This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Man is a rational being and is curious to exploit/discover new things in the environment. In order for him to understand the life in a better aspect and try to solve the mystery of the nature/environment. While exploiting the environment, human activities resulted to pollution and RELEASE OF certain HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.
Bioremediation came as an option that offers the possibility to destroy or render harmless various contaminants using natural biological activity.
branch of biotechnology that uses biological process to overcome environmental problems.
can be defined as any process that uses:
microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition.
Robinson. he spent his spare time experimenting with dirty jars and various mixes of microbes. He was the assistant county petroleum engineer for Santa Maria.History Bioremediation technology using microorganisms was reportedly invented by George M. California. . During the 1960s.
Bioremediation may be employed: to attack specific soil contaminants. An example of a more general approach is the cleanup of oil spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulphate fertilisers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria. . such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria.
How might microorganisms attack hazardous organic wastes? .
compound converted to harmless inorganic molecules such as carbon dioxide and salts .BIODEGRADATION The breakdown of organic compounds by microorganisms Mineralize compound directly.
compound to some other compound.Cont. which may also be toxic and recalcitrant to further degradation Converting . Of prime importance are microorganisms capable of producing enzymes that will degrade the hazardous chemical (target compound) as enzymes degrade compounds through exploitation of the organism’s energy need.
REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOREMEDIATION MICROORGANISMS ENERGY SOURCE ELECTRON ACCEPTOR MOISTURE pH NUTRIENTS TEMPERATURE ABSENCE OF COMPETITIVE ORGANISMS ABSENCE OF TOXICITY REMOVAL OF METABOLITIES BIOREMEDIATION .
THE BASIC PROBLEM: RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Enormous quantities of organic & inorganic compounds are released into the environment each year as a result of human activities. The release may be: Deliberate and well regulated (industrial emissions) Accidental and largely unavoidable (chemical/oil spills) US EPA estimated that in 1980 at least 57 millions metric tons of the total waste can be categorized into three general groups: .
Nuclear waste including radioactive material such as plutonium which are dangerous for thousands of years . also known as organochlorides including pesticides and other organic compounds such as PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) Research proven a positive correlation between cancer in lab animals and organochlorides. Ni and Be can accumulate in various organs. Cd. Pb. interfere with normal enzymatic reactions and cause disease including cancer Chlorinated hydrocarbons. Heavy metal. Hg.
The contaminants can be biodegraded in situ or removed and placed in bioreactor (at or off the contamination sites). It requires the control and manipulation of microbial processes in surface reactors or in the subsurface. thereby eliminating the contaminant . Idea: To isolate microbes that can degrade or eat a particular contaminant To provide the conditions whereby it can do this most effectively. soil and sludges contaminated with hazardous chemicals.BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is the application of biological process principles to the treatment of groundwater.
CONCEPTS: Heterotrophic microorganisms are the principal user of organic matter in the biosphere and are key in cycling carbon from the organic to the inorganic state. Provided that sufficient inorganic nutrients as an energy source and a terminal electron acceptor for metabolism are present. . all naturally occurring organic material can be biodegraded eventually.
These conditions include extremes in temperature or pH. the presence of toxicants or antimicrobial agents. . and the lack of water and an electron acceptor. the inhibition or exclusion of microbial enzymes.CONCEPTS: Simple organic compounds such as acetate may persist under condition that do not favor microbial activity.
. Procaryotic cell Bacteria Blue-green bacteria or cyanobacteria Eucaryotic cell Plants Animals Rotifers Protozoa Fungi Most algae The most important groups to bioremediation are bacteria and fungi. the procaryotic and eucaryotic.Microbial Divisions Two kinds of cells are recognized.
source of cell building material. electrons. source of energy .Microorganisms destroy organic contaminants in the course of using the chemicals for their own growth and reproduction. Organic chemicals provide: carbon.
acceptor is: -nitrate -manganese -iron -sulfate . acceptor is oxygen In anaerobic. causing transfer of electrons from organic chemicals to some electron acceptor Electron acceptors: In aerobic oxidation. aerobic and anaerobic Cells catalyze oxidation of organic chemicals (electron donors). Metabolism is defined by the nature of the redox reaction Metabolism modes are divided into two.
