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1 LINEAR MOTION

**Physical Definition, Quantity, Symbol and unit
**

Quantity

Distance is the total path length traveled from one

Distance, l location to another.

Quantity: scalar SI unit: meter (m)

**(a) The distance in a specified direction.
**

(b)the distance between two locations measured along

Displacement, the shortest path connecting them in a specific

l direction.

(c) The distance of its final position from its initial

position in a specified direction.

Quantity: vector SI unit: meter (m)

**Speed is the rate of change of distance
**

Speed,v

Speed = Distance traveled

Time taken

Quantity: scalar SI unit: m s-1

**Velocity is the rate of change of displacement.
**

Velocity, v

Velocity = Displacement

Time taken

**Direction of velocity is the direction of displacement
**

Quantity : Vector SI unit: m s-1

**Average v = Total distant traveled, s Example: A car moves at
**

speed Total time taken , t an average speed /

velocity of 20 ms-1

On average, the car moves

Average v = Displacement, s a distance / displacement

velocity Time taken, t of 20 m in 1 second for the

whole journey.

1

Uniform Speed that remains the same in magnitude regardless of

speed its direction.

**Uniform Velocity that remains the same in magnitude and
**

velocity direction.

**An object has (a) the direction of motion changes or the motion is
**

a non-uniform not linear.

velocity if: (b)The magnitude of its velocity changes.

**Acceleration, When the velocity of an object changes, the object is
**

a said to be accelerating.

**v−u Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of
**

a= velocity.

t

Acceleration = Change in velocity

unit : ms-2

Time taken

**= final velocity, v – initial velocity, u
**

Time taken, t

acceleration

is positive • The velocity of an object increases from an initial

velocity, u, to a higher final velocity, v

Deceleration The rate of decrease in speed in a specified direction.

**acceleration The velocity of an object decreases from an initial
**

is negative. velocity, u, to a lower final velocity, v.

**Zero An object moving at a constants velocity, that is, the
**

acceleration magnitude and direction of its velocity remain

unchanged – is not accelerating

Constant Velocity increases at a uniform rate.

acceleration When a car moves at a constant or uniform acceleration

of 5 ms-2, its velocity increases by 5 ms-1 for every

second that the car is in motion.

2

1. Constant = uniform

2. increasing velocity = acceleration

3. decreasing velocity = deceleration

4. zero velocity = object at stationary / at rest

5. negative velocity = object moves at opposite

direction

6. zero acceleration = constant velocity

7. negative acceleration = deceleration

**Comparisons between distance Comparisons between speed and
**

and displacement. velocity

**Distance Displacement Speed Velocity
**

Total path length The distance The rate of change The rate of change

traveled from between two of distance of displacement

one location to locations Scalar quantity Vector quantity

another measured along

the shortest path It has magnitude It has both

connecting them but no direction magnitude and

in specific direction

direction SI unit : m s-1 SI unit : m s-1

Scalar quantity Vector quantity

**It has magnitude It has both
**

but no direction magnitude and

direction

SI unit meter SI unit : meter

**Fill in the blanks:
**

1. A steady speed of 10 m/s = A distance of .. ……….is traveled

every ………..

2. A steady velocity of -10 m/s = A …………. Of 10 m is traveled every

………..to the left.

3. A steady acceleration of 4 ms-2 = Speed goes up by 4 m/s every

……….

4. A steady deceleration of 4 ms-2 = speed goes ……….. by 4 m/s

every ……….

5. A steady velocity of 10 m/s = ……………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

3

Example 1 Example 2

Every day Rahim walks from his Every morning Amirul walks to

house to the junction which is 1.5 Ahmad’s house which is situated

km from his house. Then he turns 80 m to the east of Amirul’s house.

back and stops at warung Pak Din They then walk towards their

which is 0.5 km from his house. school which is 60 m to the south

of Ahmad’s house.

(a) What is the distance traveled

by Amirul and his

displacement from his

house?

**(b)If the total time taken by
**

Amirul to travel from his

house to Ahmad’s house and

then to school is 15 minutes,

(a) What is Rahim’s displacement what is his speed and

from his house velocity?

• when he reaches the junction.

**• When he is at warung Pak
**

Din.

**(b)After breakfast, Rahim walks
**

back to his house. When he

reaches home,

(i) what is the total distance

traveled by Rahim?

**(ii) what is Rahim’s total
**

displacement from his

house?

Example 3

Syafiq running in a race covers 60 m in 12 s.

(a) What is his speed in m/s

(b) If he takes 40 s to complete the race, what is his distance covered?

4

Example 4

An aeroplane flys towards the

north with a velocity 300 km/hr in

one hour. Then, the plane

moves to the east with the

velocity 400 km / hr in one hour.

