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Social  Influences  on  the   Individual  

Chapter  9  

Social  Influence  
•  Social  influence  is  defined  as  the  effects  of  the  presence   or  ac1ons  of  others,  either  real  or  imagined,  on  the  way   people  think,  feel  and  behave.   •  The  impact  of  social  influence  may  be  construc(ve   (helpful),  destruc(ve  (harmful),  or  neutral  (have  no   effect).   •  Social  influence  involves  a  degree  of  pressure,  varying   from  slight  to  intense,  that  is  exerted  on  an  individual  to   change  their  thoughts,  feelings  or  behaviour  in  some   way.   •  hCp://   •  hCp://  

Social  Influence  
•  Social  influence  can  be,   and  oTen  is,  resisted.     •  Since  social  influence   most  oTen  occurs  when   we  are  in  a  group   situa1on,  we  first   examine  what  a  group   is.  

What  is  a  group?  
•  Social  psychologists  believe  that  a   group  is  more  than  a  gathering  of   people.  Rather  they  agree  that  a   group  is:  
–   any  collec1on  of  two  or  more   people  who  interact  with  and   influence  one  another  and  who   share  a  common  purpose.  

•  For  a  collec1on  of  people  to  be   called  a  group,  the  individuals   involved  must  also  interact  (for   longer  than  a  minute)  with  and   influence  one  another.  They  must   also  share  a  common  purpose,  or   goal.  

Group  vs  Collec:ve  
•  The  people  par1cipa1ng  in   the  Mexican  wave  is  best   described  as  a  gathering  of   people  in  the  same  loca1on   engaged  in  a  common   ac1vity.  Social  psychologists   oTen  use  the  term   collec:ve  (or  aggregate)  to   describe  such  a  gathering  of   people  who  have  minimal   direct  interac:on.  The   audience  at  a  rock  concert  is   a  collec1ve,  as  is  a  mob.  

Status  and  Power  within  groups  
•  Status  refers  to  the  importance  of  an  individual's   posi1on  in  the  group,  as  perceived  by  members  of  the   group.   •  An  individual's  status  can  have  an  important  effect  on   their  behaviour  towards  others  in  the  group.   •  A  person's  status  in  a  group  also  determines  the  amount   of  power  they  have  within  the  group.     •  Power  refers  to  an  individual's  (or  group's)  ability  to   control  or  influence  the  thoughts,  feelings  or  behaviour   of  another  person  (or  group).    

Types  of  power  
Each  type  of  power  arises  from  the  source  of  that  power.  For  example,  if  a  person  has  control  over   something  you  need  or  want,  then  that  person  has  power  over  you.  
Type  of  power   Reward  power   Source  of  power   Ability  to  give  posi1ve  consequences  or   remove  nega1ve  consequences  in  response  to   specific  behaviour   Ability  to  give  nega1ve  consequences  or   remove  posi1ve  consequences  in  response  to   specific  behaviour   An  individual's  status  or  posi1on  in  a  group,   ins1tu1on  or  society  in  general  gives  them  the   right  (authority)  to  exercise  power  over  those   with  a  lower  status  or  with  less  authority.   Individuals  iden1fy  with  or  want  to  be  like  or   liked  by  this  person.   Having  special  knowledge  and  skills  that  are   desirable  or  needed   Having  resources  or  informa1on  that  are   useful  and  are  not  available  elsewhere   Example   An  employer  has  the  power  to  give  a  pay  rise  or   promo1on.   An  employer  can  dismiss  an  employee;  a  teacher   can  give  deten1on,  or  not  allow  a  student  to   aCend  a  school  excursion  or  func1on.   A  group  leader,  captain  of  a  team,  police  officer  

Coercive  power  

Legi1mate   power  

Referent  power   Expert  power  

A  famous  person  you  want  to  be  like  or  a  friend   who  you  want  to  be  liked  by   A  student  skilled  in  using  a  computer  soTware   applica1on  assists  other  students  in  the  class.   Librarian;  someone  who  has  had  a  specific   experience  that  someone  else  wants  to  know   about.  

Informa1onal   power  

Social  hierarchies  
•  Status  and  power  within  a   group  are  oTen  based  on   an  individual's  posi1on  in   the  ‘pecking  order’  or   social  hierarchy  that  may   have  developed.    

