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B CNG THNG Tng cng ty my ng Lc v my nng nghip VIN NGHIN CU THIT K CH TO MY NNG NGHIP --------------------------

BO CO TNG KT
TI NGHIN CU KHOA HC & CNG NGH 2008

TI: Nghin cu thit k ch to my p vin ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi lm phn bn M s: 255-08RD/H-KHCN

C quan ch qun: B Cng Thng C quan ch tr: Vin NCTKCT my Nng nghip Ch nhim ti: Th.S Mai Trang

7323
23/4/2009 H Ni-2/2009

B CNG THNG Tng cng ty my ng Lc v my nng nghip VIN NGHIN CU THIT K CH TO MY NNG NGHIP --------------------------

BO CO TNG KT
TI NGHIN CU KHOA HC & CNG NGH 2008

TI: Nghin cu thit k ch to my p vin ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi lm phn bn M s: 255-08RD/H-KHCN

N V CH TR

CH NHIM TI

VIN NCTKCT MY NNG NGHIP

THS. MAI TRANG

H Ni-2/2009

Danh sch nhng ngi thc hin chnh

STT

H v tn

Hc v, hc hm chuyn mn

C quan

1 2 3 4 5

Mai Trang ng Vit Ha Nguyn Vn Mnh V Ngc T ng Vn Ngn

Thc s Thc s Thc s K thut vin K thut vin

Vin TK my NN Vin TK my NN Vin TK my NN Vin TK my NN Vin TK my NN

MC LC Trang M U CHNG 1. TNG QUAN 1.1. Tnh hnh nghin cu nc ngoi 1.2. Tnh hnh nghin cu trong nc. CHNG 2. C S L THUYT QU TRNH NGHIN CU 2.1. Mt s tnh cht ca ph ph liu v cht thi 2.2 . Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh lm vic ca my p nng nghp CHNG 3. THIT K CH TO MY P V TO HNH VIN 3.1 Thit k la chn nng sut my p v to hnh vin phn hu c vi sinh 3.2. Kho nghim thit b p v to vin CHNG 4: KT LUN V KIN NGH 4.1. Kt lun 4.2. Kin ngh Ph lc Ti liu tham kho 18 18 33 42 42 42 43 1 3 3 8 11 11 11

2.3. Cng ngh sn xut phn vi sinh t rc thi v vin nhin liu ph liu 13

M U
Trong nhng nm gn y, nn kinh t nc ta c nhng bc pht trin rt ng khm phc c bit l trong ngnh sn xut nng nghip. T ch l mt nc thiu i trin min, chng ta vn ln khng nhng cung cp nhu cu tiu dng trong nc m cn phc v cho xut khu v lun ng v tr cao trong cc nc xut khu cc mt hng nng sn trn th gii. Cng vi cuc sng ca ngi dn cng dn c ci thin ng k. Bn cnh nhng thnh tu t c chng ta cng ang phi i mt vi rt nhiu kh khn th thch, mt trong s chnh l vn nn nhim mi trng t cc nh my xay xt nht l cc tnh phi Nam, cc nh my ch bin cn v c ma ng. Theo nh gi ca cc nh khoa hc th ngnh nng nghip, cng nghip v rc thi sinh hot l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn chnh gy ra nhim mi trng nhiu nht. Cc tc nhn trong nng nghip gy ra nhim mi trng l thuc tr su, phn bn, rc thi nng nghip, rc thi ca cc nh my ch bin lng thc, cn, ma, ng cng hin tng t ph ph liu nng nghip Trong ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi sinh hot th thnh phn chnh l cc hp cht hu c, trong khi phng php x l truyn thng thng l chn lp, t. Tuy nhin c hai phng php trn u c nhng mt hn ch, vi phng php chn lp l cn mt din tch rt ln chn lp v rt r gy nhim ngun nc nu khng c x l cn thn, vi phng php t l vn nhim bu khng kh, khi bi hoc l phi u t rt ln cho cc l t rc (30-40USD/tn rc thi sinh hot).

Chnh v l phng php bin rc thi v ph ph liu nng nghip thnh phn vi sinh l phng php ang c chnh ph, cc ban ngnh v cc n v ht sc quan tm. Trong dy chuyn sn xut phn vi sinh, th thit b to vin l mt trong nhng thit b chnh ca dy chuyn. Mc ch ca vic to vin l gip lm gim th tch ca nguyn liu, thun tin cho vic chuyn ch, bo qun, cc thnh phn c phn b u mt khc cn gip cho cy hp thu dng cht mt cch t t, trnh hin tng ra tri Nhng nm gn y, rt nhiu nc i su vo nghin cu cc loi thit b to vin nh cc hng BENGA, CPM (M), TINDER,MYNHIANG (Trung Quc) v mt s nc nh Thi Lan, H Lan, n Cc thit b ny u c sn xut v thng mi ho vi tnh cng ngh kh cao, cht lng m bo. Song gi thnh li qu t, km theo l cc iu kin sau bn hng khng thun tin cho vic s dng nc ta, khng m bo thi gian yu cu cung cp, khng thch hp vi cc c s sn xut va v nh V vy vic i su nghin cu, thit k v ch to my p vin ng dng trong vic p cc ph ph thi nng nghip v rc thi nhm p ng nhu cu sn xut ti cc nh my sn xut phn vi sinh trong nc l yu cu mang tnh thc tin cao. Xut pht t nhng nhu cu thc t trn, c s ng ca V Khoa hc v Cng ngh B Cng Thng, chng ti tin hnh nghin cu ti: Nghin cu thit k ch to my p vin p cc ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi lm phn bn. Trong qu trnh thc hin ti, chng ti nhn c s gip tn tnh ca cc ng nghip, V Khoa hc v Cng ngh (B Cng Thng), cng ty c phn cng ngh Mi trng xanh

SERAPHIN, Nh my x l rc thi Sn Ty, cng ty c phn c kh v xy dng s 5. Nhn dp ny chng ti xin trn trng cm n v s gip v hp tc .

