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H PHNG TRNH HON V

I. L THUYT:
H phng trnh hon v l h c dng:

f (x1 ) = g(x2 )

f (x2 ) = g(x3 )
...

f (xn1 ) = g(xn )

f (xn ) = g(x1 )
Sau y l mt s nh l tng qut v h hon v:
F nh l 1: Nu hai hm s f (x), g(x) cng tng trn tp A v (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) l nghim ca
h (trong xi A, i = 1, n) th x1 = x2 = .. = xn
~ Chng minh: Khng gim tng qut gi s x1 = max(x1 , x2 , ..., xn )
f (x1 ) f (x2 ) g(x2 ) g(x3 ) x2 x3 ... xn x1
x1 x2 x3 ... xn x1 x1 = x2 = ... = xn 2
F nh l 2: Nu hm s f (x) gim v g(x) tng trn tp A v (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) l nghim ca
h (trong xi A, i = 1, n) th vi n l, x1 = x2 = .. = xn .
~ Chng minh: Khng gim tng qut gi s x1 = max(x1 , x2 , ..., xn ).
x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) g(x2 ) g(x3 ) x2 x3 ... xn x1
f (xn ) f (x1 ) x1 x2 x1 = x2 x1 = x2 = ... = xn 2
F nh l 3: Nu hm s f (x) gim, g(x) tng trn tp A v (x1 , x2 , ..., xn ) l nghim ca h
(trong xi A, i = 1, n) th vi n chn, x1 = x3 = .. = xn1 hoc x2 = x4 = ... = xn
~ Chng minh: Khng gim tng qut gi s x1 = max(x1 ; x2 ; ...; xn )
x1 x3 f (x1 ) f (x3 ) g(x2 ) g(x4 ) x2 x4
f (x2 ) f (x4 ) g(x3 ) g(x5 ) x3 x5 ...
f (xn2 ) f (xn ) g(xn1 ) g(x1 ) xn1 x1
f (xn1 ) f (x1 ) g(xn ) g(x2 ) xn x2

Vy ta c

x x ... x
1
3
n1 x1
x2 x4 ... xn x2

x = x = ... = x
1
3
n1

x2 = x4 = ... = xn2

Trong gii ton, ta thng gp h hon v 3 n, mt s bi c th gii bng nguyn l cc hn. Bi


vit ny cng cp n mt s h c bit, c th gii bng cch cng, tr cc phng trnh v
theo v hoc lng gic ho. Hy cng xem qua cc bi tp:
1

II. BI TP NG DNG:

2x(y 2 + 1) = y(y 2 + 9)

Bi 1) Gii h phng trnh (I) 2y(z 2 + 1) = z(z 2 + 9) .(Olympic 30-4 2010)

2z(x2 + 1) = x(x2 + 9)
Gii

x=

H phng trnh tng ng y =

z =

y(y + 9)
2(y 2 + 1)
z(z 2 + 9)
(z 2 + 1)
x(x2 + 9)
(x2 + 1)

t(t2 + 9)
(t R).
2(t2 + 1)
t4 4t2 + 9
Ta c f 0 (t) =
> 0 (t R). Suy ra hm s f (t) ng bin trn R.
2(t2 + 1)2
Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s x = max{x, y, z}.
x y f (x) f (y) z x z = x f (x) = f (y) x = y.
Thay vo phng trnh th nht ca h ta c:

x= 7

2x3 + 2x = x3 + 9x x3 7x = 0
0
x =
x= 7


Vy h phng trnh c ba nghim (x; y; z) l ( 7; 7; 7); (0;0;0) v ( 7; 7; 7). 2
~ Nhn xt: Bi 1 cho ta ci nhn s lc v nguyn l cc hn trong h hon v. Ta cng c th
tng qut bi trn nh sau:
Bi 1*)

2x(y 2 + a2 ) = y(y 2 + 9a2 )

Gii v bin lun theo tham s a h phng trnh 2y(z 2 + a2 ) = z(z 2 + 9a2 ) (Olympic 30-4-2009)

2z(x2 + a2 ) = x(x2 + 9a2 )


Xt hm s f (t) =

Bi 2) Gii h phng trnh: (II)

3
2

y 6x + 12x 8 = 0
z 3 6y 2 + 12y 8 = 0

x3 6z 2 + 12z 8 = 0

Gii

3
2

y = 6x 12x + 8 (1)
(II) z 3 = 6y 2 12y + 8 (2)

x3 = 6z 2 12z + 8 (3)
Khng gim tng qut gi s x = max{x; y; z}.
Ta c y 3 = 6(x 1)2 + 2 2 y > 1. Chng minh tng t c x, y, z > 1.
2

Xt f (t) = 6t2 12t + 8; f 0 (t) = 12t 12 > 0 t > 1 f(t) ng bin trn (1; +)
Ta c x y f (x) f (y) y 3 z 3 y z f (y) f (z) z 3 x3
x y z x x = y = z. Khi :

x = y = z
(II)
x=y=z=2
x3 = 6x2 12x + 8
Vy (II) c nghim (x; y; z) = (2; 2; 2) 2
~ Nhn xt: bi ny ta thy f (t) khng n iu, khc vi bi 1. Do phi c thm nhn xt
x, y, z > 1. y chnh l mu cht ca bi ton.
Sau y ta s n vi mt cch nhn mi v nguyn l cc hn. Thay v nh gi x, y, z ring l, ta
s nh gi nhng biu thc hon v ca x, y, z l x + y, y + z, z + x:

3
2

x + 3x + 2x 5 = y
Bi 3) (VMO 2006) Gii h phng trnh (III) y 3 + 3y 2 + 2y 5 = z

z 3 + 3z 2 + 2z 5 = x
Gii
Ta cng xem qua 3 cch gii ca bi ton.
> Cch 1:
Gi s x = max{x; y; z}. Xt hai trng hp:
*(Trng hp 1: x y z. T
( h ta c:
(
3
2
x + 3x + 2x 5 x
(x 1)[(x + 2)2 + 1] 0
x1

