes and N aha r in. but the intensive military actions of Thut-
lIIose I" es tahlished Egypt as the dominant power. The battl _
, f ' . . • CS, cap
IlIl e, 0 c ures. and tnbute brought large numbers of horses charl t
' I I . . . , • 10 S,
,lI ll ot ter milit ary euurpment, as well as human captives, raw rnater i-
:lI s. and har vests. The Asiatic campaigns are detailed in the Annals of
I hutmos« 1/1 carved in the hall surrounding the sanctuary of the tem-
ple o f at Karnak (Thebes) . These are. for temple records of
military action. remarkabl y factual and are stated to have been epito-
uuzcd from the Day Books of the campaign. Some sections of the in-
serrptlons ha,:,e been damaged , making interpretation difficult. There
arc two lists of cities captured and further texts on the seventh py_
./C,"1at There however. no depictions of the campaigns.
' ,lie P o.ctlcal Stela the victorie s to AITIlm. Autobiographica l
II xts 0 1 a number 0 1 soldiers and officia ls add a little more detail.
Veterans from Asia tic expeditions, such as Ahmose-pen_
N,'khbct, ended their caree rs in this reign . while a new generation, such
theirs. The army scribe Tjanuni , who might
have been re.sponslble for some of the later entries in the Day Books,
11 1, 0 began his caree r under Thutmose IIJ. The viceroy of Kush Nehi
M' ems to have undertaken some military actions in Nubia during the
242 • T1 IUTM0 51 IIl lREIGNrD C. 1479 -1425 Be)
years of Asiatic expans ion. In addition to the " historical" accounts ,
some events are narra ted in popul ar literature. One papyrus story has
an account of the capture of J oppa , and a fragment ary papyrus in the
Egyptian Museum, Turin, probably dating from the 20t h Dynas ty, is
part of another literary work relating to the pharaoh 's Syrian Wars . The
passages surviving relate incidents during a batt le (perhaps Megiddo)
in whic h the pharaoh is protect ed by three form s of the god Month u:
Month u,lord of Armant , at his right hand; Monthu, lord of Djert y, at his
le ft hand ; and Mont, lord of Thebes , in front. The pharaoh also likens
himsel f to Monthu and hi s enemies' horses to Set h and Baal.
The first campaign, in years 22-23, cu lmi nated in the Battle 01'
Megiddo . The ar my set out from Tjar u and ma rched to Gaza, where
the fea st of the coronatio n took pl ace (beginning the new regnal ye ar
23). Fro m Ga za , the march along the coasta l pl ain passed Yehe rn (c.
135 ki lometers) . A divi sion might have broken o ff and capture d
Joppa ell ro ut e, Thutmose heard that the prince of Qadesh was at
Megiddo, with the princes of Na ha ri n , Kharu, and Qode. The
pharaoh chose to take the army throu gh the shor t , but more difficult ,
Aruna pass. The batt le at Megiddo was followed by a lengthy siege .
Thutmose marched far ther north and ordered the bu ildi ng of a
fo rtress , be fore the ret urn to Egypt and fes tiva l of victory at Thebes.
The next significant campaign was di rect ed against Qadcsh i tsel f',
On this campa ign, the army sailed to, and from, Sumur, At Qadesh,
the or chards we re cut down and the grain harvested. The inscription
o f Amenemhab records events in thi s ex ped ition. The ca mpaign 01
year 33 marked the ulti mat e foc us of the pharaoh 's pl an s, the attack
on Mit a nni (Naharin). Aga in, the expedit ion sailed to Sumur before
mar chi ng inland, carrying their boats with them . There was a ba tt le
in Na hari n, apparen tly an Eg yptia n victor y. This wa s followed by the
capture of Curchernis h , the crossi ng o f the Euphrates , and the setti n I
up o f a bounda ry stela next to that of Thutmose I. Na harin paid 1I
t r ib ute of 5 13 slaves and 260 hor ses . The pharaoh ens ured that then'
we re supplies for the harbors . The inscri pti on of Amenemhab says
that there wer e three battl es in Nahar in.
The 10th cam pai gn of year 35 was provoked by the " r ebellion" 01
Naharin . There was a bail ie. Thutmose carried 0 1'1' as booty two suits
of bronze a r mor . The army captured 180 horses and 60 chariots , I t
inlaid corselets, 13 suits of bronze ar mor, and five bronze helmets
TJANUNI • 24 3
Th e 13th campaign, in year 38 was f II .
co mprisi ng 328 horses 52 ? ' 1.' 9 0 by the trib ute of Syria
. ' - s aves . chan ots of -,
pai nted chariots , bronze spears shi ld b Sl ver and gold, 6 1
wa r, addi ng considera bly tile and other weapons of
Cypr us inc luded copper and hor s:S arsenal. .The tribute of
was agains t the Shas u: this ex edi ti _ th III ye ar 39.
emha b. The Syrian tribute th:r menuonen by Amen-
17th ca mpaign. in ye ar 42 ret urned to lfJc.luded 229 hor ses . Th e
sition around Qadesh and Tunip , co nsolida te the pharaoh ' s po-
Th ese campaigns est ab lished E t .
Syria They b - h gy p as the rival to Mit anni in
, . roug I enormous wea lth in b
and tr ibu te). Thutmose states tl t h I and annual levies (tax
per Rctenu to Arnun -h ia e mat e a gIft of three c ities of Up-
. w ose temp le recei d · I'
campa igns Ihrough booty and tribut ive tax rom them . The
supplies o f hor ses and chariot . I e en.sured that the king had large
In ye ar 47 Th . ' S. <long with other armo r and wea pons .
, utmose III return ed to N bi
progress as far as the Four th Cat _ I I U 1<1 and made a roya l
Ge bel Barka!. A stela states tha; anc Ih: Moun tai n" of
visit the " Hoi)' Mountai n " I-I bull mose W<l S Ihe first pharaoh 10
, ' . e UI t a fortress S kh
which contained a chapel dedicated to , el.n a - as ut , nearby
became the later town of N t Amun. It IS though I that this
apa 3 .
TII UTMOSE IV (re igned c. 1400-1390 .
nasty, son of Amcn hotep II TI " II:!. of the 18th Dy-
reign is a Nu bian ca rnpa ! . I' ie military actIon known for this
the island of Konosso 11
° pty.e,
, recorded by an inscript ion on
. , . ea r 11 ae (Aswan) TI -. . ,
probab ly directed aga inst the Id _ _ '. us expedJllon was
. go -mmlng re I' h
Desert. The ph'Jr'loh 's d i I ' gions 0 I e Eastern
, c Ip ornat rc contac ts -1/ h .