TYPES OF BIOREMEDIATION The two main types of bioremediation are in situ bioremediation and ex situ bioremediation. another offshoot of bioremediation is phytoremediation. . In addition.
In Situ Bioremediation In situ bioremediation is when the contaminated site is cleaned up exactly where it occurred. . There are two main types of in situ bioremediation: intrinsic bioremediation and accelerated bioremediation. It is the most commonly used type of bioremediation because it is the cheapest and most efficient. so it’s generally better to use.
it is the most commonly used. and since it is the cheapest means of bioremediation available.Intrinsic Bioremediation Intrinsic bioremediation uses microorganisms already present in the environment to biodegrade harmful contaminant. There is no human intervention involved in this type of bioremediation. When intrinsic bioremediation isn’t feasible. scientists turn next to accelerated bioremediation. .
Usually the microorganisms are indigenous. either substrate or nutrients are added to the environment to help break down the toxic spill by making the microorganisms grow more rapidly. . but occasionally microorganisms that are very efficient at degrading a certain contaminant are additionally added.Accelerated Bioremediation In accelerated bioremediation.
Main advantage is that site disturbance is minimized. Biggest limitation of in situ treatment has been the inability to deal effectively with metal contaminants mixed with organic compounds. which is particularly important when the contaminated plume has moved under permanent structures. . The goal of in situ treatment is to manage and manipulate the subsurface environment to optimize microbial degradation.
.In Situ Bioremediation Land treatments: Bioventing is the most common in situ treatment and involves supplying air and nutrients through wells to contaminated soil to stimulate the indigenous bacteria.
Bioaugmentation Bioremediation frequently involves the addition of microorganisms indigenous or exogenous to the contaminated sites. .In situ biodegradation involves supplying oxygen and nutrients by circulating aqueous solutions through contaminated soils to stimulate naturally occurring bacteria to degrade organic contaminants.
Biosparging increases the mixing in the saturated zone and thereby increases the contact between soil and groundwater. .Biosparging involves the injection of air under pressure below the water table to increase groundwater oxygen concentrations and enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants by naturally occurring bacteria.
since the contaminated land is physically removed. . This type of bioremediation is generally used only when the site is threatened for some reason. usually by the spill that needs to be cleaned up.Ex Situ Bioremediation Another type of bioremediation is ex situ bioremediation. Ex situ bioremediation is only used when necessary because it’s expensive and damaging to the area. which is when contaminated land are taken out of the area to be cleaned up by the organisms.
The presence of these organic materials supports the development of a rich microbial population and elevated temperature characteristic of composting.Ex Situ Bioremediation Landfarming is a simple technique in which contaminated soil is excavated and spread over a prepared bed and periodically tilled until pollutants are degraded. Composting is a technique that involves combining contaminated soil with nonhazardous organic compounds such as agricultural wastes. .
. sediment. sludge) or water through an engineered containment system. Bioreactors-Slurry reactors or aqueous reactors are used for ex situ treatment of contaminated soil and water pumped up from a contaminated plume. Bioremediation in reactors involves the processing of contaminated solid material (soil.
. into harmless or valuable forms.Phytoremediation Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up potentially damaging spills. The plants work with soil organisms to transform contaminants. such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds.
CO2 or CH4. H2O.Biodegradation • • Biodegradation – microbial catalyzed reduction in complexity of chemicals Involves the breakdown of organic compounds either through biotransformation into less complex metabolites or through mineralization into inorganic minerals.conversion of an organic substrate to inorganic end products • . Mineralization .
take place only when organic carbon concentrations very low.• • Growth-linked metabolism biodegradation provides carbon and energy to support growth. The extent and rate of biodegradation depend on many factors including pH. Maintenance metabolism biodegradation not linked to multiplication. chemical structure of the compound. accessibility of nutrients. degree of acclimation. but to obtaining carbon for respiration to maintain cell viability. cellular transport properties and chemical partitioning in growth medium. • . microbial population. oxygen. temperature.