**(a) What is the average speed
**

of the plane?

(b)What is the average

velocity of the plane?

(c) What is the difference

between average speed and

average velocity of the

plane?

Example 5

The speedometer reading for a

car traveling north shows 80

km/hr. Another car traveling at

80 km/hr towards south. Is the

speed of both cars same? Is the

velocity of both cars same?

A ticker timer

**¾ Use: 12 V a.c power supply
**

¾ 1 tick = time interval between two dots.

¾ The time taken to make 50 ticks on the ticker tape is 1 second.

Hence, the time interval between 2 consecutive dots is 1/50 = 0.02 s.

¾ 1 tick = 0.02 s

5

Relating displacement, velocity, acceleration and time using ticker tape.

FORMULA

VELOCITY Time, t = 10 dots x 0.02 s

= 0.2 s

displacement, s = x cm

velocity = s = x cm

t 0.2 s

**ACCELERATION Initial velocity,
**

u = x1

0.2

final velocity,

v = x2

0.2

elapse time, t = (5 – 1) x 0.2 s = 0.8 s acceleration,

or t = (50 – 10) ticks x 0.02 s = 0.8 s a=v–u

t

**TICKER TAPE AND TYPE OF MOTION
**

CHARTS

Constant velocity

– slow moving

Constant velocity

– fast moving

**¾ Distance between the dots
**

increases uniformly

¾ the velocity is of the object is

increasing uniformly

¾ The object is moving at a

uniform / constant

acceleration.

6

¾ Distance between the dots

decrease uniformly

¾ The velocity of the object is

decreasing uniformly

¾ The object is experiencing

uniform / constant

deceleration

Example 6

The diagram above shows a ticker tape

chart for a moving trolley. The frequency

of the ticker-timer used is 50 Hz. Each

section has 10 dots-spacing.

(a) What is the time between two dots.

(b) What is the time for one strips.

(c) What is the initial velocity

(d) What is the final velocity.

(e) What is the time interval to change

from initial velocity to final velocity?

(f) What is the acceleration of the

object.

THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

u = initial velocity

v = final velocity

t = time taken

s = displacement

a = constant accleration

7

2.2 MOTION GRAPHS

**DISPLACEMENT – TIME Velocity is obtained from the gradient of
**

GRAPH the graph.

**A – B : gradient of the graph is +ve and
**

constant ∴ velocity is constant.

B – C : gradient of the graph = 0 ∴ the

velocity = 0, object at rest.

C – D : gradient of the graph –ve and

constant. The velocity is negative and

object moves in the opposite direction.

**VELOCITY-TIME GRAPH Area below Distance / displacement
**

graph

Positive Constant Acceleration

gradient (A – B)

Negative Constant Deceleration

gradient (C – D)

Zero Constant velocity / zero

gradient acceleration

(B – C)

**GRAPH s versus t v versus t a versus t
**

Zero

velocity

Negative

velocity

Constant

velocity

8

GRAPH s versus t v versus t a versus t

Constant

acceleration

Constant

deceleration

Example 6 Example 7

Contoh 11

**Based on the s – t graph above:
**

(a) Calculate the velocity at (a) Calculate the acceleration at:

(i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD (i) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM

**(b) Describe the motion of the object at:
**

(i) AB (ii) BC (iii) CD

(b) Describe the motion of the object at:

(i) JK (ii) KL (iii) LM

(c)Find:

(i) total distance

**(ii) total displacement Calculate the total displacement.
**

(d) Calculate

(i) the average speed

(c) Calculate the average velocity.

(ii) the average velocity of the

moving particle.

9

2.3 INERTIA

**Inertia The inertia of an object is the tendency of the
**

object to remain at rest or, if moving, to continue

its motion.

**Newton’s first law Every object continues in its state of rest or of
**

uniform motion unless it is acted upon by an

external force.

Relation between The larger the mass, the larger the inertia

inertia and mass

SITUATIONS INVOLVING INERTIA

SITUATION EXPLAINATION

When the cardboard is pulled away quickly, the

coin drops straight into the glass.

The inertia of the coin maintains its state at rest.

The coin falls into the glass due to gravity.

**Chili sauce in the bottle can be easily poured out if
**

the bottle is moved down fast with a sudden stop.

The sauce inside the bottle moves together with

the bottle. When the bottle stops suddenly, the

sauce continue in its state of motion due to the

effect of its inertia.

**Body moves forward when the car stops suddenly
**

The passengers were in a state of motion when the

car was moving. When the car stopped suddenly,

the inertia in the passengers made them maintain

their state of motion. Thus when the car stop, the

passengers moved forward.

