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amtmm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

kmm\v ebpw ohmbvv h\hpw


amtmm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw
amtm ohmsbpdnp A]hmZv Hcp]cn[nhsc ia\w hsnepw Nne BfpI Ncn{X kXy DsmmsX am\ntb A]hmZ Ctmgpw {]Ncnnpp. Cu A]hmZv adp]Sn ]ecpw hyambn \InpWvSv. Fnepw _lpam\s aqcmw]dn As {Ks Ahew_amn FgpXs IpdnmWnXv. IqSpX hnhcv www.nasranifoundation.org kinpI.

amtmm ohm amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS A`nam\w


16mw \qmphsc amtmm \{km WnIfpsS ]nIfn am oh Hgnv acq]tfm {]XnaItfm Dmbnn sv dufn kmn. hnsN tkm acnb F ]mmXy anj\dn AhsS `nsbn C{]Imcw FgpXn bncn: AhsS (amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS) ]nIfpsS apnepw ktf\efpsS aynepw s]mXpefnepw XnchgnIfn epw XSnsImtm IcnpsImtm D henb ohmI m]nsncn . ]e ]SnIfp at\mlcamb ASndIfnemWv Ah DdnncnXv. Nppw [mcmfw XncnI Inphp. Ahv ohmbpsS ]tev {]Zn Wambn t]mIbpw {]m\I AnIbpw ]pdPmXnI apm sI ohmv ]ckyamb Bcm[\ AnIbpw sNp. Ah \IsSp saUepItfmSpw `km [\tfmSpw Ah hfsc BZchp v. Fm Ahbn Ahv Ghpw {]nbcw ohmIfmWv. Ahsc kw_ nnStmfw Ahv e`nmhp Ghpw hnetbdnb hkvXp AXt{X. kv{XoIsfmhw kztam shn tbm sImp ohm Igpn [cn. ]pjmcn ]ew Ah Spnbnepw hp''. CXmbn eo tatmbvap app amtmm {InkvXym\nIfpsS nXn. amtmm \{kmWnI ohtbmSv henb _lpam\hpw `nbpw Fw ]pentm. AhsS ]nIfp sS apIfn m]nsn oh bmWv Ahsb sslh Aefn \n thXncnp ImWnnXv. Xn \m {]ZnWfnepw ihkwkvmc bm{Xbnepw kzhpw shnbpw sIm p at\mlcamb ohmI Ah hln. AXv _en]oTn hv hWp. ]nbpsS apn henb Icn ohmI m]nn. Ctmgpw Acw cniSnI km[m cWamWv. Xn\m {]ZnWn B ohmsb NppIbpw [q]w, aWnbSn, shSn, ]Sw, hmZytafw FnhbpsS AISntbmsS AXns\ hWpIbpw sNp. ohm sImp Biohm Zw kkm[mcWamWv. sa{Xmm ssIcniv D]tbmKnWw. cniv hcpsImmWv FmImcyfpw Bcw`nXpw Ahkm\nnXpw. ohm Npw_\w dmkbnse {][m\I amWv. ""ohm \apv A{Kl fpsS DdhnSam. AXphgn aXy KWw cnsncn. Imth, Cu ohm Rv Ddp tImbm bncns. AXphgn R ]nimNns\ bpw Ahs sIWnIsfbpw Pbns"". t]mpKokpIm hXnapv Chn Sps ]nIfn shdpw cnip am{X ta Dmbnshv A`n{]mbsSp h DZbwt]cq kq\ltZmkns ]mehpw Xoa\fpw {]kno Icn AtmWntbm sZ Kpthb F AKo\nb k\ymkn ]dbpXv {inI: The old churches were all built pagoda fashion, but all full of crosses like those of Saint Thomas Miracle (Mylapore) which is called St. Thomas Cross. Hence one can see how much older than portuguese times is the veneration, love and the shape of this cross. For the ancient christian churches, built long before the coming of Portuguese, were all ornamented with them both painted and graven. (Antonio de Gouvea, Jornada do Arcebispo..., Combra, 1606, P.61). Cv amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS A`n am\amb amtm ohsb Ncn{X t_m[anm Nne \nnpp. Ah \nnpXv Cutim aninlmsbbm sWv Xncndntbnbncnpp. B Xncndnhntev Cu Ipdnv klmb IamIpsav {]Xyminpp. AXn\mbn ]cnip ohm (Cutim aninlm) \s A\p{Klns!
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

hn. Ipcniv tIhew {InkvXphns\ h[nm\p Hcp D]IcWambn IWmnbncpsn, k`bntem ssZhimkv{Xntem Bcm[\{Iantem AXn\v m\w e`npambncpn. iq\yamb Ipcniv CutimbpsS Dm\ns {]XoIambn k` kzoIcntXmsSbmWv CutimbpsS cmIc ]XnbpsS {][m\ ASbmfambn amdnbXv. Cu {]tLmjWamWv ss{IkvXh tZhmebfpsS apIfn ImWsSp iq\yamb Ipcniv.
temInse ss{IkvXhsS s]mXp NnamWv hnip ohm AYhm hnip cniv. BZnak`bn XpSn cnins\ ASbmfambn kzoIcnnn . ImcWw aX]oU\w \ne\nn Xn\m ss{IkvXh aXw clkyambnm Wv {]NcnnXv. BbXn\m BZna k`m hnizmknI aninlmbpsS ASbm fambn kzoIcnnXv aysbm Wv. "tbip{InkvXp cI\mb aninlm' Fv {Kov `mjbn FgpXnbm hmIfpsS BZyw h Ac IqntbmPnnm Inp hmmWv ayw FXv. Cu clkyw ss{IkvX h am{Xsa Adnbmambnp. As\ H {InkvXm\n hgnhn Cm Abm Ccn In H aymIrXn hcp hpw. thsdm {InkvXym\n Xs ]cnNbsSpptm antem ssIbntem clkyambn aycq]w hcpImWnw. As\ Bib hn\nabw ss{IkvXh \Sn h. ]nmev GItZiw cmw \qm tmsS aX]oU\ sXsmv ian tm iq\yamb cnipw iq\yamb Idbpw ss{IkvXhsS ASbmfambn ]Xps {]Xysp XpSn. ]noSv cnipam{Xambn AXnthKw {]Ncnp. hnhn[ cmPyfnte {InkvXpaXw {]Ncntm cnin\v {]mtZinI kwkvImc X\naI h. av ]e aX fnepw Amev cniSbmf \nehnenXpw ss{IkvXh cnins {]Nmcs kzoImcyamn. Fnepw bmlqZ cnins\ Igpacambpw Ah tlf\ hkvXphmbpw am{XambnmWv Ctmgpw ImXv. Fm ss{IkvXh cnins\ Im Xv Cutimaninlmsb ]oUnnp sIm H D]IcWambn; adnv XfpsS \mYs _en]oUambnmWv ZinXv. BbXn\m cnins\ hnipambn IpsImv hnip cniv Fv hnfnsSp. hn. m\ An Amcsb CutimbpsS I_dnSns {]XoI ambn ImXpt]mse hn. cnins\ CutimbpsS _enbpsSbpw Dm\n
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

tad Imcy IWnseSpm hn. cniv aninlmbpsS {]XoIambn ImWmhpXmWv. CXpt]mse amtmm \{kmWn k` bpsS s]mXp NnamWv amtmm cniv AYhm amtmm ohm. ]Xn\mdmw \qmphsc Cu ohm Xsbmbn \{kmWnIfpsS ASbm fw.

