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4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop

San Antonio, Texas June 2009

DPW-IV Summary of Participants Data


Edward N. Tinoco David Levy Olaf Brodersen DPW Organizing Committee

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Workshop Statistics
28 data entries from 17 organizations
7 North America 7 Europe 3 Asia

Grid types
17 Unstructured 11 Structured

Turbulence Models
18 Spalart-Allmaras (all variations) 7 Menter SST k-omega 1 EARSM (Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model) 1 SSG/LLR-omega (Reynolds Stress Model) 1 Realizable k- epsilon

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009
DPW4 Data Submittal Summary
Symbol Key Legend Entry
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W X Y Z 2 3 4 CFS_NSMB DLR_TAU_Centaur DLR_TAU_Solar_SAO FOI_Unstr IIS_HIFUN_Unstr JAXA_TAS_hybrid JAXA_TAS_HEX JAXA_UPACS LARC_FUN3D Cessna_NSU3D_Cessna Cessna_NSU3D_NASA Boeing_CFL3D_FSA Boeing_CFL3D_FSST Boeing_CFL3D_TSA Boeing_CFL3D_TSST Boeing_OVERFLOW ANSYS DLR_TAU_Solar_RSM DLR_TAU_Solar_SST ZeusNumerix_HLLC Airbus_elsA Metacomp_CFD++_ke Metacomp_CFD++_SA ONERA UofWy_NSU3D_NASA Boeing_BCFD_SA Boeing_BCFD_SST Numeca

Company
CFS DLR DLR FOI IIS JAXA JAXA JAXA NASA LaRC Cessna Cessna Boeing Seattle Boeing Seattle Boeing Seattle Boeing Seattle Boeing HB ANSYS DLR DLR ZeusNumerix Airbus Metacomp Metacomp ONERA U Wyoming Boeing St. Louis Boeing St. Louis Numeca

Code
NSMB TAU TAU EDGE HIFUN TAS TAS UPACS FUN3D NSU3D NSU3D CFL3D CFL3D CFL3D CFL3D OVERFLOW Fleunt TAU TAU HLLC elsA CFD++ CFD++ elsA NSU3D BCFD BCFD Fine/Hexa

Grid Type
Multiblock/Structured Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr Mostly Hex Multiblock/Structured Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Multiblock/Structured Multiblock/Structured Multiblock/Structured Multiblock/Structured Overset Multiblock/Structured Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Multiblock/Structured Multiblock/Structured Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Multiblock/Structured Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hybrid Unstr/Hex

Grid Generator
ICEM Hexa Centaur Solar Solar Gambit/Tgrid TAS_Mesh HexaGrid Gridgen VGRID/NASA VGRID/Cessna VGRID/NASA Zeus Zeus Zeus Zeus ICEM Hexa Solar Solar GridZ ICEM Hexa MIME MIME Zeus VGRID/NASA AFLR AFLR Hexpress

Turb Model
SST k-w S-A S-A EARSM S-A S-A mod S-A S-A mod S-A S-A S-A S-A SST k-w S-A SST k-w SST k-w SSG/LRR SST k-w S-A SST k-w k-epsilon S-A S-A S-A S-A SST k-w S-A

MADCAP/HYPGEN S-A

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Case 1a: Grid Convergence Study Mach = 0.85, CL = 0.500 (0.001) Tail Incidence angle= 0 Coarse, Medium, Fine, Extra-Fine Grids (Extra-Fine grid is optional) Chord Reynolds Number: Re=5M

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Total Drag - Grid Convergence All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Total Drag - Grid Convergence All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag Components - Grid Convergence Unstructured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag Components - Grid Convergence Unstructured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag Components - Grid Convergence Structured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag Components - Grid Convergence Structured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Pressure Drag - Grid Convergence All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Skin Friction Drag - Grid Convergence All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Pitching Moment - Grid Convergence All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Pitching Moment Components - Grid Convergence Structured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Pitching Moment Components - Grid Convergence Unstructured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Side of Body Separation Reported


ID A B E F H I J P R U V W X 2 4 Turb. Model SST k-w SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SST k-w SA SST k-w k-e SA SA SA

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Reported No Side of Body Separation


ID C L M N O S Turb. Model SA SA SST k-w SA SST k-w SSG/LRR

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Trailing Edge Separation All Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Trailing Edge Separation Unstructured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Trailing Edge Separation Structured Grids

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Grid Convergence WS2: WBL 133


