LEARNING ENGLISH MORPHOLOGY FOR EFL LEARNERS Generally, we can mention that EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners

are those who learn English tend to achieve the particular purpose. For example, they can use English when travelling or to communicate with other people from whatever country, who also speak English. We can classify the students of English department into EFL learners, too. So, they need to be able to speak English well. One of the foremost aspect in speaking English is we have to understand about morphology, so that we can speak English easily. That’s why we need to learn English morpholgy as an EFL learners. This essaytries to explain about how to learn English morphology, especially for EFL learners. Before we straight to the ways that can be applied in learning morphology, we have to know about morphology first. Morphology can be defined as "a branch of linguistics concerned with analyzing the structure of words. The morphology of a given word is its structure or form" (Baldick, 2001). Actually, from the meaning above, we can conclude that morphology is the branch of linguistics that focused on the study of structure and formation of words in a language. In this case, we focus on English morphology. Based on that definition, we get the purposes of learning morphology that we are going to study about what the words in a language are, what the function of words, and how the words can be formed. Overall, we can say that this essay can help us to know and give the knowledge about some ways and tips to learn morphology easily. We can get many advantages of learning English morphology. They are : the knowledge of morphology can be applied among the learners to increase our vocabulary, detect the changes of word classes, know the word origins and enhances our mind to think creatively.


However. Compounding word is a word formation process that involves combining two free morphemes to form a new word in a single compound form. There are two types of word formation that are derivational and also compounding word. we are justified in classifying all such cases as compound words not considering their conventional spelling for a variety of reasons. Informally. a new word formed will be our new vocabulary and it can help us understand English better. The most obvious word that use this type of combination is ‘learner'. as in chain saw. So now. we need to explore morphology by choose words or morpheme which will provide the most benefit for ourselves in order to create new words. As an EFL learners . friend will form a new single word girlfriend. blackboard. oil well. we knew that one of the advantages of learning morphology is its knowledge can help English learnerss in identifying the changes of word 2 . word formation rules form new words. For example.Morphology can helps us as an EFL learner to increase our vocabulary. and later are treated as one form. In ordinary English spelling. a free morpheme girl is combined with another free morpheme. morphology is not being added together with the spelling curriculum. as in blackbird. Sometimes the parts are connected by a hyphen. As we studied morphology. the free morpheme learn combined with suffix –er to form a new word ‘learner'. The second type of word formation is derivation. compounds are sometimes spelled as single words. we are newly exposed to the words in a variety of contexts . both girl and friend are complete word forms in their own right before the compounding process has been applied. In addition. At school before. maybe we can combine morphemes to form a new word. So. as in jig-saw and sometimes they are spelled as two words. Girl is a free morpheme because it is a smallest meaningful unit of sound so do the word friend. Derivation involves the combination of free morpheme with affixes or suffixes.

A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language. -iz (function as a morpheme that changes the word to a verb). -ness. and there are several ways that we can justify this in English. A free morpheme is the morpheme that can stand alone as a word (e. nation). After we know about the purpose of learning English morphology. The fourth. Derivational process typically applies to nouns. It can be free or bound morpheme. to happy. Another example is. On the contrary. we can form a noun happiness from the adjective happy. When the suffix -er is added to a verb. For example. and adjectives 3 . Page : 1) The first. The word happiness is formed by adding an ending. we should know what a morpheme is. we as EFL learners have to know and do the basic insructions or steps that must be followed to learn morphology easily. nation (function as main morpheme/root). verbs. Open-class (as known as lexical morphemes) are nouns. we should understandhow individual morphemes carry meaning. but it can be broken down into smaller units that we called morpheme. a bound morpheme is a morpheme that can not stand alone as a word and must be attached to another morpheme to carry meaning (e. 2011. morpheme is the smallest one. _al. The second. -ation (function as a morpheme that changes the word to a noun). learner is derived by adding -er to the verb learn. verbs and adjectives. A familiar distinction is that between nouns and verbs. thus allowing us to change the category of the word. a new noun is created. This process is referred as derivational morphology because it derives a new word from the old one. we have to know that free morphemes are classified as open-class and closed-class. Although we thought that word is the basic meaningful element of a language. in word nationalization. So. (Laura Payne.g.g. we should know the different types of morphemes. The third. -al (function as a morpheme that changes the word to an adjective). For example. -ation). -iz.classes.