BZnak`m hnizmknI aninlmbpsS ASbmfambn kzoIcnncpXv aysbmWv.


sbpw {]XoIambn kzoIcnncn. hn. cniv tIhew {InkvXphns\ h[n m H D]IcWambn IWmn bnsn k`bntem ssZhimkv{X ntem Bcm[\{Iantem AXn m\w e`nambnn. iq\yamb cniv CutimbpsS Dm\ns {]XoIambn k` kzoIcntXmsSbmWv CutimbpsS cmIc ]XnbpsS {][m\ ASbmfambn amdnbXv. Cu {]tLmjWamWv ss{IkvXh tZhmeb fpsS apIfn ImWsSp iq\y amb cniv. ({IqinXcq]w ss{IkvXh tZhmebfpsS apIfnepw m]nm dn. ImcWw Dn\mb aninlmbmWv ss{IkvXh hnizmkns ASnm\w (1 sImdn. 15/14). tZhmebpn {IqinXcq]w m]nmdp eo k` bpsS tZhmebfpsS apIfnepw {IqinX cq]w m]nmXv {inpI.) hn. cnins\ aninlmbpsS {]XoIambn k`bn kzoIcnnpsn AXn\v ASnm\]camb ImcW Dv. {]XoIsf Xnk` apgph AwKo Icnv kzoIcnWsan Ahv Nne eW DmbncnWw: 1. hnip enJnXfn B {]XoI sdnv {]Xn]mZnncnWw. 2. k`m ]nXmm AhsS ]T\ fn B {]XoIsdnv hnhcnn cnWw. 3. BZnak`bpsS Bcm[\{Ian B {]XoIw m\w ]nSnncnWw. 4. Xnk`bpsS `mKp\nv Cu {]Xo Is AwKoIcnWw. 5. ss{IkvXh ]pcmhkvXpKthjW n\v {]XoIfpsS ]qIme D] tbmKsf ]n sXfnhpI \ Im IgnbpXv Ghpw Daambn cnw.

hnhn[Xcw IpcnipI
Cutim aninlmv {]v olm DXpt]mse ss{IkvXh IqbvaI fn hnhn[Xcw cnipIfpw cq]wsIm p. Ahbnsems ssZhimkv{X ns hnhn[ hi \apv IWm km[nw. ssZhimkv{Xns hf _ambn hnhn[ cnipI \ne hnepnepw {][m\ambpw Ah aqmbn Xcw Xncnsncn.

eo Ipcniv
"{Iqv Cnm' FdnbsSp eo cnins\ Ingw ]Snmdp ap k`I {]ZnWn\v D]tbm Knp h. AcWm Cu cnins\ "{]ZnnWcniv' Fw hnfn. s\Snb Zn\v hfscb[nIw \ofw DsXmWv CXns {]tXyIX. `mcX kpdnbm\n k`IfpsS Nne Icn cnipI CcnepXmWv. tdma kmtm^Pnbn Cu cq] nep cnipI [mcmfw sImn hncnXn\m CXns\ eo cnsi hnfn.

""\mi-n-eqsS Ncn-p--hv Ipcn-ins hN\w t`mj--am-Wv. c-bn-eqsS Ncn-p \aptm AXv ssZh-ns in-b-t{X'' (1 sImdn. 1:18). {Kov Ipcniv
\mep`mKhpw Htc Afhnep Ipcnim Wv {Kov Ipcniv. CXns\ ""Iz{Zm'' Fp hnfnpp. \mephitpap ZWvUpI cmIcIns {]]hym]nbmb A]qXbpsS {]XoIambnmWv honpXv. Cu Ipcniv {Kon Ft]mse Ingpw ]Snmdpap k`Ifpw D]tbmKnn cpp. (CXns\ am Kohokns ohm Fpw hnfnmdpv). {Kop-Imcp-am-bn-p aX-]-chpw hy]m-c-]-chpam bn-p ASp--n-emImw `mc-Xob kpdn-bm-\n-k-`-I-fnse Nne ]n-I-fn Cu cq]-n-ep Ipcn-ip-I ImWmw. Npcp--n, hn.- Ip-cniv ss{IkvX-h v c-bpsS AS-bm-fam-Wv. hn.Ip-cn-ins\ Zin-p--h Cutim aninlmbpsS Dm-\-s-bmWv Zinp-Xv. AXns\ hW-p--h bYm -n Cutim aninlmsb-bmWv hW-p--Xv. AmsX tIhew Hcp D]-I-c-W-s-b-. hn.- Ip-cniv \apv A`n-am-\-am-Wv. Bb-Xn-\m ss{IkvXh AXv [cn-p-Ibpw X-fpsS cbpsS AS-bm-fs Fm-bn-Spw {]Z in-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p. ]pkvXIfnse ]cmaiw Rm {inXv. Cmcyw Fs Kphpw {^mknI kymknbpamb {_Z amn ]n. tPmk^ns\ [cnnp. ({_Z amn H XnI kotdm ae_m k`m kvt\lnbmbn. am tmm \{kmWnIfpsS NcnXtcJI s\kvtXmdnb ]mjX Btcm]nv Anncbmnsb Ncn{XkXyw ]d Xn\v eoIm Atls ]oUnnn.) Av kotdm ae_m k`sXnsc \Sp ]mjXbmbn {_Z amn Nqnmn. am\ntb hnhmZw eohcn s Nne sshZoIw Amb kwL S\Ifpw GsSpncpp. XpSv hnip ohm sXhn NhnnsbmSnsp. apNnecmIs, ]cnipmmhns {]XoIamb hnip ohmbnse {]mhn s\ ASnamn. (IckvamnIv ZiI mv ]cnipmmhns\ {]mhmbnv Zi\w ImWmw. Fm amtm ohmbn BteJ\w sNbvXnp {]mhns\ am\nbmbnt ImWq. Fsm hntcm[m`mkw!!!) eo ASnaXz n Aav Bm`nam\hpw kzmh t_m[hpw \sv eos ]mK aXn{`aw _m[n NnebmfpIfmWv am tmm ohm am\ntb\mWv Btcm]nXv. am\naXn cnsim av cq]tfm Cmbn. Cu Ncn{X kXyw a\nemmsX ]n. hn. amX|hn s hmZKXnI Akcnsn Ah {InkvXym\nIf ]dtbn hw. {io. ]n.hn. amX| FtmSv Dbn Nne hmZ: 1) Cutim aninlm P\nXv ]cnipm mhn\me. adnbnsbpw butknsbpw aI am{XamWv. 2) amtmm olm CutimbpsS Cc ktlmZc\mWv. 3) butkn adnbnw Cutimbpw tXmambpw IqSmsX afpmbn . 4) sslh ]p\:Pw icnbmWv. 5) hkvt^mS\ knmw icnbmWv. 6) amtmm ohm am\ntb cn imWv. 7) Iq\ cnip kXyn ]p pImv ]n. 8) amtmm olmbpsS I_dnSw ssaemqc. 9) am\n BImiamw kzbw ]dmWv tIcfn hXv. 10) am\nv Htc kabw cp e fn {]XysSm Ignhpmbn .
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

am\ntb hnhmZw
\{kmWn k`sXnsc Dbhnp ]eXcw ]mjXIfn HmWv am tmm ohm am\ntb cnim W hmZw. kotdm ae_m k` AXns DdhnSntev kzX{ambn XncnsI t]mIm Bcw`ntm apX mWv Nnev IpISn XpSnbXv. BZyambn Cu hnhmZn\v XpS anSpXv, Fmfp {io. ]n. hn. amX|hmWv. hyn]cambn F\nv ASpv Adnbmhp hynbmWv. H Uok FPn\obdmb {io. amX|; amtm AtXmw, amtmmbpw am am\nbpw, tNc\mSv Ncn{Xw, kpK \mSv \{kmWn Ncn{Xw, tIcfnse \{kmWn Ncn{Xw XpSnb ]pkvXI fpsS cNbnXmhmWv. Nne Ncn{X kXy fpsS ]n_en `mh\mIhpw AXyw hnIehpamb Ncn{X hymJym \amWv {]kvXpX ]pkvXIfneqsS {]Xn]mZnXv. Xs ]pkvXIfp sS {]NcWmw Atlw Fm fv, Itcn]Snbnse Xs `h\ n kao]w ]n. hn. _pIvkv Fsm m]\w \Sp. Amev aec Ncn{X ]nX Fhsc Nne am[ya Atls hntijnnn. sXmqdpIfn Xnhmbn hnhn[ k` Ifnse Amb tNv "ss{IkvXh thZm thZn' Fsm Iqmbva cq]oIcnp. dmnbnse tUm. tImin G{_lmans (BcythZmnse {InkvXp, {]Pm]Xn bmKsa {IqioI cWw XpSnb {KfpsS cNbn Xmhv) t\XrXznemWv B Iqmbva bpsS cq]oIcWw. Fs B Iqmbva bpsS FIvknI|ohv AwKamn. Ahn sShmWv Rm {io. ]n. hn. amX|hns\ ]cnNbsSpXv. Atlhpw B Iqm bva AwKambn. Xs ]pkvXI Hmtcm tbmKfnepw sImphv hn\ \SnbtmgmWv, amtmm ohm am\ntb cnimsW B

kpdn-bm\n ohm
s\SnbZWvUn\v eo Incn-in-t\m \ofw Ipdhpw Fm {Kov Ipcnint\m IqSpXepap Ipcnim Wv kpdnbm\n ohm. Amw \qmp apXemWv Cn-s\-bp Ipcn-ip-I Ip-Xp-S-n-b-Xv. `mc-nse amtm am Ipcniv C-c-n-ep--Xm-Wv.