Ianni are refer red to in th A ' WI lt e kingdom of Mi-
made a diplomatic ma r . e Le.tt ers . These re vea l thaI he
nage Will a Mita - .
scaling a peace treaty betw I anman pr incess. probably
. 'eent ie two rulers Pr I'
cha r iot were reco vered from h- t b . " ,lrt,S 0 the pharaoh's
lie with Asiat ics, In the s ; : om . ":I1h decoration showi ng a bat -
iol with (he god IS stand ing in his char-
e 111 im, hel ping him to draw hi s bow.
I'.I ANUNI. Mi litary official buried at TI b
graphical text in his tomb h te es . Th e damaged autobio-
says I at he served Th t III
hlllep II . and Th utmose I V H- ' . u rnose , Amen-
. IS man y tJlles and varian ts include
244 • TJARU rr ru [I -IIEBWA)
those of Royal Scribe , Overseer of the Scri bes , Scribe of the (Great)
Army (of the King), Overseer of Scribes of the Army, Scribe of Re-
cruits, Scrihe of the Palace Guard, and General. These t itles reveal that
there was no significant di vision het ween the military and the bu-
reaucraC)' in the Egyptian New Kingdom. The paint ings in Tjanuni' s
tomb depict the presentation of horses as part of the tribute and the
enlist ing of neferu-recruits in the army, with drill exercises . Some
army musici ans are depicted: two trumpeters and a Nubian dr ummer.
Among other military groups, with their st a ndar ds , are perhaps
Libyans with two feathers in their hair , carrying throwsti cks .
TjARU (TELL EL-HEBWA). Fort ress on the eas tern border of
Egypt, protecting the Ways of Horus and the route across nort!,
Sinai to Gaza and Palestine. Now identifi ed with Tell el-Hebwa, II
was formerl y suggested to be the nearby Tell Abu Sefa. Duri ng the
reign of Horemheb , the future pharaoh Sety I was governor of Tjaru.
The defense is depicted in the hattie scenes of Set y I at Karnak as
two fort s on either side of a crocodile-infested canal.
The surviving archaeological remains are the found ations of the
fOl1ress of the reign of Diodetian ove rlaying a much larger con-
struction, probabl y of the Persian period. Diocleti an' s fortress is very
similar to others of the period in Egypt , not abl y the well-preserved el
Deir in Kharga Oasis. It is a slightly stretched rectangle with walls
of mud brick about four meters thick. The inner length is 160.2 me-
ter s on the north and south, but 99.7 meters on the east and 101.2
meters on the west. As at Deir , round towers are at the corners. Tow-
ered gates are at the middle of both north and south sides, with semi-
ci rcular towers between the corner towers (on east and west), and be-
tween the gates and corner towers. An inscr iption in Lati n records the
Ala I Thracum Maureta na, although the Not it ia Dignitatum names
the Ala I Aegyptiorum here .
Tj EKKER. Asiat ic ethnic group. Listed among the Sea Peoples . In the
late 20th Dynasty, they are closely identified with the port of Dor ill
TRI BUTE. A term used for the foreign products depicted in temple and
tomb scenes, although these can act ually belong to a number of dif
TUMIlOS • 245
econom!c c.ateg.ories: gift exchange bet ween rul ers, taxes on
Items of trade. In Egypt ian ideology, all were
as were .the tribute offered to the pharaoh by subjects ,
even. If the realit y was di fferent . A good example of the ide-
ologlc.al war and tribut e is found in the temple
of S.el t Wall III Nubia, where a large scene shows Ramesses II
his sons. and chariotry against a flee ing Nubi an infantry. The
Nubian VIllage IS schematically with one hut. The balancing
hal f the .wall the Nubian tribute, brought to the pharaoh,
wh.o IS depicted In full maj esty: this incl udes natural products such
as .IVory, ebo.ny, and incense , the products of long-di stance trade', wild
skins, and products of manufacturing centers such as
bows , and furniture . None of this tribute could have been ac-
quired from. the village, but the scene emphasi zes the cause
(war) and elfect (tribute), There are many fine scenes of tribut e and
of the Year gifts to the pharaoh (the products of the roya l work -
shops) 111 tombs at Thebes , notably that of Qenamun. These have
some good depi ct ions of weapons and a r mor.
TRIREME. The standard type of Greek warship of the fifth century uc
to the fourth century AD. It was notable for its bronze ram at water level
on the prow. Triremes were rowed by oarsmen in groups of three.
trireme was developed from an Egypt-
or Phoenician type of vessel of the sixth centu ry. Larger warships
with oarsmen in groups of four or more (polyremes, quinquereme):
were developed from the fourth century onward . The Egyptian term
kebenet has been understood as indicat ing triremes of the Greek type.
TlJMB? S (19° 42' N 30° 23'E). Island site near Third Cata r ac t of the
Nile 111 Upper Nubia . There are three roc k inscr iptions of Thutmose
I and remains of a massive mud brick enclosure that could
he the rums of a for t ress built in his reign. The enclosure some 75
meters by 3S meters is or iented east-west and has mud-brick walls in
3.5 thick and surviving up to a height of 4
Some part s 01 the walls are built on rough stone found ations, else-
where they stand directl y on the granite boulders that form part of the
Island . the Th ird Cataract seem to have marked the
southern limit 01 Egyptian expansion in the early years of the 18th
246 • TUN I!'
Dynasty, wi th the main military stro nghold on the island of Sai. Thut -
rnose I certa inly laun ched a major offens ive aga inst Ker ma, which
lay immediatel y south of the Thi rd Cataract. When Egyptia n co ntrol
was extended over Kenna and the rest of Upper Nubia , Tumbos
ceased to have a significant ro le in the defensive (or offensive) net
work and there are no indicati ons of prol onged occupat ion at the site,
Later roc k insc ri ptio ns and activity seem to be co nnec ted with ex
ploit ati on of the granite qua rries near by.
TUNIP. Cit y and state of Syr ia . The exact location is uncertai n , but it lay
to the wes t of the Oro ntes River and nort hwest of Qad esh. It see ms til
have had some coas tal territory, although mostl y lay in the Lebanon
range and the plain to the east. It figures qu ite promin entl y in the latl'!