prepositions. for example.which can take additional morphemes. input are described morphologically as (institute + tion + al). For example : Inflectional morpheme (neatneater : adjective  adjective). Closed-class (as known as functional morpheme) are conjunctions. After EFL learners do all of instructions above. happy – unhappy and useful –useless. and determiners which cannot take an additional morpheme.g. Students sometimes over-generalize what they learn. The last. maybe they can get some problems. -ness and –ify) do. whereas derivational morphemes are presented as a list of vocabularies where students can memorize them. plural –s). Words such asinstitutional. Trial and practical can be the good way for us to get comprehension more. (pel) can not give meaning when it stands alone unlike react (act) which gives meaning when it stands by itself. repeat (re + peat). we should find a list of words and practice breaking the words into the morphemes from which they are built. -s) don’t change the gammatical function of the word. we have to understand that bound morphemes are classified as inflectional and derivational affixes or roots. -ed. but derivational morphemes (e. in repel. they very often forget the –sfor the third person singular (goes) and conjugate irregular past tense forms by adding –ed (drinked).g. so they describe words like repel as (re + pel).g. –er. (re +act). prefix dis) pose more difficulties to EFL learners than inflectional [grammatical] morphemes (e. Inflectional morphemes (e. Those words can not be described morphologically in this way because they are a part of the stem/root. All of instructions above is very useful to make us understand easier about morphology. and (in + put). The fifth. react.This is due perhaps to the fact that during the early stages of learning English.e. 4 .g. whereas derivational morpheme (neatneatness : adjective  noun). i. incident (in + cident). students do not have good command of grammar rules. It has been observed that derivational morphemes (e.

we would know the meaning and the function of the words. we can do some activities or just like make practice to shape our expertness in the English morphology. We can give the symbol for each. underline the prefixes. find the affix. In this activity. p. identify base and affix. and add the affix. Maybe these words as noun. So. circle the roots. We can create the words and add all the morphemes together. in learning morphology. find the affix. with practice. they may not pay attention to the grammatical morphemes attached to some of the words that do not affect the meaning.In this respect. but the others have prefixes. First. we can use a list of words. This activity is little bit difficult from the two above. we will know the actual meaning of the text by finding the affixes. Some of words are simple root words. we are going to look for prefixes or suffixes from the text in a book. we can get comprehension more about English morphology. However. Try it continuously and as many as possible until we get the real comprehension.39) have suggested that during second language acquisition. 2003. while learners at the earliest stage concentrate more on understanding the main words of the message. add the affix. Second. Third. Therefore. 5 . That is. The activities or practices should be done repeatedly and continuously. Norman Segalowiz (2003) and others (in Lightbown & Spada. those words become automatically used by the learners. For instance. or adverb. or both. verb. adjective. Consequently. These activities such as identify base and affix. From the affix that we have searched. suffixes. Beside that. At this activity. Lightbown and Spada have argued that there is a limitation to the amount of information a learner can pay attention to. "learners have to pay attention at first to any aspect of the language that they are trying to understand or produce … [by] using cognitive resources to process information". and double underline the suffixes.

EFL learners must be get some problems in learning morhology. understand that bound morphemes are further classified as either inflectional or derivational affixes or roots and find a list of words and practice breaking the words into the morphemes from which they are built. so that they can understand and speak English easily. and adding the affix. such as increasing our vocabulary. finding the affix. understand how individual morphemes convey meaning. we know that EFL learners have to study morphology. Morphology is the branch of linguistics that focused on the study of structure and formation of words in a language. know that free morphemes are further classified as either openclass or closed-class. we can do some activities such as identifying base and affix. recognize the different types of morphemes. For shaping our ability in learning English morphology.In conclusion. 6 . I give at least six basic step that must be followed to understand about morphology. knowing the word origins and enhancing our mind to think creatively. They are : know what a morpheme is.Trial and practical can be the good way for us to get comprehension more.We will get some advantages of learning morphology. detecting the changes of word classes.I think that learning English morphology is not easy as learning the others aspect of English.

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