{IqinX cq]-
ta ]d aqp-Xcw Ipcn-ip-Ifpw {Iq in-X-cq]w {]Zin-n-p--h-b F Imcyw {]tXyIw {imlamWv. Cutim\mYs Dm-\-n-\mWv ]qn-I {]m[m\yw sImSp-n-cp--Xv. Amw \qm-n\p apv Hcp {Iqin-Xcq]w Dm-b-Xmbn sXfnhn-. Amw \qm-n ss{IkvXh temI-p-mb ]mj-WvU-X-Iv D-cambmWv {Iqin-X-cq]w Nn{Xo-I-cn--Xv. tbip-hns a\p-jy-kz-`m-hs \ntj-[n-p--h p D-c-amWv {Iqin-Xs cq]w.

Cutim aninlmbpsS ApXsf Xnfv, am\nbpsS ApXsf hnizknp {in. ]n. hn. amXyphmtWm, DnX\mb Cutim aninlmsb cI\mbn hnizknpIbpw am\nsb XnfbpIbpw sNphcmtWm am\ntb Fv \nbnm hmb\mcpsS kmam\y_pnv hnSpp...
11) shfn]mSv ]pkvXIw tNc\mSns IYbmWv ]dbpXv. 12) Cutim aninlm cnin acnn. t_m[w sItXbpq, AXpsImv Dbsgptn. 13) kotdm ae_mdpImc\mb Rm am\ntb {InkvXym\nbpw ]n.hn. amX| blqZ {InkvXym\nbpamWv. (Cutim aninlmbpsS ApXsf Xnfv, am\nbpsS ApXs hnizkn {in. ]n.hn. amX|hmtWm, DnX\mb Cutim aninlmsb cI \mbn hnizknIbpw am\nsb Xn fbpIbpw sNphcmtWm am\ntb Fv \nbnm hmb\m sS kmam\y_pnv hnSp.) {io ]n.hn. amX|hns Bibsf Aew_amn {io. ]n.sI. amX|, Gpam \qcmWv am\ntb hnhmZn\v 1991 sabv amknse Akon amknIbn eqsS XncnsImfpnbXv. AXns ]m ew "amtmmohm am\ntb t\m?' (dh. tUm. tXmakv aqcmw ]dn, www.nasranifoundation.org) F {Kn tcJsSpnpv. 1988 G{]n amkw 21mw XobXnbmWv AXncpg ]nbnse aZv_lmbn \nv {IqinX cq]w amn amtmm ohm m]nXv. ]noSv cp hjn tijw 1990 {io ]n.sI. amX|hns t\XrXzn AXncpg Amb kwLS\ F t]cn am tm ohmsXnsc cwKp h. bYmn {IqinXcq]tmSp kvt\lambnshn, 1988 Xs Cq FXnv {]ISnntn bn. AXn\m CXn ]ndIn eohIrX _pnI Ds kwibnm AXntimnsbv ]dbm \mIn. Fm AXncpg CShI m ChtcmSv tbmPnmsX k`tbmSv tNv \n. XpSmWv {io. ]n.sI. amX|hns hmZKXnI Akon amknIbn {]XysXv. XpS hnhmZ am[ya GsSpp. Ah AXn sImgppIqn. ns m]I\mb {_nkv F am\n (X\nv e`nsv ]dbsSp shfn]mSpIsf XpSmWv am\n F hnfnsXv) P\nXv. "tm am\n ]pkvXvIw' FdnbsZp tcJb kcnv, sX saskmsmtmanbn se ]ptcmlnX Spw_mKwambn am\n. As t]cv ]mv Fw AbpsS t]cv adnbw Fambn. AbpsS s\p ]nfmWv am\n P\nsXv am\ntb hnizmkw. hfsc sNdp{]mbn Xs am\n Xs ZuXyw Bcw`np. _m_ntemWnb Acamb aptfpw NmhpISen kao]ap {am\n \n IpInnb Cut\mns ]pkvXIstmep Nne A{]mamWnI {K am\nsb kzm[o\nncnmsav IXp. CuPn ]vXn \n e`n 5mw \qmnse am\n {Kn (am\n tImUvkv) am\n F kokmbnI F bmlpZ{InkvXob m\kv\m\ hn`mKns ]m en hfsw AhsS ]hn{X cN\IfpsS kzm[o\n s]n shw kqN\Ifpv. A_dq\nbpw C_v A \mZnapw \ PohNcn Xhnhc Akcnv buh\n am\nv H Acq]nbpsS shfn]mSv e`np F AhImisSp. B Acq]nsb Xs Cc, Xs knkntKm kv, Xs ]Iv, Imh amemJ, ssZ hmmhv, Fsms hnfnp. B Acq]nbn \n e`n shfn]mSpI fmWv am\ntb hmZambn AhXcnn sXv ]dbp. As\ am\n H m\hmZnbmbn amdn. Xs aXw ss{IkvXhsS CSbn {]Ncnnm am\n {ianp. Cutim aninlm hmKvZm\w sNbvX ]mtdtm (]cnipmmhv) Xm\mWv {]Jym]n p skmdmkv{S, _p, Cutim Fo {]mNIt{iWnbpsS Ayhpw ap{Zbpw Xm\mWv am\n ]Tnnp. Ay{]hmNIs\ kzbw hntijnn am\nv cmP\oXnbnse ]e DXm scbpw am\ntb aXntev BI jnm km[np. As\ kkm\nb `cWns klmbtmsS hnZqctZi fotev Xs aX{]NmcWw \Sm km[np. Fm skmcm{nb aX n \nw ]e FXnpIfpw Atl n\v t\cntSn h. ImcWw {InkvXp aXtmS skmcm{nb aX tmSmWv am\naXn\v kmayw Dm

Prophet Mani Founder of Manichaeism

bnXv. AtX XpSv F.Un. 277 jmq cmPmhns aI hlcw Hma am\nsb h[np. am\nsb cnin XdmWv sImsXv 20mw \qmp hsc Ncn{XImcm IXnbn. Fm 1930 CuPn]vXn \n IsSps tcJIfpw XpS ]T\fpw am\naXw ss{IkvXh aX ns Nne ]Z{]tbmK D]tbm Knsnepw AXv H ss{IkvXh ]mj Xbw am\naXw Fm A nepw kzw \nebn H aXamW w sXfnp. AXpt]mse am\n h[nsXv Pbnen InSv ]oUI klnmWv. KftZw sNbvXv Atl ns Xe \KcIhmSn Xqn bnp. ]nmev CXns\ am\naX m am\nbpsS ]oUm`hhpw kzm tcmlWhpw F hnfnp. {InkvXpaXhpambn am\nan\v _ samannepw AXv {InkvXpaXn s Nne LSI tNn. CXm Wv Ncn{XImcmsc Bibgnem nbXpw. ]{v AkvtXmem, Fgp]ncv sa{Xmm, Uom XpSnb kwhn[m\w am\nan\v Dm bn. am{Xa, am\naX {KfpsS t]I ]eXpw ss{IkvXhsav tXmnn. DZmlcWambn "Pohn kphntijw', "teJ\', "ko \fpw {]m\Ifpw' XpSnbh.