-0.8

K A
-0.6

S C P F T H -0.4 G 3 V 2 N L -0.2 M O I G

G J

M R GO 2 IL N

3V

FS HPC G D T J

Unstructured Grids Structured Grids Overset Grids


K G A R M I O L N 2 3 I 2

-0.8

-0.6

D P G H

TK J

FGI S C

AR M O L N

3 2V GH P

WS 2: WBL 133.026, =.1150


D TK F GI S C J ARL N M O 3 2

2 3 J D A K R O M N L I V G 2 3 C S T F H P G

IV

M O N L

K DJ F A CG H T S P

G V FS GP HC T V N L M O R J F D K

-0.4

3 V 2 -0.2 M O N L G A R I 0 C S F K T J 0.2 D I R L N O M 3 3 V G 2 2 N 2 OV L 0.6 M 3 G H IP R S A 0.8 C F


0.4

R L NI MO 3 V2 G H P JA D K F C S T

C K JD A F T S

V G H P H P G 3 2V MOI L N R D FK T C S TJ K J D C S F A

CP

D
0.2 J

S C P F T H
0.4

COARSE GRID

CP

0 R K A

H K G 2 S 3 D GA JA D R I FC P H O C T S V N L G PM T K J

H T C S A 2 G 3 D O R H P V GP M F N L J K

IG

G P H

MEDIUM GRID

3 V 2 N L I O 0.6 M G3 P H T C S F 0.8 R J D
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

X/C
-0.8 -0.8

X/C

C GF V
-0.6

A K D

OM L N R3 HI 2 P

I V J G DK CA V
-0.6

3RM 2O P L N I V 3 R 2 M O LP N

G J -0.4 P I 2 3 H M N -0.2 O L R G F

VC M R H J2 G 3 I P A K D N L F O

K F D

F G O L N M R 3 H 2 I P J R M O L N G D K V C C A

-0.4

JP A GI 2H 3

N L O -0.2 R 2 F H J C 3 F G 2 D O JA PM P V L 2H 3N GII R K

P M 3 P

R N L O M

23

V I

P M O R L N 23

CP

0 C

CP

D K

0 G H A F I 0.2

3 V

V I I

I V V 3 R2 O L PM PN

0.2 D

A K

C G V J 0.4 P I F L 2 O 3 N H G R MM 0.6 O R N L J I FH P 2 3 G A 0.8 C V


0 0.2

FINE GRID

I V 3 P 2 L N R L N OO MM 0.6 R P 2
0.4 0.8 I

EXTRAFINE GRID

3 V
0

Note: fewer solutions report for extra-fine grid


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.4

0.6

0.8

X/C

X/C

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Grid Convergence WS13: WBL 978


-1 -0.8 -0.6

C T S

M H O L N

P D V RI F J

G K A 3 2

Unstructured Grids Structured Grids Overset Grids


SC T G OH MRPV N L D JI F K2 G3 TA SC

-1 -0.8 -0.6

WS 13: WBL 978.148, =.8456


3 MG O2H V AD L N F PI T S C JK G RG C T S 3 A K J R I G D L N 2 P M H VF O

3 2 A K G

-0.4 D I

CP

CP

F J P V -0.2 R M O L N H
0 0.2

R K -0.4 D NH L R O MP S T D C G A GV DJP IK F V J R H M O L N 3 2 J G I P A V -0.2 F H 2 M O L N


0 0.2

C T S

G L N O M3 H2 C V PF T S D I G P DA R K K J J M O H L N F S D T C I K3 2 J PA

T S C C KS 3T 2I A

3 K2

O MV G N L 3H R 2 JP FD

T I AS C

KF

D JP

3H 2 MV O L NR G AS T I C

R 3 T S C

J K 2 I3

DV P

O L N GH F M

S CT R

GI K2 3 J

PF D F V

H M O L N A S CT G R V

COARSE GRID

S T P KF J D C

A 0.4 G G F D I J L N O M 0.6 P V R H
0 0.8

T C S R K J A G D I N L O M 0.6 P H F V A 3 0.4 G 2
0.8 1 0 0.2

MEDIUM GRID

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.4

0.6

0.8

X/C
-1 -0.8 -1

X/C

G AV L M P O N F D H

R C J

-0.8

3 -0.6 2 I
-0.4 J R C

2 K 3 G AV D N R F O H ML P C J I 2G K 3 NL VA O P MH R F D M O 2 H F N L V GA I K J D C A J V P K I G J V H M O F L N 2 3 D C G R P C