.
z 3 + 3z 2 + 2z 5 z
(z 1)[(z + 2)2 + 1] 0
z1
*(Trng hp 2. x z y. T
( h ta c:
(
3
2
x + 3x + 2x 5 x
(x 1)[(x + 2)2 + 1] 0
x1

.
y 3 + 3y 2 + 2y 5 y
(y 1)[(y + 2)2 + 1] 0
y1
C hai trng hp trn u cho ra x = y = z = 1. Th li ta thy x = y = z = 1 l nghim ca h
phng trnh. 2
> Cch 2:
Cng 3 phng trnh ca h ta c:
x3 + 3x2 + x 5 + y 3 + 3y 2 + y 5 + z 3 + 3z 2 + z 5 = 0
(x 1)(x2 + 4x + 5) + (y 1)(y 2 + 4y + 5) + (z 1)(z 2 + 4z + 5) = 0
Nu x > 1 z 3 + 3z 2 + 2z 5 > 1 (z 1)(z 2 + 4z + 6) > 0 z > 1.
Li t z > 1, lp lun tng t suy ra y > 1. Khi :
(x 1)(x2 + 4x + 5) + (y 1)(y 2 + 4y + 5) + (z 1)(z 2 + 4z + 5) > 0 (v l)

Tng t, nu x < 1 ta suy ra y < 1, z < 1 cng suy ra iu v l.


Vy x = y = z = 1 chnh l nghim ca h phng trnh. 2

> Cch 3:
Ta c:
(III)

(x + 1) = y + x + 6 (1)
(y + 1)3 = z + y + 6 (2)

(z + 1)3 = x + z + 6 (3)

Khng gim tng qut gi s x = max{x; y; z}.


x + z y + z (z + 1)3 (y + 1)3 z y x + z x + y (z + 1)3 (x + 1)3
z x z = x x + y = y + z (x + 1)3 = (y + 1)3 x = y
Khi :

x = y = z
(III)
x=y=z=1
x3 + 3x2 + x 5 = 0
Vy (III) c nghim (x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1) 2
~ Nhn xt: Vic nh gi x + y, y + z, z + x r rng c li th ca n. Ta vn c th so snh
x + y, y + z, z + x da vo mi quan h hon v gia x, y, z nhng v tri ca (1), (2), (3) tr nn
rt p. Ta cng xt mt bi tng t:

Bi 4) Gii h phng trnh (IV )

3
2

x = 3y + 2y (1)

y = 3z 3 + 2z 2 (2)

z = 3x3 + 2x2 (3)


Gii

Ta c

3
2

x + y = 3y + 2y + y
(IV ) y + z = 3z 3 + 2z 2 + z

z + x = 3x3 + 3x2 + x

Khng gim tng qut gi s x = max{x; y; z}.


Xt f (t) = 3t3 + 2t2 + t ta c f 0 (t) = 9t2 + 4t + 1 > 0 f (t) ng bin trn R
Li c x + y y + z f (y) f (z) y z x + y x + z f (y) f (x) y x
y = x f (y) = f (x) x + y = x + z y = z
Vy

x = y = z
x = y = z
(IV )

3x3 + 2x2 x = 0
x {0; 1; 1 }
3
1 1 1
Vy (IV ) c nghim (x; y; z) = (0; 0; 0), (1; 1; 1), ( ; ; ) 2
3 3 3
~ Nhn xt: Cu hi t ra l: khi no ta phi xt (x + y; y + z; z + x)? Mu cht y chnh l ta
cn xy dng mt hm n iu trn min xc nh. Nu nguyn (IV ), ta xt f (t) = 3t3 + 2t2
th f 0 (t) = 9t2 + 4t c nghim t = 0 nn f (t) c th i chiu n iu. T ta ngh ti vic bin
i cc phng trnh.
Mun vy ta cng hai v ca (1) cho ky (tng t vi (2), (3)) c f 0 (t) = 9t2 + 4t + k. Ta hi vng
4

c th tm k "f 0 (t) ln hn mt cht", cho v phi ca cc phng trnh l hm n iu. D


4
thy 9t2 + 4t + k > 0 t k > .
9
Nhng s k c chn phi m bo ta vn c th sp th t cho v tri ca cc phng trnh,
4
l x + ky; y + kz; z + kx. V hng s tt nht cho vic ny chnh l k = 1 (tho k > ). Khi ta
9
c x + y x + z y + z.
Mt iu d nhn thy l nhng bi trn c th dng nguyn l cc hn v phng trnh trong h c
bc l. Nu phng trnh cha bc chn th vic nh gi s kh hn nhiu. Khi ta ngh ti mt
phng php khc, l lng gic ho.

x = 2y 1 (1)
Bi 5) Gii h phng trnh (V ) y = 2z 2 1 (2)

z = 2x2 1 (3)
Gii
Khng gim tng qut gi s x = max{x; y; z}.
1
x1
(3) 2x2 1 = z x
2
2
t x = cos t (t [0; ])
3
(3) z = 2 cos2 t 1 = cos 2t
(2) y = 2 cos2 2t 1 = cos 4t
(1) x = 2 cos2 4t 1 = cos 8t
k2
k2
cos t = cos 8t t =
t=
(k Z)
7
9
2 4 2 2 4
2
t {0; ; ; ; ;
} do t [0; ]
9 9 3 7 7
3
2
4
8 1 1 1
Vy (V I) c nghim (x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1); (cos ; cos ; cos ); ( ;
;
);
9
9
9
2 2 2
2
4
8
(cos ; cos ; cos ) v cc hon v. 2
7
7
7
~ Nhn xt: Phng php lng gic ho cn s kho lo v hiu bit r v cng thc lng gic.
Nh bi 5, t x = 2y 2 1 lm ta nh n cng thc cos2t = 2 cos2 t 1, do ta mi t x = cos t.
Ta xt tip Bi 6:

