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Mc lc
Mc lc.........................................................................................1 Li ni u.................................................................................3 Chng I: cc khi nim chung v mng my tnh I. Khi nim chung.......................................................................4 II. Phn loi mng........................................................................6 1. Theo k thut chuyn mch..............................................6 1.1 Mng chuyn mch knh( Circuit Switched Network)...6 1.2 Chuyn mch thng bo( Messaga area Network)......6 1.3 mng chuyn mch gi ( Packet Swiched Network)....6 2. Theo khong cch a l..................................................7 2.1 mng cc b LAN( Local area Network).......................7 2.2 Mng th MAN (Metaropolitan area network).........7 2.3 Mng din rng WAN( Wide area Network).................7 2.4 Mng ton cu ( Global area network).........................7 III. Cu hnh................................................................................7 1. cu hnh Sao (Star)........................................................ 7 2. cu hnh dng BUS.........................................................8 3. M hnh vng Ring.........................................................9 4. Kt hp: Cc cu hnh thnh mt cu hnh Lai gia sao vt l thc vi vng Logic...............................................10 IV. phng thc vn hnh, giao tip..........................................11 1. M hnh OSI....................................................................11 2. Cc phng php truy nhp ng truyn vt l..............15 2.1 Phng php CSMA/CD................................................15 2.2 Token BUS..................................................................16 2.3 Token Ring.................................................................17 3. Giao thc........................................................................19 3.1 Giao thc TCP/ IP........................................................19 3.2 Giao thc TP4/ CLNP..................................................20 3.3 Giao thc chuyn tip khung....................................21
Chng II: Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng my tnh

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1. Phng tin truyn dn...................................................22 1.1 Cp ng trc (Coaxial Caple)..................................22 1.2 Cp dy xon................................................22 1.3 Cp si quang( Fiber optic Cable) .........................23 1.4 V tuyn....................................................................24 2. Cc thit b kt ni.........................................................24 2.1 Card giao tip mng: NIC (network Inter Pace Card)24 2.2 B tp trung ca HUB ..............................................25 2.3 B chuyn tip ( Reapeter) .....................................26 2.4 cu ni: (Bridge)...................................................... 27 2.5 B nh tuyn (Router) ..........................................28 2.6 Cng ni mng.........................................................28 2.7 Modem( Modulation /Demodulation) .......................29 2.8 B truy nhp t xa( Remote access) .................29 3. H iu hnh.................................................................31 3.1 H iu hnh NOS( Network Operation System) ...31 3.2 C hai h iu hnh...............................................31 3.3 Khi qut v h iu hnh mng Windows NT....31 Chng III: xy dng mng cc b LAN cng ty bo him bo vit Ph Th I. xy dng s mng......................................................................................35 1. Chc nng t chc b my ca cng ty...................................................35 1.1 T chc b my ...............................................................................35 1.2 Chc nng nhim v cc b phn.....................................................36 2. iu kin a l......................................................................................38 3. Xy dung mng LAN.............................................................................38 II. La chn cu hnh mng.................................................................................41 1. La chn cu hnh mng.....................................................................41 2. La chn phn mm truyn d liu....................................................44 2

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3. La chn s iu hnh mng..............................................................44 III: Lp t v ci t mng 1. Lp t mng..............................................................48 1.1 My tnh c nhn.....................................................48 1.2 lp t cp mng...................................................48 1.3 Lp t Card mng..................................................48 1.4 Lp t cp.........................................................49 1.5 lp t Hub........................................................49 1.6 Lp t Modem......................................................50 1.7 Lp t my in( Printer) ........................................50 2. Ci t mng................................................................50 Kt lun. ................................................................................51 Cc Thut Ng..........................................................................52

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Li ni u Ngy nay cng ngh thng tin c ng dng rng di vo tt c cc nghnh: khoa hc k thut, vn ho, thng tin vo tt c cc quc gia, in hnh l mng ton cu Internet l bn p thc y s pht trin vi cc quc gia trn th gii. Vic hnh thnh mng my tnh gip con ngi gim c thi gian chi ph v chao i thng tin mt cch nhanh chng v chnh xc t nhng v tr rt xa nhau. T ta c th nhn thy mng my tnh rt quan trng trong i sng x hi hin nay. Vic tt c cc c quan, t chc chnh quyn u ng dng mng my tnh vo cng ngh qun l kinh doanh v tuyn truyn qung b l mt minh chng, tuy nhin c quan ny ch s dng my tnh mt cch n l, mt s c quan xy dng h thng mng nhng hu ht cc mng ny khng c t chc mt cch hp l c th m bo hiu qu ca mng, cng nh m bo an ton d liu. khc phc nhng nhc im trn em chn ti mng my tnh cc b - LAN. Em rt mong c s gip ca cc thy c em hon thin cun n ny. Qua tham kho mt s mng c th ca cc cng ty, nghin ci ti liu v s hng dn nhit tnh ca cc thy c trong khoa in T_Vin Thng, c bit l thy Hong Minh Qun. gip em hon thnh cun n ny.

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Chng I: cc khi nim chung v mng my tnh


I. Khi nim chung.

Ngy nay mng my tnh khng cn xa l vi mi ngi vy mng my tnh l g ? Mng mytnh l t hp ca hai hay nhiu my tnh c ni vi nhau qua ng truyn v theo mt kin trc nht nh c th trao i thng tin vi nhau, nng cao hiu qu khai thc ti nguyn chung t nhng v tr khc nhau. Mng my tnh ra i v pht trin em li nhng thnh qu ln lao chnh v vy mng my tnh c s dng rng ri trong cc ngnh, cc lnh vc i sng x hi, trong lnh vc: Kinh doanh thng mi, qung co, sn xut, xy dng, k ton, cc cng ty, trng hc Cng c th dng mt mng my tnh cho ring mnh nng cao hiu qu trong cng vic. Thng thng mng my tnh phi cn chnh xc, truyn tin ng, ph hp vi tc . tm mt mng cho ph hp vi v tr a l l mt yu t cng rt cn thit cho vic truyn thng. Mng cc b LAN (Local area network) dng lin kt cc thit b u cui DTE da trn c s mng my tnh trong mt khu vc, mt to nh hay mt nhm cc to nh c khoanh vng. V d dng lin kt cc trm lm vic trong mt to nh, mt cm to nh trong khun vin trng hc hoc ni cc thit b da trn mng my tnh trong mt khu nh, mt lin hp nh my, bnh vin v c xy dng, iu hnh bi cc c s . V vy LAN cng c th c gi l mng s liu t nhn. Giao thc s dng l cc ngn ng, quy tc iu khin qun l c dng cc my tnh truyn thng vi cc my tnh khc cng nh mi trng truyn dn. 6

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My tnh trung tm B tin x l

Mng truyn tin B tp trung

Nt mng

Hnh I. S khi qut v mng my tnh

- Chc nng ca my tnh trung tm: + X l cc chc nng v chng trnh ng dng, phn chia ti nguyn v ng dng. + Qun l cc trm u cui, qun l cc th tc truyn d liu. - Chc nng ca b tin x l: 7

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gim nh nhim v ca mng my tnh trung tm ngi ta thm vo cc b tin x l (Preprocessor hay cn gi l Protal) ni thnh mng truyn tin, b sung hay hu b nhng k t ng b. - Chc nng b tp trung (Cocenterator): Dng tp trung cng mt ng truyn cc tn hiu c a t cc trm u cui. Nhng b tp trung khng c kh nng chuyn song song cc thng tin do cc trm u cui gi n, nn phi dng b nh m (Buffer) lu tr tm thi cc thng tin ri mi chuyn.
II. Phn loi mng

C s phn loi mng l cng ngh v k thut dng truyn thng tin. C nhiu cch phn loi mng khc nhau, tu thuc vo yu t chnh c lm ch tiu phn loi mng nh sau: 1/ Theo k thut chuyn mch. 1.1. Mng chuyn mch knh (Circuit switched network). Mng chuyn mch ny thc hin vic trao i thng tin gia hai thc th trong mng. Bng cch thit lp mt knh c nh trong sut thi gian trao i v thi gian c cc thc th khc khng th tham gia vo knh thng tin , knh c duy tr cho n khi mt hai knh ngt lin lc. Phng php ny c ng dng cho mng in thoi. 1.2. network). Chuyn mch thng bo (Message are

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Vi phng thc chuyn mch ny th khi mt thc th cn gi thng tin i n mt thc th khc th thng tin ny s chia thnh nhng thng bo (message) c khun dng quy nh trc. Mi thng bo u cha vng thng tin iu khin ch r ch ca thng bo, khi mi thng bo n nt mng s lu tr tm thi thng bo v c thng tin iu khin bit v sau gi tip thng bo i tu vo iu kin ca mng. M cc thng bo khc nhau c th gi i u tin cc con ng khc nhau n ch. 1.3. network). Trong phng thc ny mi thng bo c chia thnh nhiu cc phn nh hn gi l cc gi tin (packet) c khun dng quy nh trc. Mi gi tin cha cc thng tin iu khin trong c a ch ngun (ngi gi). V nguyn tc chuyn mch gi cng ging nh chuyn mch thng bo, im khc bit chuyn mch gi l cc gi tin c gii hn kch thc ti a sao cho cc nt mng c th x l ton b cc gi tin trong b nh m khng cn phi lu tr tm thi. Mng chuyn mch gi (Packet swiched

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2/ Theo khong cch a l. Theo khong cch a l khc nhau m c cc loi mng ph hp vi cc iu kin trn: Mng cc b LAN Mng th MAN Mng din rng WAN Mng ton cu 2.1. Mng cc b LAN (Local area network). L mng ci t trong phm vi tng i nh (nh mt to nh, mt trng hc) phm vi ch trong khong vi chc km tr li. 2.2. Mng th MAN (Metaropolitan area network). L mng c ci t trong phm vi mt o th, mt trung tm kinh t x hi c bn knh khong 100 km. 2.3. Mng din rng WAN (Wide area network). L mng m phm vi c th vt qua bin gii quc gia v thm ch c chu lc. Giao thc ph bin nht ca mng l TCP/IP v X25 tc truyn s liu ca mng WAN c khuynh hng gim so vi LAN, tc khong 2400 kb. 2.4. Mng ton cu (Global area network). Phm vi ca mng tri khp c lc a v tri t.
III. Cu hnh.