CHNG I

TNG QUAN NGHIN CU

1.1.Tnh hnh nghin cu nc ngoi Hin nay trn th gii c xu hng s dng nguyn liu sch t cc ph phm ca cc nh my ca, nh my xay xt v cc nh my ch bin g lm nguyn liu si m, un nu, hay pht in cn i vi rc thi sinh hot hay nha c th s dng nh mt dng nhin liu ha thch. T nha ph thi, giy, g c th s dng lm nm cho vt nui, phn bn, vin RPF s dng trong k thut l cao, un nu v mt s ng dng khc.

V phoi t r cy

Phoi bo

V cy

Hnh 1.1 Cc ph liu trong qu trnh sn xut g trc v sau nghin

Ph liu

Tm panen

My nghin

Trc

Sau

Hnh 1.2 Cc ph liu trc v sau nghin

G thng l thng

G thng

Cnh cy

Cy tng

Polypropylene

Cc loi nha ph

Vi

RDF

Hnh 1.3 Mt s sn phm vin t ph liu

My p vin (pellet mill) c nghin cu v ch to kh lu cc nc phng ty gn vi nhng tn tui ln nh: Bliss (M), La Meccanica (), Buchumer (c), VanAarsen (H Lan)hay nh mt s nc Chu nh: Trung Quc ( Chnh Xng, Mynhang), Thi Lan (CPM). My p vin c s dng cho rt nhiu cc sn phm nng nghip khc nhau t ch bin thc n cho ngi v gia sc n p vin ph thi nng nghip (rm, c kh, mn ca) hay rc thi mi mt i tng khc nhau li i hi cc thit b p vin ph hp.

Hnh 1.4 -: My p vin ca hng Bliss (M)

Hnh 1.5- My p vin ca hng Myang ( Trung Quc)

Hnh 1.6- My p vin ca hng Kahl (c)

Cc sn phm ca cc nc T Bn thng c cht lng tt, nng sut cao. Tuy vy gi thnh ca n li qu t, khng ph hp vi quy m

sn xut va v nh, i km vi l nhng iu kin sau bn hng khng c m bo nh: thi gian giao hng, iu kin v bo hnh, bo tr Thi gian gn y mt s hng ca Trung Quc (Chnh Xng, Mynhang) cng i su pht trin cc dng my p vin, tuy vy cht lng my ca cc hng ny nhp v Vit Nam thng khng d ngun gc, khng n nh, cht lng kh kim sot do cng gy nhiu kh khn cho ngi s dng. 1.2.Tnh hnh nghin cu trong nc i vi rc thi sinh hot trong nhng nm gn y hng gii quyt l phn loi rc thi ti s dng phn cn li khong 70% cht hu c d phn hy em lm phn vi sinh xong bn cnh th phng php ch yu l chn lp v vy gy nhim mi trng rt ln. Cng ngh vi sinh a chng l cng ngh dng ch phm vi sinh x l ln men cc cht thi cng nghip, rc thi sinh hot... Ti Bnh nh, cng ngh ny ang c Cng ty TNHH Phn sinh ha Sng Kn (Bnh NghiTy Sn) p dng vo sn xut phn hu c vi sinh a chng POLYFA, hay cng ty cng ngh mi trng xanh Seraphin ng dng cng ngh seraphin vo sn xut phn vi sinh cng ngh vi sinh a chng POLYFA c th nhn ging men vi sinh ti ch, va m bo cht lng men, va c th ch ng trong sn xut v c th x l nhiu loi cht thi hu c khc nhau. Bn cnh ph ph liu trong ngnh sn xut nng nghip hng nm thi ra mt lng ph thi tng i ln nh: tru, b ma, mn da T nhng nm 2004 v trc, tru, mn da, b ma dng lm cht t cho cc l ng th cng, l sn xut cn, l gchtru cn c ngi dn nng thn s dng nu n, lm tro trng hoa mu. Nhu cu s dng tru rt ln, nn quanh nm khng lo . Hin ti, hng lot l ng th cng ph sn, ngh sn xut rch ngi BSCL m, dn n lng tiu th tru gim 8

ng k. Mt khc, nhiu h gia nh nng thn cng chuyn sang nu in, s dng gas nn lng tru d tha ngy cng nhiu. Nhng nm gn y, nhiu ngi dn sng trong tnh trng nght th v tru y sng. Theo tnh ton ca cc nh my xay xt, t l tru thng chim khong 20% ht la. Nh vy, va la BSCL mi nm sn xut khong 18 triu tn, th lng tru c c l 3,6 triu tn. y l ngun li rt ln, th nhng bao gi tru c s dng hp l, ang l bi ton cha c li gii. Nhng nm gn y, nn kinh t nc ta c nhng bc pht trin kh tt, nhu cu v my p vin l kh ln vi nhiu lnh vc nh: Ch bin thc n gia sc, gia cm, thc n thu sn, p vin rc thi lm phn bn Theo thng k ca Cc Chn nui, hin c nc c trn 300 nh my ch bin thc n gia sc, cng nh hng trm nh my x l rc thi v ch bin phn hu c, phn vi sinhNhu cu v my p vin l rt ln, tuy nhin ngun cung cp ch yu li l t nhp khu vi gi thnh rt cao khng ph hp vi ti tin ca cc nh sn xut trong nc. Cng c mt s c quan i vo nghin cu, sn xut my p vin nh: Vin NCTKCT my Nng Nghip, Vin C in Nng Nghip my p ci t tru nh Vin Nng lng hay sn xut than hot tnh t tru ti trng i hc Bch khoa thnh ph H Ch Minh, tuy vy kt qu cn rt hn ch v sn phm ch yu phc v cho ngnh ch bin thc n gia sc cn i vi p vin ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi th hu nh cn b ng. T nhng vn thc t trn, chng ti nhn thy vic i su vo tm hiu, nghin cu ch to thnh cng my p vin phc v cho p vin cc ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi l vn ht sc cn thit v c tnh thc tin cao. 9