Bi 6) Gii h phng trnh (V I)

x = y + 2 (1)
y 2 = z + 2 (2)

z 2 = x + 2 (3)
Gii

Khng gim tng qut gi s x = max{x; y; z}.


x2 = y + 2 x + 2 1 x 2.
2
t x = 2 cos t (t [0; ]).
3
(1) y = x2 2 = 2(2 cos2 t 1) = 2 cos 2t
(2) z = y 2 2 = 2(2 cos2 2t 1) = 2 cos 4t
(3) x = z 2 2 = 2(2 cos2 4t 1) = 2 cos 8t
5

k2
k2
cos t = cos 8t t =
t=
(k Z)
7
9
2 4 2 2 4
2
t {0; ; ; ; ;
} do t [0; ]
9 9 3 7 7
3
4
8
2
Vy (V I) c nghim (x; y; z) = (2; 2; 2); (2 cos ; 2 cos ; 2 cos ); (1; 1; 1);
9
9
9
2
4
8
(2 cos ; 2 cos ; 2 cos ) v cc hon v. 2
7
7
7
~ Nhn xt: Bi 6 r rng cn s kho lo. Nu t x = sin t; cos t hay tan t th biu thc x2 2
khng lin quan trc tip n cng thc lng gic no, nhng rng
(2 cos t)2 2 = 2(2 cos t 1) = 2 cos 2t. V vy ta phi t x = 2 cos t.

4
2
3

x y 6x y + 4x 4x + y = 0
Bi 7) Gii h phng trnh (V II) y 4 z 6y 2 z + 4y 3 4y + z = 0

z 4 x 6z 2 x + 4z 3 4z + x = 0
Gii

4x 4x3

(1)
y
=

x4 6x2 + 1

3
4y 4y
(V II) z = 4
(2)

y 6y 2 + 1

x = 4z 4z
(3)
z 4 6z 2 + 1
4t 4t3
n iu. D thy
t4 6t2 + 1
q

4(t2 + 1)3
0
f (t) = 4
>
0
t
=
6

2
2
(t 6t2 + 1)2

~ tng: Ta th xt o hm ca f (t) =

n y, nu cha nhn ra vn th ta s c nhn xt x = y = z


(V II) c nghim (x; y; z) = (0; 0; 0); ( 3; 3; 3); ( 3; 3; 3).


Thc ra y ta mc mt sai lm rt tinh vi l hm f (t) ch ng bin trn tng khong xc
24
24
nh ch khng ng bin trn min xc nh (v d f (2) =
> f (3) =
). V vy bi 7 khng
7
7
th dng hm n iu. Theo tng trn, ta ngh ti phng n 2: lng gic ho.
Nhn vo phn thc, ta thng ngh ti cng thc v tan. rng f (tan a) = tan 4a do ta t
x = tan a.
~ Li gii:

t x = tan a (a [0; ) a 6= )
2
T (1), (2), (3) ta tnh c: y = f (x) = tan 4a; z = f (y) = tan 16a; x = f (z) = tan 64a
k
tan a = tan 64a a =
(k = 0, 62)
63
k
Vy (V II) c nghim (x; y; z) = (tan a; tan 4a; tan 16a) vi a =
, k = 0; 62
63
~ Nhn xt: Nguyn l cc hn thng c dng trong cc bi h hon v nhng khng cn tc
dng vi nhng bi t lng gic. Nu xt hm n iu theo cch u tin th ta lm mt 60
nghim ca h!

x3 3x = y (1)

Bi 8) Gii h phng trnh: (V III) y 3 3y = z (2) (HSG Thi Bnh 2009)

z 3 3z = x (3)
Gii
h
i3
h
i
3
3
3
3
3
3
T h phng trnh suy ra: (x 3x) 3(x 3x) 3 (x 3x) 3(x 3x) = x.
y l phng trnh a thc bc 27 nn c nhiu nht 27 nghim. Do h cho c nhiu nht
27 nghim.
> Xt x [2; 2]: Khi ta t x = 2 cos t (t [0; ]). Khi ta c:

(1) y = 2 cos 3t
t=k
13 (k Z)
cos 27t = cos t
(2) z = 2 cos 9t

t=k

(3) x = 2 cos 27t


14

(k Z), do t [0; ] nn k nhn cc gi tr 0;1;2;. . . ;12;13.


13

Vi t = k (k Z), do t [0; ] nn k nhn cc gi tr 0;1;2;. . . ;12;13;14.


14
Nghim ca h ng vi t = 0 v t = c hai trng hp trng nhau nn h c 27 nghim phn
k
k3
k9
bit l (2 cos
; 2 cos
; 2 cos
) vi k = 0, 13 v
13
13
13
k
k3
k9
(2 cos
; 2 cos
; 2 cos
)vi k = 1, 13 2
14
14
14
Vi t = k

Tip theo ta cng xem qua mt s bi h hon v gii bng Bt ng thc:

x2 + x 1 = y

Bi 9) Gii h phng trnh (IX) y 2 + y 1 = z

z2 + z 1 = x
Gii
Ta cng xem qua 2 cch gii cho bi ton: Cch 1:
Khng mt tnh tng qut gi s: x = min {x; y; z}
x2 1 = y x 0 |x| 1
z 2 1 = x z 0 |z| 1 1 y 2 + y 1 1 0 y 2 + y 2 y [2; 1] [0; 1].
* Nu x > 0 z( x 1 z = x = 1 y = 1
x 1 z 2 + z 1 1 z [0; 1]
* Nu x 0
x 1 x(x + 1) 0 y 1
* Nu y = 1 x = y = z = 1
* Nu y > 1 : y [0; 1]