1/ Cu hnh sao (Star).

B tp trung

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Hnh II. Topology Star vi HUB trung tm

Trong cu hnh sao tt c cc nt LAN c ni vi mt tng i chuyn mch trung tm bng cc ng kt ni ring. ng dng chung nht ca cu hnh sao l h thng in thoi, mi u ni hay my in thoi u c ng kt ni ring ca mnh vi mt PBX hay tng i trung tm trong lnh vc mng. Thit b trung tm c th l mt b chuyn mch (Swich), mt b chn ng (routetr) hoc n gin l mt b phn knh (HUB). Vai tr thc cht ca thit b trung tm ny chnh l thc hin bt tay gia cc trm cu trao i thng tin vi nhau thit lp cc lin kt im nhiu im gia chng. u im: - Lp t n gin d dng cu hnh li (thm bt trm), tin kim sot v khc phc s c. - c bit do s lin kt im - im nn tn dng ti a tc ng truyn vt l. - Cc nt LAN c lp vi nhau, ni cch khc nu mt nt vn hnh sai th cc nt khc khng b nh hng. Nhc im: - Khi cc nt LAN c ni c lp vi nhau nn phi cn mt lng ln giy lp t. - Cc nt LAN c ni c lp vi nhau vi trc trung tm (HUB) trong thng tin vi cc nt khc. Khi trc vn hnh sai th ton b thng tin b dng li tr khi c mt s d phng. 2/ Cu hnh dng BUS. Trong cu hnh BUS cc nt mng c t dc theo ung kt ni n. Dng T-Connector chung khi mt nt pht tin th tn hiu truyn ra ngoi nt theo c hai chiu dc theo BUS.

Terminator
Hnh III. Topology BUS

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ng truyn ny gii hn bi hai u ni c bit Terminator. Mi trm c ni vo BUS qua mt u ni ch T (T - connector) hoc mt b thu pht (Transceiver) khi mt trm truyn d liu, tn hiu c qung b trn hai chiu ca BUS c ngha l mi trm cn li u c th nhn c tn hiu trc tip. i vi cc BUS mt chiu th tn hiu ch i v mt pha, lc Terminator phi c thit k sao cho cc tn hiu phi c di li trn BUS c th n c cc trm cn li pha bn kia. Nh vy vi Topo bus d liu c truyn c da trn cc lin kt im nhiu im hay qung b. u im: Cu hnh BUS cho b di cp ngn. Nhc im: Cch ly s c mt nt mng rt kh khn khi mt nt LAN vn hnh sai trong c cu BUS thng tin dc theo ng kt ni b nh hng, nhng thng cch ly nt b trc trc. Mt bin th ca cu hnh BUS l cu hnh cy, trong cu hnh cy nt vn c b tr theo ng thng dc theo ng kt ni n, nhng ng kt ni li c phn chia r nhnh, cu hnh cy thng c s dng cp ng trc v truyn dn bng rng mng my tnh c nhn ca IBM thng dng cu hnh cy. 3/ M hnh vng (Ring). Trong m hnh vng tt c cc nt mng c t quanh ng kt ni n. Dng chung ng vng v mi nt ni vi 2 nt lin k, TOKEN RING ca IBM l mu ca cu hnh ny. 12

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Hnh IV. Topology Ring

u im: Cu hnh vng cho tc cao v cho cc giao thc s dng hiu qu ng kt ni. Nhc im: Ging nh cu hnh BUS y li kh cch ly sai li v mt trc trc trong mt nt c th lm cho ton mch b hng. Ngoi ra cn kh khn hn khi thay i cu hnh (thm hoc bt mt nt) so vi cu hnh sao hoc BUS. tng tc tin cy ca mng, tu trng hp ta c th lp t d tha cc ng truyn trn vng to thnh mt vng d phng, khi mt ng truyn trn vng chnh b s c th vng ph ny s c s dng, vi mt chiu i ca thc hin ngc vi chiu i trn mng chnh. 4/ Kt hp: Cc cu hnh thnh 1 cu hnh lai gia sao vt l thc vi vng logic. Thng mng vng c lp t theo sao vt l (thc) vi mt ng kt ni ring ni mi nt vi mt hp dy trung tm. Bin th ca cu hnh ny gi l sao thc / vng logic. V cu hnh theo hnh sao nhng v logic th vn hnh nh mt vng , ngha l mng mc d c th ngoi l hnh sao nhng tn hiu xut hin nt lin k c thc hin bng k thut u cho. C cu sao thc / vng logic khc phc c mt s vn ca cu hnh vng trong vic thay i cu hnh mng. Rt kh trong vic i dy ca hp, nhng li c 13

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mt vn mi ging nh cu hnh sao phi cn mt lng ln dy lp t mt vng mng vng ging nh mng sao vt l.

Hp u dy

Mch c

chuyn

Hnh V. Toplogic kt hp

IV. Phng thc vn hnh, giao tip

1/ M hnh OSI. M hnh OSI (International organilation for standardization) T chc tiu chun ho quc t lp ra (vo nm 1977) mt tiu ban nhm pht trin mt khung chun nh th. Kt qu nm 1984 OSI xy dng xong m hnh tham H thng m b chin cho H thng ni cc h thng m (Reference model). Khi vic kt m a c pht trin n tiu Giao thc cc k php qua cc giao chun ho tng7 Giao thc thc hin c v t ra nhng ch dn cho cc giao thc mi. tng6 Giao gm Kt qu l m hnh OSI thc 7 tng vi tn gi v chc nng c ch ra nh sau tng5 Giao thc tng4 Giao thc tng3
7 Application

Giao thc tng2 Giao thc tng1 14

ng dng

ng truyn vt l

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6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data link 1 physical

Trnh din Phin Giao vn Mng Lin kt d liu Vt l

6 5 4 3 2 1

Hnh VI. M hnh OSI gm 7 tng.

M hnh OSI a ra mi quan h gia 2 tng ng mc v 2 tng lin mc. - Mi quan h gia 2 tng ng mc: Trong thc t d liu khng th chuyn t tng ny sang tng khc. M d liu s chuyn t h thng kia thng qua ng truyn vt l. Nh vy ch c tng thp nht ca h thng ny mi c lin kt vi tng thp nht ca h thng kia. Cn li cc tng c a vo mt cch hnh thc ho (di dng giao thc) thun tin cho qu trnh ci t mng (gi l lin kt o). - Mi quan h 2 tng lin mc: c thc hin thng qua 4 hm nguyn thu. + Reques (yu cu) dng gi mt chc nng bi ngi s dng. + Indication (ch bo) gi mt chc nng bi ngi cung cp dch v. + Response (tr li) ngi s dng hon tt chc nng gi trc bi hm Indication. + Confirm (xc nhn) ngi cung cp dch v, dng hon tt chc nng c gi t trc bi hm Request. 15

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H thng A

H thng B

NH

NH

Request

Confirm N

Response

Indilation

Giao thc tng N

Hnh VII. S hot ng ca hm nguyn thu

Chc nng cc tng: * Tng vt l: Tng ny lin quan n nhiu nhim v truyn cc dng bt khng c cu trc qua ng truyn vt l, v thc hin truy nhp ng truyn vt l nh cc phng tin nh: - Thuc tnh in: Truyn cc dng bt v biu din quyt nh tc truyn cc bt. - Thuc tnh c: Lin quan n vic th hin tnh cht giao din ca mt ng truyn nh: Kch thc, cu hn, cch ni ghp. - Thuc tnh v chc nng: Ch ra cc chc nng c thc hin bi cc phn t ca giao din vt l gia h thng v ng truyn. - Thuc tnh v th tc: Lin quan n giao thc iu khin vic truyn cc su bt qua ng truyn vt l. 16

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* Tng lin kt d liu: Cung cp cc phng tin truyn khi d liu qua lin kt vt l m bo mt cch tin cy nh cc c ch ng b, c ch kim sot li, bung d liu. - Chia thng tin cn gi thnh cc Frame, gi cc Frame i mt cch tun t v s l cc Frame cng nhn do bn nhn gi li. - ng truyn vt l lun lun c th gy li nn tng ny phi gii quyt vn ny sinh khi bn tinh b hng, b mt hoc bi truyn lp. - Gi cho bn pht c tc cao khng gy ngp lt d liu cho bn thu c tc thp hn. - Trong cc mng phn tn, tng lin kt d liu c thm nhim v iu khin s truy cp knh truyn chung, mt tng con trong tng lin kt d liu thc hin nhim v ny- tng MAC (Media Access Control). * Tng mng: Thc hin kt ni cc thit b li vi nhau thnh mng v l ni ni kt nhiu mng vi nhau do n phi a ra gii thut chn ng ti u. Cu trc tng mng l phc tp nht trong cc tng n phi cung cp cc phng tin truyn cc n v d liu qua mng. Thm ch qua c mt mng ca cc mng. Do vy tng mng phi p ng vi nhiu kiu mng v nhiu kiu dch v cung cp bi cc mng khc nhau. * Tng giao vn: L tng cao nht trong nhm 4 tng thp, n s cung cp cc dch v truyn d liu qua phng tin truyn thng. Ngn cch nh hng gia hai nhm tng, m bo tin cy cho cc dch v mng. 17