**A boy runs away from a cow in a zig zag motion.
**

The cow has a large inertia making it difficult to

change direction.

10

• The head of hammer is secured tightly to its

handle by knocking one end of the handle, held

vertically, on a hard surface.

• This causes the hammer head to continue on its

downward motion when the handle has been

stopped, so that the top end of the handle is

slotted deeper into the hammer head.

**• The drop of water on a wet umbrella will fall
**

when the boy rotates the umbrella.

• This is because the drop of water on the surface

of the umbrella moves simultaneously as the

umbrella is rotated.

• When the umbrella stops rotating, the inertia of

the drop of water will continue to maintain its

motion.

Ways to reduce 1. Safety in a car:

the negative (a) Safety belt secure the driver to their seats.

effects of inertia When the car stops suddenly, the seat belt

provides the external force that prevents the

driver from being thrown forward.

(b)Headrest to prevent injuries to the neck

during rear-end collisions. The inertia of the

head tends to keep in its state of rest when

the body is moved suddenly.

(c) An air bag is fitted inside the steering wheel.

It provides a cushion to prevent the driver

from hitting the steering wheel or dashboard

during a collision.

2. Furniture carried by a lorry normally are tied up

together by string. When the lorry starts to

move suddenly, the furniture are more difficult

to fall off due to their inertia because their

combined mass has increased.

Relationship • Two empty buckets which are hung with rope

between mass from a the ceiling.

and inertia • One bucket is filled with sand while the other

bucket is empty.

• Then, both pails are pushed.

• It is found that the empty bucket is easier to

11

push compared to the bucket with sand.

• The bucket filled with sand offers more

resistance to movement.

• When both buckets are oscillating and an

attempt is made to stop them, the bucket filled

with sand offers more resistance to the hand

(more difficult to bring to a standstill once it has

started moving)

• This shows that the heavier bucket offers a

greater resistance to change from its state of

rest or from its state of motion.

• An object with a larger mass has a larger inertia.

2.4 MOMENTUM

**Definition Momentum = Mass x velocity = mv
**

SI unit: kg ms-1

**Principle of In the absence of an external force, the total
**

Conservation of momentum of a system remains unchanged.

Momentum

Elastic Collision Inelastic collision

** Both objects move The two objects combine and
**

independently at their move together with a

respective velocities after the common velocity after the

collision. collision.

Momentum is conserved. Momentum is conserved.

Kinetic energy is conserved. Kinetic energy is not

Total energy is conserved. conserved.

Total energy is conserved.

12

Total Momentum Before = total Total Momentum Before = Total

momentum After Momentum After

m1u1 + m2u2 = m1v1 + m2v2 m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2) v

Explosion

Before explosion both object stick

together and at rest. After collision,

both object move at opposite direction.

**Total Momentum Total Momentum
**

before collision after collision :

Is zero m1v1 + m2v2

From the law of conservation of

momentum:

Total Momentum = Total Momentum

Before collision after collision

0 = m1v1 + m2v2

m1v1 = - m2v2

**-ve sign means opposite direction
**

EXAMPLES OF EXPLOSION (Principle Of Conservation Of Momentum)

¾ When a rifle is fired, the bullet of mass m,

moves with a high velocity, v. This creates

a momentum in the forward direction.

¾ From the principle of conservation of

momentum, an equal but opposite

momentum is produced to recoil the riffle

backward.

**Application in the jet engine:
**

A high-speed hot gases are ejected from the

back with high momentum.

This produces an equal and opposite

momentum to propel the jet plane forward.

13

The launching of rocket

¾ Mixture of hydrogen and oxygen fuels burn

explosively in the combustion chamber.

Jets of hot gases are expelled at very high

speed through the exhaust.

¾ These high speed hot gases produce a large

amount of momentum downward.

¾ By conservation of momentum, an equal but

opposite momentum is produced and acted

on the rocket, propelling the rocket

upwards.

In a swamp area, a fan boat is used.

¾ The fan produces a high speed movement of

air backward. This produces a large

momentum backward.

¾ By conservation of momentum, an equal but

opposite momentum is produced and acted

on the boat. So the boat will move forward.

**A squid propels by expelling water at high
**

velocity. Water enters through a large opening

and exits through a small tube. The water is

forced out at a high speed backward.

Total Mom. before= Total Mom. after

0 =Mom water + Mom squid

0 = mwvw + msvs

-mwvw = msvs

The magnitude of the momentum of water and

squid are equal but opposite direction.

This causes the squid to jet forward.