Asiat ic campaigns of Thutmose III. presumably because of its prox
imity to Qadesh. It seems to have bee n a vassal of Mitanni at this tim«
Tunip might have been the ultimate goa l of the ca mpaign of Thutl11OM'
Ill 's 29t h year, but was not captured until the expedition of year 42. II
figures in the Ama rna Letter s when its cit izens wrote to the pharaoh
(probab ly Akhe naten), apparently requ esting that the son of thei r dl'
ceased king be sent as ruler. The lett er alludes to the city's capture h,
"Manakhpirya" (i.e., Me nkhe perre - Thutmose Ill ) and also complain
that , although they have been wri ting for "twenty year s" (i .e., a Ion
time), thei r requests are never dealt with . Later letters state that the 1111
tite ki ng is on ly two days marc h away from the city. Tunip ap pears III
the battl e rel iefs of Ramesses II and Rarnesses III.
TUTANKHAMUN (reigned c. 1336-1327 IIC). Pharaoh of the Inll
18th Dynasty. Although there is no evide nce that Tut ankhamun COli
ducted any military campaigns himself, it is likel y that there WI' I
campaigns in both Nubia and As ia duri ng his rei gn. Re liefs from
dismantl ed cha pel at Karn ak (The bes) , Gebel Silsi la (the Spcos "
Hor emheb) , and in the tomb of the ge nera l (l at er pha raoh
Horemheb at Saqqa r a show ep isodes in a military actio n against Ih
Nub ians. Re liefs from the Karnak chapel and the Saqqara tomb I I
Horemheb show an Asi atic battl e and tribute being brought by d
feated peoples, including Hittitcs . It is likel y that the conduct I
these actions was under the co ntro l of. and very possibly led in I" f
son by, Horemheb. Scenes on a painted chest showing the king in h
11101fighting As iatic and Nubian battl es are probably symbolic
they are parall eled by scenes showing him hunting wi ld an-
tland as a triumphant sphinx .
.ilJnkhamun's su_bstantially intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings
.the lmd mg place of the largest number of comp lete
survlvmg from ancient Egypt. There was a considerable
mUl of other mil itary pa raph ern ali a and weapons , including 14
&mdat least 29 (pe rhap s 32) composite bows , more than 400 ar-
eight shields (four wi th openwork designs are
d/yceremol1l al) , d.aggers (one with an iro n blade), two kh ep-
a leather CUirass, s wor ds, two fragmentary plai ted linen-
13 cl ubs of varyi ng shapes. throwsticks and boomerangs
IITI ofthese were ceremo nial, other s for use in fowling rather than
·,III!. Most of these items inc luded full-s ize examples and some
clear ly made for the pharaoh as a boy.
c. 2375-2345 HC). Last pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty,
'll'\.nSaqqar a , near Memphis. A fragment of relief from the cause-
temple shows a battle, with bearded enemies, either Asiati cs
'Il!m, bei ng shot by archers using self-bows , or engaged in hand-
,·drombat Another fragment of relief shows starving Libyans, and
,mU of famine appears to have forced nomadi c peoples on Egy pt's
Ilhtntothe country, possibly resulting in conflict
Island fortress in the Second Cataract , within signaling
rlJll ofSemna and Shalfa k . Per haps begun in the reign of Se nus-
lliwas completed by the reign of Sc nus ret III. Like most island
'a,.JiOvcrall plan was dic tated by the topography, but with an in-
IlmlOO plan. In this case, the res ult was a roughly triangular for t
The spur wa ll on the north ran for 230 meters , with
ItS northern side . The nort h side of the island was flatter
and the poin t fro m which attack was most likely. There
spur wall on the south side of the fort . The mai n gate
Ill'lered gatehouse , was in the wes t wall. A gate in the eas t wa ll
hiliallway and the water gate. The accommodation at Uronarl i
246 • TUNI !'
Dynasty, with the main mil itary stronghold on the island of Sai. Thill
rnose I certainly launched a major offensive agai nst Kerma, which
lay immediately south of the Third Cata ract. When Egy ptian control
was extended over Kenna and the rest of Upper Nubia, Tumhos
ceased to have a signi fica nt rol e in the defensive (or offens ive) net
work and there are no indi cati ons of prolon ged occ upation at the sill' ,
Later rock inscriptions and activi ty seem to be connected wit h ex
ploitati on of the granite quarries nearby.
TUNIP. Cit y and state of Syria. The exact location is uncertain. but it lay
to the wes t of the Orontes Ri ver and northwest of Qadesh. It seems Ie I
have had some coa sta l terri tory, although mostly lay in the Lebanon
range and the plain to the eas t. It figures quit e prominentl y in the lall' l
Asiatic campaigns of Thut mose III. presumably because of its prox
imit y to Qadesh. It see ms to have been a vass al of Mitanni at this time.
Tunip might have been the ultimate goa l of the ca mpaign of Th utrnosc
Ill 's 29th year , but was not captured unti l the expedit ion of year 42 , II
figures in the Ama rna Letters when its ci tizens wrote to the pharaoh
(probably Akhenaten) , apparent ly requ esting that the son of their de
ceased king be sent as ruler . The letter alludes to the city's capture hy
"Manakhpi rya" (i .e., Menkheperre - Thutmose III) and also complai ns
that, although they have been writing lor "twenty years" (i .e., a lOll!,
time) , their requ ests are never dealt wi th. Later lett ers state that the Hi t-
tite king is only two days march away from the city. Tunip appears ill
the battl e rel iefs of Ramesses II and Ramesses III .
TUTANKHAMUN (reigned c. 1336-1327 IIC). Pharaoh of the late
18th Dynasty. Although there is no evidence that Tut ankharnun COli-
ducted any military campai gns himself, it is likel y that there well'
ca mpaigns in both Nubia and As ia during hi s rei gn . Reliefs from a
di smant led cha pel at Karnak (T hebes) . Gebel Silsila (the Speas of
Horemheb) , and in the tomb of the gene ra l (later phar ao h)
Horemheb at Saqqara show episodes in a mi litary ac tion agai nst the
Nubians. Rel iefs from the Karnak chapel and the Saqq ura tomb of
Horemheb show an Asiatic battl e and tri but e bein g brou ght by de-
feated peoples. incl uding Hittites . It is likel y that the conduct of
these act ions was under the control of. and very possibly led in per-
son by, I-I oremheb . Scenes on a painted ches t showi ng the king in his
URONARTI • 2 4 7
cha r iot figh ting As iatic and Nubia n battles are probab ly symbolic
because they are paralleled by scenes showi ng him hunting wild an-
irnal s and as a triumphant sp hinx.