Hnh 1.6 Thanh ci tru

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CHNG 2 C S L THUYT CA QU TRNH NGHIN CU

2.1 Mt s tnh cht ca ph ph liu v cht thi: - i vi ph ph liu nng nghip: + Tru: sau khi xt ra c m khong 11%, khi lng ring 130kg/m3. Thnh phn ch yu l Kali dng ci to t rt tt, i vi nhng vng t bc mu, chai cng tru lm t ti xp li. Ring tro tru cha hm lng khong nhiu, dng trng hoa mu. Mt khc tru cn lm c meo nm rm, cht t, nu nv c th lm vn p + B ma v X da: dng lm phn vi sinh hoc c th lm thc n chn nui. Men vi sinh l cht xc tc trong qu trnh x l cht thi hu c. Nguyn liu th (b bn ca ma, rc thi sinh hot...) c phun men vi sinh pha long v trong mt thi gian, cc men vi sinh hot ng phn hy cc cht c hi c trong cht thi hu c. Nguyn liu c a vo my dp, nghin thnh bt, c x l vi sinh mt ln na. Sau , nguyn liu c phi trn vi mt s cht vi lng, a lng khc theo t l nht nh to thnh phn hu c vi sinh - Rc thi: Sau khi phn loi plastic, thy tinh, kim loi c th tn dng 7080% lng cht thi rn hu c lm phn, gim c lng rc vo cc bi chn lp. Phn hu c chim phn ln trn 70% thch hp cho sn xut phn bn. Rc c chia lm 2 loi chnh: cht hu c d phn hy v cc cht cn li tm gi l rc ti sinh. 2.2. Cc yu t nh hng n qu trnh lm vic ca my p. + Chu tc dng mi mn c hc.

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Trong nguyn liu to vin gm nhiu thnh phn hu c, v c v cc tp vt nh ct v cc d vt khc l cc nhn t gy ra ma st lm cho khun p, l p cng nh cc b phn khc ca my. + Chu p lc ln 30 40 Mpa. p ra vin c hnh dng v chc bn nht nh th khun v l p buc phi chu mt p lc rt ln to sc p lm cho vt liu thot ra khi l khun . + Chu nhit cao (nhit vin o u ra my p vin 75 850C v m 18 25%). Trong qu trnh to vin, khun chu sc p co dn ca vt liu p v qu l p mit bt vo l khun cng gy ra ma st pht sinh nhit. + Chu tc ng n mn ho hc. Trong nguyn liu p vin l s tng hp ca nhiu thnh phn cht hu c, khng sinh, du, v nc di tc dng ca nhit th sinh ra phn ng ho hc n mn khun v qu l p nhanh chng. i vi phn bn phi c tnh cht nh: C cht nht nh m bo sao cho khng b v vn trong qu trnh vn chuyn v d dng cho qu trnh s dng nhng vn c th d dng hp th cc thnh phn ng u v t t vo t nui dng cy ci. Bn cnh do trong phn hu c vi sinh c cc vi sinh vt c li nn trong qu trnh to hnh vin s sinh nhit nhng phi m bo mt nhit nht nh khng tiu dit nhng vi sinh vt ny. Vi c tnh trn chng ti i n p dng ch to my p vin kiu l khun quay cho qu trnh sn xut to hnh vin phn bn v vin nhin liu t t ph ph liu nng nghip. 12

Hnh 2.1. My p vin kiu l p khun quay.

2.3 Cng ngh sn xut phn vi sinh t rc thi v vin nhin liu t ph ph liu nng nghp. Qu trnh sn xut phn vi sinh theo 2 giai on ch yu: Giai on 1: To nguyn liu cho sn xut cn gi l cht mang. Cht mang c dng l cc hp cht v c (bt photphorit, bt apatit, bt xng, bt v s,..) hay cc cht hu c (than bn, b nm, ph thi nng nghip, rc thi,..). Cht mang c ym kh hoc hiu kh nhm tiu dit mt phn VSV tp v trng su b, bay hi cc hp cht d bay hi v phn gii phn nh cc cht hu c kh tan. Giai on 2: Cy vo nguyn liu trn cc chng vi sinh vt thun khit trong iu kin nht nh t c hiu sut cao. Mc d VSV nh 13

b nhng trong iu kin thun li: cht dinh dng, c pH thch hp, CO2 v nhit mi trng ti u chng s pht trin cc k nhanh chng (h s nhn i ch 2-3gi); Ngc li trong iu kin bt li chng s khng pht trin hoc b tiu dit, dn n hiu qu ca phn b gim st. cho phn vi sinh c s dng rng ri, ngi ta thng chn cc chng vi sinh c kh nng thch nghi rng hoc dng nhiu chng trong cng mt loi phn. Trong qu trnh nghin cu cng ngh v thit b p vin ph ph liu v rc thi lm phn bn, nhm thc hin ti nhn thy c th s dng my p v to hnh vin thc hin mt cng on trong qu trnh sn xut phn h c vi sinh. Quy trnh cng ngh c m t theo s 1:

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S 1 - CNG NGH CH TO PHN VI SINH T RC THI

RC THI C THU GOM CN NG BAO

TCH LC, LOI B CC THNH PHN KH PHN HU

P THNH VIN

V B SUNG DINH DNG V CC VSV HO KH

TRN M

TCH LC LOI B CT SI,NILONG

NGHIN

SY M 30% NG BAO THNH PHM SNG PHN LOI

PHN LOI BNG TRNG LNG

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S 2 - Quy trnh cng ngh sn xut vin t ph liu nng nghip [6]

Nguyn liu th: Mn ca

Vin c hnh thnh t vic khai thc v ch bin g nh mn ca t cc nh my ch bin g v c kch thc khong chng 5 mm

B phn cp liu

Sau khi c nh lng nguyn liu c a n bng sy nh bng ti

My sy

G s c sy ti thgn syn mt m thch hp khong 15% . Bng ti

Phoi s ck a ti vt trn nh h thng bng ti, ti y nguyn liu phi tng i ng nht chun b cho qu trnh p vin.

My p vin MEV 2x22 RIAM

My p model MEV 2 x 22 RIAM Pellet Mill c nng sut 2 -3 T/h cho loi vt liu ny. Nng sut ca thit b c th nh hn hoc ln hn ty thuc vo u ca nguyn liu p v tnh cht nguyn liu.

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Sng

Phn vn s c phn lai ti y v hi tr li my p.

Vin sau p

Vin p s c t trng ln hn, ng u hn v kch thc v c cht lng cao hn.

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CHNG 3 THIT K CH TO MY P V TO HNH VIN

3.1 Thit k la chn nng sut my p v to hnh vin phn hu c vi sinh Qu trnh hnh thnh vin ca my p vin l vin c to ra trn c s khe h tn ti gia th bt nguyn liu. y nguyn liu di tc dng ca nhit , lc ma st. tng hp li khin cho khong khng ca th bt nh li m hnh thnh vin c cng v cht nht nh. My p vin c mt s loi nh my p vin kiu 3 qu l, kiu 2 qu l, kiu khun vnh qu l hnh cn, c im c bn ca my p vin l truyn ng hp gim tc c th thy i 2 tc hoc truyn ng bnh ai. Khun bt cht trn trc rng quay v truyn ng cho bnh rng ln, qu l p bt cht trn trc c c nh. Khun c kp cht bng p khun hoc bu lng c nh tho lp thun tin v an ton. Trn c s mt s mu my nhm ti tham kho my ca cc hng nh: CPM, Chnh Xng, Kahl v i n la chn nhng thng s chnh ca my p v to hnh vin phn bn hu c vi sinh nh sau: [2] - Vi hng Biihler: 3,17 7,25 kW/dm2 - Vi hng Walter: 2,74 4,77 kW/dm2 - Vi hng CPM: - Vi hng Kahl: 4 9,62 2,83 6 kW/dm2 kW/dm2

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Thng s Cng sut ng knh l S lg l ng knh khun Kch thc vin Khi lg my

33-390
15 - 30kW

38-600
75kW

38-780
90 - 110kW 280mm 350mm 3-4 780mm

37-850
132kW

39-1000
160 - 200kW

230mm

280mm

350mm

450mm

2 390mm

3-4 600mm

3-5 850mm

3-4 1000mm

2mm - 30mm depending on material and requirements 1,150 kgs 2,430 kgs 3,400 kgs 4,600 kgs 5,400 kgs

Bng 3.1 -c tnh k thut c bn [6]

ID: l ng knh trong ca khun O: l tng chiu rng ca khun W: l chiu hu hiu ca khun d: ng knh l ca khun L: chiu di hu hiu ca khun

Hnh 3.1-Thng s k thut ca khun vnh

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3.1.1. Phn tch nguyn l lm vic ca my p vin. Qu trnh hnh thnh vin ca my p vin c to ra trn c s tn ti khe h gia th bt vi khun p v l p. Nguyn liu bt hn hp di tc dng ca cc nhn t nhit , lc ma st v lc p ca l tng hp li khin cho khong khng ca th bt nh li m hnh thnh vin c kch thc v cht nht nh. Cn c vo trng thi khc nhau ca nguyn liu bt trong qu trnh p c th chia ra 3 vng: vng cp liu, vng p bin dng v vng p thnh hnh (hnh 7). 1) Vng cp liu v c bn vt liu khng chu s nh hng ca ngoi lc no nhng li chu nh hng ca lc ly tm (do khun p quay) khin cho vt liu dn cht trn vng ca khun vi mt 0,4 0,7g/cm3 [2].
O

Hng quay ca l p

Vng bin dng ca p vin

O1

Vng cp liu Vng bin dng Hng quay ca khun Vng p thnh vin

Hnh 3.2. Trng thi nguyn liu bt trong qu trnh p vin

2) Vng p bin dng : khi khun quay ma st gia khun, bt v l lm cho qu l quay a vt liu tin vo vng p cht, nhn c tc dng p ca khun v qu l gia nguyn liu bt sinh ra s chuyn dch tng i theo s gia tng dn ca lc p. Khong khng gia th bt nh dn li,

