PARASITE

COMMON NAME COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL PREVENTION AND CONTROL

PARASITE

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PARASITE

COMMON NAME Broad/Fish tapeworm

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL -Proper cooking of fish -freezing the fish 24-48 hrs @ -18oC (w/c kill the plerocercoid) -proper disposal of human feces -proper disposal of sewage

Diphyllobothrium latum

Diphyllobothriasis, bothriocephaliasis , dibothriocephalus anemia, fish tapeworm infection

-longest tapeworm -3-10 meters -3,000-4,000 proglottids -scolex: small, 2-4 mm by 10-12 mm, saptulate/almond shaped w/ 2 dorsoventral sucking grooves -mature proglottids: broader than long (latum) filled w/ reproductive organs -male organs: muscular cirrus -female organs: bilobes (2) ovary -gravid segment: rosette like/highly coiled uterus -1 million eggs/day

-broadly ovoid -w/ inconspicuous operculum -thick-shelled -light goldenyellow -w/ knob on the shell at the bottom -58-76 microns -contains immature embryo when discharge in the feces

Definitive host: Human Two Intermediate Hosts: 1st freshwater copepods (Genera cyclopes & diaptomus) 2nd pike, salmon, whitefish, turbot Precercoid larva: elongated, glistening, chalky white, spindle shaped -Adult in small intestine (ileum/jejunum)

-no symptom is present -pernicious anemia Bothriocephalus anemia -jejunal impairment (bet. Intrinsic and extrinsic factor of castle) -Vitamin B12 deficiency -macrocytic anemia

Stool examination

Praziquantel Niclosamide Quanacrine

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL -drinking boiled/filtered water -thorough cooking of possible intermediate hosts -avoid using flesh as cold poultice

Sparganum mansoni/Spirometra mansoni

Sparganosis

-no scolex & definite proglottids -elongated, ivory white, ribbon-like larva -pilling of uterus coils

-ellipsoidal & possess a rounded, conical operculum

-same as D. latum Habitat: skin & subcutaneous tissues. Conjunctiva, vagina, & internal vital organs Definitive Hosts: dogs, cats & wild carnivores Intermediate Hosts: 1st Cyclops 2nd rodents, snakes & frogs Infective stage: procercoid larvae (Cyclops)/plerocercoid larvae itself

Taenia solium

Pork tapeworm

Pork tapeworm infection/Taeniasi s solium

-2-7 meters -800-1,000 segments -scolex: (1mm) globular w/ 4 cup-like suckers, w/ conspicuous rostellum, armed w/ double rows of large & small hooklets (2025 in nos.) -short neck -mature proglottids: roughly square w/ irregularly alternate genital pores -testes: 150-200 follicles -ovary: symmetrical bilobes & an accessory lobe

-spherical -31-43 microns -pale buff to walnut brown in color -has 2 straited egg shell -outer shell: thin & rarely seen -inner shell: thick, brown & striated, oncosphere is located w/ hooklets

-edematous tissue & very painful to touch -ocular sparganosis – intense pain, irritation & edematous swelling of the eyelids -elephantiasis – lymph -acniform pustules – subcutaneous tissues -pulmonary artery infection -Adult in small intestine -intestine (upper part of the irritation jejunum) -abdominal -more than one worm discomfort maybe harbored -chronic -25 years lifetime indigestion -hexacanth embryo -diarrhea escapes from its shell Infective meat: “measly pork” Cysticercus cellulosae: larval stage of T. solium, ellipsoidal, translucent, thin wall bladder worm (5mm by 8-10mm) w/ opaque, invaginated scolex

-Lesion (for -Surgical identificatio removal n of white -Praziquantel larva) experimanta l infection of animals

-Stool examination -Scotch tape & anal swab -Slide compressio n technique

Praziquantel Niclosamide Quanacrine Criteria: -recovery of the scolex -negative stool examination 3 mos after treatment

-properly cooked of meat (gray in color) -Frozen @ -20oC for 10 days -Good sanitation