•  A  social  hierarchy  shows   the  order  of  dominance  of   different  members  of  a   group,  with  the  most   dominant  individual  (the   leader)  at  the  top  and  the   least  dominant   individual(s)  at  the  boCom   of  the  hierarchy.  

Social  hierarchies  
•  Among  animals,  the   hierarchy  is  oTen   determined  by  age,   physical  strength  and   sex.  

•  Within  groups  of  people,   a  social  hierarchy  is  oTen   determined  by  the   status,  power  and   specific  roles  of  the   various  individuals  of  the   group.  

Social  hierarchies  
•  Hierarchies  serve  an  important  func1on  in  all   groups  as  they  can  assist  in  reducing  the   amount  of  conflict  within  the  group,  thereby   allowing  for  more  harmonious  func1oning.  

•  The  hierarchy  also  gives  group  members  a   beCer  understanding  of  their  role   expecta1ons.  

Effects  of  Status  and  Power  
•  Status  and  power  within  a  group  are  oTen  linked   to  the  role  each  individual  has  in  the  group.    

•  A  role  is  the  behaviour  adopted  by  an  individual   or  assigned  to  them  that  influences  the  way  in   which  they  func1on  or  act  in  different  situa1ons   and  life  in  general.    
–  Basically,  a  role  is  a  part  an  individual  plays  in  life  that   carries  with  it  expecta1ons  of  how  to  behave  in   different  situa1ons  

Role  expecta:ons  
•  Regardless  of  whether  a  role  is  temporary  (eg   student)  or  permanent  (eg  male,  mother),   once  the  role  is  taken  on,  there  is  usually  an   expecta1on  that  the  individual  will  behave  in   a  way  that  is  consistent  with  that  role.    

•  These  role  expecta(ons  have  a  strong   influence  on  an  individual's  behaviour  within  a   group,  especially  when  their  role  provides   considerable  power  and  status.  

Zimbardo’s  Stanford  Prison   Experiment  
•  One  of  the  most   significant  demonstra1ons   of  the  effects  of  power   and  status  within  a  group   occurred  in  a  study  that   has  come  to  be  known  as   the  Stanford  Prison   Experiment.  

•  Conducted  in  1971  by   Philip  Zimbardo  

Stanford  Prison  Experiment  
•  Go  to  hCp://  and  take  a   tour  of  Zimbardo’s  Stanford  Prison  Experiment   (SPE)  


Ethical  issues  in  Zimbardo's   experiment  
no  decep1on  (??)   people  suffered   others  were  allowed  to  inflict  pain  and  humilia1on   par1cipants  were  exposed  to  ‘seeing  and  hearing  the   suffering’  of  prisoners  who  ‘had  done  nothing  to   deserve  punishment  and  abuse’   •  should  have  terminated  it  as  soon  as  the  first  prisoner   suffered  a  severe  stress  disorder  on  Day  2   •  not  suppor1ng  par1cipant  withdrawal  rights   •  professional    misconduct  by  the  researcher   •  •  •  • 

•  There  are  many  occasions  in  everyday  life           when  we  change  our  behaviour  in  some  way             in  order  to  conform.   •  From  a  very  early  age,  we  learn  that  we  must   be  obedient  when  someone  with  legi(mate   authority  over  us  commands  us  in  some  way   or  other  to  behave  in  a  certain  way.    

•  Obedience  occurs  when  we  follow  the   commands  of  someone  with  authority,   or  the  rules  or  laws  of  our  society.     •  Compliance  involves  changing  one's   behaviour  in  response  to  a  request  to  do   so,  it  does  not  necessarily  involve  an   authority  figure.  

•  Several  events  in  history  show   the  devasta1ng  effects  of  ‘blind   obedience’  to  authority.  Eg  the       WW2  atroci1es  by  the  Nazi   soldiers  under  the  ‘rule’  of  Hitler.   •  Vic1ms  were  usually  unknown  to   their  execu1oners  and  were,  in   the  main,  unseen.  Did  all  those   Nazi  soldiers  who  carried  out   Hitler's  instruc1ons  support  this   course  of  ac1on,  or  were  they   ‘just  following  orders’  as  they   stated  at  the  Nuremberg  trials  of   war  criminals  following  World   War  II?  