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vt liu khng th sinh ra s bin dng ngc li, cht tng n 0,9 1g/ cm3 [2]. 3) Vng p to hnh : trong vng p khe h gia khun v qu l tng i b, lc p t ngt tng b mt tip xc gia th bt tng mnh; sinh ra s nht tng i ng thi bt b p vo l khun. Do bt hn hp c tnh bin dng n hi v tnh bin dng nho nn cho nn cht ca vin hnh thnh t ti 1,2 1,4g/cm3 [2]. Sau khi vt liu b p chui ra khi l khun, n c t l n hi nht nh (ngha l ng knh ca vin ln hn ng knh ca l khun p) ni chung t l n hi l 2 7 % [3] . Tnh cht vt l ca vt liu v t s chiu di trn ng knh khun (L/D) u nh hng n t l n hi. 3.1.2. Phng trnh c bn ca qu trnh to vin. xt lc p trong l khun ta coi l khun nh mt my p ng bnh lin tc . (hnh v 8)
A

pmax pdt O B F px p p
x

px

px dx px P

dpx pd

qdo qx

Hnh 3.3. th phn b p sut dc trc v bn cnh ca ton b l p vin

- Khi xt khun p c chiu di L v tit din l S Khi nguyn liu nn c khi lng M 21

Khi lng ring ban u l : 0 p nn c mt on l H.

khi lng ring sau khi qua

C th coi mi quan h ph thuc gia p sut nn P : vi khi lng ring ca nguyn liu nh sau: d.P ----- = f(P) d. Theo nghin cu qu trnh nn p vit lun hm f(P) c th coi l tuyn tch dng ap + b. [6]

dp d c =

= ap b ; a
0

+ b =

= C =

[e

1 (*)

M ; L .S

M ( L H ). S

Qua cc kt qu nghin cu 0xbv VI ta c th vit phng trnh cn bng lc tc ng vo 1 lp vin ca vin c p ti p sut cc i Pmax. c tnh theo cng thc nh sau : P.t.S - (P.x + d.p.x) s - f = 0 F- Lc ma st ca vt liu vi khun nn. F = f.qx.C.d.x f- H s ma st qx - p sut cnh C- Chu vi lng khun. T rt ra. C dpx = - fqx ( S )))dx Du tr chng t p sut gim dn theo chiu nn V tr s f ; C khng i. S - p sut cnh qx gm hai thnh phn

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- Mt thnh phn do p sut nn dc trc Px gy ra vi t l ( qc = px) - Mt thnh phn do bin dng d gi l p sut cnh qdc khng ph thuc v px qx = Px + qdc Trong h s t l = /(1-) l h s poatxong ( = 0,29 0,31) Thay qx vo phng trnh ta c th vit . d.px --------- = - f ( Px + qdc Ta c
q PX = P + dc q c exp f (L H ) dc s

C( ) d x S px v phi t 0 x

Ly tch phn 2 v trong gii hn p

X=LH Thay vo phng trnh trn ta c p sut y khun P1 vi hnh trnh nn H.


q P1 = P + dc q c exp f (L H ) dc s

Khi L H tng th p sut P1 gim ngha l khi lng ring ca vin p gim theo, on L H l chiu cao ca vin p cng nh th vin cng bn chc khi y khun h l cch nn p nhiu ln to mt vin t nhiu m cp liu ng thi n dn vin p ra ngoi khun v th p sut dc trc Px th hin theo ng cong AAn gim dn n ming thot. Khi p, l p khun quay th chiu di H chnh l hnh trnh p ca l khun p v l chiu dy ca vnh vt liu trn khun hay chiu cao vng cp liu theo. 23

Khi lng nguyn liu c p n vo cc l khun cho ti khi khe h gia l p v khun p t nh nht (khe h ny thng l 0,1 0,3mm) trn th p sut nn ta thy Pmax im A c th t ti 30 40 MPa) [3] tu theo khi lng ring cn thit ca sn phm. 3.1.3. iu kin qu trnh p vin xy ra. - Nguyn liu bt b qu l p a vo vng p, bin dng ch yu l da vo ma st gia b mt khun p v qu l p khi xt trng thi lc nhn c ca nguyn liu bt trn tng on nh ca vng cp liu gn vi vng p bin dng (hnh - 9 ).
O

R O1

D A A1

K C

O T Q

Hnh 3.4 Hnh 3.5. Phn tch lc xy ra trong qu trnh p.

24

B mt ngoi ca qu l p s ko nguyn liu vo im gii hn ca vng bin dng ng ct ti A l p v vi mt trong ca khun p ti A1. Hai ng tip tuyn ti A ca l p v ti A1 ca khun p ct nhau ti C. - Phn tch lc nhn c ca nguyn liu. Xt ACA ly C lm gc dng h trc xoy vi CA1 l trc X lp s ( Hnh 3.5) Theo hnh v gc ACA1 = DAO1 = ( t l gc ly liu) xc nh iu kin ca tc l xc nh iu kin ca p vin. Trong ACA1 : N l p lc nhn c ca qu l p. F : l lc ma st l vi bt Q : l p lc nhn c ca khun. T : lc ma st khun vi bt. Nsin : l lc cn ca bt tin vo vng bin dng. Lc nguyn liu nhn c a nguyn liu vo vng bin dng Fcos + T M F = N . f T=Q.f Trong f l h s ma st gia qu l khun vi vt liu bt. iu kin bt tin vo khu vc p bin dng l : fNcos + f.Q N.sin Trong Q l p lc nhn c ca khun do lc N ca l v lc T do ma st khun vi bt. Q = Ncos + f Nsin Thay Q vo phng trnh trn ta c f.Ncos + f.Ncos + f2Nsin Nsin Fcos + T = f.Ncos + f.Q.