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Tng ny lin quan n vic nh gi cht lng ca ng truyn, phn loi mng theo m hnh OSI. - Mng loi A: C t sut li v s c bo hiu chp nhn. - Mng loi B: C t sut li chp nhn c, cn v s c bo hiu th khng chp nhn c. Khi c tng giao vn phi c nhim v sp xp li d liu. * Tng phin: Tng ny thc hin chc nng chuyn i c php d liu p ng cc nhu cu truyn thng ca cc ng dng trong m hnh tham chin OSI. Tc l mc ny gii quyt cc th tc tip nhn d liu hp l, bin i cc k t cc ch s, cc k t c bit thnh bng m ASSCII hoc cc m khc thnh m nh phn thng nht cc my tnh khc nhau, thit b khc nhau u c th thm nhp vo mng. * Tng ng dng: Cung cp cc phng tin ngi s dng c th truy nhp vo mi trng tham chin OSI. Mc ny lin quan trc tip n ngi s dng, n s cung cp tt c cc yu cu phi ghp cn thit, cc yu cu phc v chung trong mng nh truyn cc file d liu, s dng cc thit b u cui, s dng cc thit b ngoi vi ca h thng. Mc ny s m bo mt cch t ng trong qu trnh truyn tin gip cho ngi s dng khai thc mt cch tt nht. Trong m hnh OSI iu hp dn l ch n ha hn cho mt gii php cho vn truyn thng gia cc my tnh khng ging nhau. Hai h thng d khc nhau nh th no i na, iu c th truyn thng vi nhau mt cch hiu qu nu chng m bo nhng iu kin chung sau y: - Chng ci t cng mt tp cc chc nng truyn thng. 18

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- Cc chc nng c t chc thnh cng cng mt tp cc ng mc phi cung cp cc chc nng nh nhau. - Cc tng ng mc phi s dng mt giao thc chung. m bo nhng iu kin trn cn phi c cc chun, cc chun phi xc nh cc chc nng v dch v c cung cp bi mt tng (nhng khng cn pha ch ra chng c ci t nh th no. iu c th l khc nhau trn cc h thng). Cc chun cng phi xc nh cc giao thc gia cc tng ng mc. M hnh OSI 7 tng chnh l c s xy dng cc chun .

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2/ Cc phng php truy nhp ng truyn vt l. Khi hai hoc nhiu my tnh cng a d liu ln cp cng mt lc th gi d liu ca my tnh ny s va chm vi gi d liu ca my tnh kia, kt qu l c hai gi d liu u b ph hu. Tr khi s dng Topo dng Star th thit b trung tm (HUB) s m bo ng truyn c dnh ring trong sut cuc truyn. Cn i vi Topo dng BUS v RING th ch c 1 ng truyn duy nht ni tt c cc trm vi nhau. Bi vy cn phi c cc quy tc truy nhp ng truyn chung cho tt c cc trm ni vo mng m bo rng ng truyn c truy nhp vo mng mt cch tt p, trnh d liu b ph hu do qa trnh truyn c va chm. 2.1. Phng php CSMA /CD. (Phng php a truy nhp s dng sng mng c pht hin xung t) y l cu trc ph bin nht ca mng cc b. Phng php CSMA/CD c ci tin t phng php CSMA cn c gi l LBT (Listen before talk nghe trc khi ni). Mt trm d liu cn truyn trc ht phi lng nghe xem phng tin truyn ri hay bn. Nu ri th trm bt u truyn tin, nu bn th s thc hin mt trong ba gii thut sau: - Gii thut 1: Trm tm rt lui ch i thm mt thi gian ngu nhin no ri li bt u nghe ng truyn. N c hiu qu trong vic trnh xung t nhng li c thi gian cht. - Gii thut 2: Trm tip tc nghe, n khi phng tin ri th truyn d liu i (vi gii thut 1), gii thut ny gim thi gian cht, song xy ra xung t nu c nhiu trm i. - Gii thut 3: Trm tip tc nghe, n khi phng tin ri th truyn d liu i vi xc sut nht nh no . Ngc li 20

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trm tm rt lui trong mt thi gian c nh ri truyn vi xc sut (P) hoc tip tc ch i vi xc sut (1-P). Gii thut 3 phc tp hn nhm ti thiu ho c xung t ln thi gian cht. CSMA ch nghe trc khi ni cn trong khi ni th khng, nu c th c xung t m cc trm khng hay bit g, c pht i cc gi tin dn ti lng ph ng truyn. khc phc ta dng CSMA/CD l phng php LWT (Listen while talk nghe c khi ni). N c b xung vo CSMA hai quy tc sau: Khi vn tip tc nghe ng dy nu pht hin c xung t th ngng truyn v tip tc gi tn hiu sng mang thm mt thi gian na u m bo cc trm u c th nghe thy c s kin mng xung t. Sau khi ch i thm mt thi gian ngu nhin trm th truyn li bng CSMA (gii thut 3) vi CSMA/CD thi gian chim dng v ch, ng dy gim xung bng thi gian pht hin xung t. 2.2. Tokenbus (bus dng th bi). Th bi (TOKEN) dng cung cp pht quyn truy nhp cho nhng trm c nhu cu truyn. thc hin phng php ny trc ht cc trm trn bus to nn 1 vng logic. Cc trm c xc nh v tr theo mt dy th t, m cc trm u cui dy s tip lin sau 7 trm u tin. Mi trm c bit a ch ca cc trm k trc v sau n TOKEN c lu chuyn trong vng logic. Khi trm nhn c th bi th c trao quyn s dng phng tin trong mt thi gian xc nh truyn d liu, khi ht d liu hoc ht thi gian cho php trm phi chuyn th bi cho trm tip theo th t vng logic. Cc trm khng s dng th bi ch c php tr li hay a ra yu cu cho s 21

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nhn bit hay s c mt ca n. Cc trm khng nm trong vng logic ch c kh nng nhn d liu m khng truyn c v n khng th nhn c th bi. Phng php ny tuy phc tp hn CSMA/CD nhng n c th phn chia mc u tin cho cc trm v c hiu qu cao trong trng hp s lng trm cn truyn d liu ln. Trng hp ti nh th hiu qu khng cao, do mt thi gian thit lp vng logic, trm truyn d liu s phi ch lu.

Hnh VIII: Vng logic trong mng BUS.

Ch thch: 2.3. Token Ring.

ng truyn vt l. Vng logic

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Mng cc b dng vng gm mt s cc b phn chuyn tip (Repeater) d liu c truyn mt cch tun t tng bt quanh vng, t b chuyn tip ny sang b chuyn tip khc. B chuyn tip thc hin 1 trong 3 chc nng: - Chn d liu. - Nhn d liu. - Hu b d liu. Mi b chuyn tip thc hin vai tr ca mt im ghp ni cho mi trm.

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Ngun

Free Toke n

ch Ngun

Busy Toke n

ch Ngun

Data
B

ch

B A. Nhn th bi

B C. Sao chp d

A. Nhn c th bi quay v, i trng thi i thnh ri v chuyn tip trn vng.

ri i thnh bn v truyn d liu i cng th bi.

liu, gi th bi v pha A.

Hnh IX: Quy trnh truyn d liu mng Ring

Th bi l mt n v d liu c bit dng cp pht quyn truy nhp ng truyn theo vng vt l. V vy ta phi thit lp mt vng vt l i vi tt c cc trm trn mng. Trong th bi c mt bt biu din trng thi bn hay ri. Trm mun truyn d liu th i th bi i qua v chim ly th bi thc hin cho vic truyn d liu ca mnh, lc ny bt trng thi ri chuyn thnh bn v trm s ghp d liu vo th bi truyn i ti ch v sao chp khung d liu c tip nhn. Ri li gi li cho trm ngun s xo b d liu cho. Trm ngun s xo b d liu ngha l i bt trng thi t bn sang ri v cho lu chuyn tip trong khung ca vng cc trm khc c th nhn c quyn truyn d liu. Mi ln ch c 1 th bi hot ng trn mng v th bi ch xoay vng theo mt chiu. Chuyn th bi theo tnh quyt nh, c ngha my tnh khng th truy nhp mng nh trong CSMA/CD. Nu th bi c sn my tnh c th s

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dng th bi gi d liu. Mi my tnh vai tr nh b chuyn tip 1 chiu, ti to th bi v chuyn n i.

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3/ Giao thc. 3.1. Giao thc TCP/IP. Giao thc iu khin truyn dn (TCP) v giao thc Internet. IP khi u vo nm 1973 do b quc phng Hoa k v mng Apanet ca h. IP l giao thc lp mng khng kt ni (lp 3) chuyn giao cc gi s liu cho cc nt trong cc mng khc. Mc d giao thc IP qun l ng truyn tin qua mng nhng n khng cung cp bt k c tnh tin cy no khc phc sai li v cc c tnh ny th n ph thuc vo IP. TCP l giao thc lp vn chuyn dng chuyn i dch v gi s liu lp IP thnh 1 c ch vn hnh tin cy m bo chuyn giao tin bo theo th t xc nh. Chng giao thc TCP/IP so vi OSI Applicatio n Presentati on Sesion Transoport Network Data link physial OSI Model
Hnh X: So snh chng giao thc TCP/IP vi OSI
FPT TELNET SMTP PROCESS AND APPLICATION

TCP IP

HOST TO HOST INTERNET

SUBNET PROTOCOL

H giao thc

TCP/IP Model

Cc mng thc hin TCP/IP dng thc hin mt chng giao thc tng ng vi m hnh tham chiu OSI nhng khng 26