14

Example Example

**Car A of mass 1000 kg moving at
**

20 ms-1 collides with a car B of mass

1200 kg moving at 10 m s-1 in same

direction. If the car B is shunted

forwards at 15 m s-1 by the impact, Before collision After collision

what is the velocity, v, of the car A MA = 4 kg MB = 2 kg

immediately after the crash? UA = 10 m/s to the left

UB = 8 m/s to the right

VB = 4 m/s to the left.

Calculate the value of VA .

Example Example

**A man fires a pistol which has a
**

A truck of mass 1200 kg moving at

mass of 1.5 kg. If the mass of the

30 m/s collides with a car of mass

bullet is 10 g and it reaches a

1000 kg which is traveling in the

velocity of 300 m/s after shooting,

opposite direction at 20 m/s. After

what is the recoil velocity of the

the collision, the two vehicles move

pistol?

together. What is the velocity of

both vehicles immediately after

collision?

15

2.5 FORCE

**Balanced Force Example:
**

When the forces acting on

an object are balanced, they

cancel each other out.

The net force is zero.

Effect :

the object at is at rest [

velocity = 0]

or moves at constant

velocity [ a = 0]

Weight, W = Lift, U Thrust, F = drag, G

**Unbalanced Force/ When the forces acting on an object are not
**

Resultant Force balanced, there must be a net force acting

on it.

The net force is known as the unbalanced

force or the resultant force.

**Effect : Can cause a body to
**

- change it state at rest (an object will

accelerate

- change it state of motion (a moving

object will decelerate or change its

direction)

**Force, Mass & Acceleration
**

Newton’s Second The acceleration produced by a force on an object

Law of Motion is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net

force applied and is inversely proportional to the

mass of the object. The direction of the

acceleration is the same as that of the net force.

**Force = Mass x Acceleration
**

When a net force, F, acts F = ma

on a mass, m it causes

an acceleration, a.

16

Relationship aαF

between a & F The acceleration, a, is directly

proportional to the applied force, F.

Relationship a∝

1

between a and m

m The acceleration of an object is

inversely proportional to the mass,

Experiment to Find The Relationship between Force, Mass & Acceleration

**Relationship a&F a&m
**

between

Situation

**Both men are pushing the Both men exerted the same
**

same mass but man A strength. But man B moves

puts greater effort. So he faster than man A.

moves faster.

Inference The acceleration The acceleration produced

produced by an object by an object depends on

depends on the net force the mass

applied to it.

**Hypothesis The acceleration of the The acceleration of the
**

object increases when object decreases when the

the force applied mass of the object

increases increases

Variables:

Manipulated : Force Mass

Responding : Acceleration Acceleration

Constant : Mass Force

**Apparatus Ticker tape and elastic cords, ticker timer, trolleys,
**

and Material power supply and friction compensated runway and

meter ruler.

17

Procedure : An elastic cord is hooked An elastic cord is hooked

- Controlling over the trolley. The over a trolley. The elastic

manipulated elastic cord is stretched cord is stretched until the

variables. until the end of the end of the trolley. The

trolley. The trolley is trolley is pulled down the

pulled down the runway runway with the elastic

with the elastic cord cord being kept stretched

being kept stretched by by the same amount of

the same amount of force force

**- Controlling Determine the Determine the acceleration
**

responding acceleration by analyzing by analyzing the ticker

variables. the ticker tape. tape.

v−u v−u

Acceleration a = Acceleration a =

t t

**Repeat the experiment by Repeat the experiment by
**

- Repeating using two , three, four using two, three, four and

experiment. and five elastic cords five trolleys.

Recording

data

Analysing

data

18

1. What force is required to move a 2. Ali applies a force of 50 N to

2 kg object with an acceleration move a 10 kg table at a constant

of 3 m s-2, if velocity. What is the frictional

(a) the object is on a smooth force acting on the table?

surface?

(b) The object is on a surface where

the average force of friction

acting on the object is 2 N?

**3. A car of mass 1200 kg traveling 4. Which of the following systems
**

at 20 m/s is brought to rest over a will produce maximum

distance of 30 m. Find acceleration?

(a) the average deceleration,

(b) the average braking force.

2.6 IMPULSE AND IMPULSIVE FORCE

**Impulse The change of momentum m = mass
**

mv - mu u = initial

Unit : kgms-1 or Ns velocity

Impulsive The rate of change of momentum in a v = final

Force collision or explosion velocity

t = time

Unit = N

Effect of Impulsive force Longer period of time →Impulsive

time is inversely force decrease

proportional to Shorter period of time →Impulsive

time of contact force increase

19

Situations for Reducing Impulsive Force in Sports

Situations Explanation

Thick mattress with soft surfaces are used in

events such as high jump so that the time

interval of impact on landing is extended, thus

reducing the impulsive force. This can prevent

injuries to the participants.