51

1 z 2 + z 1 = x 5
0y
4
|xyz| < 1 ().
Ta c:
2

y 2 + y 1 = z 0
1 z 0
M xyz(x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1) = (x2 + x)(y 2 + y)(z 2 + z) = (x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1)
> Nu (x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1) = 0 th x = y = z = 1
7

> Nu (x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1) 6= 0 th xyz = 1 (sai do (*))


Vy h c nghim (x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1), (1; 1; 1) 2
Cch 2:
2
2
2
Cng v
theo v ta c: x + y + z = 3
x(x + 1) = y + 1

H y(y + 1) = z + 1

z(z + 1) = x + 1
Nu x = 1 y = z = 1
Nu x, y, z 6= 1 th nhn v theo v, ta c: xyz = 1
p
Li c: 3 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 3 3 x2 y 2 z 2 = 3 x2 = y 2 = z 2 = 1 x = y = z = 1 Vy h c nghim
(x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1), (1; 1; 1) 2

x4 + 2x3 4x 2 = y 2

Bi 10):Gii h phng trnh sau: (X) y 4 + 2y 3 4y 2 = z 2

z 4 + 2z 3 4z 2 = x2
Gii




(x2 2) (x + 1)2 + 1 = y 2 2



(X) tng ng vi: (y 2 2) (y + 1)2 + 1 = z 2 2

(z 2 2) (z + 1)2 + 1 = x2 2
Suy ra |x2 2| |z 2 2| |y 2 2| |x2 2| |x2 2| = |y 2 2| = |z 2 2|
Li c x2 2; y 2 2; z 2 2 cng du x2 2 = y 2 2 = z 2 2.
Khi (X) (x + 1)2 + 1 = (y + 1)2 + 1 = (z + 1)2 + 1 = 1 x = y = z = 1
Vy h c nghim (x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1) 2
~ Nhn xt: cch gii tng qut l a h v dng

f (x). = f (y)

f (y). = f (z) vi , , 1

f (z). = f (x)

4x2 3x + 1 = y

Bi 11) Gii h phng trnh (XI) 4y 2 + y + 1 = 5z

4z 2 z + 1 = 3x
Gii
R rng phng php bi ton 8 l khng ph hp.Nhng nu ta p dng bin i sau th s gii
quyt c h:

(2x 1)2 = y x

(XI) (2y 1)2 = 5(z y) x z y x x = y = z

(2z 1)2 = 3(x z)

Vy h c nghim duy nht x = y = z =

1
2
2

[f (x)]2 = (y x)p .

~ Nhn xt: Tng qut hn, ta c th gii h phng trnh


[f (y)]2 = (z y)m .

[f (z)]2 = (x z)n .
vi m, n, p l cc s l v , , 0

x1 =
cos(x2 )

x2 =
cos(x3 )
9

Bi 12) Gii h phng trnh (XII)

cos(x4 )
x3 =

x4 =
cos(x1 )
9

( Olympic 30-4-2007)

Gii

3
1
T h phng trnh ta c |xi |
< i = 1, 4
9
2

< xi < 0 < cos(xi ) 1 0 < xi < 0 < xi <


2
2
2
2
Khng gim tng
qut,
gi
s
x
=
max{x
;
x
;
x
;
x
}
1
2
3
4
1

3
3
cos(x2 )
cos(x4 ) x2 x4 x2 x4
x1 x3
9
9

3
3

cos(x3 )
cos(x1 ) x3 x1 x3 x1 x3 = x1
9
9
Khi suy ra x2 = x4 .


1
3
Xt hm s f (x) = x +
cos(x) vi x 0;
9
2



1
3
3
0
Ta c: f (x) = 1
sin(x) 1
> 0. Suy ra hm s f (x) ng bin trn 0;
.
9
9
2

3
3
Li c: x1 + x4 = x1 + x2 x1 +
cos(x1 ) = x2 +
cos(x2 )
9
9
x1 = x2 (do hm s f (x) ng bin).

3
Do : x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 x1 =
cos(x1 ) cos(x1 ) 3 3x1 = 0
9



1
Xt hm s g(x) = cos(x) 3 3x vi x 0;

2



1
1
0
Ta c: g (x) = sin(x)3 3 < 0 x 0;
. Vy hm s g(x) nghch bin trn khong 0;
.
2
2
Do phng trnh g(x) = 0 c nhiu nht 1 nghim trn on ny.
1
1
Mt khc, g( ) = 0 nn phng trnh g(x) = 0 c nghim duy nht x = .
6
6


1 1 1
Vy h phng trnh c nghim duy nht l
; ;
2.
6 6 6

x = (y 1)2

y = (z 1)2
Bi 13) Gii h phng trnh (XIII)

z = (t 1)2

t = (x 1)2
9

Gii
Gi s x = min {x; y; z; t}. T h phng trnh ta suy ra x, y, z, t > 0.
> Trng hp 1: 0 < x 1
1 < x 1 0 0 (x 1)2 < 1 0 < t 1 0 (t 1)2 < 1
0 < z 1 0 (z 1)2 < 1 0 < y 1.
Vy ta c: 0 < x, y, z, t 1.
Khi , t z x suy ra (t 1)2 (y 1)2 y t (z 1)2 (x 1)2
x z (y 1)2 (t 1)2 t y.
T suy ra: x = z, y = t.

