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Bi 45

Gio vin: inh Th Nht nh

Bi 45: AXIT SUNFURIC

I. II. III. AXIT SUNFURIC

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 1. Cu to:

(a)

(b)

Trong hp cht H2SO4, nguyn t S c SOXH l +6(CTCT (b) tha mn quy tc bt t).

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 2. Tnh cht vt l:


- L cht lng, snh nh du. - Khng mu, khng bay hi, nng gp 2 ln nc (H2SO4 98% c D = 1,84g/cm3). - H2SO4 c rt d ht m. - H2SO4 tan trong nc to hidrat H2SO4.nH2O v ta 1 lng nhit ln.

III: AXIT SUNFURIC


3. Tnh cht ho hc:
a. Tnh cht ca dung dch axit sunfuric long: - i mu qu tm thnh . - Tc dng vi kim loi (ng trc hiro trong dy hot ng ha hc) gii phng kh H2: Fe + H2SO4FeSO4+ H2 - Tc dng baz: 2NaOH + H2SO4Na2SO4 + 2H2O - Tc dng vi oxi baz: Na2O + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O - Tc dng c vi mui ca axit yu: BaCl2 + H2SO4BaSO4 +2H2O

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 3. Tnh cht ho hc:


a. Tnh cht ca dung dch axit sunfuric long: * Ch : iu kin phn ng ca axit vi mui: - Tc dng vi KL (ng trc hiro trong dy hot ng ha hc) .KL ch t s oxi ha thp

- Tc dng vi Mui: (Sn phm phi c kt ta hoc bay


hi.)

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 3. Tnh cht ho hc:


b. Tnh cht ca dung dich axit sunfuric c:
* Tnh axit: Ging H2SO4 long. (b)

III: AXIT SUNFURIC


3. Tnh cht ho hc:
b. Tnh cht ca dung dich axit sunfuric c: * Tnh oxi ha. - Phn ng vi KL(tr Au,Pt) (Xem TN)
0 6 2 4

Cu 2 H 2 S O4 Cu SO4 SO 2 2 H 2O
- Vi PK: C +2H2SO4 CO2 +2SO2+H2O

- Vi hp cht.
KBr+2H2SO4Br2+SO2+2H2O+K2SO4

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 3. Tnh cht ho hc:


b. Tnh cht ca dung dich axit sunfuric c: * Tnh ho nc: (Xem TN)

C12H22O11 12C +11H2O


H 2 SO4

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 3. Tnh cht ho hc:


b. Tnh cht ca dung dich axit

sunfuric c:
Lu : - Axit sunfuric rt ho nc. Khi s

dng axit sufuric phi ht sc cn thn.


- H2SO4 (c) gy bng nng nu tip xc vi da. V vy: phi ht sc cn thn khi

lm vic vi H2SO4 (c).


- Qu trnh sn xut H2SO4 v phn supephotphat gy nhim mi trng.

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 4. ng dng ca axit sunfuric:

Phm nhum 2% Phn bn 30%

Cht ty ra
14% 4%

Giy

2%

H2SO4
8%

11%

Luyn kim
24%

Sn
5%

ng dng khc

T s

Cht do

III: AXIT SUNFURIC

5. Sn xut axit sunfuric:


Gm 3 giai on:
a. G 1: t S hoc FeS2 trong kh O2:
Pt : S + O2 t SO2
0 0

4FeS2+11O2 t 2Fe2O3 +8 SO2. b. G 2: Sn xut SO3

c. G 3: Hp th SO3 bng H2SO4


nSO3 +H2SO4 H2SO4. nSO3 H2SO4. nSO3 +n H2O (n+1) H2SO4

III: AXIT SUNFURIC

5. Sn xut axit sunfuric:

S FeS2

+O2 tC
o

SO2

+O2 tC
o

+O2 toC V2O5

SO3

+H2SO4dac

H2SO4.nSO3 +H2O H2SO4

Sn xut SO2

Sn xut SO3

Sn xut H2SO4

III: AXIT SUNFURIC 5. Sn xut axit sunfuric:

III: AXIT SUNFURIC

6. Mui sunfat v nhn bit ion sunfat


a. Mui sunfat: l mui ca axit sunfuric.

- Mui trung ha: K2SO4


- Mui axit: KHSO4. - a s u l mui tan tr: BaSO4; PbSO4; SrSO4. b. Nhn bit ion sunfat (SO42-) bng dd Ba2+ kt ta trng.

BaCl2 + H2SO4BaSO4 +2H2O


(Trng) Na2SO4 + Ba(OH)2 BaSO4 + 2NaOH

CNG C KIN THC

H2SO4
H2SO4 long Tnh axit H2SO4 c

Tnh oxi ha mnh

Tnh ho nc

Lm i mu qu tm Td vi kim loi (- Au, Pt) Tc dng vi baz

Tc dng vi oxit baz


Tc dng vi mui

Tc dng vi phi kim

Tc dng vi hp cht

Tc dng vi kim loi (ng trc H)

CNG C KIN THC

Cu hi: T 50kg FeS2 sn xut c bao nhiu kg dung dch H2SO4 98%. Bit hiu sut chung ca qu trnh H=80%.

CNG C KIN THC

Hng dn:
FeS2 2SO2 2SO3 2H2SO4 120 kg 196 kg 50 kg x kg
x = 81,67 kg (l thuyt) V H = 80% nn m
H2SO4 (thc t)
M

= 81,67.80 65,33kg
100

dd H2SO4 98%

65,33.100 66,67kg 98

GI HC N Y L KT THC

CHC CC EM VUI V V HC TP TT!