2 f.Ncos + f2Nsin Nsin 2 f.cos + f2sin sin

25

== > tg

2f 1- f2

T c th thy gc v h s ma st f tr thnh quan h t l vi thnh phn ca nguyn liu. H s ma st f gia l, khun v nguyn liu khc nhau th gc ly liu cng khc nhau. Gia nguyn liu bt khng ging nhau th s khc ca gc l tng i r rt nu iu kin tg dng). 2f 1- f2 th s to c vin (vt liu tin c vo vng p bin

T hnh v ta nhn thy ng vi kch thc khun v l p nht nh gc nht nh s c vng bin dng nht nh v dy lp vt liu H tng ng. Vt liu a vo qu nhiu cng khng th tng c nng sut v tnh cht ca nguyn liu hay h s ma st f c nh hng n vic to thnh vin. 3.1.4. Tnh ton la chn thng s my p vin nng sut 2 5 T/h. Nh tnh ton phn trn vin p t c khi lng ring th p sut nn phi t ti Pmax. Theo cng thc (*) nhng mun vy on n X = L H ma st ca khi p vi khun phi to ra lc ln chng i vi p lc Pmax l lc ma st tng hp (tnh) Ft c xc nh bng Ft = ft.N = ft..Sc = ft..C.L1 = ft..Pd.C.L1 ft : H s ma st tnh : ng sut tip tuyn do p sut cnh qx gy nn : t l vi p sut php tuyn P ; = ..Pd (thng theo thc nghim = 0,4 0,5) Sc - din tch xung quanh khun ( m2) C - Chu vi tit din khun L - Chiu di on p n. Nh vy m bo iu kin bt c p thnh vin c khi lng ring l th Ft = Pmax. So. S0 - l tit din ct ngang ca l khun. 26 Sc = C. L1

== > Ft = ft..Pd.C.L = Pmax . S0 == > di L ca l khun Pmax . S0 L = -----------------ft.Pd.C C - chu vi l khun. Tng din tch SK b mt lm vic ca khun c tnh (theo PodkLzin IV). [ 3 ] q . te SK = -----------kt.L.C. te Thi gian khi p trong cc l khun. - Khi lng ring nguyn liu p. kt H s c l khun kt thng = 0,4 0,5 C H s tnh n dn n khe p C = 1,1 - Nng sut l thuyt ca my to vin. Q = 3.600 . k m.z.v kg/h. [ 2] d2 4 k- H s cn chuyn ng ca thc n khi qua cc l khun. d- ng knh l khun (m) m S l trn khun. z- S qu l p z = 1 3. v- Vn tc thc n b p qua l. (m/s) 3.1.5. Kt qu thit k tnh ton v la chn cc thng s k thut ca my p vin 2 3 tn/h. Da trn c s l thuyt v tham kho thng s k thut (theo bng 1, 2) ca mt s mu my : my to vin ca cc hng Buhler (Anh), CPM (M); Chnh Xng (Trung Quc).

27

Trn c s chng ti la chn v thit k my to vin nng sut Q = 2 3 T/h vi cc thng s k thut sau :
Thng s k thut ca my p vin dy cng sut 2 3 T/h . Danh mc n v Thng s

- Nng sut - ng knh trc khun p. - Chiu rng lm vic ca khun - ng knh ngoi l p - C ly lch tm - Vng quay khun p - Phm vi vng quay vt np liu - Vng quay ca my trn - Cng sut ng c chnh - Cng sut ng c trn - Cng sut ng c cp liu - S lng qu l p - Lng hi nc s dng

Tn/h mm. mm. mm. mm. V/f V/f V/f Kw Kw Kw Qu T/h

14 320 106 145 6 339 13 130 300 44 2,5 0,75 2 0,2

- Din tch lm vic hu ch ca khun p: [2] S= 3.14 x W x ID= 3.14 x 1.06 x 3.2=10.56 dm2 - Tiu hao cng sut: N= 4 x S x 1.08= 4 x 10.56 x 1.08 = 45.36 kW - Trc my p vin c tnh ton da trn c s cng sut ng c 44 kW tc 1500 v/ph, s vng quay ca khun l 350 v/ph, l sng 6 8 mm mm th ng knh trc l: 80 mm [1].

28

Hnh 3.2 Trc my p v to hnh vin i vi khun p dy v hnh dng l ca khun c lin quan cht ch n cht lng vin c bit l nhit trong qu trnh p cng nh vin sau p m bo cc vi sinh vt c li khng b tiu dit, gim chi ph in nng trn n v nng sut, m bo cht nht nh theo yu cu ca phn vi sinh v lm tng nng sut ca my. Chnh v vy gim qu trnh sinh nhit cng nh t l n hi ca vt liu do qu trnh p to ra nhm ti tin hnh la chn gim chiu di nn p, tng chiu di l gim p X. Vic la chn ny s gii quyt gn nh trit nhng nhc im khi s dng khun quay p dng cho sn xut phn vi sinh.