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ng nht vi m hnh . Hnh v so snh chng giao thc TCP/IP vi chng OSI. Hnh v trnh by giao thc u cui mng (TELNET). Giao thc chuyn tip tp (FTP) V giao thc chuyn th tn n gian (SMTP) L cc giao thc ng dng dng giao tip vi TCP thc hin cc chc nng m hnh OSI coi l lp vn chuyn. TCP/IP c pht trin v cho php ngi s dng my ni b lin lc vi ngi s dng my xa. Thng qua TELNET, FTP, SMTP. L cc giao thc ng dng c thit lp tho mn nhu cu truyn thng ny. FTP cho php chuyn giao tp gia cc nt trong cng mt mng hay trong cc mng khc nhau. TELNET cho ngi s dng mt nt nhp vo v cc chng trnh trong mng khc. SMTP cho php ngi s dng gi tin bo n ngi s dng cc nt khc. Ging nh giao thc lp MAC. C TCP v IP u b sung thng tin tiu ca mnh vo gi s liu mt phn rt quan trng ca tiu TCP/IP l a ch mng. TCP/IP chnh thc c 32 bt bao gm a ch mng v cc thnh phn a ch my ch. a ch my ch c gn bi nh qun tr vng. a ch mng gn bi trung tm thng tin mng DDN ca SRI International Menlo Park Calif. Khi mt a ch mng c yu cu th phi c mt quyt nh v lp mng mt mng c t vo mt trong 3 lp A, B hay C theo kch thc ca n, mng lp A l mng rng i vi mng ny, 7 bt c t ring ra cho cc a ch mng v 24 bt c d tr cho cc a ch my ch trong mng ring bit. Trong mng lp B (trung bnh) 14 bt a ch mng v 16 bt a ch my ch. Trong mng C (nh) 8 bt a ch my ch v 21 bt a ch mng. 27

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TIP/IP c ci t trong LAN trong mt trong hai cch: + Theo phng php th nht: Trong mi nt LAN mt Modun phn mm TCP/IP s c np v / hoc mt card thch ng s c ci t. + Theo phng php th hai: Mt my tnh PC trong mng s nhn ra a ch no nm ngoi LAN cc b. Trc khi nh tuyn mi tin bo n ch xa ca n, cng ni mng s tch giao thc MAC khi tin bo v ci tin bo cn li v TCP/IP. 3.2. Giao thc TP 4/CLNP. (Giao thc vn chuyn chuyn giao lp 4/Giao thc mng khng kt ni) TP4/CLNP l cc tng ng OSI ca TCP/IP hay giao thc vn chuyn chuyn giao lp 4. c trnh by bng tiu chun 8473 nh tn gi TP4 xut, lp vn chuyn OSI cung cp 5 lp giao thc mng nm di c mc tin cy c bit. - Lp O l giao thc vn chuyn t phc tp v n dng ph ln cc giao thc mng hon ho. - Lp 1 cung cp s phc hi mng c bn trong trng hp giao thc lp mng nm di b hng. - Lp 2 l tng ng a hp ca lp O. - Lp 3 gm c cc c tnh ca lp 1 v 2 ngha l n cung cp s phc hi trong truyn thng ghp hnh. - Lp 4 cung cp s pht hin v khc phc sai li khi giao thc lp mng nm di cung cp dch v gi s liu (khng kt ni) khng tin cy. 3.3. Giao thc chuyn tip khung. Chuyn tip khung l giao thc lp 2 (lin kt d liu). V lp a ch lp 2 nn khng cn n lp 3. Mc d iu ny 28

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to iu kin cho vic vn chuyn nhanh hn nhng mt phn tin cy c vi lp 3. th li b mt i do dng chuyn tip khung. Do chuyn tip khung cn c mt giao thc lp 4 (vn chuyn) mnh xc nh khi no cc tin bo b mt, b sai lc hay ln xn. V tc cn chuyn tip l do chuyn tip khung khng phi l giao thc lu tr v truyn i nh X25. Ngha l n khng lu tr tin bo cho n khi ton b tin bo i n sau c th iu khin v truyn tin bo . Chuyn tip khung bt u truyn mt tin bo ngay sau khi phn u tin ca tin bo n. Chuyn tip khung l giao thc nh hng kt ni. Trong kt ni u ny u kia c thit lp trc khi truyn, ngoi ra cc tin bo trong chuyn tip khung c th thay i v di. Chuyn tip khung a ra mt dng chuyn mch v nh tuyn n gin, x l t cc mng.

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Chng II: Cc thnh phn c bn ca mng my tnh 1.Phng tin truyn dn. 1.1. Cp ng trc (Coaxial Caple). Cp ny gm c mt li dy cp qun quanh bng 1 hay nhiu v bc dy tp hay l kim loi, cc v bc cch nhau bng 1 loi cch in cht do no . Hai dy dn ca cp c cng mt trc. Do cp c cu to nh vy nn cp c kh nng chng nhiu cao, dy dn ngoi bao bc dy dn bn trong nn ngn chn c nh hng ca t trng bn ngoi ng thi cng bo v t trung bn trong khng nh hng n dy dn khc. Vi cp ng trc CTEEC 802.3 c quy c sau: - Cp ng trc bo: ng knh dy ngoi O.504 inch (c 10 mm) tr khng ca cp l 50 , tc 10 Mbps. Mng bus khong cch ti a l 500 m/100 trm u ni dng DB 15 Connecter, c th m rng thm 2500 m/1024 trm. - Cp ng trc gy: ng knh ngoi 0,2 inch (0,5cm) tr khng 50 tc 10 Mbps. Mng bus khong cch ti a l 500 m/100 trm, u ni dng DB 15 Connecter. C th m rng thm 2500 m/ 1024 trm. Mng cc b s dng cp ng trc thng c di rng l 2,5 Mbps n 10 Mbps. Cp ng trc cng nn kh lp t hn so vi cp xon i, nhng cp ng trc c th chy vi tc cao hn v dung lng ln hn. 1.2. Cp dy xon.

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Cu to gm hai dy ng son vo nhau vi mc ch lm gim nhiu in t gy ra bi mi trng bn trong v gy ra bi bn thn chng vi nhau. Hin nay c hai loi dy xon c s dng l: - Cp c bc kim (ST Shield Twiched Pair): Cp c bc mt lp kim loi bn ngoi chng nhiu in t bn trong c lp bc kim. C th c mt hoc nhiu i dy xon, v l thuyt th tc ca cp l 500 Mbps thc t 155 Mbps. Vi khong cch l 100 m, di chy cp thng gii hn l vi trm m, tc truyn d liu l 16 m l ngng cao nht ca TOKEN Ring. - Cp khng bc kim (UTP Unshield Twiched Pair): Cng tng t cp bc kim v tnh nng, nhng khng c lp bc kim nn kh nng chng nhiu in t ca UIP km hn so vi STP, nhng b li n c gi thnh r hn. C 5 loi UTP ang s dng: + CAT 1 v CAT 2: S dng thch hp cho vic truyn thoi v truyn d liu tc thp nh hn 4 MBPS. + CAT 3: Thch hp cho vic truyn thoi i vi tc ln ti 16 MBPS. Tuy nhin cng c cc s ni dy truyn dng UTP loi 3 m vn t tc 100 MBPS, nhng suy hao trn cp 1 MH l 8DB/1000 FT (mt ft = 0,304 m). CAT 4: Thch hp cho vic truyn d liu ln n 20 MBPS suy hao trn l 30 DB/1000 ft tn s 25 MHZ v 67 DB/1000 ft tn s 100 MHZ. Trong lp t LAN mi th cp xon i l cng c truyn dn ph bin nht. iu ny c th v dy xon i va un mm va d lp t. Nhng n li khng c kh nng mang tn hiu i xa m khng cn khuych i hay chuyn tip, ngoi ra n cn hn ch v tc v dung lng. 31

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1.3. Si quang (Fiber - Optic - Cable): Cu to: C th cp si quang c th c mt hay nhiu si c t trong lp v bo v. Mi mt si c mt lp bc c tc dng lm phn x tn hiu tr li gim suy hao v mt s lp v khc. Li ca cp si quang l lm bng thu tinh hoc cht do cp khng truyn tn hiu in m truyn tn hiu quang (nh sng). Khi truyn trn cp si quang, pha pht s thc hin bin i tn hiu in thnh ra tn hiu quang cn pha thu s bin i ngc li. Cp si quang c hai loi: n mode (Single mode) v a mode (multi mode). Cp si quang c u im: + Truyn tn hiu quang nn khng nh hng ca nhiu in t. + Truyn tn hiu quang nhanh hn nhiu so vi truyn tn hiu in. + Tn hiu quang c th m ho nhiu so vi tn hiu in. + Tn hiu quang khi truyn ch cn s dng mt si. Nhc im: Khi s dng cp si quang phi ch suy hao u ni, cp si quang kh ch to, gi thnh cao, kh lp t v kh hn gn. Khi s dng cp si quang cho cc mng LAN tc rt cao v dung lng ln. Di thng cho cp si quang t ti 2 Gbps v cho khng cch rt xa. 1.4. V tuyn. Cc LAN v tuyn dng cng ngh Viba, sng Radio hay tia hng ngoi thng tin. Cc nt LAN v tuyn truyn 32

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thng qua my pht v my thu, thng t trong tm nhn vi nhau, nhng nhiu nt c th truyn thng qua cc bc tng xen k khng c ng kt ni vt l. Mc d thng tin v tuyn chu mt s loi nhiu nhiu hn so vi cp mng nhng c u im l kh nng di chuyn cc nt, cc ng dng tng lai c th kt hp LAN v tuyn v thng tin di ng. - Vi tn s Radio c th truyn bng ng cp (cp ng trc, cp xon) hoc truyn trn cc phng tin qung b (Broardcast). - Sng cc ngn (Viba) dng truyn gia cc trm mt t vi v tinh. ng truyn ny cng c th c truyn cc tn hiu qung b t 1 trm pht ti nhiu trm thu, v d nh mng in thoi t ong. - Tia hng ngoi: y l loi ng truyn l tng i vi mng vin thng. Tia hng ngoi v cc tn s ln hn ca nh sng c th c truyn qua cc loi cp si quang. 2/ Cc thit b kt ni. 2.1.Card giao tip mng: NIC (Network Inter Pace Card). Card mng ng vai tr nh giao din hoc kt ni vt l gia my in v ng truyn vt l. hnh thnh mt mng my tnh Card ny c ch to thnh tm v mch ring v cm vo khe m rng trn Mainboard ca my tnh v my phc v trn mng. Sau khi lp t xong, cp mng c ni vi cng Card to ni kt vt l thc s gia my tnh vi my tnh cn li trong mng. Vai tr Card mng: 33