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

-gravid segment: contains uterus (5-14 branches) & 30,000-50,000 eggs, detached from the sterobila in 5 or 6 in chain Cyticercus cellulosae Larval stage of T. solium Human may acquire the cysts from the eggs in 3 ways: -ingestion -oral transmission -internal autoinfection (by reverse peristalsis) -cysticerci lodge in vital organs (brain, eyes, spinal cord, heart & liver) Brain: -hydrocephalus -meningitis -cranial nerve damage -hydroactive reflexes -visual defects Cerebral cysticercosis convulsions -Computed axial tomography (CAT) -nuclear Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) CAT: 1.round-low density are w/o enhanceme nt – viable larvae w/o inflammatio n 2.ring-like enhanceme nt – dead larva 3. small calcified area – dead scolex CAT MRI Praziquantel Albendazole Steroids Surgery -treatment of human cases harboring the adult -proper disposal of human feces

Taenia saginata

Beef tapeworm

Taeniasis saginata/ Beef tapeworm

-5-10 m (25m) -1,000-2,000 segments -scolex: (2m) quadrate in

-same as T. solium, Multiceps & Echinococcus

-same as T. solium -diarrhea -Adult in small intestine -hunger pains (head in the mucusa) -loss of weight

Praziquantel

-Education regarding cooking of beef

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL -Proper disposal of human feces

infection

Diphylidium caninum

Double-pored tapeworm/Dog tapeworm

Diphylidiasis Dog tapeworm Infection

shape & bears 4 prominent suckers -no rostellum and hooklets -mature proglottid: broad, irregularly alternate genital pores Testes: 330-400 follicles -gravid proglottid: testes and ovary have atrophied, w/ uterus 15-20 uterine branches (18 average), contain 97,000-124,000 eggs -dog & cat tapeworms -consists of a chain of elliptical proglotids -10-70 cm -60-175 proglottoids -scolex: small, rhomboidal w/ 4 prominent deeply cupped suckers & refractile conical rostellum armed w/ 1-7 circlets of rose-thorn shaped spines -short & slender neck -immature proglottid: first broader than long & later squarish in outline -mature & gravid segments: pumpkinseed shape/vase shaped, provided w/ double set of rep. organs w/ the genital pores

Intermediate Hosts: Cattle, other herbivores: Camels, goats, carabaos -cysticercus larvae -unarmed scolex Definitive Host: Man

-discomfort & embarrassment occasioned by the crawling of the proglottids from the anus

-spherical, thinshelled & hyaline except for a brick red tinge -25-40 microns w/ delicate hooklets -by contraction/disint egration of the proglottids, eggs & egg capsules expelled

-Adult in small intestine Occational host: Human -larval stage ingested by dog flea (Ctenophalides canis), cat flea (C. feles), human flea (Pulex irritans) – Ectoparasites of dog & cat acts as Intemediate hosts Other IH: Dog louse (Trichodectes canis) -eggs hatch & freed oncosphere migration -infected flea ingested by a definitive host

-intestinal disturbance -loss of appetite -pruritus ani -diarrhea

-recovery characteristi c of eggs in capsule/pro glottids -Stool Examination

Praziquantel Niclosamide Quanacrine

-dogs & cats should be dewormed -do not allowed the dogs/cats to lick the mouths of children -pets should be treated to eradicate fleas

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

Hymenolepis nana

Dwarf tapeworm

Hymenolepiasis nana

-gravid proglottid: filled w/ membranous egg capsules of mother pockets (8-15 eggs) -2-4cm -96-840 segments -scolex: small w/ 4 suckers & bears a short, refractile rostellum armed w/ a single ring of 20-30 Yshaped spines -mature segments: broad, single genital pore in the side Teste: 3 round Ovary: bilobed -gravid segment: filled w/ eggs, testes disappears, uterus hollow out-sac like & filled w/ eggs

-spherical 30-47 microns -oncosphere: enclosed in an inner membrane w/ bipolar thickenings from w/c 4-8 polar filaments arises - w/ 3 pairs of lancet-shaped hooklets (6)

Definitive hosts: Humans, mice & rats _does not require IH Intermediate hosts: (Murine strains) C. canis, P. irritans, X. cheopis, Tenebrio molitor, T. confusum Direct Cycle: gravid proglottids ruptures infection setting free the eggs -eggs penetrates into the villi of the s.intestine Indirect Cycle: murine strains like H. nana var fraternal. Uses fleas & beetles as intermediate hosts Internal autoinfection: eggs hatched in the intestinal tract -heavy infection -Humans: accidental host -adult in small intestine Principal Intermediate Host: larval stages of fleas (CPX) &