am\naXw Npcpn
ktk\ob t]jybn P\n H aX amWv am\naXw. ktk\nb km{amPy n Akqcnm {]hiybpsS `mK ambn _m_ntemWn kao]ap ao\n {InkvXp hjw 216 G{]n 14mw XobXn am\ntb hmZ
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

Ccw _mlykmZri Hgnp \n nbm AXn\v ss{IkvXhaXhpambn bmsXm kmayhpan. hnhmlw, sseKn I _w, amwkmlmcw, kpJt`mK ssIsmgnepI Fnh ]m]ambn am\n ]Tnnp. CsXms Ii\ ambn ]menhcmWv tamamnte v XncsSpsh. "{]Imi IWn II' [mcmfap kky`Ww, AXn tew hntijs shcn BWh IgnnXv. Ah "{]Imi hntamNI ' Fw hnfnsn. Fm Cu kwhn[m\w Akcnv ajyPohnXw km[yamXn\m hnhmlw Ignp Pohnnhsc "tIhnm' F t]cn XfpsS aXn AhZnn . Fm Ah tam{]m]vXn t\Spsav Ddsmw am\n ]dnn. Cmw aXstmse am\naXhpw FmXcw hn{Klmc[\ \ntcm[nn. ImcWw m\neqsS tamw F Xmbn am\naXns ImX. Bob kXyns {]tXyI m\w hgn tamw {]m]n H {]tXyI Xcw m\hmZambn am\naXn tXv. temIs \bpsS temIw, Xn bpsS temIw Fns\ cmbn Xcw Xncn ssZzXhmZambn AXns {]tXyIX. {]Imins (\) temI hpw Cns (Xn) temIhpw Xn \ncc kwLjnemWv am\naXw ]Tnn. Cns in hnPbn tm {]Imins in Bmhm

bn ]e AhXmcfmbn temIv {]Xy sSp. As\ AhXcnhcn HSphnes {]hmNI\mWv am\n. Ah XmcfneqsS icnbmb m\hpw shfnhpw kzoIcnh tamw {]m]n. am\nbpsS ]oUm`hhpw kzmtcm lWhpw Akvacnnn t_as] mfmWv Ghpw {][m\ am\ntb BtLmjw. 6mw \qmtmsS am\ntb aXw ]mmXy {InkvXy k`bp sSbpw skmcm{nb aXnsbpw sRn kqWambn \inp.

4) amtmm nhmbpsS Xmsgm Xmacqhns\ \Xn temI fpsS thXncnhns {]Imihfb amW ZphymJym\n Ncn{X ]camtbm am\ntb {K fntem ]cmaian. 5) am\nbpsS {]XoIambn {]mhns\ Nn{XoIcnh AXn sXfnhp I IWnXn ]cmPbsSp. As\ H {]XoIw am\nXm bn a\naX hnizmknItfm am\naX {Ktfm AhImisSpn. Fm ]cnipmmhns {]XoI ambn ss__n {]mhns\ Nqnm Wn. ohmtbmSpw amtmZokm sXmntbmSpw _sSpn {]mhn s\ Nn{XoIcnXv BtKmfXe n ]pcmX ss{IkvXh IeIfn ImWmw.

amtmm ohm am\ntb\mWpXv Zpcmtcm]Ww am{Xw


1) amtmm ohm amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS am{Xw ohmbmWv. AXp av ss{IkvXh k`Ifn IsSpm km[nnn. am\naXw {]Ncn ]ucykvX \mntem bqtdmn tem Ccw cniv Isnn. 2) am\naXn\v cnsi bmsXm hn[ cq]tfm hn{Kltfm Cm bn. 3) "]mdt' Xm\mWv ss{IkvXh tcmSv am\n AhImissnepw ]cn ipmmhns {]XoIamb {]mhns\ am\n kzoIcnnn. AXn\v bmsXm Ncn{XtcJbpan.

tdmam k` am\ntbt\m?
{]mhpw ]SnIfpw apw am\ntb\mW n tdmam k`bpw am\ntb\mW ]dtbn hw. {]mhpw ]SnIfpap tdma cnipI ss{IkvXhsaw AtX XXzn \nn amtmm ohm am\ntbs\w ]dbpXv ImScamWv. amtmm ohmtbmSv kmayap eo k`m cnipIfpsS Nn{Xw Xmsg sImSp:

Detail of Early Christian sarcophagus with carvings of peacocks (symbol of eternal life) and Christograms. Sant'Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna.

Ravenna Cross

Sant'Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna

Roman cross at marble wall in Roman Bath - Ankara, Turkey Eyam Parish Church, Derbyshire St. John's lateran cathedral

Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin

BYZANTINE AND ARAB-BYZANTINE COINS Milan Cathedral Italy (AD 450)

amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

{]mhpw ]SnIfpw apw am\ntb\msWn tdmam k`bpw am\ntb\msWp ]dtbWvSnhcpw. {]mhpw ]SnIfpap tdma IpcnipI ss{IkvXhsapw AtX XXzn \nn amtmm ohm am\ntbs\pw ]dbpXv ImScamWv.

amtmm ohmbvsXnsc av ]mmXy


Nne ]dn anj\dnam ssaem]qcnse ApX ohm IsSpIbpw XpS v `cXss{IkvXh ]ucmWnIXbpw sslnI ]mccyhpw bqtdmnemI am\w {]NcnnIbpw sNbvXp. Am cWm AItmencmb av anj\dnam CXns\ FXnp XpSn. Aq H _Z knmw cq]o Icnp. AXn\v Ahsc klmbnXv eo ]dnIfpsS sNbvXnIfmWv ]dbmw. ImcWw amtmm \{kmWn IfpsS Ncn{XtcJI Ah Xobnv \innp. As\ \{kmWn Ncn{X tcJI Nmcambntm AXns ]n _en ]pXnsbm INcn{Xw cNnm ]mXysS {iaamWv am\ntb hnhmZw. t]jybnse aXa\ImeLn tIcfntev am\nbpsS Abmbn I Fnbncnmsaw As\ am\naXw ChnsS Xgp hfncnmsa ap bmsXm Ncn{X]n_ehpan m Dulw {]Ncnsp. Xsbp a amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS AnXzw tNmZyw sNm Zp_p nbn thsdmIqSn ]dp, am tmm am\nbpsS injy\mWw Atlw tIcfn hnnmsbw ChnsS m]nXamb \{kmWn k` am\naXm {InkvXpaXw kzoIcn Xns ^eambn DmbXmWw {]Ncn np. am\ntb hnhmZns Ncn{Xn emZyambn XpSw dnXv ]pcmh kvXp ikv{X\mb _W kmbn mWv (1874). t]jybn \nv SntbdnbhcmWv amtmm \{kmWnIsf w. AhsS `mj kpdnbm\nb ]hn `mjbmWw 6mw \qmnse t]jy sa{XmmsS kzm[o\hpw sNv tcJIfnse ]hn enJnXfp amv Atlw sXfnhmbn IXv. Fm tIcfnse _paXns {]NmcWw Insv \Snp. _p kwkmcnn `mj ]hnbmWw HmI. 1874 Zn CUy BnIzmdn F {]knoIcWnemWv _\ kmbv v Xs A_ Ncn{XhymJym\w \ InbXv. Fm CtX {]knoIcW n Xs Cu hmZs FXnp
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