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- Thc hin ni ghp gia my tnh vi ng truyn vt l, m bo iu kin tr khng cng sut tn hiu ra t cc i. Trnh tiu hao ca ch ghp ni. - Thc hin tn hiu trong my tnh ph hp tng loi ng truyn khc nhau. - Chuyn tn hiu gia my tnh vi ng truyn my tnh v ngc li. - Card mng cng nhn d liu gi n t cp v chuyn thnh byte CPU ca my tnh c th hiu c. 2.2. B tp trung ca HUB. HUB l b chia tay hay b tp trung, n n gin l thit b kt ni nhm ngi s dng v l thit b ghp mng cc b theo Topostar. HUB bt tay trc tip vi cc trm c nhu cu trao i d liu to nn mi lin kt im - im gia chng. Sau khi trao i d liu xong n s hu b lin kt ny. Ngoi ra khi nhiu trm cng trao i d liu th n cn a ra gii thut chn ng ti u. Do HUB chnh l vic ti lp 1 m hnh OSI. C 3 loi HUB chnh: - HUB b ng: Chng khng x l cc tn hiu d liu m c chc nng duy nht l t hp cc tn hiu t mt s on cp mng, chng ng vi tr nh lin kt ni. HUB b ng khng cn ngun nui v khong cch gia 1 my tnh v HUB khng th ln hn mt na khong cch ti a gia hai my tnh trn mng. - HUB ch ng: Chng c th khuych i x l tn hiu trn mng, n lm tn hiu kho hn, t nhy cm vi li v khong cch gia cc my tnh c tng ln. HUB cn ngun nui. 34

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- HUB thng minh: y cng l HUB ch ng nhng c thm chc nng l: Qun tr HUB v chuyn mch trong cu hnh mng BUS, nu mt ch t si cp s lm cho mng khng hot ng. Nhng vi HUB thng minh mt ch t on cp bt k ni vi HUB th ch nh hng n on cp , phn mng cn li vn hot ng bnh thng. 2.3. B chuyn tip (Repeater). Khi tn hiu di truyn trn cp, chng s tr nn xung cp v mo m trong qu trnh gi l s suy thoi. Nu cp di qu trnh suy thoi cui cng s lm cho tn hiu khng nhn c hoc nhn sai v do vy b chuyn tip cho php tn hiu truyn i xa hn.

Termin al

REPEATER

Hnh XI: V tr lp t Repeater trong mng

B chuyn tip hot ng ti tng vt l ca m hnh OSI c chc nng khuych i tn hiu tip nhn s suy yu mnh ln, sau truyn tn hiu ny i n on mng k tip. Mun truyn d liu qua b chuyn tip t on ny sang on khc trong hnh thi c ch th gi d liu v giao thc LLC (Logical Link Control - iu khin lin kt logic. L tng con nm trn thuc tng Data link) phi ging nhau iu 35

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ny c ngha b chuyn tip khng th lin lc gia hai on mng khc nhau. b chuyn tip hot ng th c hai on mng ni b chuyn tip phi c cng phng php truy nhp ging nhau. B chuyn tip c th di chuyn gi d liu, t phng tin truyn vt l ny sang phng tin truyn vt l khc (v d nh cp ng trc sang cp si quang). B chuyn tip truyn mi bt d liu t on cp ny n on cp khc, ngay c khi d liu bao gm cc gi d liu hng hoc gi khng c dng trn mng. iu ny c ngha l li trn mt on mng c th lm hng cc on mng khc, b chuyn tip khng ng vai tr nh b lc d liu v khng th dng b chuyn tip m rng mng ra v hn. Do cc mng u c thit k vi kch thc gii hn v tr truyn dn. 2.4. Cu ni (Bridge).

LAN A Bridge LAN B

Hnh XII: Cu ni (Bridge) gia hai mng LAN A_B

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gim ti ca mng lin kt khi s dng nhiu b lp lin kt, cn dng thit b lin kt gi l cu (Bridge) cc chc nng ca cu: - Dng ni cc LAN vi nhau. Tuy nhin i vi cu, cc khung c thu v nh m kim tra li trc khi lp. - Hn na ch c cc khung khng c li v c a ch nm ngoi LAN c cha trm pht v c truyn tip do gim ti ca mng tng cc cu cn c dng ti to cc trc chnh (Backbone), thng thng c trm u cui no ni ti n v chng ch c trao i lu lng gia cc LAN thnh phn. Trong to nh c cc LAN thnh phn tng loi th dng trc chnh gi l Builing Backbone lin kt. - Khi cc LAN thnh phn tng, s trm hot ng tng lm cho bng tn cn thit ca trc chnh tng, vt qua kh nng ca LAN c s, do vy cc Backbone da trn cc loi LAN tc cao c s dng.

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2.5. B nh tuyn (Router). Trong mi trng gm nhiu on mch vi giao thc v kin trc mng khc nhau, cu ni c th khng m bo truyn thng nhanh trong tt c cc on mch. Mng c phc tp c ny cn c mt thit b khng nhng bit a ch ca mi on mch m cn phi bit nh ra ng i tt nht truyn d liu v sng lc lng pht rng trn mng cc b l nh tuyn. B nh tuyn hot ng ti tng Network ca OSI iu ny c ngha chng c th chuyn i v nh tuyn gi d liu qua nhiu mng. B nh tuyn c thng tin khc, dng thng tin ny ci thin vic phn pht gi d liu. Cc b nh tuyn c th chia s thng tin trng thi v thng tin nh tuyn. B nh tuyn s dng bng nh tuyn cho d liu, bng ny tn ti trong b nh tuyn, n cha cc a ch gm cc thng tin sau: + Ton b s a ch mng bit. + Cch kt ni vo mng khc. + Cc l trnh c th c gia cc b nh tuyn. + Ph tn truyn d liu qua l trnh . B nh tuyn trn l trnh tt nht cho d liu truyn da trn ph tn v cc l trnh c sn. 2.6.Cng ni mng. Cng ni mng kt ni hai mng khc loi (tc l ni LAN vi X25) n lm vic ti cc mc trn m hnh OSI. l cc mc OSI t mc 4 n mc 7 (mc vn chuyn, mc phin, mc trnh din v mc ng dng). 38

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Thc ra cng ni mng x l mi th trn lp mng trong m hnh OSI v iu khin tng phin. S chuyn i dng v giao thc cho mi th thnh thng nht giao din ng dng thc s l lnh vc cng ni mng. u im ca vic s dng cng ni mng l tit kim chi ph ban u, c tnh cht lng, mm do v kh nng thay i kch thc u cao.

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2.7. Modem: (Modullation/Demodulltion). L thit b c kh nng cho php my tnh truyn thng qua ng in thoi. N c kh nng chuyn i tn hiu s sang tng t v ngc li t tn hiu tng t sang s Modem c xem nh l thit b truyn d liu (DCE) v c chung cc c tnh sau: - Mt giao din truyn thng ni tip (RS232). - Mt giao din ng truyn in thoi RJ 11 (coi nh l mt phch cm in thoi 4 dy). C nhiu loi Modem v c nhiu loi mi trng truyn thng i hi phng php truyn d liu khc nhau. Nhng mi trng ny c th c chia thnh hai vng c lin quan n thi gian truyn. + Truyn khng ng b (asyn chro nous). Modem c th lp ngoi hoc trong my tnh vi cc chun khc nhau quy dnh t tc n tnh nng. 2.8. B truy nhp t xa (Remote access). Cng ngy cng nhiu c quan cn thit cung cp ti nguyn trn mng cho ngi s dng cc vng a l khc nhau. Vn phng t xa c th trao i thng tin, tra cu d liu vn phng trung tm, nhiu ngi mun lm vic ti nh, trn ng cng tc. Ngi s dng t xa c th lm vic trn mng thng qua th in t, son tho vn bn, hay tra cu trong c s d liu. Cc cng ty kinh doanh mun chim u th cnh tranh cn c cung cp thng tin vo bt k thi im no, ti ni no. Tt c cc nhu cu cn n truy cp vo mng t xa. Hin nay c rt nhiu sn phm h tr truy cp mng t xa, cc sn phm ny khc nhau v chc nng v gi tin. Mt 40

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s s dng thit b cng tiu chun v phn mm iu khin c lp trong khi mt s khc li s dng cc thit b chuyn dng c bit. Cc sn phm chuyn dng c th thay th b phi ghp mng bng b phi ghp mng din rng i vi cc trm lm vic xa v b sung thit b cng trn mng LAN nh cc cng. Thit b ny c th l b ghp ni trn my ch nhng cng c th l thit b c lp, vic la chn tu theo yu cu ca tin cy, mc sn sng lm vic. Cc sn phm truy nhp t xa s dng mt trong 3 cch tip cn cng ngh: - Tip cn iu khin t xa y l cch tip cn bng phn mm c s dng kh rng ri trc y. Trm lm vic xa quay s(bng Modemqua mng in thoi cng cng) vo mng v nhn c s iu khin thng qua mt trm lm vic trong mng, nhng n li phi cn mt trm lm h trn mng mi khi n mun tham gia vo mng v khng c h tr ho. V d nh: PC any where, Carbon copy, DCAF, Netware access server. - Tip cn t xa: Cch ny ang c ph bin v chim c th trng truy cp mng t xa hin nay, tip cn theo khch s dng c ch n gin m rng mi trng kt ni trm trm cho vic phc v trm xa v cho php n chia s ti nguyn v ng dng trn my ch ca mng. Vic ny cn phi thay th b phi ghp mng trn trm xa v b phi ghp mngca my ch bng cc thit b cho php truyn v nhn cc gi d liu ca mng thng qua ni ghp mng din rng. iu ny cho php mng l trong sut i vi trm xa. Trm xa cch tip cn ny ch c th truy cp vo ng my ch m n ni vo. Cc thit b mi ny s dng cng mt giao thc vi mng, ngoi ra v ton b gi d liu 41