. Tutankhamun's intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings
IS .the findi ng place of the largest number of complete
chariots survrvi ng from anc ient Egypt. Th ere was a considerable
amo unt of other military parap hern ali a and weapons , including 14
self- and at least 29 (perhaps 32) composite bows , more than 400 ar-
rows and arrowheads, eight shields (four with openwork designs arc
probab ly ceremonial), daggers (one wi th an iro n blade), two kh ep-
esh -swords . a leather cuirass , swords. two fragment ary plaited linen-
cord sli ngs, 13 cl ubs of varying shapes. t hm ws t ieks and boomerangs
(some of these were ce remo nia l. others fill ' lise in fOWling rather than
warfa re). Most of these items includci! full-size exa mples and some
that were clearly made for the pharaoh as a hoy.
- u -
(reigned c. 2375-2345 IIC). Last pharaoh of the Firth Dynasty,
buried at Saqqara.nenr Memphis. A fragment of relief from the cause-
way of his templ e shows a ba ttl e, wi th bearded enemies. either Asiati cs
or Libyans. being shot by archers using self-bows. or engaged in hand -
to-ha!ld combat: Another fragment of rel ief shows starving Libyans. and
a period of famin e appears to have forced nomadic peoples on Egypt's
harder into the country, possibly resulting in conflict.
l/R?NARTI. Island fortress in the Second Cataract , withi n signaling
of Semna and Shalfak. Per haps begun in the reign of SCJIIIS-
ret I, It was completed by the reign of Sell llsret III. Like most island
forts, its overall plan was dict ated by the topograp hy, but with an in-
ternal grid plan. In this case, the res ult was a rough ly triangular fort
with spur wa lls. The spur wall on the north ran for 230 met er s. with
hast ions on its north ern side . The north si de of the island was flatt er
than elsewhere and the poi nt from which attack was most like ly. There
W:IS a second spur wall on the south side of the 1011. The main gale,
wit h towered gatehouse, was in the west wa ll. A gate in the east wa ll
led to a stairway and the water ga te. The acco mmodation at Uronarti
248 • lI SrRKAF\RlI GNW c. 2494 - 2487 DC)
suggests a garrison of between abo ut 11 2 and 280 men. Its defense
needs were bet ween 250-500, or between 375-750, if the spur wa lls
are taken into account.
USERKAF (r eigne d c. 2494-2487 li e). First pharaoh of the Fifth Dy-
nasty burie d at Saqqa ra. nea r Memphis . Frag me nt s of the relief
oration from his pyramid templ e survive . One of these shows runrung
troops who ori gi nally accompa nied a ship. Some are dre ssed in
the othe rs in an apron with three hanging piece s of cloth. There IS no
explic it evi dence for mi litary acti vities .
VICEROY OF KUSH. The Egyptian ti tle was " King's Son of Kush ."
The first viceroy was appointed by Kamose and the office co ntinucd
until the end of the 20th Dynasty. Egyptologists once ass umed that the
office ceased with the probl ems in Upper Egypt and Nubia in the
reign of Ramesses XI, but there is now evide nce from exc;l " atinns at
Abu (Elephantine) for its continuance. Th ese olTiciah of the Thir d In
termediate Per iod combined the dutie s of viceroy wit h ot her n: hgloll'
and civi l positi ons associated wi th As wa n . It is likel y that the IiiI<-
then signified some co ntrol over the region immediatel y to the sOllth ,
perhaps the origin of the Dodekaschoinlls . but ce rtainly an are a I:n
smaller than that controlled by their New Ki ngdo m predecessors .
The earl iest viceroys were mil itar y offi cers . one of the first bein '
the commande r of Buhen . Later their administrative func tions were
emphas ized . the milit ar y comma nder bein g the Overseer of Bowmell
of Kush. Viceroys did co mmand mi litar y exped itions, and the se an'
attest ed for Neh i in the rei gn of Thut mose III and Dhutmose und vi
Akhenaten (against Ikayta). Se tau led an ar my agai nst Irern in th..
reign of Ramesses II and al so captured Libyans in one of the ousc
of Lower Nubi a.
An other tit le used by Viceroys , Overseer of Southern Forei '11
Land s , was once co nsidered to be not hing more than a poet ic variant
The title was used by a number of offi cia ls and actually ap pears III
have designat ed a spec ific group comprising the Viceroy, the OW l
see r of Bowmen , and some local rul er s who we re respon sible for Ihl
frontier regio n between the Third and Four th Cataracts .
WAU. • 2 49
WADI EL A site of amethys t quarries in the Eastern Desert near
As wan With a fortress of Rom an date .
WADI TUMILAT. The Wadi Tumilat runs from near the apex of the
toward the Red Sea. Ramesside document s show that Shasu
bed.Ul n ca me a l?ng it in the dry seasons with their herd s and flocks .
Its Importance incre ased with the construction of a canal by Neka u
II, completed ? r enlarge d by Darius I, renewed by Ptolemy II, and ex-
tended by Trajan. The canal was 45 met er s wide 5 mete rs deep d
. b r " an
was naviga Ie tor 84 ki lometers from Per- Bastet to the Red Sea . The
lo",:n of Per-Atum (Pi thom) , kno wn as Heroiinpol is in the Ptolemaic
peri od modern site of Tell e l-Maskhuta) , was a major entrepot
[rom the time of Nekau II thro ugh the Roman peri od .
(Ar RIES) 589-570 li e). Phara oh of the 26th Dy-
nasty, In 5XX/5X7 II C, Wahibre attacked the towns of Tyre and Sidon,
\I 11I ch had become subject to the expanding Neo Bab I . E .
• • • ' - c y oma n smprre
Us e mperor . Nchuc had nezza r II . was besieging .Jerusalem:
h lllo\\' lI1 g the full Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzar invested Tyre, and
many .le ws took refuge in Egypt (notably at Aswan). Wahi bre was de-
throncd hy Ahmose II in a rebellion of the army following a r '1 d
. . L"I 'II e
campuign 111 I rya (probably directed agai nst Cyrene). Despite thi
Wahibre still h:ld support throughout Egypt and in 570/569 Be
tempted to regam his. throne with the ass istance of ships [rom Cyprus
and troops from and Ioni a. Wahibre was defeated in battle and
1 to wes tern ASia. However, he still see ms to have had support in
and persuaded Nebuchadnezzar to invade Egypt in a seco nd at-
tempt to him, in 568/567 Be. Wahibre was killed, perhaps in
hattie, and buri ed by Ahmose II in the royal necropolis at Sa u.