Stanley  Milgram  
•  American  psychologist  Stanley  Milgram  (1963)   inves1gated  factors  involved  in  determining   obedience  to  an  authority  figure.  
•  Read  pp  in  your  text  book   •  Milgram's  electric  shocks  

Factors  affec:ng  obedience-­‐   Social  Proximity  
•  Several  factors  interact  in   influencing  someone  to  obey   and  authority  figure:     •  Social  Proximity:  refers  to  the   closeness  between  two  or  more   people,  both  physically  (eg  two   separate  rooms  in  the  Milgram   experiment)  and/or  the   closeness  of  their  rela1onship.  

Legi:macy  of  authority  figure  
•  Legi:macy  of  authority  figures:  An   individual  is  more  likely  to  be  obedient   when  the  authority  figure  is  perceived   as  being  legi1mate  and  having  power.       •  As  shown  in  figure  9.16  pg  388,  when   an  ‘ordinary  person’  (someone  with  no   par1cular  authority)  instead  of  the   experimenter  gave  the  orders,  full   obedience  dropped  from  65%  to  20%.  

Factors  affec1ng  Obedience  

Group  Pressure  
•  Group  Pressure:  An  individual  is  more  likely   to  be  obedient  where  there  is  liCle  or  no   group  support  for  resis1ng  the  authority   figure.   •  An  individual  is  also  more  likely  to  be   obedient  where  there  is  liCle  or  no  group   support  for  resis1ng  the  authority  figure.   When  the  ‘teachers’  were  exposed  to  the   ac1ons  of  disobedient  people  who  refused  to   obey  the  authority  figure's  commands,  full   obedience  dropped  from  65%  to  about  10%.  

Group  Pressure  
•  Milgram  observed  this  effect  of  group  pressure   by  placing  the  ‘teacher’  with  two  confederate   teachers.     •  Ini1ally,  the  two  confederates  pretended  to   collaborate  by  agreeing  to  follow  the  shock   administra1on  procedure.  Then,  they  pretended   to  defy  the  experimenter  and  refused  to   administer  shocks  aTer  the  150  volt  to  210  volt   range.     •  ATer  the  par1cipant  observed  this  disobedience,   the  confederates  turned  to  the  par1cipant  and   ordered  them  to  administer  the  shock.  Almost  90   per  cent  refused  to  do  so.  

Factors  affec:ng  obedience  
•  We  are  oTen  confronted  with  situa1ons  where   we  have  to  decide  whether  to  do  what  others  are   expec1ng  or  demanding  from  us,  or  take  a  stand   against  their  expecta1ons  or  demands.     •  However,  without  obedience  to  the  laws  of  our   democra1c  society,  groups  could  not  func1on   and  social  life  in  the  way  we  are  accustomed  to  it   would  be  extremely  difficult,  if  not  impossible.  

Tiananmen  Square  Massacre    

Ethical  issues  in  obedience  studies  
•  According  to  ethical  standards  for  research,  a  par1cipant's  full   and  informed  consent  must  be  obtained  prior  to  the  start  of   the  experiment  (par1cipants  were  deceived),  the  par1cipant's   health  and  wellbeing  must  be  safeguarded    (Milgram  did  not   intervene  or  stop  the  experiment  when  par1cipants  were   obviously,  and  some1me  physically,  under  duress)  and  the   par1cipant  must  be  informed  about  their  rights  and  permiAed   to  withdraw  from  the  experiment  whenever  they  choose  to  do   so  (par1cipants  were  ‘pushed’  to  con1nue).     •  Read  pp  

•  Conformity  is  the  tendency  to  adjust  one's  thoughts,   feelings  or  behaviour  in  ways  that  are  in  agreement   with  those  of  a  par1cular  individual  or  group,  or  with   accepted  standards  about  how  a  person  should  behave   in  certain  situa1ons  (social  norms).  