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c trao i gia cc trm xa vi mng nn cc ng dng chy trn trm xa phi c giao din ho ging nh cc trm trn mng v gi d liu s c t thng tin hn v phi m ho m bo an ton v bo mt. V d mt s sn phm nh: Lotus notes, ccmail, microsoft windown nt. Vi cch tip cn ny trm xa c ci t mt phn mm iu khin my thnh trm ni vi mng LAN (l mt nt ca mng). N cho php trm xa truy cp vo bt c th g trn mng ging nh mt trm thc s trong mng k c chy nhiu ng dng ng thi v trn nhiu my ch. Ngha l trm ny c th truy nhp vo thng tin v s dng cc dch v nm bt c u trn mng, hn na mng LAN c th c thit k li vi my ch chuyn phc v cc trm truy cp t xa. iu ny rt c ngha khi cn m rng h thng, d dng tng s lng cc trm ni b cng nh cc trm t xa m khng cn tng thm cc tp d liu, ci ttrn cc my ch khc. 3/ H iu hnh mng my tnh. 3.1. system). c mt mng my tnh hon thin th ngoi vic ghp ni cc my tnh li vi nhau thnh mng. Cn phi c mt h iu hnh chung trn ton mng m chc nng nhim v ca n l: - Qun l ti nguyn mng gm: + Phn cng: Cc my tnh c nhn, ng truyn vt l, thit b ngoi vi, a ch phn vng v vic ci t cc thit b. 42 H iu hnh NOS (Network operation

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+ Phn mm: Kho c s d liu dng chung, cc chng trnh ng dng, cc ngn ng lp trnh. + Dng lm mi trng chy cc chng trnh ng dng. + Thc hin tnh ton x l, qun l d liu trn mng cho php my tnh thc hin nhiu tc v ng thi. Do vy h iu hnh mng phi l mt chun ring tun th theo m hnh OSI v thc hin cc dch v thng thng nh: Th in t, thng tin kinh t, tra cu trn mng. 3.2. H iu hnh theo kiu (Peer to peer) bnh ng: - H iu hnh ny c c trng bng kh nng chia s ti nguyn cho tt c cc my trn mng mt cch ngang hng nhau. H iu hnh loi ny khng c khi nim my trm v khng c s h tr ca my ch. H iu hnh ny d ci t, d s dng. Thit b mng r tin do khng yu cu cu hnh cao nhng li hn ch v s lng my tham gia vo (khong 5-10 ci). Vic thc hnh ngay trn RAM ca my tnh nn tc thc hin vo loi hnh dch v b hn ch. in hnh loi ny c Windows 3.11 for workgroup. Windows 98 3.3. Khi qut v h iu hnh mng WINDOWS NT. C rt nhiu h iu hnh mng khc nhau nhng h iu hnh Windows NT l h iu hnh tiu biu hay dng ph bin. Windows NT hay NEW Techlogy l sn phm ca hng Mirosoft l mt sn phm ci tin ng k so v cc

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phin bn trc. Windows NT l h iu hnh mng cho php t chc qun l mm do theo nhiu m hnh khc nhau. + Bnh ng (peer to peer). + Tp trung phn cp (Client/server). N thch hp vi tt c cc s mng Bus, Star, Ring v h tr nhiu loi v mch v h thng cc mng ang s dng hin nay, p ng tt c cc giao thc ph dng nht. WINDOWS NT l h iu hnh va p ng cho mng cc b va p ng cho mng din rng. C 2 loi Windows NT: + Windows NT work station: Dng xy dng mt mng nh ngang hng (peer to peer). Windows NT server: L h iu hnh mng hon chnh p ng cho mng LAN cng nh mng WAN, cho php qun l mng theo m hnh tp trung phn cp (Client/server) cng nh m hnh bnh ng (peer to peer). Windows NT l h iu hnh mng cho tt c cc dch v tnh nng cn thit cho hot ng ca mt mng thng tin doanh nghip, c nhiu tin ch qun tr nng cao. N h tr hu ht cc ng dng phc v kinh doanh nh: C s d liu, dch v truyn thng bo, qun tr tp trung. * Mt s tnh nng ni bt ca Windows NT: - Kh nng qun tr tp trung thng qua iu khin vng. - Kh nng lin kt ti nguyn vng. - Kh nng chia s ti nguyn cho ngi s dng. - Nhn bn tin th mc. - Dch v truy nhp t xa. - Nhng dch v cho Macintosh. - Lu tr d phng cc mc. - Bo mt mc tp. 44

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Trong mi trng mng ln Windows NT h tr cho cc ng dng ch (Server application trong m hnh/ khch ch) i hi truy nhp vo nn tng phn cng pht trin nh my tnh c x l cao, nhiu h x l v d nh cc ng dng v: + Tin nhn, Email. + C s d liu. + Dch v truyn tp tin. - H tr phn cng. Intel 80486 v pentum tr ln. Mip Sr 4000, 4400 Dec alpha axb - Cha nhng tin ch, giao thc mch c th chy Nhng phn mm khch Nhng cng c di ch ca LAN Manager v Novell Cc phng trnh iu khin thit b Cc giao thc TCP/IB, Net, BEUT, TPX/SPX Cc dch v truy nhp t xa X25, ISDN - Chn ghp s l trn mng t bt k my tnh no chy h iu hnh sau: Windows 3. X Winfor work Group 3.11

45

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Chng III : Xy dng mng cc b lan cng ty bo him bo vit ph th


I: Xy dng s mng

1/ Chc nng t chc b my ca cng ty. 1.1 T chc b my: Cng ty Bo him bo vit Ph Th bao gm Ban gim c v 7 phng ban chuyn mn v cc i l trn ton tnh. * Ban gim c gm: - 1 Gim c. - 2 ph gim c. * Phng qun l i l. * Phng t hp. * Phng k ton. * Phng pht hnh hp ng. * Phng qun l hp ng. * Phng nghin cu th trng. * Phng giao dch khch hng. * Phng hnh chnh. * S T chc hnh chnh.

46

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Gim c

Ph gim c 1 Qun l i l Phng hnh chnh Phng k ton Pht hnh hp ng

Ph gim c 2 Phng k hoch Phng t hp Qun l hp ng Nghin cu th tr ng

Giao dch khch hng


Hnh XIII: S T chc hnh chnh

1.2 Chc nng nhim v cc b phn: + Ban gim c: Gm 1 Gim c v 2 Ph gim c ch o ton b mi hot ng ca cng ty thng qua k hoch tng th hng nm do Tng cng ty giao v mc tiu phn u t cng ty ra. Tham mu gip vic cho Gim c v cc Ph gim c. + Qun l i l: Theo di mi hot ng ca cc i l t ti cc huyn, th x theo tng tun v thng. ng thi thc hin ch o ca cp trn ti cc i l ny. + Phng hnh chnh: Tham mu cho Ban gim c sp xp iu hnh b my qun l, qun l cng tc ni chnh ca cng ty, qun l ton b cng nhn vin ng thi nhn v chuyn cc giy t cng vn.

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+ Phng k ton ti v: Thc hin vic thu, chi ti chnh phc v cc hot ng ca cng ty ng vi ch ti chnh v k hoch c cp pht, thc hin vic chi tr lng cho CBCNV trong cng ty. + Phng pht hnh hp ng: Thc hin pht hnh mua bn, bo him ti trc tip ngi mua v ti cc i l. + Qun l hp ng: Theo di ton b cc hp ng mua bn vi khch hng. + Giao dch khch hng: Trc tip, tip xc vi khch hng ti ng k tham gia bo him, v gii quyt cc vn hng ngy. + Nghin cu th trng: L ni tm hiu nghin cu cc th trng tham gia bo him, tip th n ngi mua gii thiu v nhng quyn li m ngi tham gia mua bo him c thng. Gim c

Ph gim c

Ph gim c

P. Hnh chnh

P. K ton

P. Tng hp P. Qun l th trng P. Nghin cu th trng P. Giao dch khch hng

K ton Ti v Pht hnh hp ng

Qun l i l

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HinH XIV: S quan h thng tin trong cng ty

2/ iu kin a l. Ton b cc phng ban lm vic ca cng ty c xy dng thnh mt khu nh 2 tng. Do vy vic thit k lp t mng cc b cng c phn thun tin. T chc hnh chn h Phng pht hnh hp ng

Ph gim c

Gim c

Ph gim c

Phng tng hp

Hnh lang khu nh tng 2

K ton ti v

Giao dch khch hng

Phng K hoch

Qun l hp ng

Qun l i l Hnh lang khu nh tng 1 Phng Marketting Bo v

49

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Hnh XV: S mt bng khu cn lp t

3/ Xy dng mng cc b LAN. Da trn c s l thuyt k thut mng cc b v kt hp vi c im nhim v cng nh nhu cu truyn thng ca cng ty. Ton b cc phng ban ni lm vic ca CBCNV u nm trn khu nh 2 tng. Nu p dng mng BUS khng th vic i dy s gp kh khn m khi c s c th s gy hng c mng. Cn nu s dng hnh trng star n gin cng khng thch hp bi s c nhng my trm ni ti HUB hi lng vng, iu ny s khng m bo mng hot ng tt. T nhng yu t trn ta xy dng hnh trng Bus/Star l thch hp hn v lp t d dng v tin sau ny m thm mt s my, cng nh d dng ghp ni vi cc h thng m khc n c th phn ng cho thng tin i ng ch trnh tc nghn ng truyn lm tng hiu sut mng ng k. Mng c b tr ti khu nh nn ta b tr Bus i dc theo hnh lang cn Star c b tr ti cc phng lm vic ca CBCNV. Mi phng ban c b tr cc phn cp ng vi s lng m CBCNV s dng. B tr mng theo TOPO nh vy rt thun tin khi c s c xy ra, v th c th c lp khc phc m khng nh hng n h thng. 50

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Do cc nhu cu s dng cc dch v Email, fax qua mng in thoi cng cng nn cn mt Modem gn vi my ch

S Logic
Phng hnh chnh

Mng in thoi cng cng PSTN

12 port HUB

MoDem

12 port HUB

Phng pht hnh hp ng

Server

12 port HUB

Printer Phng tng hp

BU S

12 port HUB

Phng khch hng

TConnector

12 port HUB
Phng k hoch

12 port HUB 51
Terminal

Phng Maketting

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II. La chn cu hnh mng.