-diarrhea -abdominal pain -headache -anorexia -dizziness -other vague complaints

Stool examination

Praziquzntel Niclosamide (as alternative)

-Treatment of cases -improved sanitation -proper personal hygiene

Hymenolepis diminuta

Rat tapeworm

Hymenolepiasis diminuta

-10-60 cm -800-1,300 proglottids -scolex: small, clubshaped w/ 4 cup-shaped suckers & rudimentary unarmed rostellum

-sub-spherical -slightly yellowish faintly -radially striated transparent outer membrane

No autoinfection

Stool examination

Niclosamide Praziquantel as alternative

-Rodent control in are where grain products are produced -Thorough inspection of

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL uncooked grain products

-mature segment: has 3 ovoidal testes & an ovary -Gravid segment: contains saccular uterus filled w/ eggs

Raillietina garrisoni

Echinococcus granulosus

Hydatid worm

Unilocular echinococcosis/ hydatid disease

-60 cm -scolex: minute, subglobular w/ 4 cup-like suckers surrounded y very minute comma-shaped spines, armed rostellum w/ 2 circular rows of 90140 hammer-shaped hooks – surrounde by collar of spines -mature segments: bilobed ovary, 36-50 ovoid testes -gravid segments: divided into numerous egg capsules 1-4 eggs (rice grain-shaped, glistening white, opaque & motile) -smallest tapeworm -sub-spherical -.25-.9 cm -radially striated -scolex: pyriform w/ 4 egg shell

-60-79 microns by 72-86 microns -inner membrane: w/ oncosphere has 2 polar thickening but w/o polar filaments “Fried Egg” appearance – intralaminar layer -hooklets: 6 lanceolate (fanlike pattern) -spindle-shaped inside the capsules -oncosphere: w/ 6 hooklets surrounded by 2 thin membrane -outer membrane is elongated -inner membrane is spherical

mealworms of flour beetles (T&T) Arthropods

-Adult in small intestine -single infection Intermediate host: Insects Definitive hosts: Rats & Man

-Stool examination (based on the recovery of gravid segment)

Niclosamide Praziquantel

-Destruction of rats & mice (Prophylactic measures) -Proper disposal of human feces -Protection of food from being contaminated w/ flour beetles

-Adult in small intestine -symptoms Definitive host: Dogs, usually appear jackals, wolves & other 50-20 years

-Aspiration Radiological

-Surgical Education procedure regarding the Mebendazole transmission of

PARASITE

COMMON NAME

DISEASE

ADULT

EGGS/OVA

LIFE CYCLE

PATHOLOGY

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

PREVENTION AND CONTROL infection & the role of canine in the life cycle

suckers & a rostellum armed w/ 28-50 hooklets -immature segment: longest and broadest -mature segment: narrowest -gravid segment: uterus resembles a loosely twisted coil -5-29 mos life span

-similar to Taenia eggs

Echinococcus multilocularis

Hydatid worm

Multilocularis echinococcosis/ hydatid disease

Same as E. granulosus

Same as E. granulosus

canines Intermediate hosts: Sheep, goats, camels, hogs or man Infective stage: hydatid cyst Hydatid cyst: slowgrowing, tumor-like space, encloses by a laminated germinitative membrane -brood capsule – tapeworm scolices arise -hydatid sand: brood capsule & daughter cysts disintegrate w/n the mother cyst, liberating the accumulated protoscolices -1-7 cm (20cm) -contains 2 liters of fluid Same as E. granulosus but the cysts are multilocular ( many chambers)

after -mechanical/ toxic -casseous hydatid cyst – bone canal -cyst tumor-like (severe damage) – brain -allergic reaction – spillage of fluid

examination -Scanning Procedure -Ultrasound techniques -Serological – ELISA, CFT & Casoni intradermal test

Albendazole

Same as E. granulosus

Same as E. granulosus

-Albendazole (High dosage) -Surgical removal of cysts

-Rodent control

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