•  Conformity  occurs  when  someone  does   something  (for  example,  swears)  which   they  do  not  normally  do,  to  ‘go  along’  with   the  rest  of  the  group  (who  all  swear).   Conformity  also  occurs  when  we  wear  a   formal  evening  dress  or  a  suit  (rather  than   jeans)  to  a  debutante  ball,  or  stand  (rather   than  sit)  when  Advance  Australia  Fair  is   played  at  a  sports  event  

•  One  of  the  best  known  series  of  experiments  on   conformity  was  conducted  by  American   psychologist  Solomon  Asch  in  the  1950s.   •  hCp://  

Factors  affec:ng  conformity  
•  A  number  of  key  factors  that  influence   conformity  have  been  proposed.  These  include:  
–  the  size  of  the  group   –  whether  or  not  the  group  members  are  unanimous  in   their  views   –  whether  the  group  is  viewed  as  being  a  valuable   source  of  informa1on   –  awareness  of  accepted  standards  about  how  one   should  behave  (norma1ve  influence)   –  cultural  background   –  social  loafing   –  anonymity  in  a  group  (deindividua1on).  

Group  Size  
•  Group  size:  Asch’s  results  showed  that   conformity  increased  with  group  size,  up  to  a   size  of  four.  Beyond  a  group  size  of  four   confederates,  conformity  did  not  con1nue  to   increase  significantly.  A  group  size  of  15   actually  produced  a  lower  level  of  conformity   than  did  a  group  size  of  three.   •  In  sum,  group  size  seems  to  be  an  important   factor  influencing  conformity,  but  probably   only  up  to  a  point.  

•  Unanimity  is  complete  agreement    among  group   members  (as  to  what  the  answer  is).   •  It  is  difficult  to  be  a  minority  of  one,  to  stand  against   the  group,  even  when  you  think  you  are  right  and   everyone  else  is  wrong.   •  However,  Asch  also  found  that  it  takes  only  one  person   to  disagree  with  the  group's  judgement  to  significantly   affect  conformity  known  as  the  ally  effect.   •  The  presence  of  an  ally  who  shares  one's  view,  or  at   least  doesn't  accept  the  views  of  the  majority,  can  be   seen  as  providing  social  support  that  strengthens   resistance  to  conformity.  

Informa:onal  Influence  
•  Informa:onal  influence  occurs  when  conformity  results  from  a   need  for  direc1on  and  informa1on  on  the  correct  response  in  a   specific  situa1on.   •  psychologists  have  found  that  individuals  are  more  likely  to   conform  to  the  views  of  group  members  when  they  want  to   provide  a  correct  response  but  they  are  unsure  about  what  the   correct  response  is.  


Eg.  You  want  to  buy  a  car  and  have  a  choice  between  red  and  blue.  They  are  both   $3,000  but  have  different  features.  You  seek  advice  from  your  friend  who  is  a   mechanic.  Your  friend  recommends  the  blue  car  because  it  has  lower  kilometers   and  more  airbags.   If  you  accepted  your  friend's  recommenda1on,  then  you  would  be  conforming   because  informa1on  they  provided  influenced  you  to  make  a  specific  choice.  

Norma:ve  Influence  
•  When  informa1onal  influence  leads  us  to  conform,  we   conform  because  we  want  to  be  right.  When  norma1ve   influence  leads  us  to  conform,  we  conform  because  we  want   to  be  liked  and  accepted  by  the  group  

•  Norma:ve  influence  to  conform  occurs  when  our   response  in  a  group  situa1on  is  guided  by  one  or   more  social  norms,  out  of  desire  to  be  liked  and   accepted  by  the  group.  

•  When  Bri1sh  psychologists  Rod  Bond  and  Peter  Smith   (1996)  examined  the  results  of  133  of  the  ‘Asch-­‐type’   experiments  that  have  been  conducted  in  17  different   countries,  they  found  differences  in  conformity.     •  The  lowest  conformity  occurred  in  individualist   cultures  (such  as  North  America  and  Western  Europe),   where  being  an  individual  and  independent  is  valued   and  encouraged,  and  achieving  personal  goals  is   considered  to  be  more  important  than  achieving   group  goals.  

•  The  highest  level  of  conformity   occurred  in  collec3vist  cultures   (such  as  those  found  in  some   Asian  and  African  countries),   where  achieving  group  goals  is   considered  to  be  more   important  than  the   achievement  of  individual  goals,   and  individuals  are  encouraged,   and  some1mes  expected,  to   place  group  goals  ahead  of  their   personal  goals.  