BIODEGRADATION SYSTEM IN BIOREMEDIATION MICROORGANISMS •Growth •Physiology •Genetic competence •Metabolic diversity •Enzymology •metabolites CONTAMINANTS •Mass transfer •Bioavailability •Hydrophobicity •Recalcitrance •Structure •Toxicity ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS •pH •Temperature •Moisture •Oxygen •Nutrients •Soil type .
Because of the adaptability of microbes and other biological systems. with an excess of oxygen. and in anaerobic conditions. with the presence of hazardous compounds or on any waste stream.Microorganisms Microorganisms can be isolated from almost any environmental conditions. Microbes will adapt and grow at different temperatures. in water. . as well as extreme heat. desert conditions. these can be used to degrade or remediate environmental hazards.
Nutrients Although the microorganisms are present in contaminated soil. Biostimulation usually involves the addition of nutrients and oxygen to help indigenous microorganisms. These nutrients are the basic building blocks of life and allow microbes to create the necessary enzymes to break down the contaminants. . Their growth and activity must be stimulated. they cannot necessarily be there in the numbers required for bioremediation of the site.
. The nutritional requirement of carbon to nitrogen ratio is 10:1. and nitrogen it constitutes about 95% of the weight of cells. oxygen. and carbon to phosphorous is 30:1. In addition to hydrogen.Carbon is the most basic element of living forms and is needed in greater quantities than other elements.
Environmental requirements .
nitrogen and phosphorus) Non-toxic conditions Minimum carbon source ..g.Limitations to biodegradation Adequate bacterial concentrations (although populations generally increase if there is food present) Electron acceptors Nutrients (e.
Relative biodegradability .
the complete destruction of target pollutants is possible. . from land to water or air. Instead of transferring contaminants from one environmental medium to another. for example.Advantages of bioremediation Bioremediation is a natural process and is therefore perceived by the public as an acceptable waste treatment process Many compounds that are legally considered to be hazardous can be transformed to harmless products.
often without causing a major disruption of normal activities. Bioremediation is less expensive .Advantages of bioremediation Bioremediation can often be carried out on site.
There are some concerns that the products of biodegradation may be more persistent or toxic than the parent compound.Disadvantages of bioremediation Bioremediation is limited to those compounds that are biodegradable. It is difficult to extrapolate from bench and pilot-scale studies to full-scale field operations. .
and appropriate levels of nutrients and contaminants.Disadvantages of bioremediation Bioremediation often takes longer than other treatment options Biological processes are often highly specific. suitable environmental growth conditions. Important site factors required for success include the presence of metabolically capable microbial populations. .
and these are toxic to living cells. Many hydrocarbons dissolve slowly in water. Others such as the aromatic compounds like benzene are more soluble.Case Study: Oil spill Bioremediation As a result of the petroleum industry millions of tons of these compounds enter the oceans every year. While accidental releases may contribute to only a small percentage of the oil released into the marine environment large accidental oil spills receive much attention and evoke considerable public concern because they can result in contamination of ocean and shoreline environments. .
Oil spill!! The biggest spill ever occurred during the 1991 Persian Gulf war when about 240 million gallons spilled from oil terminals and tankers off the coast of Prince William Sound. . The Exxon Valdez accident at Bligh Reef in 1989 discharged 40 million litres…. Alaska.
Oleophilic fertilizer enhanced biodegradation of oil. Bioremediation was a useful cleanup alternative that was used by Exxon on large scale.000 times. .Bioremediation to the rescue? Initial studies showed that the number of oil degrading microorganisms on oiled beaches in comparison with untreated controls increased by as much as 10.
. The beaches are more compatible with local wildlife (less tendency for fur and feathers to become oiled). Oleophilic fertilizer proven to be an effective nutrient source for oil degrading microbial communities.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.