**Goal keepers will wear gloves to increase the
**

collision time. This will reduce the impulsive

force.

**A high jumper will bend his legs upon landing.
**

This is to increase the time of impact in order to

reduce the impulsive force acting on his legs.

This will reduce the chance of getting serious

injury.

A baseball player must catch the ball in the

direction of the motion of the ball. Moving his

hand backwards when catching the ball

prolongs the time for the momentum to change

so as to reduce the impulsive force.

**Situation of Increasing Impulsive Force
**

Situations Explanation

A karate expert can break a thick wooden slab

with his bare hand that moves at a very fast

speed. The short impact time results in a large

impulsive force on the wooden slab.

**A massive hammer head moving at a fast
**

speed is brought to rest upon hitting the nail.

The large change in momentum within a short

time interval produces a large impulsive force

which drives the nail into the wood.

20

A football must have enough air pressure in it

so the contact time is short. The impulsive

force acted on the ball will be bigger and the

ball will move faster and further.

**Pestle and mortar are made of stone. When a
**

pestle is used to pound chilies the hard

surfaces of both the pestle and mortar cause

the pestle to be stopped in a very short time. A

large impulsive force is resulted and thus

causes these spices to be crushed easily.

Example 1

A 60 kg resident jumps from the first

floor of a burning house. His

velocity just before landing on the

ground is 6 ms-1.

(a) Calculate the impulse when his

legs hit the ground.

(b) What is the impulsive force on

the resident’s legs if he bends

upon landing and takes 0.5 s to

stop?

(c) What is the impulsive force on

the resident’s legs if he does not

bend and stops in 0.05 s?

(d) What is the advantage of bending

his legs upon landing?

Example 2

Rooney kicks a ball with a force of

1500 N. The time of contact of his

boot with the ball is 0.01 s. What is

the impulse delivered to the ball? If

the mass of the ball is 0.5 kg, what is

the velocity of the ball?

21

2.7 SAFETY VEHICLE

Component Function

Headrest To reduce the inertia effect of the driver’s head.

Air bag Absorbing impact by increasing the amount of time the

driver’s head to come to the steering. So that the

impulsive force can be reduce

Windscreen The protect the driver

Crumple Can be compressed during accident. So it can increase

zone the amount of time the car takes to come to a complete

stop. So it can reduce the impulsive force.

Front Absorb the shock from the accident. Made from steel,

bumper aluminium, plastic or rubber.

ABS Enables drivers to quickly stop the car without causing

the brakes to lock.

Side impact Can be compressed during accident. So it can increase

bar the amount of time the car takes to come to a complete

stop. So it can reduce the impulsive force.

Seat belt To reduce the inertia effect by avoiding the driver from

thrown forward.

22

2.8 GRAVITY

**Gravitational Objects fall because they are pulled towards the Earth
**

Force by the force of gravity.

**This force is known as the pull of gravity or the earth’s
**

gravitational force.

**The earth’s gravitational force tends to pull everything
**

towards its centre.

**Free fall ¾ An object is falling freely when it is falling under the
**

force of gravity only.

¾ A piece of paper does not fall freely because its fall is

affected by air resistance.

¾ An object falls freely only in vacuum. The absence of

air means there is no air resistance to oppose the

motion of the object.

¾ In vacuum, both light and heavy objects fall freely.

They fall with the same acceleration ie. The

acceleration due to gravity, g.

Acceleration ¾ Objects dropped under the influence of the pull of

due to gravity with constant acceleration.

gravity, g ¾ This acceleration is known as the gravitational

acceleration, g.

¾ The standard value of the gravitational acceleration,

g is 9.81 m s-2. The value of g is often taken to be 10

m s-2 for simplicity.

¾ The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity

depends on the strength of the gravitational field.

**Gravitational The gravitational field is the region around the earth in
**

field which an object experiences a force towards the centre

of the earth. This force is the gravitational attraction

between the object and the earth.

**The gravitational field strength is defined as the
**

gravitational force which acts on a mass of 1 kilogram.

F

g= Its unit is N kg-1.

m

23

Gravitational field strength, g = 10 N kg-1

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 10 m s-2

**The approximate value of g can therefore be written
**

either as 10 m s-2 or as 10 N kg-1.

**Weight The gravitational force acting on the object.
**

Weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

W = mg SI unit : Newton, N and it is a vector quantity

**Comparison Mass Weight
**

between The mass of an object is The weight of an object is

weight & the amount of matter in the force of gravity acting

mass the object on the object.