sImv tIW Fv. bqfn kmbvpw dnmUv tImfnkv kmbvpw cwKp hn. _\epambn Ch \nch[n XhW hmZ{]XnhmZntesp. CtX XpSv _\ amtmm ohmbnse ]hn enJnXw am\naXns A; AXv ss{IkvXhw Xssbv kXnp. Fm Atlw amtm m ohmbnse ]hn enJnXsf hym Jym\nXv C{]ImcamWv: ""Ah bYm aninlmbpw DXfn \n ssZhhpw ]cnipmm hpamWv''. XpSv tImfn kmbvv, Cu knm s t\cnXv _\ens Xs ]hn enJnXfpsS hniIe\w D]tbmKnm Wv. ]hn enJnX km\nI t]jybnse {InkvXym\nIfpw ae_m dnse {InkvXym\nIfpw Xnep _ sbmWv kqNnnsXv Atlw Nqnmn. BbXn\m _\ens hniIe\w ohmbnse ]hn enJnX sf am\naXnte, adnv t]jy tbbpw ae_mdnse {InkvXym\nIsf bpw _sSpn A\h[n kpdnbm\n tcJIfpw DXn\m t]jybn \nw Amep hXv am\naXm c kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXh Xs BWw tImfn kmbvv hmZnp. _\ kmbnv aWn{Kmamsc am\n aXmcmWv hnfntm, AXv sXm b Dulw am{XamsWv ]dv tImfn kmbvv FXnXv Cs\ bmWv: ""`mcXnepw {ioebnepw H]s am\nbpsS sskmnI Dmbnt mw. Fm AXns\ km[qIcn bmsXm sXfnhpw \mw CXphsc IsSpnn. am\n Fv XpSp hmIsf am\nbpsS sskmnI ambn _sSpphm XpSnbm Ah \s hgnsXnIbpq. AXn \m amtmm \{kmWnIv am\naX sskmnIambp _ aps hmZKXnv ASnm\an. am\ntb aXmsS Fsnepw Ahinw IsSpm km[nm am{Xta C\n H Nv km[yX bpq"". HSphn _\ kmbvv C{]Imcw FgpXn: ""Fs Aam\w Akcnv Cu enJnX ''F\n alXzw Fm \psS Imhmb Cutim aninlmmWv. Ah bYm aninlm bpw DXfn \n ssZhhpw ]cnipmmhpamWv"". Cu hmZKXn

am\ntb hmZn\v FXncmWv Im. ImcWw Atlw ]Tnnn Xv {IqinX\mb aninl Cutimbs w adnv H hn[hbpsS aI\mbn shw BWv. amtmm ohmbnse enJnX am\nbpsS aXmsSXmbn shn Ahv asm cq]hpw `mhhpw Bbnts\. AXpsImv am\naX hmZnIfpsS _mn]{X ]Snmd kap{ZXocv (AXmbXv tIcfw) \nw C\nbpw IsSpt nbncn''. _\ kmbvns {][m\ hmZKXn t]jybn am\naXm icmbn shw ss{IkvXh Fn dhmbnshw AXn\m `mcX nse t]jybn \n Sntb m am\naXmcmbnshamWv. Fm sImw]dn bmtm_v I\m ]dbpXv, _\ kmbvn\v t]jybnse ss{IkvXh kaqls ]nbpw AhsS Ncn{Xs ]nbp ap Adnhv hnIeambnshmWv. am{Xa ss{IkvXh Ncn{Xw _\en\v Adnhnmbn. aqmw \qmv apX Fmw \qmv hsc ]uckvXy kpdnbm \n k` t]jy, Jpknm, _m_n temWnb, ASnbs_s\, saktmsan b apXemb {]tZifn hf t\Sn bn. Ggmw \qmns Ahkm\ tmsS, CmanI ]Stbmnapv, t]jybnse d} AZj sa{Xmtmen mbpsS `{Zmk\w AXn`{Zmk\ambn hfIbpw ]Xns\v {]hiyI AXn Iogn hcnIbpw sNbvXn. IqSmsX km\nb km{amPyn it_m Hmas Imev (F.Un. 240273) am\ntb hmZw thcqnsbnepw ]noSv A{_mlmw Hmas Imev Ahv aXa\w t\cntSnhcnI bpw am\n KftZ\n\v Ccbmhp Ibpw sNbvXp. Cu Ncn{Xw _\en\v Adnbnmbn. _\tImfn kmbvpamsS hmKzm Zn\v tijw amtmm \{kmWn Isf am\ntb\mm {]NcW n\v hnedbpIbpw {ItaW AXv \neIbpw sNbvXp. ]noSv CtX hnjbn [mcmfw KthjI am tmm ohmbnse ]hn enJnXs nbpw ]uckvXy k`bpw amtmm \{kmWnIfpw Xnep \_s nbpw {]_ hgn iamb sXfnhpI {]knoIcnnpv. _\ ens hmZKXnIv Cthsc bmsXm sXfnhpw \apv e`nnn IqSn HmWw.

am\naXm Ipcnins\ Bcm[nXmtbm, Ipcniv AhcpsS aXNnambn IcpXnbXmtbm bmsXmcp sXfnhpw IsWvSSpsnn.
Cu sXfnhnm hmZs Dbn mnbmWv {io. ]n. hn. amX|hpw Iq w amtmm \{kmWnIsXnsc Zpjv{]Nmcw \SpXv. d} AZmjncnse sa{Xmtmeom ^mknse `{Zmk\n\v am{Xa, ]n tbm `mcXnw `qanimkv{X]cambn ]dm km\nb km{amPyns AXnI apX aebmbnep Jme hsc GItZiw 12000 ^mckpIv NpaXemc\mbn. tbm H ]Icc\mWv cnin acn Xv. Atlw _{lmw Hma\m Xpdp n ASsSpIbpw AhnsShv NeIfn acnIbpambn. At lns ihicocw ]wsImv pIbpw hnIramIbpw sNbvX Xn tijw incv s_ em]v F ]Wns {][m\hmXnen sInq Ibpw sNbvXp. ]noSv Atl ns icoc`mK sSknt^m\n Atlns AbmbnI Xs adhpsNbvXp. CXn \nw a\nem hpXv am\nbpsS acWn\v cnip ambn bmsXm _hpan FmWv. ]ns Fn Atlns Abm bnI cniv D]tbmKnWw? cnip acWw tdmamkm{amPyn D]tbmKnn H inmcoXnbmbn . t]jybnepw av a[y]qh Gjy {]tZifn Amev \nehn en inmcoXn Isdnv sImpI FXmbn. {]ikvX\mb _n.Sn. Astkdnb ]dbp: ""ZnW `mcXnev cniv sImphXv kmh{XnI k`bmWv. AmsX am\ntb hmZnIf FXv atm tNmZyanmsX Xnfbmhp ImcyamWv. B cninse (amtmm oh) enJnXfn \nw a\nem Xv Ahv am\ntb hmZtm tSm hnizmktmtSm bmsXm _ hpan. AYhm am\naXm cnipI D]tbmKnnshn Xs Ah ]utemkv olm Kemnbmv FgpXnb teJ\n \n `mKw Cu cnin tcJsSppI Akmy amWv''. ss{IkvXh temIn Cv H\h[n cnipIfpv. Htcm k`pw AXns hynXznepw ss]XrInepw e`n ssZhoI shfn]mSns ASnm\n cq]wsIm CutimbpsS {]XoIfmWv hnhn[ ohmI AYhm cnipI. hyn k`IfpsS Zi\fn am{X a, hnhn[ kyknkymkn\n k` I t]mepw hyXykvX cq]nep dnipI Dv. Encyclopedia Heraldica F hnizhnm\ tImin W. Berry 385 Xcw cnipIfpsv {]kvXm hn. Xmhv cniv, hn. AtmWo kns cniv, {Kov cniv, eo cniv, Imhcn cniv, B cniv, amnkv cniv, tamfbn cniv, Kmam cniv, Izm cniv, s\kvtXmdnb cniv, amtm ohm XpSnbh DZmlcWfmWv.
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