WALL. Defensive wa lls, other than those around fortresses and settJe-
mcnts , were built at a number of places in Egypt and Nubia. Some are
known only from tex ts, but fragments of others surv ive. There was a
bet ween the fort resses of Sc mna and Urona rti at the Second
a wa ll between the town of Aswan and the por t area at the
01 the : Ir.st Cataract , perh aps deli miting the whole region as
Scnmut. A Simil ar wa ll is report ed between the Ni le Valley and the
250 • WA i l SOF THE RUI [ R
Fayum running from Riqqa to Philadelphia. The Walls of the Ruler
are known from the story of Sinuhe: they formed part of the eastern
defenses of Egypt and, as such, probabl y rel at ed to oth er s in the re
gion that dat e back to the time of Sneferu. Th e P.alermo StOl\l'
records the "buildi ng of wa lls of the Southland and 01 the Northland
called the Houses of Sneferu ." Such fortifications mi ght have com
bined lon g wa lls with dr y dit ches, canals , watchtowers , and larger
garrison fortresses . .
Wall s were built of unburned mud bri ck, strengthened With layers
of timb er and matting . They could have towers and bastions on till'
ex ternal faces . Encl osur e wa lls of town s , such as Nekheb, or tern
pie s , we re generally wi tho ut additional ex ternal feature.s and
built in interlocking sections of undul ating bri ck work, This technique
(usua lly ca lled pall -beddi llg) gave strength to the wa ll whe n it
situated in the 11 00d plain, preventing it from breakin g when the wa
tel' table expanded .
WALLS OF THE RULER. Th ese are referred to in the tal e of Sinul...
as a defense " to repel the Asiati cs and to cru sh the Sand -f arer s ." Th e
co uld be a lat er devel opment of the " walls of the So uthland and of till'
Northland ca lled the Houses of Sneferu" re ferred to in the Palermn
Stone. They mi ght have been repl aced by the fortresses and defcn
sive net work, incl uding a canal , which ex tended from Tjaru.
WAR. A prol onged di spute between nations or, in the cas e of civil wur:
rival sec tions of the populati on. Battle is one eleme nt in wars , hnl
breaks in diplomatic and trading co ntacts are also import ant
Although the term "war" is often used in Egyptologic al literature (II,
in the " Li bya n Wars" of Set y I and Merenptah) , it mi ght not Ill'
strictly applicable in many cases of Egy ptia n hostil ities before th
Ptolemaic period. In most instances , Egyptian campaigns invol wtl
sieges, battle, and lesser ski rmishes , but were not necessaril y pro
lon ged and with the diplomat ic breaks that character ize later wars
The Syrian Wars of the Ptol emaic period were prol on ged militar y ill'
tions with many indi vidual battl es. as were the wars of the diadoehnl
WAR CRY. Descripti on s of battle bein g relatively rare , there is little
firm ev ide nce for aspects that are known from other soc ieties, such a
WAWAT • 251
war cry. However, a few texts sho w that th is was a part of battl e.
Smuhe gave a wa r cry a fter he had defeat ed the champion of
Retenu . Text s 01 Ramesses Ill' s mil itary ac tions describe his war
cry: he bellowed and roared like a griffon,
WATCHT? WE R. The best evidence for wa tchtowers is from the Ro-
man period, although they probably exi sted earl ier. Those preserved
In the Eastern Desert are usuall y built of stone, measuring so me 3 or
3.5 meters and the same high . Access was by ladder , and the
lowers were 111 SIght of each other. At Aswan, three wat chtowers
stood bet ween the town and the fortress at the head of the cataract
formed part of a network extending from Dendur in Lowe r Nu-
hill to EMu. There is evidence for a system of towers at the ap ex of
the Delta, from Abu Rawash probabl y to Babylon.
WAWAT. Ori ginally the name of a chiefdom of Lower Nubia, acquir-
mg more meaning. It is fi rst encountered in texts of the
late Old Wawat was the most northerly of thr ee chiefdo ms
between the First and Second Cataracts. The text s of Harkhuf show
that Wawal had expanded conquering Irtj et and Satju. From then on
' .Vall'{/( was the name given to the who le regi on between the First and
Seco.nd Ca taracts. It was the name gi ven to the admi nistrative
provmce during the New Kingdom, when the viceroy maintained his
headquar ters at Ani ha or Faras.
, :rhere was, litt le in the region during the New Kingdom ,
'II MIt from mcur sions of Libyans into the oases in the rei gn of
,Ra.mes,ses II , and an atte mpted rebellion in the reig n of Merneptah.
I h,ls W,IS supposed to I.l ave taken place at the same time as the Libyan
but apparentl y failed . Many arch aeol ogi st s thin k that Wawat was
settled popul at ion during the whole period from the end of the
New to the M:roitic period . This , however, see ms unlikel y,
li nd there IS evide nce from different peri ods ('01' garri . h , ,rnSOI1S III t e
Qasr Ibrim mi ght have been forti fied in the trou bles of
the reign of XI. Ce rtainly, troops were stationed there and
II I,Buhe?, and Semna in the rei gn of Taharqo. The fortr ess
III Dor gina r t i was pro bably buill in the Persian period.
Although Wawat rema ins as a rather arc ha ic des ignation in Ptol e-
nunc texts , the distri ct controlled by the Ptolemies and Rom ans was
known as the Dodekaschoinos , or, when enlarged, the Triakon
taschoinos. The for mer had its boundary at Maharraqa. There wus
milit ary acti on in the region in the reign of Augus t us when the pre
fccts Co rnelius Gallus and Caius Petronius brought their armies
here in the conflict with Meroe.
WAYS OF HORUS. The name of the route from Egypt along the coa st
of north Sinai , through Rhinocolura. Raphia, and Gaz a to Ca naan
and western Asia. The difficulti es of the road ser ved as a natural pro
tection to Egy pt, but thi s was increased with a defensive net work 01
fortresses. Th e evide nce comes from literature and archaeo logical
remains, whic h have bee n understood in relation to the schematic
representation of the frontier in the reli ef sculptures of the wars 01
Sety I on the exterior wall of the Hypostyle Hall in the temple 01
Karn ak (Thebes). A major study by Alan Gardiner has been modifi ed
by more rece nt excavation and research, but the ident ificat ion 01
some sites wi th their Egyptian names remains uncertain.