Constant everywhere Varies with the magnitude

of gravitational field

strength, g of the location

A scalar quantity A vector quantity

A base quantity A derived quantity

SI unit: kg SI unit : Newton, N

The

difference

between a

fall in air and

a free fall in

a vacuum of

a coin and a

feather.

Both the

coin and the At vacuum state: At normal state:

feather are There is no air resistance. Both coin and feather will

released The coin and the feather fall because of gravitational

simulta- will fall freely. force.

neously from Only gravitational force Air resistance effected by

the same acted on the objects. the surface area of a fallen

height. Both will fall at the same object.

time. The feather that has large

area will have more air

resistance.

The coin will fall at first.

24

(a) The two sphere are (b)The two spheres are

falling with an falling down with the

acceleration. same acceleration

**The distance between The two spheres are at
**

two successive images the same level at all

of the sphere increases times. Thus, a heavy

Two steel showing that the two object and a light object

spheres are spheres are falling with fall with the same

falling under increasing velocity; gravitational

gravity. The falling with an acceleration.

two spheres acceleration.

are dropped Gravitational

at the same acceleration is

time from independent of mass.

the same

height.

**Motion graph for free fall object
**

Free fall object Object thrown upward Object thrown upward

and fall

Example 1

A coconut takes 2.0 s to fall to the

ground. What is

(a) its speed when it strikes the

ground

(b) the height of the coconut tree.

25

2.9 FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM

**Forces in When an object is in equilibrium, the resultant force acting
**

Equilibrium on it is zero.

The object will either be

1. at rest

2. move with constant velocity.

Newton’s

3rd Law

Examples( Label the forces acted on the objects)

**Resultant A single force that represents the combined effect of two of
**

Force more forces in magnitude and direction.

Addition of Forces

Resultant force, F = ____ + ____

Resultant force, F = ____ + ____

26

Two forces acting at a point at an angle [Parallelogram method]

**STEP 1 : Using ruler and protractor, STEP 3
**

draw the two forces F1 and F2 from a Draw the diagonal of the

point. parallelogram. The diagonal

represent the resultant force, F in

magnitude and direction.

STEP 2

Complete the parallelogram

scale: 1 cm = ……

**Resolution of A force F can be resolved into components
**

Forces which are perpendicular to each other:

(a) horizontal component , FX

(b) vertical component, FY

Inclined Plane

**Fx = F cos θ Component of weight parallel to the plane
**

= mg sin θ

Fy = F sin θ Component of weight normal to the plane

= mg cos θ

27

find the resultant force

(d) (e)

Lift

Stationary Lift Lift accelerate upward Lift accelerate

downward

Resultant Force = Resultant Force = Resultant Force =

**The reading of The reading of The reading of
**

weighing scale = weighing scale = weighing scale =

28

Pulley

1. Find the

resultant force, F

2. Find the

moving mass,m

3. Find the

acceleration,a

4. Find string

tension, T

29

2.10 WORK, ENERGY, POWER & EFFICIENCY

**Work Work done is the product of an applied force
**

and the displacement of an object in the

direction of the applied force

W = Fs W = work, F = force s = displacement

**The SI unit of work is the
**

joule, J 1 joule of work is done when a force of 1 N

moves an object 1 m in the direction of the

force

Calculation of Work

The displacement , s of the

The displacement, s of the object is in the object is not in the

direction of the force, F direction of the force, F

W = Fs s F

W = (F cos θ) s

W=Fs

Example 1 Example 2 Example 3

A boy pushing his bicycle A girl is lifting up a 3 kg A man is pulling a crate of fish

with a force of 25 N flower pot steadily to a along the floor with a force of

through a distance of 3 m. height of 0.4 m. 40 N through a distance of 6 m.

**Calculate the work done What is the work done in
**

by the boy. What is the work done by pulling the crate?

the girl?

30

No work is done when:

The object is stationary The direction of motion of No force is applied on the

the object is perpendicular object in the direction of

to that of the applied force. displacement (the object

moves because of its

own inertia)

A satellite orbiting in

space. There is no

friction in space. No

force is acting in the

A student carrying his bag A waiter is carrying a tray direction of movement of

while waiting at the bus of food and walking the satellite.

stop

**Concept Definition Formula & Unit
**

Power The rate at which work is W

done, or the amount of work P=

t

done per second. p = power, W = work /

energy t = time

Energy ¾ Energy is the capacity to do work.

¾ An object that can do work has energy

¾ Work is done because a force is applied and the

objects move. This is accompanied by the transfer

of energy from one object to another object.

¾ Therefore, when work is done, energy is transferred

from one object to another.

¾ The work done is equal to the amount of energy

transferred.

Potential m = mass

Energy Gravitational potential energy h = height

is the energy of an object due g = gravitational

to its higher position in the acceleration

gravitational field.