]hn `mjbpw t]jybnse ss{IkvXhcpw


t]jybnse d} AZmin ]uckvXy kpdnbm\n k`bpsS A{][m\am H {]hiybmbn. Ahv apJy [mc kpdnbm\n k`bn (AYhm sSkn t^m\nse k`) \nw hyXykvXambn X\Xmb H kwkvImcw Dmbn. `mcXnse k` t]jybnse k`bp sS ]cn]me\bn Bbn. ]m{Xnbm Inkv Xntamn Hmas (F.Un. 780823) Imew hsc. sSknt^m\nse k` kpdnbm\n `mj D]tbmKntm t]jybnse k` ]hnbmWv 5mw \qmv hsc AhsS Bcm[\{Ia n D]tbmKnnXv. t]jybnse sa{Xmtmeomv sSknt^m\nse k` bpambn `mjmhyXnbm\w IqSmsX sa{Xmmsc A`ntjIw sNpXnepw B{iaPohnX{Iasfqdnpw A`n {]mb hyXymk Dmbn. kod nse \mfmKaw ]dbpXv, d} AZmin dnse am F sa{Xmtmeo aX {Kfpw kvXpXnpIfpw ko\ fpw IqSmsX Smkpknse ZnbtSmcnsbpw Xntbm{Snsbpw bh\`mjbn ep IrXnI ]hn `mjbntev X a sNbvXv `mcXntew ap Zo]p kaqlfntew AbpshmWv. ]hn`mjbnsegpXnb thZ]pkvXI ns `mK (ko\ aRvPcn I) No\bnse S^m {]hiybn \nw 1966 IsSpXv. Ctm _en\nse ImgvN _wmhn hnp s hkvXpX kndnse \mfmKanse hkvXpXI icnshXmWv. sSknt^m\nse ]uckvXy kpdnbm\n k`v C.Un. 420 apX ]m{Xn{bvokv ]Zhn Dmbnnpw ^mknse k` kamambn H ss{IkvXh tI{am bn amdn. F.Un. 554790 ImeLn ^mknse sa{Xmtmeom Xs `{Zm k\s sSknt^m\nse ]m{Xbmo kn \nw ths]SppIbpw At lns Iognep Bdp sa{Xmk fn kzamb \nebn sa{Xmmsc hmgnhm XpSpIbpw sNbvXp. `mcXnse ss{IkvXhw tad ^mknse henb sa{Xms Iognembn . ]uckvXy kpdnbm\n k`bpsS ImtXmen Bb Cutim bm_v aqm a (F.Un. 650658) FgpXnbncnXv.

amtmm ohm `mcXn am{Xw!


amtmm ohm `mcXn am{Xam Wv IsSpnpXv. am\ntb knmw {]Ncnn H epw Cu ohm IsSpmXv AXns ss{IkvXhnIX hnfntmXp. AYhm am\naXn\v cnipmbnsn, am\ntb knmw ISw sImnp ]mmXy k`bn \nmIWambn am\ntb cniv IsSpt nbnXv. Fm Cthsc A s\ kw`hnnnmXpw am\naXn\v cnipI Dmbnn kXyam Wv NqnmWnXv. tan ]bkv I\m (Saint Atlns teJ\n
Thomas Christians: A Historical analysis of their origin and development up to 9th century AD)

am\ntb hmZsdnv hnhcn , Nne am\ntb hmZnIfpsS IrXnIfn am\naX {]NmcI `mcX n kcnXmbn Im. Fm am\ntb hmZnIv cnipmbn sn Ah B aXw {]Nmcnemb Fm efnepw Its\. ]mmXy k` am\naXn \nw A\h[n knm ISw sImnXn\m Acw cnipI bqtdmn \nm ambnst\ IsSptnbnXv. Fm Chsc As\ H kw`hw Dmbnn. sImw]dn bmtm_v I\m tNmZn: ""am\n aXmv cnip mbntm? am\n hmZnI ]dbp Xv, Cutim cnin acnnn. ]n

{]mhpw ]SnIfpw apw am\ntb\msWn tdmam k`bpw am\ntb\msWp ]dtbWvSnhcpw. {]mhpw ]SnIfpap tdma IpcnipI ss{IkvXhsapw AtX XXzn \nn amtmm ohm am\ntbs\pw ]dbpXv ImScamWv.

amtmm ohm
amtmm \{kmWn k`bpsS ssZho I shfn]mSn \nv cq]saSp cnip cq]amWv amtmm ohm. AXn ]nXmhpw ]p{Xw ]cnipmmhpamb {XoXzsbpw ]nXmhns krnI sbpw ]cnipmmhns ]hn{XoIc Wsbpw ]p{Xs XqSbmb k` sbbpw k`sb sInSp hN\ sbpw k`bpsS {]hrnIfmb IqZm iIsfbpw k`bpsS alzoIcWs bpw AXv hfsc at\mlcambn shfns Spp.

]qamb Dm\nte IhmS ambn. Ctm AhnSpv ]oU\ nw acWnw AXoX\mWv. AXn \m cnins\ alzoIrX\mb anin lmbn\nw thXncnpImhm km[ya. AhnSpv DnXw alzo IrXw BIbm AhnSps oh Ctm AhnSps acWnsbpw Dm\nsbpw ASbmfamWv.

am ohbpsS A{Kfnse ^e : IqZmiI

aqv ]SnI

injysamw Fo\nIfmWv Hm I. kv\m]I tbmlm H Fo kymknbmbn Ncn{XImcm NqnmWn. _paXns Nne BNmc BZna ss{IkvXh k`bn ISIqSnbXn ImcWhpw Cu Fo kapZmbns kzm[o\ amWv. BbXn\m tIcfns `qcn ] aXambn _paXns Ie I amtmm ohmbn Ds SpXv kz`mhnIw am{Xw. _panse almbm\ _paXw Xs ss{IkvXh kzm[o\m DfhmbsXv Nne Ncn{XImcm Aam\nv. C s\ bmlpZaXhpw {InkvXpaXhpw _p aXhpw sImSp hmepI ]ckv] cw \Snpv. amtmm \{kmWnIv XfpsS k`sbdnv hyamb Aht_m[w DmbncnXns sXfnhmWv am tmm ohm. ImcWw _paXw iambn t]jybnse k` t]mepw sNm ImcyamWv Xv kzambn H ohm \nnXneqsS amtmm \{kmWnI sNbvXXv. XfpsS hnizmkns {]XoIs Nppap P\ns hnizmk {]XoI v ]Icw hm amtmm ohmbneqsS \{kmWnI Imn Xv XfpsS hnizmkXojvWXbmWv. amtmm ohmbnse _paXIe sbdnp ]pcmhkvXp KthjW neqsS CXnt\mSIw sXfnbnsnp XmWv. tNwIcn CShImwKamb ^m. BWn \ncbns ]cn{iaamWv CXn BZyw shfnw hoinbXv. 1) _p kwkmcnn `mj ]men AYhm ]mhnbmWv. Cu `mjbmWv amtmm ohmbn BteJ\w sNsnpXv. Cu enJnXamWv am\n tb Btcm]Wns ImX. Fm am\naXn\v cnipI Dm bnnv \mw ap]v Ip Ignp. AXpt]mse am\naXn\v H ASbm fapmbnshn, AXv am\ntb D]tbmKnn en]nbpw `mjbpw DmhpI kzm`mhnIamWtm. A s\sbn am\ntb en]nbpw `mj bpamb ]aodnb en]nbmWv D]tbmKntnbnXv. BbXn\m hnip amtmm ohm am\ntb ambn _an sXfnhmWv ohmbn FgpXs ]mlvehn en]n. ]men `mjbpsS hnh\s sXm bn hymJym\nm Nne _pnI