29

Hnh 3.3 Kch thc l v khun p vin phn hu c vi sinh

Theo cc thng s ng knh khun p 320 mm, tc khun quay 350 v/ph, nhm thc hin ti thit k v ch to my p v to hnh vin nh sau: (c b bn v thit k km sau) i vi tru v mn ca - Nng sut p: 300 1200 kg/h - Cng sut ng c p: 2 x 22 kW, 3 pha 380 V, 1500 v/ph - Kch thc vin p: 6 8 mm - ng kinh khun p: 320 mm - ng knh l p: 110 mm - Tc khun p: 350 v/ph - Kch thc l gim p X: 7 10 mm

30

- Khun p c kt cu tho v lp d dng c th thay th vi cc khun c kch thc vin khc nhau ty theo yu cu sn xut. i vi rc ln men to vin vi sinh: - Nng sut p: 2500 3200 kg/h - Cng sut ng c p: 2 x 22 kW, 3 pha 380 V, 1500 v/ph - Kch thc vin p: 6 8 mm - ng kinh khun p: 320 mm - ng knh l p: 110 mm - Tc khun p: 350 v/ph - Kch thc l gim p X: 10 mm - Khe h p: 0 6 mmm

Hnh 3.3 My p vin EV 44 31

Hnh 3.4- Nguyn liu tru trc khi p

32

Hnh 3.5 -Vin tru sau khi p

Hnh 3.6 -Vin mn ca sau khi p 3.2 Kho nghim thit b p v to vin: cng kho nghim xc nh cc thng s c bn ca my p vin Thuc ti R&D 2008 Nghin cu thit k ch to my p vin p cc ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi lm phn bn 1. Mc tiu - Xc nh nng sut ca my p vin + Nng sut my p vin khi p tru + Nng sut my p vin khi p mn ca + Nng sut my p vin khi p phn vi sinh Kim tra cht ca vin, t l thnh phm 2. Ni dung kho nghim

33

Trn c s cc thng s k thut c bn ca thit b, tin hnh kho nghim xc nh gi tr ca thit b. - Xc nh nng xut ti u ra ca thit b. - Xc nh cht lng ca sn phm ( cht vin, T l thnh phm ) 3. iu kin kho nghim Vi ni dung v nhim v ca ti, nhm ti tin hnh kho nghim my p vin ti xng ca Vin NCTKCT my Nng Nghip Nguyn liu dng cho kho nghim l tru, mn ca v mt s cht ph gia khc m thch hp. Kho nghim my p vin vi kch c l khun 6, 8 Dng c o gm c: cn, ng h bm gi, thc o 4. Tin hnh kho nghim. - Xc nh nng sut ca thit b. Vn hnh my lm vic lin tc trong thi gian 30 pht i vi mi loi nguyn liu. Lp li 04 ln. Trn c s tng kt nhng kt qu thu c ta ly gi tr trung bnh xc nh nng sut ca thit b. 5. Kt qu kho nghim. Kho nghim vi l khun 6 v 8 vi nguyn liu l tru, mn ca kt qu t c nh sau: Khi tin hnh kho nghim nhm ti tin hnh kho nghim vi nguyn liu l mn vi sinh (nhng thnh phn hu c qua tuyn chn, nghin nh v mc) p vi l khun 6 nng sut my c th t ti 1.8-2.4t/h. Kho nghim vi l khun 6 v 8 vi nguyn liu l tru, mn ca cc m khc nhau kt qu t c nh sau: 34

* i vi l khun 6 Kho nghim vi tru v mn ca mi loi tin hnh 5 mu th cho ra kt qu: Bng 3.2: nh hng ca yu t m nguyn liu (X ) ti t s nn p (M), t l TP/NL (K), m SP(Y) v nng sut my p vin.(Q) vi l khun 6

TT

Nguyn liu

X - m NL(%)

Y- m SP(%)

K-T l

M-T s

T khi trc p kg/m3 >1.638 163.8 158.8 154.7 150.8

T khi sau p kg/m3

Q-Nng sut (kg/h)

TP/NL% nn p 0% Khng thnh vin 4.578 5.03 5.5 Khng thnh vin, NL b chy

1 2 3 4 5

V tru V tru V tru V tru V tru

>30 30 28 26 24 23.45 20 17.5

86.67 86 58

750 800 850

150 135 130

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn vi sinh Mn vi sinh Mn vi sinh Mn vi sinh Mn vi sinh

24 22 20 18 16 24 26 28 30 32 21 23.5 26.5 28.2 30 82 82.5 85 82 76 18 14 12 80 77 75

Khng thnh vin 2.47 2.6 2.715 Khng vin 2.08 2 1.92 1.76 1.61

331.5 323.4 315 307.5 ra 300 444.15 456.75 468.7 481.5 496.35 925 915 900 850 800 2100 2200 2250 2240 2000 800 820 835 450 438 430

35

Do vic rt kh xc nh cht ca vin (thit b o c rt phc tp) v vy nhm kho nghim tin hnh kim tra t s nn p ca vin v coi nh mt ch tiu nh gi cht ca vin. Trong : T l TP/NL(K) = khi lng thnh phm / khi lng nguyn liu vo T s nn p(M) = t khi ca TP/ t khi ca nguyn liu Nng sut (Q) = khi lng (c bt ln vin ca ra ca thit b) Da vo bng 1, ta v c biu nh hng ca m nguyn liu ti K,M,Q nh sau:

K 100 9 8 7 6 5
24 26

M 7 6 5 4 3
28 30 32

170 160 150 140 130 0 X

Biu 1: t l TP/NL, t s nn p, nng sut theo m (tru)

Da vo biu 1 ta nhn thy: - Khi X tng th K tng v t thay i trong khong 28-30% sau K gim mnh iu ny c l gii nh sau: 36