E = mgh

**Kinetic Kinetic energy is the energy of m = mass
**

Energy an object due to its motion. v = velocity

E = ½ mv2

31

Principle of Energy can be changed from one form to another, but

Conservation it cannot be created or destroyed.

of Energy The energy can be transformed from one form to

another, total energy in a system is constant.

Total energy before = total energy after

Example 4 Example 5

A worker is pulling a wooden block of A student of mass m is climbing up a

weight,W,with a force of P along a flight of stairs which has the height of h.

fritionless plank at height of h. The He takes t seconds..

distance traveled by the block is x.

Calculate the work done by the worker to

pull the block.

What is the power of the student?

Example 6 Example 7

A stone is thrown upward with initial

-1

velocity of 20 ms . What is the maximum

height which can be reached by the

stone?

**A boll is released from point A of height
**

0.8 m so that it can roll along a curve

frictionless track. What is the velocity of

the ball when it reaches point B?

Example 8 Example 9

32

A trolley is released from rest at point X

along a frictionless track. What is the A ball moves upwards along a frictionless

velocity of the trolley at point Y? track of height 1.5 m with a velocity of

-1

6 ms . What is its velocity at point B?

Example 10

A boy of mass 20 kg sits at the top of a

concrete slide of height 2.5 m. When he

slides down the slope, he does work to

overcome friction of 140 J. What is his

velocity at the end of the slope?

33

2.12 ELASTICITY

**Elasticity A property of matter that enables an object to
**

return to its original size and shape when the

force that was acting on it is removed.

**No external force is applied.
**

Molecules are at their equilibrium separation.

Intermolecular force is equal zero.

**Compressing a solid causes its molecules to be
**

displaced closer to each other.

Repulsive intermolecular force acts to push the

molecules back to their original positions.

**Stretching a solid causes its molecules to be
**

displaced away from each other.

Attractive intermolecular force acts to pull back

the molecules to their original positions.

**Stretching a wire by an ¾ Its molecules are slightly displaced away from
**

external force: one another.

¾ Strong attractive forces act between the

molecules to oppose the stretching

When the external force is removed:

¾ The attractive intermolecular forces bring the

molecules back to their equilibrium separation.

¾ The wire returns to its original position

34

Hooke’s Law The extension of a spring is directly proportional

to the applied force provided the elastic limit is

not exceeded.

F = kx

**F= force on the spring
**

x = extension

k = force constant of the spring

**Force extension graph Based on the graph:
**

Relationship between F & x :

F is directly proportional to x

**The gradient of the graph represent = force
**

constant of the spring, k

**Area under the graph equal to the work done to
**

extent the spring:

= elastic potential energy = ½ Fx = ½ kx2

**The elastic limit of a The maximum force that can be applied to a
**

spring spring such that the spring will be able to be

restored to its original length when the force is

removed.

If a force stretches a spring beyond its elastic

limit, the spring cannot return to its original length

even though the force no longer acts on it.

The Hooke’s law is not obeyed anymore.

**Force constant of the The force required to produce one unit of
**

spring, k extension of the spring.

F

k= unit N m-1 or N cm-1 or N mm-1

x

**k is a measurement of the stiffness of the spring
**

¾ The spring with a larger force constant is

harder to extend and is said to be more stiff.

¾ A spring with a smaller force constant is easier

to extend and is said to be less stiff or softer.

35

Factors that effect elasticity

Factor Change in factorHow does it affects the

elasticity

Length Shorter spring Less elastic

Longer spring More elastic

Diameter of spring Smaller diameter More elastic

wire Larger diameter Less elastic

Diameter spring Smaller diameter Less elastic

Larger diameter More elastic

Type of material Springs made of different materials

Elasticity changes according to the type of

material

**Arrangement of the spring
**

In series In parallel

**The same load is applied to each The load is shared equally among the
**

spring. springs.

Tension in each spring = W Tension in each spring =

W

Extension of each spring = x 2

Total extension = 2x Extension of each spring =

x

If n springs are used: 2

The total extension = nx If n springs are used:

x

The total extension =

n

Example 1

The original length of

each spring is 10 cm.

With a load of 10 g, the

extension of each

spring is 2 cm.

What is the length of the

spring system for (a),

(b) and (c)?

36

37

SECTION A

QUESTION 1

Figure 1.1 shows a car moving along a straight line but hilly road.

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2 shows how the velocity of the car

varies with time as it travels from A to E. The car

travels at 60 kmh-1 from A to B for two minutes.

Figure 1.2

(a) Describe the acceleration of the car as it

travels from A to E.

2

………………………………………………… m

…………………………….

(b) Compare the resultant force as it travels

along AB and CD.