{iannpv. "Inpunishment by the Cross the suffering of this who is the true Christ and God above and guide ever pure' FmWv tUm. F.Un. _ens hnh\w. CXn\v am\ntb [z\n sImSpmthn ]n.hn. amX|hpw ]n.sI. amX|hpw Christ F hmamn God Fmn. Fnv H aebmf hnh\hpw sImSpp: ""cnins inbn "]oUI' klnXp kXyssZhhpw apIfnep ssZhhpw \nXyw ]cnipoIcnp \bn hgnImnbpamWv'' (Aokn, sabv 1991. t]Pv 27). am ohmbn Ccw H ZphymJym\w Cu _pn Iv A\nhmcyamWv. ImcWw cnin acnXv aninlmb; ]cnipmm hmsWv hnXosn am{Xta Cu ]cnipmmhv am\nbmWv ]d bm km[nq. Fm Kemnbmmv hn. ]utemkv olm FgpXnb teJ\w 6mw Aymbw 14mw hmIyamWv (""\psS Imhmb Cutim aninlmbpsS IpcninemsX asmnepw taa `mhnm F\nv CSbmImXncns. Ahs\{]Xn temIw F\npw Rm temIn\pw {Iqinsncnpp.'') amtmm ohmbn BteJ\w sNbvXnpXv. am\nbpsS kl\sbpw acWs bpw Akvacnn DhamWv t_am s]m. apow aXn _oam Xnmfpw Dv. Fm am\nbpsS t_amsmfns t_a Fhmv kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXhsS t_mbpambn _sSpm Nne InWp ]cn{ianv. Fm am\naXns t_abpw aplZob sS _oabpw s]mfpIfmWv. Fm kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXhsS t_ H s]mf; AXv AhsS ssZhmebnse hN\ thZnbmWv. hmIfnse kmayw am{Xta CXnepq. 2) {io _ps in anhbpw Xmacqhns apIfn _p CcnXmbnmWv. amtmm ohmbpsS Xmsgbp `mKhpambp kmayw ]cntim[nI. 3) Chifnepap kvXw` H Bmbn amdpXv _paXIebpsS {]tXyIXbmWv. amtmm ohmbpsS kvXw`fpw Bpw _paXIetbmSv kmZriysncn. tImbw henb]nbnse ohmv AXnibIcamb kmayw Cu

_paXIeItfmSpv.

amtmm ohmbn BteJ\w sNbvXnp _paXIeI 2mw \qm nteXmWv. 3mw \qmnepmb am\naXns kzm[o\amWv Cu IeI Fv _pnbphcmw ]dbn v {]Xyminmw.

blqZcmb Fo\nIsf kzm[o\n _paXn\v AtX Fo\nIfn \nv Dfhmb \{kmWnIsf kzm[o\n m H {]bmkhpw Dmbnn. AXn\m amtmm ohmbnse _paXIeI Hpw AXnibsSpp n.

hnip amtmm ohmbpsS Xmsgbp aq ]SnI KmKpmsb {]Xn\n[m\w sNp. ]ucykvX k`m ]nXmhmb hn. A{]w ]dbp: ""KmKpm aeapIfn Ahs nh Ah Dbn. Ah Xmtgndn AXns Nphn \n.

am oh bYm Pohs hramI bm AXv Poh \ ^efpw \IWw. \nXy Poh \Ibpw hfpIbpw sNp cbpsS ^e IqZmiIfmWv.

CeI

AhtcmlW cq]nep {]mhv: ]cnipmmhv

aq ]SnIfpsS apIfn Im CeI ]dpZokmsb kqNnn. ]dpZokmbnse Pohs hrns m\v KmKpmbnse Pohs hramb am oh \nesImp. ]nXmhmb ssZhamWv ]dpZok krn Xv. Xs krnIfneqsS AhnSp knlnX\mIbpw Xss shfnsSppIbpw sNp. BbXn \m am ohmbnse CeI ]nXmhns kmn[yhpw krnIhpw Akvacnn.

XeIogmbn ohsb Npw_np \n {]mhv ]cnipmcq]nbpsS {]XoI amWv. AhtcmlWnep {]mhv Ftmgpw dqlmZZnibpsS {]XoIam sWmWv ss{IkvXh sFtWm{K^n ]TnnXv 16mw \qmphsc amtmm \{kmWn IfpsS ]nIfn am oh Hgnv a{q]tfm {]XnaItfm Dmbnn v dufn kmn. hnsNtkm acnb F ]mmXy anj\dn AhsS `nsbn C{]Imcw FgpXnbncn : AhsS (amtmm \{kmWnI fpsS) ]nIfpsS apnepw ktf\ efpsS aynepw s]mXpe fnepw XnchgnIfnepw.

am oh: DnX\mb aninlm

amtmm ohmbpw _paXIebpw


]uckvXy kpdnbm\n hoWn CutimbpsS acWw Ignpt]mb kw`hamWv. AXv AhnSps alz
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

amtmm olm _paXns kphImemWv tIcfn hXv. _paX kzm[o\m cq] s blqZ kapZmbamWv Fo\nI. \psS Imhpw amXm]nXmfpw

DnX\mb Imhns {]XoIw FXp IqSmsX AhnSps {]XymKa\ns ASbmfambnpIqSnbmWv am ohmsb ImXv. Imhns cmas alz]qamb BKa\sdnv bma{]m\ ]dbp: ""aninlmbpsS shfn]mSnapv \mi]p{Xambn kwhmZw \SpXnw Ahs ]m] shfnsSppXnambn Genbm hw. A\cw hnip cniv {]XysSpw"". hnip At{]w ]dbp: ""kIeXnsbpw \mYs{InkvXpcmPs{]XymKa\n apmbn Cu cmIcoh kqcys tim`tbmsS shp sNtmset]mse BIip {]XysSpw''. BbXn\m {IqinX\mb Cutimsbm DnX\mb CutimmWv ]uckvXy k`Isfmw Xs {]m[m\yw sImSpXv. AXpsImpXs {IqinXcq]w ]uckvXy k`I D]tbmKnmdn. Fm tdmamk` 5mw \qmtmsS Cu hoWn \nw ]ntmvt]mbn. Ah {IqinXcq]w \nnp. {]XnaI AhsS tZhmebfn CSw]nSntm hnizmknI shdpw Bqfmbnamdn. Bq thn ApX cq] krn innI Ahv Dmbn. {IqinXcq]fn Xfs P\Xv {IqinXapdw DnX\mbhs\ ImWm IgnbmXmWv amtmm ohm FXnsSm H ImcWw. ChnsS cq] HXcn hn{Klmcm[\v ImcWamnt F Nnntnbncn.
{iannpv. "Inpunishment by the Cross the suffering of this who is the true Christ and God above and guide ever pure' FmWv tUm. F.Un. _ens hnh\w. CXn\v am\ntb [z\n sImSpmthn ]n.hn. amX|hpw ]n.sI. amX|hpw Christ F hmamn God Fmn. Fnv H aebmf hnh\hpw sImSpp: ""cnins inbn "]oUI' klnXp kXyssZhhpw apIfnep ssZhhpw \nXyw ]cnipoIcnp \bn hgnImnbpamWv'' (Aokn, sabv 1991. t]Pv 27). am ohmbn Ccw H ZphymJym\w Cu _pn Iv A\nhmcyamWv. ImcWw cnin acnXv aninlmb; ]cnipmm hmsWv hnXosn am{Xta Cu ]cnipmmhv am\nbmWv ]d bm km[nq. Fm Kemnbmmv hn. ]utemkv olm FgpXnb teJ\w 6mw Aymbw 14mw hmIyamWv (""\psS Imhmb Cutim aninlmbpsS IpcninemsX asmnepw taa `mhnm F\nv CSbmImXncns. Ahs\{]Xn temIw F\npw Rm temIn\pw {Iqinsncnpp.'') amtmm ohmbn BteJ\w sNbvXnpXv. am\nbpsS kl\sbpw acWs bpw Akvacnn DhamWv t_am s]m. apow aXn _oam Xnmfpw Dv. Fm am\nbpsS t_amsmfns t_a Fhmv kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXhsS t_mbpambn _sSpm Nne InWp ]cn{ianv. Fm am\naXns t_abpw aplZob sS _oabpw s]mfpIfmWv. Fm kpdnbm\n ss{IkvXhsS t_ H s]mf; AXv AhsS ssZhmebnse hN\ thZnbmWv. hmIfnse kmayw am{Xta CXnepq. 10 2) {io _ps in anhbpw Xmacqhns apIfn _p CcnXmbnmWv. amtmm ohmbpsS Xmsgbp `mKhpambp kmayw ]cntim[nI. 3) Chifnepap kvXw` H Bmbn amdpXv _paXIebpsS {]tXyIXbmWv. amtmm ohmbp sS kvXw`fpw Bpw _paXIe tbmSv kmZriysncn. tImbw henb]nbnse ohmv AXnibIcamb kmayw Cu AXnibIcamb kmayw Cu _paXIeItfmSpv. amtmm ohmbn BteJ\w sNbvXnp _paXIeI 2mw \qm nteXmWv. 3mw \qmnepmb am\naXns kzm[o\amWv Cu IeI Fv _pnbphcmw ]dbn sv {]Xyminmw. blqZcmb Fo\nIsf kzm[o\n _paXn\v AtX Fo\nIfn \nv Dfhmb \{kmWnIsf kzm[o\n m H {]bmkhpw Dmbnn. AXn\m amtmm ohmbnse _paXIeI Hpw AXnibsSpp n. \In. ""\n CutemIn\v A\q] cmIcpXv'' (tdma 12:2) Fv ]utemkv olm hnip {Kn tdmamm v FgpXnbnp Imcyw HmWw. CXns\bmWv tdmamk` AnadnXv. am{Xa, tImss N{Ihn {InkvXpaXw tdmans HutZymKnIaXambn {]Jym]np. Xqew BfpIsf _eambn k`bn tNp. kphnti jw tImsXbpw hnizknmsXbpw At\I k`bvpn ISpIqSn. k`bvpn At\Iw AhnizknI fpsv k`m]nXmmcnsemcmfmb AKkvXnt\mkn\v ]dtbnhp. Cs\ A[x]Xn tdmamk` ]e k` Itfbpw hngpn. {]tZinI k`IfpsS hynXz NppIcnp. Acm n ]e k`Ifnsebpw At\Iw hnip ]nXmmscbpw sshZoIsc bpw Ambscbpw sImsmSpn, k` Isf eohXvIcnp. Ccn Pon tdmamk`bpsS Cmnse Ccbmbno k`bmWv amtmm \{kmWnk`. 16mw \qm phsc BZnak`bpsS ssNX\yw \ne \n k`bmbncpp amtmm \{km Wnk`. ]dnIfpsS eo B{IaW n amtmm \{kmWn k` XI p. Fnepw \{kmWnIfpsS sNdpp \nns\ XpSv eo\nIv Adambkpdnbm\n k`sb hngpm km[nn. amtmm ohmbvsXn scbp ]Ssbmcphpw bphpw ]dnIfpsS _mn]{XamWv. cmw hnm kq\ltZmkns Blzm\w Htcm k`bpw AXns DdhnS fntev aSm\mWv. B DdhnSn tev eok`bvv ]Xnt\gv \qm v ssZLyw Dtm amtmm \{kmWnIv B DdhnSntev GXmv \mev \qmv ssZLyw am{Xtabpq. amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

