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CIVL 2310 Fluid Mechanics Lecture 2: General Control Volume Conservation Equation/ Mass Conservation

4.1 to 4.4 of Mechanics of Fluids, Merle C. Potter and David C. Wiggert, Brooks/Cole, 2001. Topics Extensive vs intensive properties Flux across a permeable boundary General CV conservation equation Conservation of mass 1. Extensive vs intensive properties Extensive prop.: integral generic quantity of the system, can be scalar or vectorial. We will denote it with Nsys. Intensive prop.: generic property of the system per unit mass, denoted as , so that:
N sys = d



d =total mass of the system

2. Flux across a permeable boundary The flux of Nsys across a differential area dA (on the surface of the control volume) can be expressed as: Flux across dA= vdA vdA (dot product): projection of v in the direction of A vdA=v cos dA 3. General CV conservation equation Consider the situation of figure 4.4 in the textbook. Conservation of Nsys requires evaluation of Nsys at two different times (t and t+t).

N sys t = d ; N sys t +t = d II t II + III t +t

The rate of change in Nsys during t can be obtained following the derivations in the textbook. Note that limt 0

N sys t +t N sys t

dN sys dt

limt 0

d + d d I II t +t II t = d t CV

limt 0

d d III t +t I t +t = v dA t t CS

where CS stands for the surface of the control volume. The final equation reads:

dN sys dt
time rate of increase of N in the system

d + CS v dA t CV
net rate of efflux of N across the control surface

time rate of increase of N in the control volume

If the property is conserved, then

0= d + CS v dA t CV

4. Conservation of mass Application of the general CV conservation equation using: N=m (mass); =1 (mass/mass) Mass conservation requires
0= d + CS v dA t CV