3+ 5
>1
x = y =
2

3 5

x = y =
(

2
(
x = (y 1)2

.
T h phng trnh ta c:
x=0
y = (x 1)2

y=1
(

x=1

y=0

> Trng hp 2: x > 1


x, y, z, t > 1. Khi ,t y x suy ra (z 1)2 (y 1)2 z y
(t 1)2 (z 1)2 t z (x 1)2 (t 1)2 x t. Suy ra: x = y = z = t.
T h phng trnh suy ra:

3+ 5
x =
2
x = (x 1)2

3 5
x=
<1
2

3+ 5 3+ 5 3+ 5 3+ 5
Vy h phng trnh c cc nghim l: (
;
;
;
);
2
2
2
2

3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5
;
;
;
);(0; 1; 0; 1); (1; 0; 1; 0) 2.
(
2
2
2
2

x21 + x1 x2 1 = 0

x2 + x2 x3 1 = 0
2
Bi 14) Gii h phng trnh (XIV )
. (Olympic 30-4-2011)
2

x
+
x

1
=
0

3
4
3

x2 + x x 1 = 0
4
1
4
Gii
Khng gim tng qut gi s x1 = min{x1 ; x2 ; x3 ; x4 }.
Xt f (t) = t2 + t 1 (t R). H phng trnh tng tng

f (x1 ) = x2

f (x2 ) = x3

f (x3 ) = x4

f (x ) = x
4
1

10

1
1
Hm s f (t) tng trn khong ( ; +), gim trn khong (; ) v
2
2
1
5
5
f (t) f ( ) =
t R nn xi
i = 1, 4.
2
4
4
1
> Nu x1 :
2

x4
1
4
x4 > .
Ta c:
1
11
5

2
f (x4 ) >
= f ( )
2
6
4
1
Lp lun tng t ta cng c: x2 , x3 > .
2
Do x1 x2 f (x1 ) f (x2 ) x2 x3 f (x2 ) f (x3 ) x3 x4
f (x3 ) f (x4 ) x4 x1 x1 x2 x3 x4 x1 x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 1.
1
> Nu x1 < :
2
1
1
i = 1, 4
Nu c k {1; 2; 3; 4} xk th theo trng hp trn ta c: xi
2
2
1
1
i = 1, 4.
x1 ( mu thun). Vy xi <
2
2
Do x1 x3 f (x1 ) f (x3 ) x2 x4 f (x2 ) f (x4 ) x3 x1 x3 = x1 .
Lp lun tng t ta c x2 =
x4 .

x1 = x3

x2 = x4
H phng trnh tr thnh:

f (x1 ) = x2

f (x ) = x
2
3
"
x1 = x2
x1 = x2 = 1
x1 + f (x1 ) = x2 + f (x2 ) x21 + 2x1 1 = x22 + 2x2 1
x1 = x2 2
x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 1
Vy h phng trnh ban u c nghim l x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = 1 2.

1
1

x
=
(x
+
) (1)

1
2

2
x2

x2 = 1 (x3 + 1 ) (2)
2
x3
Bi 15) Gii h phng trnh (XV )

...

x2012 = 1 (x1 + 1 ) (2012)


2
x1
Gii
Kx: xi 6= 0 (i = 1; 2012)
1
1
1
1
(1) |x1 | = |x2 + | = (|x2 | + | |) 1
2
x2
2
x2
Chng minh tng t c |xi | 1 (i = 1; 2012)
1
Li c: x1 .x2 = (x22 + 1) > 0 x1 , x2 cng du. Chng minh tng t c x1 , x2 , ..., x2012 cng du.
2
|

2012
X
i=1

xi | =

2012
X
i=1

2012
2012
X
X
1
1
|xi | |
|=
| |()
x
xi
i=1 i
i=1

11

Cng (1), (2), ..., (2012) v theo v ta c:


2012
X
i=1

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

2012

X
X
X
X 1
X 1
X 1
1X
1
|
|
xi =
(xi + )
xi =
xi | = |
|xi | =
| |() (do())
2 i=1
xi
x
x
xi
i=1
i=1
i=1
i=1 i
i=1 i
i=1

Li c: |xi | 1

2012
X
i=1

2012
X
1
|xi | 2012
| |
xi
i=1

Vy () |x1 | = |x2 | = ...|x2012 | = 1 x1 = x2 = ... = x2012 = 1 x1 = x2 = ... = x2012 = 1


Th li ta thy (V III) c nghim (x1 ; x2 ; ...x2012 ) = (1; 1; ...; 1), (1; 1, ...; 1) 2
n
n
X
X
Nh vy, bng bin i kho lo, kt hp ng thc "|
xi | =
|xi | x1 , x2 , ...xn cng du", ta
i=1

i=1

gii quyt bi ton m khng cn ti nguyn l cc hn.

x21 = x2 + 1

x2 = x3 + 1

2
Bi 16) Gii h phng trnh: (XV I) .................

x2n1 = xn + 1

x2 = x + 1
1
n

(n N , n 2).(Olympic 30-4-2010)

Gii
Khng mt tnh tng qut, gi s x1 = max{x1 , x2 ..., xn }(*).
Th th x2n = x1 + 1 = max {x1 + 1, x2 + 1, ..., xn + 1} = max {x21 , x22 , ..., x2n }.
|xn | = max{|x1 | , |x2 | ..., |xn | }(**)
T (*) v (**) suy ra xn < 0.
> Nu x1 > 0 th x2n = x1 + 1 > 1. V xn < 0 nn xn < 1( v l v x2n1 = xn + 1 < 0).
Vy x1 0 xi 0 i = 1, n.
T (**) suy ra xn = min{x1 , x2 ..., xn }.
V xi x1 0 i nn |x1 | = min {|xi |} hay x1 2 = min {xi 2 } .
Vy x2 = x21 1 = min{x2i (
1} = min{xi }= xn . T x22 = x3 + 1 v x2n = x1 + 1 suy ra x1 = x3 .
x1 = x3 = ... = max {xi }
C tip tc nh vy ta c
.
x2 = x4 = ... = min {xi }=xn
> Vi n l:

1 5
2
Ta c x1 = x2 = ... = xn . T h ta c: x1 x1 1 = 0 x1 =
.
2
1 5
Do h phng trnh c nghim l x1 = x2 = ... = xn =
.
2
> Vi n chn:

x1 = 0

2
T x22 = x3 + 1, x21 = x2 + 1 v x1 = x3 ta c (x21 1) = x1 + 1 x1 = 1

1 5
x1 =
2
Vy h phng trnh
c cc nghim

1 5 1 5
1 5
(x1 , x2 , ..., xn )= (
;
;. . . ;
); (1; 0; 1; 0. . . ; 1; 0); (0; 1; 0; 1; . . . ; 0; 1) 2
2
2
2

12

2009

30
x
+
4
x
=
x2008
1
2
3

30 x2 + 4 x3 = 2009 x2008

Bi 17) Gii h phng trnh (XV II) ......................................