A canal is depi ct ed in Sety l ' s rel ief. probably connec ting the Pelu
siac branch of the Nile with the Biller Lake s. The most important
fort resses known from the document ary ev ide nce were the grea t Iron
tier control points of Tj aru (also Tjel, or Sile) , Migdol , and Pclu-
sion . Also close to the borde r was Daphnae. Tjaru was identified by
Gardiner and others wi th the site of Tell Abu Sefa, but is now sug
gested to be the nearby site of Tell Hebwa. Thi s whole region has re
ce ntly become the focus of survey and excavation. At Tell Qedwa,
excavations in the fort have proven it to be Sai te in origin. It had
wa lls with cellular construction, some externa l tower s, and a moat.
The fort ress was rebui lt aft er a massi ve co nflagration. At Tell el-Herr,
a fortress of Per sian date underlies a late r fort . The name 01
Ramesses II has been found in the excavations at Tell Borg, although
it is not yet identified as a fortre ss .
Two roads ran along the coast. One of these went from Pelusiou
along the narrow stretch of land that separated Lake Serboni s from till'
sea : it was quick but treacherous. On this rout e lay Mount Kasios,
which has been identi fied with two possible points. The inland route
was certai nly that in regular use. It cros ses an inhospitable, almos t wa
terless desert, and ar mies invadi ng Egypt sought the aid of the local
Ar a bs in crossing it. From Pelusion to Rhinocolu ra (Br ook-of-Egypt.
WElJJAI IORRESNEn . c. 540-5 00 He ) • 253
modern el-Arish) is about 120 ki lometers , on to Raph ia 45 ki lometers
and to Gaza another 34 ki lometers, tot aling aro und 200 kilometers . '
WEA PONS. The Hunter ' s Palette and similar late Predynast ic and
Early Dynastic monuments (e .g., the Narmer Palette) show the range
01 ea rly weapons: the self-bow, spea r, mace, axe, dagger and
"!' he sling was undoubtedl y used extensively as 'well.
With few these remained the principal weapons throughout
the dynastic peri od . Th e co mpos ite bow was introduced in the Sec-
ond Period. The dagger was enl arged into the sword
(perhaps aided by devel opment s in metal techn ology) , and the sickle-
shape? int roduced . The spear was adapted as a stab bing and
throwlllg (javelin) weapon.
Most wea pons were manufactured in the state workshops. whether
allached. to the temples or pal aces. as these were the storehouses of
the precious met al s and other mater ials required, 111 0st of which were
the p.roduct of foreig n trade (or t r ibute). The value of the material s
as with tool s, ensured that the bureaucracy kept careful control of
weapons. The di stribution of weapons to the army is depi cted in the
scenes of the battle with the Sea Peoples at Medinet Habu. Other
weapons were the prod uct of the interna tional arms trade.
There was rela tively lillie di fference in the ra nge of weapons ava il-
able to Egypt and her enemies. or in the techn ology. It has been as-
sum,ed iron working gave an adva ntage to
the ,lI'I11Ies 01 ASSYri a, but this I S not cert ain. Assyria does appear to
have had far more sophisticated mach inery for siege warfare. Perhaps
lis greatest asset, however , was efficiency and tra ining . Assyria was
able to mobilize. its armies and send them to rebellious di stant regi ons
at remarkably high speed.
\\,EDJAHORRESNE (fl . c. S40-S0n lie). Official of the Lat e Pe-
riod whose stal.ue . now in the Vatican Muse um, carries a long and
valuable .inscription. It was or iginally set up in
the te.mple In Sau 111 the reign of Darius I. Wedj ahorre sne is ofte n
described as a "colla bora tor" because he se rve d as commander of
the na vy under the pharaohs Ahmose II , and Psamtik Ill , and
then under the conqueri ng king of Persia , Cambyses , ending hi s
career und er Darius l.
254 • WESHr Sl 1
WESHESH. One of the Sea Peoples, an element in the invasion of year
8 of Ramesses III.
WOMEN. Women rarely appear in scenes of battle, and when they do,
it is usuall y as enemies besieged in towns or as captives in the after-
math of campa ign. Wit h the exce pt ion of the violent imager y of
queens in the New Ki ngdom and at Meroe, wo men are not usuall y
shown righting. The scene in the tomb of Int i at Deshasheh shows
wo men inside the fort ress that is being attacked hel ping the wounded.
In Egyptia n lit erature, women, as wives and mothers, are left bereft
when their male soldier rel at ives are killed. This view of wo men ill
relat ion to war as genera lly passive victims doubtless has some truth ,
but is also influe nced by the image of women and thei r role proj ected
in the Egyptian monument al and literary reco rd, which was essen
tiall y a male product. An active role in war is attested for some roya l
women, notably Hatshepsut , members of the Ptolemaic fami ly
(Kleopatru II , III , VII ), and Amanirenas of Meroe. Whether elite
and nonelite women accompanied military campaigns as wive s.
workers, or camp-followers is undocument ed .
- x-
XERXES. Great King of Persia and pharaoh of Egypt (reigned
486-465 Be). Accordi ng to Herodotos (Book 7), rebellion had broken
out in Egypt shortly before the death of Darius I. Th is might have bCl'1I
led by Psamtik IV, the ruler of the far western Delta (although his [('
bell ion could have been later, c. 470 BC). When Xer xes succeeded hi
father as king, he prepared the army for an invasion of Egypt. The n'
bellion was suppressed and Xerxes installed his brother, Achai mcnc
as sat rap (c. 486/485-459 BC) , Achaimenes followed harsher pol iciv
than his predecessors and was eve ntually killed in the rebelli on "I
In aros, son of Psamtik, which broke out at Xerxes' death (465 uc) .
ZAWIYET UMM EL-RAKHAM. For t ress, 25 kilometers west ,,'
Mer sa Matruh. Recent excavations have indi cated that the fort 11' 11
ZENOIlIA (Sr PTIMIA) (REIGNED 267-272 AD) • 255
larger than the 80 x 100 met ers that were cleared by
Lahih Habachi, It was probably the farthest west of a chain of
bui lt in the reign of Ramesses II , extending from Mem-
p.llls along. the edge of the Delta and the coa st at approximately 50
interva ls. Others in the line stood at Alamein , Gbar-
Karm Abu-Gir g, and Rakot e (later Alexandr ia) . The
appea rs to have been built to control the movemen t of
LIbyans along the coa st beca use it stands at a controlling point and
had a large well withi n its walls. The fort stands close to the later
town of Parnitonion, which mar ked the westernmost limit of Egypt
In the Ptolemaic period.