1/ La chn cu hnh mng. * My ch (Server) My ch cung cp dch v chnh cho i tng trn mng s dng dch v printer, data basevi yu cu dung lng c th v kh nng d phng nng cp nhim v ca my ch l qun c cc tp tin trn mng. Vy cung cp cc dch v cho cc my in trn mng, lo vic thng thng trn mng v nhiu chc nng khc. C th CPU Pentum IV 1,5 Ghz RAM 1 Gb Mainboard MSI HDD 60 Gb quantum CD ROM LG 5 x Monitor Samsung 17 FDD Mistsumi Video card 32 mb TNT Network interface card 3 con 3c509B 100 Mb/s * My trm. Lm vic c th x l tin tc sau khi np xung cc chng trnh ly t my ch. Sau khi trm lm vic x l song cng vic ca mnh th cc tp tin c ct d liu trn cc ma ch v trn cc tp tin ny c th c chia s dng khc hoc chp phng ch. V vy trn mi trm khng nht thit phi dng a cng m ch cn dng a cng ca my ch l . C th: CPU pentum III 800 MhzEB RAM 128 Mb HDD 20 Gb Quantum FDD 1,44 Mb mitsumi Monitor samsung 15 + Card mng: Phi la chn card sao cho ph hp vi mng m mnh thit k, nhng khng phi card cng thch hp. i vi m hnh ca mt mng va v nh nh cng ty Bo vit H nam ta phi chn 1 loi card sao cho ph hp vi 53

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gi thnh, yu cu ca mng nhng m bo c tin cy lu di, vic la chn da trn 5 iu kin sau: - Trnh iu khin lun sn sng. Cc chng trnh ng dng ng dng Th vin h tr Truyn thng mng Hnh nh v m thanh Lu tr tp tin v truy xut a Cp pht b nh v x l X l b nh, a bn phm, card mng v phn cng H iu hnh
Ph n cn g

S khc nhau gia cc lp Windows l linux khng t giao tip c vi cc thit b phn cng pha di hnh chp; chng giao tip vi mt chng trnh c bit gi l qu trnh iu khin cc thit b (divice driver), v trnh by giao tip vi phn cng, trong khi qu trnh iu khin thit b cho Windows thng c vit bi hng sn sut phn cng, trong khi qu trnh iu khin thit b cn hot ng. Cn bit v cc trnh iu khin (dirver) cho h iu hnh ang s dng, s khng s dng phn cng. - Thit b gn trong hay gn ngoi: Nhn t quyt nh th hai l dng card mng gn trong (Internet) hay gn ngoi (external). Thng phi dng card gn ngoi i vi my tnh xch tay hay tr khi n c gn sn, nhng c th i c hai cch cho my tnh ra, nhng tr khi n dng giao tip Interface PCMCIA/card. Bus/Pc card chng b gii hn ti a 10 Mbps ch c mt s my tnh dng (Interface) PCMCIA/card Bus/Pc card nu dng cng ngh mng 100 Base T, bn s la chn card gn trong. - Giao tip vi my tnh: Computer interface. Mi card mng u c hai giao tip: Mt l giao tip vi my tnh dng Bus, l cng c chun ho cho vic trao 54

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i thng tin tc cao. Cng ngh my tnh c mt lch s di v cc Bus. - Giao tip vi mng Net work Interface. iu kin th 4 chn card l giao tip c yu cu vi mng LAN. Ging nh giao tip vi my tnh (Computer Interface), giao tip mng (Net work Interface) thng l s la chn trng hay en. Ch c mt hoc hai giao tip c th dng, v khng c ci khc. LAN dng cng ngh 100 bps thng c th cha ng cc thit b 10 mbps nhng phi kim tra cc sn phm c th khi s dng phi tng thch v tc . - Danh sch hng sn xut. Nhiu ngi cho rng cc thit b my tnh l nh nhau v mua n ch da vo gi tin. l mt sai lm, cng ngh my tnh c th hin qua cc nh sn xut, ngi cho ra sn phm ny nhanh chng b b i lm cho khch hng mt thm nhiu chi ph nng cp. T nhng iu kin trn ta c th la chn c mt loi card ph hp cho hot ng ca mng. i vi mng nh Cng ty Bo vit tnh H nam ta c th la chn loi card cho tt c cc my, mi my mt chic loi 3 com 3c509 B-TXM. + My in (Printer): Canon LBP 1100. + B tp trung (Hub) 12 port Motorlla Hub thng minh. Nh s logic cc Hub c ni vi ng trc Bus v cc my tnh trong phng. Tuy khng dng ht 12 post m ta vn t v ta cn phi tnh n sau ny nng cp phng ban v t thm my. + Modem tem 5608 Motorlla 56 kb/s. + Cp mng: Vic la chn ng truyn v thit k mt s i cp. L mt trong nhng cng vic quan trng khi thit k, ci t mt mng my tnh ni trung v mng cc b ni ring. Gii php la chn phi lun lun p ng c nhu cu s dng mng thc t, v khng ch cho hin ti m cho c tng lai. 55

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Lp mt danh sch cho tt c cc my tnh, bao gm c nhng my c gn thm vi nm ti. i vi mi my tnh u ghi ch v dung lng a cn trng. Gi tr s ln khi khi ng my. Ta c th i cp cho mng bn ngoi tng c gom gn v c lun trong ng nha PVC i theo dnh hoc st tng, m bo m thut v an ton, trnh s c v cp mng. - Cc ng trc chnh (Bus) c ni gia cc phng ta dng cp gy 10 Base - 2. i vi mng nh Cng ty Bo vit H nam l mt mng loi va khong cch gia cc Hub c ni vi nhau vi khng cch t a 200 m. Nn khng phi s dng b chuyn tip (Repeater). - ng cp t Hub n cc trm s dng UTP, kt ni bng cc cm RJ 45 Connector. Khong cch gia cc Hub ti cc trm ti a l 100 m. * B lu m UPS 1000 W. * Ploter my v. Ci mt ci phng Hnh chnh. 2/ La chn phn mm truyn d liu. Microsoft exchange sever l b sn phm my khch/ my phc v da trn thng ip, c thit k hot ng vi nhng chng trnh v mng my tnh ang tn ti, hu ht cho php mi ngi dng thuc mi t chc trao i thng tin v chia s thng tin 1 cch hiu qu. Microsoft exchange s dng cng ngh pht trin t h thng my ch (Host) cho n mng cc b cung cp cc tnh nng da trn thng ip cho my phc v. - Lp lch biu: Vi nhng tnh nng lp lch biu, ngi s dng c th qun l thi gian ring t, t chc cng vic v phi hp vi ngi khc qua cc cuc hp c xp vo lch. - Dch v thng ip: Bao gm chuyn thng ip giao pht nh tuyn v dch v danh b.

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- Chia s tin nhm: Ngoi kh nng giao tip qua h thng E-mail ca Microsoft exchange ngi s dng cn c th gi thng tin ln bng theo di ti khon khch hng t mt c s d liu dng chung v truy nhp thng tin v sn phm t th vin tham kho. - Biu mu (Form): Ngi qun tr s dng cc kh nng v biu mu to mu trnh by thng tin mt cch c t chc. - Thit k ng dng: Ngi thit k c kh nng thit k ln cc chng trnh ng dng c kh nng t ng ho v quy nh x l thng tin trong mi t chc. T nhng tnh nng trn, cho php la chn Microsoft exchange lm phn mm truyn d liu. 3/ La chn s iu hnh mng. Do s iu hnh mng l nn tng cho mi hot ng ca phn mm v phn cng my tnh my tnh. Nn khi thit lp mng phi xem xt s tng tc gia s iu hnh ca tng my tnh trn mng v s iu hnh mng chung. Yu t cn nhc khi s dng h iu hnh l c tnh a nhim. N cho php cc my tnh c th x l mi ln nhiu tc v. Hin nay trn th trng c rt nhiu h iu hnh mng do nhiu hng sn xut ang tn ti. Mi h iu hnh c nhng mt mnh, yu khc nhau do vy la chn cho cng ty phi d qun l, s dng, an ton d liu cao. Ngoi ra cng phi tnh ti kh nng thch ng vi cc mng khc v s pht trin trong tng lai. Qua qu trnh tm hiu h iu hnh mng, em quyt nh chn Windows NT4 o server. + Tng quan v Windows NT server. C rt nhiu h iu hnh khc nhau nhng h iu hnh Windows NT l h iu hnh mng tiu biu hay dng ph bin. Windows NT hay Network techology l sn phm ca hng phn mm Microsoft l mt sn phm ci tin ng k so vi cc phin bn trc y.

