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A, B, Y, Z N, N'

Any elements or ions Nonmetals or nonmetal ions

M, M' X, X'

Metals or metal ions Halogen or halide ions

REACTIONS OF ELEMENTS Composition Elements form a binary compound Metal replaces metal ion Metal replaces H+ in acid Metal replaces H+ in water Halogen replaces halide ion Oxygen forms oxides of each element in the compound A + B AB


M M M X2

+ M'N MN + M' + HN MN + H2 + H2 O MOH + H2 + MX' MX + X' 2


AB + O2 AO + BO

REACTIONS OF COMPOUNDS Decomposition Binary compounds Metallic chlorates Metallic carbonates Metallic hydroxides Precipitate formation Water formation MN M + N MClO3 MCl + O2 MCO3 MO + CO2 MOH MO + H2 O AY + BZ AZ (s) + BY AOH + HB H2 O + AB AO + HB H2 O + AB ACO3 + HB H2 O + CO2 + AB


NONOBVIOUS REACTIONS Acid-Base Oxidation-Reduction H+ transfer Oxidizing agents HA + B A- + HB+ Cr 2 O7 2- Cr 3+ MnO4 - (acid) Mn2+ MnO4 - (base) MnO2 HNO3 NO2 H2 O2 H2 O

SOLUBILITY RULES FOR IONIC COMPOUNDS AND BASES IN WATER 1. Alkali metal ion salts and ammonium ion salts are soluble in water. 2. Nitrate ion salts and acetate ion salts are soluble in water. 3. Chloride ion salts, bromide ion salts, and iodide ion salts are soluble in water except salts of Ag+, Hg2 2+, and Pb2+ ions. 4. Sulfate ion salts are soluble except salts of Hg2 2+, Pb2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ ions. 5. Carbonate ion salts, hydroxide ion salts, oxalate ion salts, phosphate ion salts, and sulfide ion salts (bases) are insoluble in water except salts of alkali metal and ammonium ions.

STRONG ACIDS 1. HCl, HBr, HI 2. Any molecular acid with a single central atom that has at least 2 more oxygens than hydrogens in its formula.