2009

30 x2008 + 4 x1 =
x2008

x1 , x2 , x3 ....., x2008 > 0


Gii
Gi s (x1 , x2 , x3 ....., x2008 ) l mt nghim ca h phng trnh.
t a =
{x1 , x2 , x3 ....., x2008 }, b =qmin {x1 , x2 , x3 ....., x2008 } a b > 0.
max

34 a 30x1 + 4x2 = 2009 x2008

34a 30x + 4x = 2009 x2008


o
n p
p
p

2
3
4
2009
2009
2008
2008
,
,
...,
34 a max 2009 x2008
x
x
Ta c:
1
2
2008

......................................

2009
34a 30x
x2008
2008 + 4 x1 =
2

2007
2009
4018 2009
4016
2008
34 a
a
34 a
a
a2007 344018 a
344018
Tng t ta c:
q

2009

34 b 30 x1 + 4 x2 =
x2008
3

 q

q
q
34 b 30x + 4x = 2009 x2008

2
3
4
2009
2009
2008 2009
2008
2008
x1 ,
x2 , ...,
x2008
34 b min

......................................

2009
34b 30x
x2008
2008 + 4 x1 =
2

2007
2009 2008
34 b
b
344018 b2009 b4016 b2007 344018 b
344018

2007
2007
Vy a = b =
344018 x1 = x2 = ...x2008 =
344018 .

2007
Th li ta thy nghim ca h phng trnh l x1 = x2 = ...x2008 =
344018 2.

3
2

x 12y + 48y 64 = 0 (1)


Bi 18) Gii h phng trnh: (XV III) y 3 12z 2 + 48z 64 = 0 (2)

z 3 12x2 + 48x 64 = 0 (3)


Gii
Cng (1), (2), (3) v theo v ta c:
(x 4)3 + (y 4)3 + (z 4)3 = 0()
Suy ra trong 3 s hng trn c t nht 1 s khng m, gi s l (z 4)3 0 z 4
(2) y 3 16 = 12(z 2)2 12.22 y 4
(1) x3 16 = 12(y 2)2 12.22 x 4
Vy x, y, z 4 V T () 0. Khi () x 4 = y 4 = z 4 = 0 x = y = z = 4
Th li ta thy (IX) c nghim (x; y; z) = (4; 4; 4) 2
13

Ta cng xem qua mt s bi h hon v lng gic:

cos 2x + cos x = 2 cos y

Bi 19) Gii h phng trnh (XIX) cos 2y + cos y = 2 cos z

cos 2z + cos z = 2 cos x


Gii
Ta c:

|2 cos x 1| (cos x + 2) = |2 cos y 1|


(2
cos
x

1)(cos
x
+
2)
=
2
cos
y

(XIX)
|2 cos y 1| (cos y + 2) = |2 cos z 1|
(2 cos y 1)(cos y + 2) = 2 cos z 1

|2 cos z 1| (cos z + 2) = |2 cos x 1|


(2 cos z 1)(cos z + 2) = 2 cos x 1
|2 cos x 1| |2 cos y 1| |2 cos z 1| |2 cos x 1| (do cos x + 2; cos y + 2; cos z + 2 1)
|2 cos x 1| = |2 cos y
1| = |2 cos z 1|

|2 cos x 1| (cos x + 2) = |2 cos x 1|

Khi (XIX) tr thnh:


|2 cos y 1| (cos y + 2) = |2 cos y 1|

|2 cos z 1| (cos z + 2) = |2 cos z 1|

"

x, y, z { + k|k Z}
2 cos x 1 = 2 cos y 1 = 2 cos z 1 = 0
3

cos x + 2 = cos y + 2 = cos z + 2 = 1


x, y, z { 2k|k Z}

tan2 x + tan2 y

2
cos
2x
+
=2

1 + tan2 x

tan2 y + tan2 z
Bi 20) Gii h phng trnh (XX) 2 cos 2y +
=2

1 + tan2

2
2

2 cos 2z + tan z + tan x = 2


1 + tan2 z
Gii
1 tan2
, ta c
1 + tan2

tan2 y tan2 x

= 1 cos 2x

12+ tan x2
tan z tan y
(XX)
= 1 cos 2y

1 + tan2 y

2
2

tan x tan z = 1 cos 2z


1 + tan2 z
tan2 x tan2 y tan2 z tan2 x tan2 x = tan2 y = tan2 z

x = k
1 cos 2x = 1 cos 2y = 1 cos 2z = 0 y = l

z = m

T ng thc cos 2 =

Th li ta thy (XX) c nghim (x; y; z) = (k; l; n) (k, l, m Z) 2

14

(k, l, m Z)

ex exy = y

Bi 21) Gii h phng trnh (XXI) ey eyz = z

ez ezx = x
Gii
Vi x = 0, ta c h

1 e = y

ey eyz = z

ez ez = 0
Xt hm f (y) = 1 ey y (y R).
Ta c: f 0 (y) = ey 1 = 0 y = 0
Do f (y) ng bin trn (; 0] v nghch bin trn [0; +) nn Maxf (y) = 0 v do phng
trnh f (y) = 0 c nghim duy nht y = 0 z = 0.
Vy (0;0;0) l mt nghim ca phng trnh.
Vi x 6= 0, h phng trnh tng ng vi h