+ m <24% vi l 6 ma st gia nguyn liu vi l khun l rt ln ma st ny sinh ra nhit cao lm cho vin b chy v khng thot ra l sng c. + Khi m nguyn liu tng ln lc ma st gim v vy K tng ti mt m nht nh. + Khi i m tip tc tng K t ngt gim mnh l do khi m ln qu cao lc lin kt gia cc phn t nguyn liu tr ln yu do vin khng cht v b v vn. - Khi X tng th t s nn p gim. iu ny hon ton d hiu bi khi X tng th t trng nguyn liu tng cn t trng SP tng chm hn (do bay hn). - Khi X tng th nng sut ca thit b cng tng Khi p tru vi l khun 6, m thch hp nht l trong khong 28-30% K 100 9 8 7 6 5 5 4 3 2 1 450 440 430 420 410 0
16 18 20 22 24

Biu 2: t l TP/NL, t s nn p, nng sut theo m (mn ca)

M 37

Cng ging nh qu trnh p tru khi m tng th nng sut Q cng tng, t s nn p M gim v K cng tng ti mt gii hn sau gim nhanh. Theo biu 2 nhn thy m thch hp nht cho p mn ca vi l 6 l t 20-22% K 100 9 8
2.2 2.4

2400 2300 2200

7 6 5
1.8 2.0

2100 2000 0
30 32

24

26

28

Biu 3: t l TP/NL, t s nn p, nng sut theo m (mn vi sinh) 1.6

Vi p mn vi sinh yu cu ca nh sn xut i vi sn phm i hi m ca sn phm nm trong khong 25-30% v nhit khng qu 50o C khng lm cht VSV c ch. Ta nhn thy p m 28-30% cho hiu qu tt nht. Khi p mn vi sinh nng sut my c th tng cao hn na do trong qu trnh kho nghim vic tip liu ch yu bng tay,nn cha s dng ht cng sut ca my. 38

* i vi l khun 8 Vi l khun 8, do vic chuyn ch mn vi sinh kh kh khn, tn km, nn nhm kho nghim ch tin hnh vi hai nguyn liu chnh l tru v mn ca. Kt qu c trnh by trong bng 2

Bng 3.3: nh hng ca yu t m nguyn liu (X ) ti t s nn p (M), t l TP/NL (K), m SP(Y) v nng sut my p vin.(Q) vi l khun 8
TT Nguyn liu m NL(%) m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 V tru V tru V tru V tru V tru V tru Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca Mn ca >30 30 28 26 24 22 24 22 20 18 16 14 15 13 12 65 80 90 75 25 22 19 17.5 T l T s nn p TP/N 0% 80 88 90 80 Khng thnh vin 4.33 4.60 4.91 5.30 NL b chy khng thnh vin 2.13 2.22 2.325 2.433 NL b chy 331.5 323.4 315 307.5 300 293.1 690 700 715 730 1220 1215 1210 1100 T khi T khi Nng trc p sau p kg/m3 >1.638 163.8 158.8 154.7 150.8 710 730 760 800 315 310 308 300 kg/m3 sut (kg/h)

SP(%) L%

39

K 100 9 8 7 6 5
22 24 26

M 6
5.5

320 315 310 305 300


30 32

5
4.5

0 X

28

Biu 4: t l TP/NL, t s nn p, nng sut theo m (tru)

- T bi 4 c th nhn thy rng khi dng khun p l 8, t s nn p s thp hn so vi p vin l 6 nhng nng sut th tng ln rt nhiu 2.4 ln. - m thch hp nht p tru vi l khun 8 l t 26-28%

40

K 100 9 8 7 6 5
14 16
2.5

1300

2.4

1250

2.3

1200

2.2

1150

2.1

1100

18

20

22

24

0 X

Biu 5: t l TP/NL, t s nn p, nng sut theo m (mn ca)

T l TP/NL l 17-18%.

T s nn p

Nng sut

T bi 5 nhn thy vi l 8 m thch hp nht p mn ca Do thi gian hn ch, nn nhm nghin cu cha tin hnh kim tra c ng u ca vin, cng sut tiu th in nng, cha cho chy kho nghim bng vic dng vt ti cp nguyn liu. Chnh v vy vic nh gi nng sut thc t ca my l cha chnh xc. Trong thi gian ti chng ti s vn tip tc tin hnh chy th my vi nhiu nguyn liu khc nhau vi quy m cng nghip nhm tm ra c cc thng s thc t ca my v ch p thch hp cho tng loi nguyn liu.

41

CHNG 4 KT LUN V KIN NGH

4.1 Kt lun Nhm ti t nh gi hon thnh nhim v khoa hc cng ngh ra bao gm kho st cng ngh p vin phn bn t ph ph liu nng nghip v rc thi. Quy trnh cng ngh to vin phn hu c vi sinh v ch to th my p vin t cng sut ng k 2 3 tn/h. Qua qu trnh chy kho nghim cho thy thit b t thng s thit k v p ng c yu cu sn xut th nghim. 4.2 Kin ngh My p v to vin phn hu c vi sinh p ng c yu cu tnh cht ca nh sn xut xong i vi nguyn liu nh tru, mn ca th tiu hao cng sut ln, chi ph ch to loi khun vnh cao v i hi cng ngh ch to phc tp hn v vy nhm ti ngh c tip tc nghin cu gii php nng cao cht lng vin v nng sut trn thit b khun phng trong nhng nm tip theo.

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Ti liu tham kho 1. Nguyn Hu Cht Cm nang k thut NXB Cng nghip Nng 1976 2. To Khang - K thut ch bin thc n chn nui hin i NXB Thng Hi 2000. 3. PGS. PTS Trn Minh Vng; PGS.PTS Nguyn Th Minh Thun. My phc v chn nui . - Nxb Gio dc 1999. 4. www.vietbao.vn 5. www.vnexpress.net/khcn 6. www.sggp.org.vn 7. www.fujikogyo.co.jp 8. www.hcmut.edu.vn

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