3 2

M O L N

I PV

R 3 2 I MN P V OL R

-0.6 -0.4

P -0.2 F

CP

CP

H M O L N

0 V

L O M H 3 2N FG RD K CP J

V -0.2 P M O L N 3 0 G H A F 2 R
0.2

N 2 L M O 3 O M N L I 32 V P R I 32 V P M O N L R

A I K G J

CD R F P G 3

V I V R P M O L N

A G I 0.2 G 3 2A
0.4 A

FINE GRID

EXTRAFINE GRID
2

V I

D C N L O M H 0.6 G 2 P F 3
0.8 0

V J R

R 0.4 3 I N L O M 0.6 V P
0.8

32 P

Note: fewer solutions report for extra-fine grid


0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

X/C

X/C

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Medium Unstructured Grid

Y=133.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Medium Unstructured Grid

Y=133.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Medium Structured Grid

Y=133.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Medium Structured Grid

Y=133.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Wing Pressure Distribution Solar Unstructured Grid

Y=133.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Case 1b: Downwash Study Mach = 0.85 Drag Polars for alpha = 0.0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0 Tail Incidence angles iH = -2, 0, +2, and Tail off Medium grid Chord Reynolds Number: Re=5M Trimmed Drag Polar (CG at reference center) derived from polars at iH = -2, 0, +2 Delta Drag Polar of tail off vs. tail on (i.e. WB vs. WBH trimmed)

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Angle of Attack All Solutions iH= -2, 0, 2 degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Pitching Moment All Solutions iH= -2, 0, 2 degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Pitching Moment All Solutions iH= -2, 0, 2 degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Pitching Moment Components iH= -2 degrees

Note: Not all solutions reported components Pitch down at 4 degrees angle of attack is driven by the horizontal tail input. It appears that this might be related to excessive side of body separation at the wing!

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Drag All Solutions iH= -2, 0, 2 degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Drag All Solutions iH= -2, 0, 2 degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Drag All Solutions iH= 0. degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Pitching Moment All Solutions iH= 0. degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Lift vs. Drag All Solutions iH= 0. degrees

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag and iH at Zero Pitching Moment All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag and iH at Zero Pitching Moment All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Trim Drag and Drag at Zero Pitching Moment All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Case 2 (Optional) : Mach Sweep Study Drag Polars at:- Mach = 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.83, 0.85, 0.86, 0.87 Drag Rise curves at CL = 0.400, 0.450, 0.500 (0.001 or extracted from polars) Untrimmed, Tail Incidence angle, iH = 0 Medium grid Chord Reynolds Number: Re=5M

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Drag Rise All Solutions

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Case 3 (Optional) : Reynolds Number Study Mach = 0.85, CL = 0.500 (0.001) Tail Incidence angle iH = 0 Medium grid Chord Reynolds Numbers: Re=5M and Re=20M

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Reynolds Number Increment Grid Type

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Reynolds Number Increment Turbulence Model

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Concluding Remarks
Generally a successful effort in that a wide variety of submissions from different organizations with diverse codes and methods. Lots of data! Thanks to everyone for their efforts. More scatter from unstructured methods than from structured grid methods. Suspect this is more due to grid than to code. The number of unstructured codes that provided results within the span and accuracy of the structured grids have increased. Less outliers. Still a fair amount of scatter in the separation bubble, but the bubble itself is smaller on this configuration. A lot of scatter in the shock location at WS13 but tends to diminish with increasing grid size. Most of the codes predict similar drag and pitching moment levels for iH=0 and iH=+2, whereas there is a larger variation for iH=-2. Suspect tail-after body junction separation. Excessive nose down pitching moment at 4 degrees angle of attack reported for a few solutions. Suspect this is related to excessive side-ofbody separation at this condition.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Concluding Remarks
Less scatter seen for trim drag and iH to trim than seen for absolute levels of drag and pitching moment. Solutions at 4 degrees angle of attack showed a lot of scatter in pitching moment indicating very different separation patterns. MDD is pretty well captured by all the codes that submitted Case 2. Similar scatter levels as for Case 1b. Reynolds number increment predictions were very consistent. Correlated better with turbulence model than with grid type. As with previous DPW's, there are no clear trends for turbulence model. Clearly, SA and SST models dominate.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

Recommendations for Proposed Testing of CRM


Issues raised by DPW4 CFD analysis suggest the need for certain (additional) wind tunnel testing.
Current NTF plan is bare-bones. More tail angles at higher RN to get RN effect on tail and trim Repeat series at RN=20M & 5M and at Ames, RN=5M to better define drag levels. Pressure sensitive paint at NTF on wing and H. Tail Various flow measurement devices at NASA Ames consider adding UV or colored oil, especially for wing-body and tail-body juncture flow. (different tail angles and at high angle of attack) Pressure sensitive paint on wing and tail.

High angle of attack testing (3-6+ degrees by 0.25 deg.)


Testing at ETW would provide useful comparisons between tunnels.

4th CFD Drag Prediction Workshop


San Antonio, Texas June 2009

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