yey
x

e
=

ey 1

zez
ey = z

e 1

ez = xe
ex 1
tet
(t 6= 0).
et 1
et (et t 1)
Ta c: g 0 (t) =
> 0 t 6= 0( v et > t + 1 t 6= 0) lim g(t) = 1; lim+ g(t) = 1
t0
t0
(et 1)2
D thy g(t) ng bin trn (; 0) v trn (0; +)
Suy ra: nu x > y g(x) > g(y) ez > ex z > x g(z) > g(x) ey > ez y > z y >
x(mu thun).
Tng t, nu x < y cng suy ra mu thun.
(
x = y = z 6= 0
Vy x = y y = z v h phng trnh tr thnh
x, y, z .
ex 1 = x
Vy (0;0;0) l nghim duy nht ca phng trnh.
Sau y ta cng xem qua mt s bi h phng trnh cha tham s:
Xt hm g(t) =

x2 yz = a

Bi 22) Cho a, b, c > 0. Gii h phng trnh: (XXII) y 2 xz = b

z 2 yx = c
Gii
2

Ta c: a2 bc = (x2 yz) (y 2 xz)(z 2 yx) = x(x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz)


b2 ac = y(x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz), c2 ab = z(x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz)
2
t k = x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz, ta c: (a2 bc) (b2 ac)(c2 ab) = a(a3 + b3 + c3 3abc).

Suy ra k 2 (x2 yz) = a(a3 + b3 + c3 3abc) k = a3 + b3 + c3 3abc.


15


b2 ac
c2 ab
a2 bc
,y =
,z =
vi k = a3 + b3 + c3 3abc 2.
k
k
k

mx = z +

1
Bi 23) Gii v bin lun h phng trnh theo m: (XXIII) my = x +

mz = y +
y

Vy h phng trnh c cc nghim l: x =

Gii
H phng trnh tng ng

mxz = z 2 + 1

myx = x2 + 1

mzy = y 2 + 1

x.y.z 6= 0
mxy > 0; myz > 0; mzx > 0 m3 x2 y 2 z 2 > 0 m > 0.
Ta thy x,y,z cng du v nu (x; y; z) l nghim ca h phng trnh th (x; y; z) cng l
nghim. Do ta ch cn xt x, y, z > 0. Gi s x = max {x; y; z}.
> Nu x y z > 0 :
y 2 + 1 z 2 + 1 myz mxz y x y = x
y 2 + 1 = x2 + 1 myx = myz x = z x = y = z.
> Nu x z y > 0 :
x2 + 1 z 2 + 1 myx mxz y z y = z
y 2 + 1 = z 2 + 1 myz = mxz x = y x = y = z.
C hai trng hp u suy ra x = y = z.
Do h phng trnh tr thnh
(
(
mx2 = x2 + 1
(m 1)x2 = 1

x=y=z>0
x=y=z>0
* Vi 0 < m 1, h phng trnh v nghim.
* Vi m > 1, h phng trnh tng ng x = y = z =

1
.
m1

Tm li:
Vi m 1: h phng trnh v nghim.
Vi m > 1, h phng trnh c hai nghim l (
(

1
1
1
;
;
) v
m1 m1 m1

1
1
1
;
;
) 2.
m1
m1
m1

x = y + a

Bi 24) Gii h phng trnh (XXIV ) y 2 = z + a

z2 = x + a
Gii

16

(0 < a < 1)

Gi s x = max {x; y; z}.


T h phng trnh suy ra z 2 = max {x2 ; y 2 ; z 2 }.
> Nu z 0:
Ta c z 2 = max {x2 ; y 2 ; z 2 } z = max {x; y; z} x = z x2 = z 2
y + a = x + a x = y x = y = z.
r
1
1
T h phng trnh ta c: x = x + a x x a = 0 x = +
+ a. Suy ra:
2
4
r
1
1
x=y=z= +
+a
2
4
> Nu z < 0:

Gi s x 0, khi z 2 = x + a a z a < a y 2 = z + a < 0 (v l).Do x < 0.


V x = max {x; y; z}, x < 0 nn y < 0. Khi ta c: z y x < 0 y 2 = z + a x2 = y + a
x y.
r
1
1
Suy ra x = y = z = x =
+ a.
2
4
r
r
r
1
1
1
1
1
1
+ a; +
+ a; +
+ a) v
Vy h phng trnh c cc nghim l ( +
4
2
4
2
4
r
r
r 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
(
+ a;
+ a;
+ a) 2.
2
4
2
4
2
4
Sau y l mt s h phng trnh hon v khng mu mc. Ta khng th dng nguyn l cc hn,
nhng vn c th dng lng gic ho, bt ng thc. Nhng cch gii ch yu vn l bin i ng
thc, da vo quan h gia cc phng trnh.
2








3 x + 1 = 4 y + 1 = 5 z + 1 (1)
x
y
z
Bi 25: Gii h phng trnh (XXV )

xy + yz + zx = 1 (2)
Gii
K: xyz 6= 0
Nu (x, y, z) l mt nghim ca h th (x, y, z) cng l mt nghim ca h v t (1)suy ra
x, y, zcng
du nn ta ch cn xt x, y, z dng l .

x = tan

 
t: y = tan , ; ; 0;
ta c:

z = tan

(I)

3 tan +

1
tan


= 4 tan +

1
tan

1
= 5 tan +
tan


(3)

tan tan + tan tan + tan tan = 1 (4)


Li c:
(3) 3

tan2 + 1
tan2 + 1
tan2 + 1
3
4
5
=4
=5

=
=
(5)
tan
tan
tan
sin 2
sin
sin

T (4) ta c:
(4) tan (tan + tan ) = 1tan tan tan =

1 tan tan

= cot ( + ) ++ = (6)
tan + tan
2

T (5) v(6), suy ra 2, 2, 2l cc gc trong mt tam gic vung, c cc cnh l 3, 4, 5 Do :

2 = = tan = 1 = z
2
4
17

T ta c:

tan = y =
2

tan = x = 1
3

 