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Windows NT l h iu hnh mng cho php t chc qun l phn mm theo nhiu m hnh khc nhau. - Bnh ng (peer to peer). - Tp trung phn cp (Client/server). N thch hp vi tt c cc s mng Bus, Star, Ring v hn hp h tr nhiu loi v mng v h thng cp mng dang s dng hin nay, p ng tt c cc giao thc ph bin nht. Windows NT l h iu hnh va p ng cho mng cc b va p ng cho mng din rng. C hai loi Windows NT: - Windows NT workstation: Dng xy dng mt mng nh ngang hng (peer to peer). - Windows NT server: L h iu hnh mng hon chnh, p ng cho mng LAN cng nh WAN, cho php qun l mng theo m hnh tp trung phn cp (Client server) cng nh m hinh bnh ng (peer to peer). Windows NT l h iu hnh c tt c cc dch v tnh nng cn thit cho hot ng ca mt mng thng tin doanh nghip, c nhiu tin ch qun tr nng cao. N h tr hu ht cc dch v kinh doanh nh: C s d liu, dch v truyn thng bo, qun tr tp trung. * Mt s tnh nng ni bt Windows NT: - Kh nng qun tr tp trung thng qua iu khin vng. - Kh nng lin kt ti nguyn cc vng. - Kh nng chia s ti nguyn cho ngi s dng. - Nhn bn th mc. - Dch v truy nhp t xa. - Nhng dch v cho Macintosh. - Lu tr d phng cc mc. - Bo mt mc tp. Trong mi trng mng ln Windows NT h tr cho cc ng dng ch server Application trong m hinh khch/ch. i hi truy nhp vo nn tng phn cng pht trin nh my tnh c b x l cao, nhiu b x lV d nh cc ng dng v nhn tin, Email. . C s d liu. 58

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. Dch v truyn tp tin. - H tr nhiu phn cng. Intel 80486 v Pentum tr ln. Mip sr 4000, 4400 S mng tng DEC alpha axp th WS - Cha nhng tin ch giao thc mch c th chy. WS Nhng phn mm khch 12 port 12 port Ph Nhng cng c di ch ca LAN Gi Hub Hub Cc chng trnh iu khin thit b m c Cc giao thc TCP/IP, Netbcui, IPX/SPX Pht hnh hp Gim c Phng hnh Cc dch v truy nhp t xa X25, ISDN. ng chnh Cho php x l trn mng t bt k my tnh no chy h serve iu hnh sau Windows 3.x, Win for work Group 3.11. r 12 port Mng Mode in Hub m thoi
cng

cng PSTN
BUS

Switching HUB P. tng hp Printer Phng ti v WS

M hnh tng 2

Qun l hp ng

12 port Hub

12 port Hub

Phng K hoch Phng khch hng Qun l i l

12 port Hub TM hnh mng Connector tng 1

WS

Terminal 59

Phng Marketing

Topo Bus/Star

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Printer

60

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III: lp t v ci t mng 1.

lp t mng
1.1 My tnh c nhn da trn s t chc hnh chnh nh trn ,ta xp xp

cc my pc theo ng nhu cu s dng ca cc phng ,k t my vo ng v ch ngi s dng .My ch server c t ti phng tng hp do phng ny c nhim v gim st v bo qun mng my tnh ny lun. Mi phng c b ch mt my in lun 1.2

Lp t cp mng

Nh s thit k th chia ra lm hai loi cp Loi 1: cp ni t hub ti ng trc ca bus Loi 2: cp chy ngoi hnh lang khu nh Vi cp ni t hub ti ng trc bus ,dy cp c i dc theo gc tng v phi c sn phm d dy. Vi cp lm ng trc c b tr dc theo hnh lang sao cho khi ni dy cp t hub ra c thun tin nht . Khi lp t ng dy phi c bo v cn thn ,khi qua nhng ni c chng ngi vt hoc gy nh hng ti cht lng ng truyn(ng dy in li) Mt h thng cp i n gin vn m bo cho mng hot ng tt s cng thun li hn khi truy nhp sa cha ,thay th nng cp. 1.3 Lp t Card mng i v card mng th vic lp t cng dt quan trng bi v nu khng m bo chnh xc,khng m bo s 61

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mng my tnh cc b lan

tip xc chc chn th mng s m hot ng c,bi v card mng c mt s nhim v quan trng .vic lp t card mng c mt s nhim v quan trng .vic lp t card mng cn ph thuc vo tng loi pc,mt s l loi card ri, trong Mainbord s c cc khe cm mt chiu vo main cn mt u dng ni cp mng. Lp t card mng tin hnh nh sau : - M np my tnh ra - Chn khe cm cn trng cm card vo - Ging ng cc u ca card vi cc khe cm m rng sau n thng card xung mt cch chnh xc ,nh nhng ,m bo rng card hon ton nm trong khe cm . - C nh vt li y np my tnh . 1.4 Lp t cp + Gn mt u ni RJ45vo cp son i (utp) ton b cng vic cho cc dy vo cc khe ca u ni ,dng cng c c bit sit cht cc dy vo u cm trong . - Dng li dao trn km cm vo cc u cp thng hng v vung gc ,dng li dao gt v ngoi ,cn thn khi b lp v ny trnh b t dy. - Xp xp cc dy bt u th t t tri sang phi ,chia cc s dy ra lm sao cho chng khng c son li vi nhau v cc u dy c t ng trn mu u cm . - Kim tra xem tng dy cm ng v ch cha . - Dng cng c chuyn bp cht cm gi cho cht dy v sau ct phn dy tha bng km ct . + B ni cui (terminal) Dng bt kn dy cp bus la nhm hp thu tn hiu chy lc .Nu thiu ci ny mng s khng hot ng . lp t 62

n tt nghip

mng my tnh cc b lan

terminal phi c chnh xc cao , tip xc cng nh kh nng phn hi tn hiu . + B ni T Connecter dng u r nhnh ,v vy khi lp rp cng rt quan trng v nu trc trc c th gy nh hng ti tc truyn trc 1.5 Lp t Hub Cc b tp trung thng c c nh trong hp ch c nhng khe cm bn ngoi ,hub c ni vi card mng v t card mng u ni ti hub ,tt c nhng thao tc ny ch cn tm ng khe cm v cm ch tip xc . 1.6 Lp t MODEM mng nychng ta dng loi modem lp ngoi nn thc t vic lp t modem n gin ch cn tm ng u cm pc dng kt ni modem.cp thng c cc nh sn xut cung cp km theo ,sau khi thc hin y cc thao tc cm gic th phn cng ca modem coi nh sn sng ,tip ta c th chyphn mm ci t modem . 1.7

Lp t my in

Trn mainboard ca my c nhng khe cm phc v cho vic kt ni vi my in.Ta ch cn tm ng v ch v cm v cm gic ca my in vo, khi cm ch n chn gic. Tm li :Tt c cc thit b ni ghp vo mng u l loi tiu chun nn vic thao tc cng khng kh khn lm .Mt yu cu quan trng trong qu trnh thao tc v ch quan st v ch cn lp t v m bo tip xc. 63

n tt nghip

mng my tnh cc b lan

2:

Ci t mng
Cng vi vic lp ghp ni cc my tnh li thnh mng ta

phi ci t mt h iu hnh trn phm vi ton mng .Vi chc nng iu hnh v qun l ton b phn cng v phn mm trn mng.

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n tt nghip

mng my tnh cc b lan

Kt Lun Vic nghin cu mng LAN( Local area network) cho ta thy mng cc b ang l mt thnh phn khng th thiu ca bt k t chc no. Do n c tm quan trng chin lc. Hiu c tm quan trng ca mng cc b nn trong qu trnh thc hin ti mng my tnh cc b LAN. Em c gng tham kho mt s mng my tnh ti cc cng ty hon thnh cun n ny. Cun n cng l kinh nghim ca em trong qu trnh hc , thc tp ti trng HBK H Ni. Cun n ny mi cp mt kin thc nh v mng. Nhng em tin rng mt ngy khng xa cc mng LAN, WAN, hn na l mng a dch v (ISDN) s khng cn xa l vi mi ngi. cng ngh thng tin vit nam c th snh vai vi cc nc tin tin trong khu vc v cng nh trn th gii. Mt ln na em xin cm n thy Hong Minh Qun cng cc thy c trong khoa in t vin thng gip em hon thnh cun n ny.

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n tt nghip

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Cc Thut Ng

ST T

Cc Thut Ng Vit Tt LAN LBT LWT MAN NOS OSI WAN ST UTP NIC T Ting Anh Gii Thch

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Local area network Listen before talk Listen while talk Metaropolitan area Network Network operation system Open System Interconnection Wide area network Shield Twiched Pair Unshield Twiched Pair Network Inter Pace Card Logical Link Control Packet swiched network Global area network Transceiver Reference model Reques Response Confirm Tokenbus Repeater Coaxial Caple Cocenterator Fiber - Optic - Cable Preprocessor Single mode Multi mode Broardcast 66

Mng cc b Mng th H iu hnh M hnh tham chiu OSI Mng din rng Cp c bc kim Cp khng bc kim Card giao tip mng iu khin lin kt logic Mng chuyn mch gi Mng ton cu B thu pht H thng m Yu cu Tr li Xc nhn Bus dng th bi B chuyn tip Cp ng trc B tp trung Si quang B tin x l n mode a mode Phng tin qung

11 LLC 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

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mng my tnh cc b lan

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Network Inter Pace

b Card giao tip mng

Card Backbone Trc chnh Router B nh tuyn Modullation/Demodullt Modem ion Remote access Peer to peer Client/server Star Routetr Indication Circuit switched network Message are network B truy nhp t xa Bnh ng Tp trung phn cp Cu hnh sao B chn ng ch bo Mng chuyn mch knh Chuyn mch thng bo

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mng my tnh cc b lan

Ti Liu Tham Kho


Mng V Cc Cu Trc M - Nguyn Thc Hi gio trnh h thng mng CCnA - Nguyn Hng Sn

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