1

………………………………………………… m

……………………………

(c) Give a reason to your answer in (b)

………………………………………………… 1

………………………… m

(d) Calculate the distance AB

2

m

(e) The velocity of a car increases if the

force exerted on the accelerator of a car

increases. Explain why the velocity of the

car increases from D to E although the

force on the accelerator of the car is the

same as a long C to D.

2

………………………………………………… m

38

……………………………

…………………………………………………

…………………………...

QUESTION 2 (SPM 1999)

39

(e) Why is it necessary to ha

capacity limit for the safe

A bus traveled from Kota

the bus?

QUESTION 3 ( SPM 2000) Lumpur at 9:00 pm. The cap

passenger in the bus is 40

………………………………

Figure 2 mass……………………………

of the bus with the ca

and the average frictional fo

Figure 2 shows a car of mass 1 000kg moving a bus tire and the road for the jo

………………………………

straight but hilly road. QRST and TU is the part The bus moves at average sp

……………………………

of the hill that have constant slope where the Kota Bharu before stopover a

slope of QRST is higher that the slope of TU. The at 12:00 mid night on the s

frictional force that acts along QRSTU is 2 000N. hour later the bus continue

The velocity if the car at P is Kuala Lumpur with average

80kmh-1 and takes 3 minutes to move from point The bus arrived at 6:00 am on

P to Q. The motion of the car along (a) Put in a table all the phys

PQRSTU represent by a velocity-time graph in involved in the informatio

Figure 3. two groups.

**(b) Calculate the total distanc
**

the bus.

**(c) Sketch a distance-time gr
**

the motion of the bus.

(d)

(i) What is the value of the tr

the bus when it moves at

speed?

(ii) ………………………………

……………………………

Give a reason for the ans

………………………………

……………………………

40

(a) Classify the physical quantity into two groups.

2m

(b) From the graph in Figure 3, explain the acceleration of the car from

point P to S.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………… 2m

(c) (i) Compare the resultant force of the car when the move along PQ and

ST.

1m

……………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii) State a reason for your answer in c(i)

1m

……………………………………………………………………………………...

(d) Calculate the distance form point P to Q

2m

QUESTION 4 (SPM 2002)

Figure 3(i)

Figure 3(ii)

**Figure 3(i) shows a sky diver start to make a jump from an aircraft at a
**

certain height. Figure 3(ii) shows a velocity-time graph for the skydiver at

position S, T, U, V and W from the earth surface.

(a) (i) At which point the parachute start to open?

…………………………………………………………………………………… 1m

(ii) Give a reason for your answer in (a)(i)

…………………………………………………………………………………… 1m

(b) Calculate the acceleration of the diver at ST.

41

2m

(c) Sketch an acceleration-time graph for the motion of the skydiver at

point S, T, U, V and W at the space below.

3m

(d) Suggest one way that can the skydiver apply to reduce injuries on his

leg during landing. Explain your answer.

………………………………………………………………………………………...

……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2m

QUESTION 5 (SPM 1988)

Figure 4(i)

42

Figure 4(i) show a gun fires a bullet of mass 5g to an object.

(a) (i) What happen to the gun during the shot?

1m

…………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii) Explain your answer in (a)(i)

1m

…………………………………………………………………………………...

(b) The bullet shot the object of mass 0.495kg.

**(i) If the bullet speed is 400ms-1, what is the momentum of the
**

bullet?

2m

**(ii) What is speed of the object after the bullet obscured into the
**

object after

the gunshot?

2m

**(c) The object and the bullet that obscured in the object aloft at a
**

maximum height of H, as shown in Figure 4(ii).

Figure 4(ii)

**(i) What is the value of kinetic energy of the object together with
**

the bullet

inside the object? 2m

43

(ii) Calculate maximum height, H achieved by the object?

2m

1m

(iii) In real situation it is possible to achieved maximum height, H.

Why?

……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

QUESTION 6 (SPM 1994)

**Figure 5 shows a man standing on a stationary boat. He then jumps out of
**

the boat onto the jetty. The boat moves a way from the jetty as he jumps.

Figure 5

**(a) State the physics principle that is involved in the movement of the boat
**

as the man jumps onto the jetty.

………………………………………………………………………………………… 1m

(b) Explain why the boat moves away from the jetty when the man jumps.

………………………………………………………………………………………… 1m

(c) The mass of the man is 50 kg and he jumps at a velocity 2ms-1. The

mass of the boat is 20kg. Calculate the velocity of the boat as the man

jumps.

2m

(d) Name one application of the physics principle stated in (a) in an

exploration of outer space.

………………………………………………………………………………………… m

44

45

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