ZENOBIA (SEPTIMIA) (r eigned 267-272 AD). Ze nobia (the Aramaic
lorm of the name is Bath Zabbai) was the wife of Septimius Odae-
nathus, who made himsel f king of Palmyra in circa 250 AD. Odae-
nathus estab lished himsel f as protector of the east ern frontier of the Ro-
man Empire aga inst the threat from the Sasanid Empire in Persia and
was honored by the Roman emperor , Gallienus (253-268 AD), with the
titles dux and corrector totius orientis, Odenaethus in practice ruled the
whole eas tern provinces from Egypt to Asia Minor, but always ac-
kl:,owledged the .of the Roman emperor. Following the
dc.alh of Oden.aethus, In a family dispute (267 AD) , his widow. Zenobia,
,r,ower In the name of their son, Sept imius Vaballathus. Her rule
initially tolerated by the emperor s Gall ienus and Claudius " Got h-
reus (268- 70 AD) as long as she maintai ned the fronti er.
, Zenobia to.establish an independe nt empire. taking Egypt
.lIId much ASia Zenobia was invited into Egypt by Tima-
gcnes early In the reign of Claudius " (268 AD), bringing an ar my of
70.000 under the comma nd of Zabdas , Followi ng Roman resistance ,
the Palmyrenes Withdrew, leaving a garrison of 5,000, but these, too,
were forced out by the Roman genera l, Probu s, Zabdas and Tima-
/,cnes but were defeated by Probus, who attempted to cut
11 /1 their near the fort ress of Babylon. However. Timage nes
lI ad local know ledge and the Palmyrenes ultimate ly gained
the victory. Probu s commi tted suicide.
Between 270 and 272 AD, Zenobia and Vaballathus are named as the
!'"wcr holders in Egyptian doc uments. On the death of Claudi us II in
AD, Vaballathus was given increasingly exalted titles and dec lared
" Zenobia to be the ju nior colleague of the new emperor, Aurelian
256 • l rNOBIA (S[ I' TIMIA) IR[ IGNrD 267 -272 AD)
(270-75 AD) . However, his positi on in the west conso lida ted, Aurelian
led his ar mies aga inst Ze nobia, who now procl aimed her son Augustus
and her self Augusta (272 AD) . Aure lian de feated her armies at Antioch
and Ernesa, then besieged Ze nobia within Palmyr a, where she was cap
tured. Her life was spared.
In spring 273 AD, Aur elian was back in the east to deal wi th a fur
ther rebellion in Palmyr a and anothe r, appare ntly rel at ed , in Egy pt
where the Palrnyrenes allied themsel ves with the Blernruyes, confln
ing Roman authority to Alexa nd ri a . In Upper Egyp t, Palmyrcne
a r chers we re stationed at Koptos . Aurelian for ced the Palmyrenes
and adherents int o the Bruchei on , a suburb of Alexandria , whe re thcy
were besieged and eventually for ced by hun ger to ca pitulate . Aurc
lian destroyed the walls of Alexandria.
Appendix: Dynastic list
1\/1dat es before 690 BC are approxima te Some .
were contempora ry with each other 0 I ' I p, haraohs or dynast ies
, . ' . n y p iarao 1S who in th
dict ionary are included. appear 111 I e
I )YNASTY " 0" c. 3 / 50-3050 BC
I'IRST DYNASTY c. 3050-2890 BC
Nanner c . 3 100 BC
I\ ha c. 3080 BC
Ilicr c. 3050 BC
Iljl'f c. 3000 BC
l lell c. 2985 BC
' HCOND DYNASTY c. 2890- 2686 BC
" "Il'p-sekhemwy c. 2890 BC
1'l'Iihsen c. 2700 BC
l'Iiasckhemwy c. 2600 BC
OLD KINGDOM C. 2686-2181 BC
IIIIR I) DYNASTY c. 2686- 26 13 BC
uuakhte c. 2686- 2613 BC
N"ljer- khct Dj oser c. 2667-2648 BC
khcmkhet c . 2648-2640 BC
FOURTH DYN ASTY c. 2613-2494 BC
Snelru c. 26 13-2589 BC
Khufu c . 2589-2566 BC
Djedefre c. 2566-2558 BC
Khafre c . 2558-2532 BC
Me nkaure c . 2532-2503 BC
Shepseska f c. 2503-2498 BC
FIFTH DYNASTY c. 2498-2345 BC
Userkaf c. 2494-2487 BC
Sa hure c . 2487-2475 BC
Ne feri rkare c. 2475-2455 BC
Ne fere fre c. 2448 -2445 BC
Niuserre c . 2445-242 \ BC
Djedkare-lsesi c. 2414-2375 BC
Unas c . 2375-2345 BC
SIXTH DYNASTY c . 2345-218\ BC
Teti 2345-2323 BC
Pepi I 232 1-2287 LlC
Nemtyemsaf 2287-2278 BC
Pepi II 2278-2184 BC
NINTH DYNASTY c. 2160-2130 BC
TENTH DYNASTY c. 2130-2040 BC
Int er 12125- 2112 BC
Intef II 2 \ \2-2063 BC
MIDDLE KINGDOM C. 2040-1795 Be
N.ebhepetre Menthuhotep II 2055-2004 BC
S ank h-ka-te Menthuhotep III 2004-1992 BC
Ncb- tawy-re Me nthuhotep IV \992- 1985 BC
TWELFTH DYNASTY c. \985-1 795 BC
Amenemhat I 1985-1 955 BC
Senusret I 1965-1920 BC
Amenernhat II 1922-1 878 BC
Scnusret II 1880- 1874 BC
Senusret III 1874-1 855 BC
Amenernhat III 1855-1 808 BC
Arnenern hat IV 1808-1 799 BC
Se bekneferu 1799-1795 BC
DYNASTY (Hyksos) c. 1650-1 550 BC
Apepi c . 1585-1550 BC
Khamudy c. 1550-1535 BC
SllVENTEENTI-I DYNASTY c. 1580-1 550
T . BC
ao c. 1560 BC
Kumose c. 1555-1 550 BC
NEW KINGDOM C. 1550-1069 BC
DYNASTY c. 1550-1 295 BC
Ahmose 1550-1 525 BC
i\ mcnhotep I 1525- 1504 BC
'Ihuunose I 1504- 1492 BC
'lhutmose II 1492- 1479 BC
'lhutrnosc III 1479-1 425 BC (so le re ign from 1456)
Hatshepsut 1472- 1458 BC
Amenhotep II 1427- 1400 BC
Thut mose IV 1400-1 390 BC
Amenhotep III 1390-1 352 BC
Akhenaten 1352-1 336 BC
Tutankhamun 1336-1 327 BC
Horemheb 1323-1 295 BC
Sety I 1294-1 279 BC
Ramesses II 1279-1 213 BC
Merneptah 1213-1203 BC