amtmm \{kmWnI: Cybnse BZnak`


]mmXy k`bpsS BZnak` ssNX \yw GXmv aqmw \qmtmsS Ahkm\np. tImss N{Ih nbpsS {InkvXpaX{]thi\tmsS tdmambnse \{kmWnIfpsS AYhm blqZ {InkvXm\nIfpsS Imew Ahkm \np. ]noSv k`bpsS \nb{Ww tdmamm ]nSnsSpp. ]e ]mK ]ptcmlnXcpw {InkvXob ]ptcmlnXcm bn. Ah ]e ]mK BNmcfpw k` bvpn sImphp. kwkvImc A\pcq]Ww F Hma\t AhcXn\v

amtmm ohmI
amtmm \{kmWnIfpsS ]e ]pcmX\ ssZhmebfnepw `h\fnepw amtmm ohmbpsS hnhn[ cq] DmbnshXv H Ncn{XkXyamWv. ssN\bnse knbm ^q, ebnse Acm[]pcw, a{Zmknse ssaemq, tIcfnse BemSv, tImbw, ISaw, appNnd, ISppn, tImX\q, N\mtcn Fns\ ]e efnepw ]pcmX\Imew apX amtmm ohm DXmbn ImWmw. Ch A\ntj[yamb sXfnhpIfmbn \nesImp.

BemSv ohm

tImbw henb]n ohm

tImbw henb]n ohm

appNnd ohm

tKmh ohm

N\mtcn ohm

tImX\q ohm

ssaemq ApX ohm

tImbw sNdnb]n ohm

Fs\ amtmm ohmI A{]Xyambn?


16mw \qmn ]mmXy ]mccy hpambn `mcXntev ISh t]mpKokpImw ap hntZi anj\ dnamw ChnSps kwkvImcsbpw hnizmksbpw IWnseSpmsX H bqtdm]y {InkvXobX {]Ncnnp. AXmIms tdmaeo coXnIfmbn anhbpw. t]mpKokpImsS AXn{Ia \nanw \{kmWn k` ]nf. Ah aq \qmpItfmfw amtmm \{kmWnIsf ASn `cnp. ssZhmebfn {]XnaI m]np. ]noSv sshZoI ]cnioe\w AhsS Ibmbn XpS. XXv^ eambn \{kmWn ]mccyw ]p\cn Xnt\m XfptSXmb {]XoI fpsS alzhpw Ahpw hym]vXn bpw a\nemXnt\m km[nm nXnhntijnemWv amtmm \{kmWnI. \psS ssZhmeb \qmpIpdp \ne\nev

Xcnetm ]WnXonXv. XXv^eambn ]gb ssZhmeb hntZi eo sa{XmmsS Imev s]mfnp]Wntbnhtm ]mm Xyk`m ]mccy \psS ssZhm eb \nmWnepw kwhn[m\nepw ISh. {IqinX cq] m]nX ambn! amtmm ohm Dqe\w sNsp! \{kmWn ]mccysf Dqe\w sNp Ccw {]XnIqe kmlN cysf hnebnptm amtm m ohm \psS GXmw ]nIfn Ctmgpw AhtijnXpXs ApXsat ]dtbq. Ctmgpw eo ]mccyw Akcnv ]cnio e\w Innb \{kmWn sshZoIw k\ykvXsams amtmm ohmsXnsc {]hntm AhsS A\yhXvIcWw F{X AKm[sav hyw. hntZinI t]mbnpw ]mmXycoXnbn sshZoI]cnioe\hpw `m `ymk\hpw \SpIbpw amXrk`bpsS

]pcmX\hpw ]mh\hpamb {]XoI sftmepw AwKoIcnm Ignbm hn[w amXrk`bn \nv AI t]mhpIbpw sNpXv kSIcat{X. Ncn{Xt_m[aphv am{Xta ohm bvv h\w Fp]db\mIq. ImcWw \apv am ohm Cutimsb h[nm D]tbmKn shdpsamcp D]IcWw am{Xa; AXv \psS {]XymibmWv, DnX\mb Imhnsbpw AhnSp s {]XymKa\nsbpw ASbmfamWv. BbXn\m am ohm kmm \v ebmWv. AmcWm Zpcm mhv amtmm ohmsb \inn m {ianpp. Fnepw Hcp Ime v Dqe\w sNs amtmm ohm Nmcn \npw Dbnsgp tncnpp. BIbm \apv Dds ]dbmw:

kmm\v ebpw ohmbvv h\hpw

\{kmWn ]mccysf Dqe\w sNp Ccw {]XnIqe kmlNcysf hnebncpptm amtmm ohm \psS GXm\pw ]nIfn Ctmgpw AhtijnpXpXs ApXsat ]dtbWvSq. Ctmgpw eo ]mccyw A\pkcnv ]cnioe\w Innb \{kmWn sshZoIcpw k\ykvXcpsams amtmm ohmsXnsc {]hnptm AhcpsS A\yhXvIcWw F{X AKm[sav hyw.
amtm ohmbpw am\ntb hnhmZhpw

11