1 1
1 1
Vy h phng trnh cho c nghim l: (x; y; z) =
; ; 1 , ; ; 1 2
3 2
3 2

ab(a + b) = 6
Bi 26: Gii h phng trnh (XXV I) bc(b + c) = 30

ac(a + c) = 12
Gii
R rng a, b, c khng th bng 0. t S = a + b + c, P = abc h phng trnh tr thnh

PS
P

c=

(S

c)
=
6

P +6
c

PS
P
(S a) = 30 a =

P + 30
a

(S b) = 12
b = P S
b
P + 12


P
P
P
Nh vy S = S
+
+
P + 6 P + 12 P + 30
Nu S = 0 th a + b = c, khi phng trnh u tin tr thnh abc = 6 v hai pt cn li l
abc = 30 v abc = 12 iu ny khng th xy ra.
P
P
P
Do
+
+
=1
P + 6 P + 12 P + 30
Bin i v thu gn ta c P 3 + 24P 2 1080 = 0 (P 6)(P 2 + 30P + 180) = 0
S
S
S3
S
=6S=6
Vi P = 6 ta c a = , b = , c = ab(a + b) =
6
3
2
36
Vy (a, b, c) = (1, 2, 3)

Vi P 2 + 30P + 180 = 0 P = 15 + 3 5; P = 15 3 5

Xt P = 15+ 3 5
ta c

53
5+5
15 + 3 5
15 + 3 5
15 + 3 5
S=
S = 5S; c =
S=
a=
S; b =
S
2
2
15 + 3 5
3 + 3 r
5
9 + 3 5

36
suy ra ab(a + b) = 6 5S 3 = 6 S = 6
5
r
r
r !
3 5 6 36 6 36 5 + 5 6 36
Vy (a, b, c) =
, 5
,
2
5
5
2
5
r
r
r !

3 + 5 6 36 6 36 5 5 6 36
Tng t vi P = 15 3 5 ta tm c (a, b, c) =
, 5
,
2
2
5
5
2
5

3
2
2

2x = 2y(x + 1) (z + 1) (1)
Bi 27: Gii h phng trnh 2y 4 = 3z(y 2 + 1) 2(x2 + 1) (2)

2z 5 = 4x(z 2 + 1) 3(y 2 + 1) (3)


Gii
18

Xy 6 trng hp:
>1/ Nu y x z:
T (1) ta c:
0 = 2y(x2 + 1) (z 2 + 1) 2x3
0 2x(x2 + 1) (z 2 + 1) 2x3
0 2x(x2 + 1) (x2 + 1) 2x3 (x 1)2 0
T suy ra x = y = z = 1
>2/ Nu y z x :
2x3 + z 2 + 1 2x3 + z 2 + 1 ()
T (1) ta c 2x3 + z 2 + 1 = 2y(x2 + 1) = 2yx2 + 2y
Li c:

2
3

2yx + 2y 2x + 2y
2x3 + z 2 + 1 2x3 + z 2 + 1
2yx2 + 2y 2x3 + 2z

2yx2 + 2y 2x3 + z 2 + 1
Kt hp () suy ra x = z, ngha l x = y = z = 1.
>3/ Nu z y x :
T (2) ta c
0 = 3z(y 2 + 1) 2y 4 2(x2 + 1)
0 3y(y 2 + 1) 2y 4 2(x2 + 1)
0 3z(y 2 + 1) 2y 4 2(y 2 + 1) = (2y 2 + y + 2)(y 1)2
T suy ra x = y = z = 1
>4/ Nu z x y:
T (2) ta c0 = 8[3z(y 2 + 1) 2y 4 2(x2 + 1)]
0 8[3x(y 2 + 1) 2y 4 2(x2 + 1)] = (3y 2 + 1 4x)2 16(y x) (7(y + 1)2 + 8)(y 1)2
T suy ra y = 1 x = y = z = 1
>5/ Nu x y z:
T (3) ta c
0 = 4x(z 2 + 1) 3(y 2 + 1) 2z 5
0 4y(z 2 + 1) 3(y 2 + 1) 2z 5
3
7
0 (2z 3 + 4z 2 + 2z + 3)(z 1)2 (z y)[(2z ) + ]
2
4
Do y = z x = y = z = 1
> 6/ Nu x z y:
T (3) ta c
0 = 4x(z 2 + 1) 3(y 2 + 1) 2z 5
0 4z(z 2 + 1) 3(y 2 + 1) 2z 5
0 4x(z 2 + 1) 3(z 2 + 1) 2z 5
0 (2z 3 + 4z 2 + 2z + 3)(z 1)2
T c x = y = z = 1.
Tm li h c nghim duy nht (x; y; z) = (1; 1; 1) 2.

19

III. BI TP T LUYN:

x = 3z 3 + 2z 2

Bi 1:. Gii h phng trnh: y = 3x3 + 2x2

z = 3y 3 + 2y 2
( x
2 2 = 3y 3x
Bi 2: Gii h phng trnh:
( OLP 30-4-2008 T130)
2y 2 = 3x 3y

x3 9(y 2 3y + 3) = 0

Bi 3: Gii h phng trnh: y 3 9(z 2 3z + 3) = 0 (OLP 30-4-2010)

z 3 9(x2 3x + 3) = 0

a1 4a2 + 3a3 0

a 4a3 + 3a4 0

2
.
Bi 4: Cho 100 s a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., a100 tha mn: ...........................

a99 4a100 + 3a1 0

a 4a + 3a 0
100
1
2
Tnh cc s a2 , a3 , ..., a100 bit
a1 = 1
3x y

= x2

3y

3y z
Bi 5: Gii h phng trnh:
= y 2 (THTT 12-2010).

3z

3z x

= z2
z

3x

4x2

y
=

4x2 + 1

4y 2
Bi 6: Gii h phng trnh: z = 2

4y + 1

x = 4z
4z 2 + 1

20