Amenrnesses 1203-1200 BC (or entirely within the rei gn of Set y II)
Set y II 1200- 11 94 BC
Rarnesses III 11 84-11 53 BC
Ramesses IV 11 53-11 47 BC
Ramesses VI 11 43-11 36 BC
Ramesses IX 11 26-11 08 BC
Ramesses XI 1099-1 069 BC
Osorkon " the elder" 984-978 BC
Siamu n 978-959 BC
Shes honq I 945-924 BC
Osorkon I 924-889 BC
Oso rkon II 874-850 BC
Take loth II 850-825 BC
Osorkon III c. 800-785 BC
Kasht a c . 750-736 BC
Piye (Piankhy) c. 736-7 12 IIC
Shabaqo c . 7 11-695 BC
Shebitqo c. 695-690 BC
Taharqo 690-664 BC
Tanwetamani 664-656 BC
Psamtik I 664-610 HC
Neka u II 6 10-595 BC
Psamtik II 595-589 BC
Wahibre (Apries) 589-570 BC
Ahmose II (Arnasis) 570-526 HC
I'samtik III 526-525 BC
Cambyses 525-52 1 BC
Dar ius I 52 1-485 BC
l'edubast III (rebel Egyp tian dynast) c. 500 BC
Xerxes 485-465 BC
Artaxerxes I 465-424/423 BC
Darius II 423-404 BC
i\ myrtaios 404-400/399 BC
Ncfaarud I ca 399/398-394/393 BC
IIakor 393/392- 381-380 BC
l'shenmut 380/379 BC
Ncfaarud II 379 BC
Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I) ca 379/378-362/36 1 BC
Iljedhor 36 1/360-360-359 BC
Nckhthorheb (Nectanebo II) 359/358-342/34 1 BC
Auuxcrxes III 343-338 BC
Khubbash (Egy ptian independent pharaoh) c. 338 BC
I)arius III 336-332 BC
262 • APpr NDIX
Alexa nder III the Great 332-323 BC
Philip Arrhiduios 323-3 17 BC
Alexa nder IV 323- 305 BC
Ptolemy I Soter 305-282 BC
Ptolemy II Phi lade lphos 285-246 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I 246-222 BC
Ptolemy IV Phi lopator 222-205 BC
Ptolemy V Epi phanes 205- 180 llC
Pto lemy VI Ph ilomet or 180-1 45 HC
Kleopat ra II I80- 116 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergctes II 169-1 63,1 45-1 16 BC
Kleopatra III 145- 101 ll C
Ptolemy IX Sot er II 11 6-1 07 BC
Ptolemy X Alexande r I 107-88 llC
Ptolemy IX Soter II (restored) 88-80 BC
Kleopatra Berenike III 80 BC
Pto lemy XI Alexander II 80 BC
Ptol emy XII Neos Dionysos ("Auletes") 80- 58,55-5 1 BC
Kleopatra VI (58-57 BC) and Berenike IV 58-55 llC
Ptol emy XIII 51--47 HC
Kleopatra VII 51-30 HC
Ptolemy XIV 47--44 BC
Ptolemy XV Kaisarion 44-30 HC
Augustus 30 Bc- 14 AD
Tiberius 14- 37 AD
Ca ius (Caligula) 37--41 AD
Claudi us 4 1-54 AD
Nero 54-68 AD
Vespasian 69-79 AD
Titus 79-8 1 AD
Trajan 98- 117 AD
Hadrian 117-1 38 AD
Antoni nus Pius 138- 161 AD
Marcus Aureli us 161-1 80 AD
Septimius Severus 193- 211 AD
Caracalla 198- 217 AD
Macrinus 217-218 AD
Elagabalus 218-222 AD
Philip 244-249 AD
Valerian 253-260 AD
Gallienus 253-268 AD
Claudius II Got hic us 268-270 AD
Aure lian 270-275 AD
Dioc letian 286-305 AD
Constantine I 306-337 AD
Julia n 361-363 AD
Theodosius I 379-395 AD
Justinian 1527-565 AD
l'hocas 602-610 AD
l lcraclius 610-642 AD
Select Bibliography
There are three distinct phases of military history covered in this volume :
Pharaonic, Helleni stic (Ptolemaic), and Roman, eac h of which has , for a
variety of reaso ns, recei ved different depths of treatment by scholars. There
have been remarkabl y few gene ral studies of warfare in the pharaonic pe-
riod, and with the exceptions of the batt les of Megiddo and Qadesh, and
the wars of Thutrnose III and Sety I, literature has generally treated mili-
tary act ivities by pharaohs within the overall context of thei r reigns. Other
specifically technical aspects, such as the fortresses and weaponry or tex-
tual sources, have all been subjected to more deta iled studies. Therefore,
many of the works cited here are in acade mic journals and inevitably in-
clude a large number in French and German, and some in Italian.
By the nature of the survi ving ev idence, warfare in the Hell enistic
and Roman periods has been the subject of far more studies than the
pharaonic peri od. For the Ptol emaic army, some more ge nera l studies of
Greek and Hell en istic wa rfare have been included, but lor the Roman
period the bibliography has been restri cted to works that deal specifi-
cally with Egypt.
In the topographical sec tion, sites are listed as they app ear in the dic-
tionary: sma ller sites , such as some of the fortres ses in Kharga Oasis ,
will be found in the entry for Kharga rather than separately. This applies
especially to sites that are de scribed only in collective art icles rat her
than receiving individual studies .
Ge nera l Wo rks on War fare in Egypt and the Near East
Historica l At lases
Egypt: General
Egypt: Specific Peri od s and Rei gn s (Re lati ng to Mil itar y Ac-
t ions , Includi ngTe xt s)
Roman Egypt
Byzanti ne Egypt
Egypt an d the Wider World
Imperi ali sm
Dipl omatic Rel at ion s
Libya and Li byan s
Ncar East
Jews and Je wi sh Re volts
The Sca Peoples
Greek and Roman World
Military Equipme nt and Warfare
Weapon s and Other Mi litary Equipment
The Army
The Army: Pharaon ic
The Ar my: Ptolemaic
The Army: Roman
Soldi ers: Vet erans and Clcruc hs
Soldiers : Roman
Econo my
Civ ilians
Lite rature
Literary Texts
Mus ic a nd Musician s
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