Social  Loafing  
•  Social  loafing  refers  to  the  tendency  of  an   individual  to  make  less  effort  when  involved   in  a  group  ac1vity  than  when  working  alone.    

•  Generally,  social  loafers  conform  to  their   group,  but  with  less  effort.  This  is  based  on   their  belief  that  conforming  (or  not   conforming)  will  not  make  much  of  a   difference  in  what  the  group  decides  (or   does),  so  they  just  go  along  with  whatever   the  group  agrees  to  do  (or  does).  

Social  Loafing  
•  American  social   psychologists  Steven  Karau   and  Kipling  Williams  (1993)   analysed  the  findings  of  78   research  studies  on  social   loafing  and  found  that  social   loafing  is  less  likely  to   influence  conformity,  if  at  all,   when:  
•  maximum  effort  from  everyone  in   the  group  is  essen1al  for  the  group's   goal  to  be  aCained   •  the  group  is  valued  by  its  members     •  the  task  is  important,  challenging  or   appealing  to  those  performing  it   •  the  group  is  small  

•  Deindividua:on  is  the  loss  of  individuality,  or  the   sense  of  anonymity,  that  can  occur  in  a  group   situa1on.     •  Research  studies  have  iden1fied  two  important   factors  that  bring  about  deindividua1on  which   results  in  conformity  to  a  group.  These  factors  are   anonymity  and  a  shi6  in  a7en3on.   •  In  groups,  when  people  feel  anonymous  or   ‘invisible’,  and  less  accountable  for  their  ac1ons,   they  may  choose  to  conform  to  a  group  which  is   behaving  in  ways  they  otherwise  would  not.  Eg.   An1-­‐social  behaviour  

•  When  individuals  are  with  others  in  a  group,  their   aCen1on  is  oTen  focused  on  the  ac1vi1es    of  the  group   and  events  in  the  environment  (shiT  in  aCen1on),  rather   than  their  own  individual  thoughts.     •  Consequently,  individuals  in  a  group  are  less  likely  to   reflect    on  the  appropriateness  of  their  ac1ons,  and  will   therefore  give  less  thought  to  the  consequences  of  their   behaviour.  

Ethical  issues  in  conformity  studies  
•  A  common  cri1cism  of  many  studies  of   conformity,  is  that  they  were  unethical  because   they  involve  the  use  of  decep3on.     •  This  means  the  par1cipants  are  inten1onally   misinformed  about  the  real  purpose  and  nature   of  the  experiment.     •  Consequently,  they  do  not  truly  give  informed   consent  when  they  agree  to  par1cipate  in  the   research  study.  The  reason  par1cipants  are   deceived  by  the  researchers  is  to  ensure  their   knowledge  of  the  real  purpose  of  the  experiment   does  not  influence  their  natural  responses  and,   therefore,  the  results.  

    Group  Influences  on  Behaviour     •  Most  people  spend  much  of  their  lives  as     part  of  one  group     r  another.     o

  •  Most  of  the  groups  we  belong  to  are  joined   voluntarily.  We  also  become  members  of   other  groups  automa1cally  on  the  basis  of   personal  characteris1cs  we  have,  such  as   our  sex,  religion,  ethnicity  and  na(onality.    

Peer  groups  
•  A  peer  group  is  usually  made   up  of  people  who  have  similar   interests,  do  the  same  sorts  of   things  and  oTen  associate  or   interact  with  one  another.         •  Peer  refers  to  anyone  who  has   one  or  more  characteris1cs  or   roles  in  common  with  one  or   more  other  individuals,  such  as   age,  sex,  occupa1on  or  social   group  membership.     •  Friendship  involves  a  posi1ve   rela1onship  between  two  (or   more)  people  who  usually   regard  or  treat  each  other  in   similar  ways.  

Peer  groups  
•  Some  typical  features  of  an  adolescent  peer   group  are:  
–  it  oTen  has  its  own  norms  or  standards  of   acceptable  behaviour   –  it  oTen  has  its  own  style  of  dress,  its  own  places   for  socialising,  its  own  taste  in  music,  dancing,   sport  and  so  on   –  it  usually  has  its  own  special  attudes  to  maCers   such  as  sex  before  marriage,  smoking,  alcohol,   illegal  drugs,  bullying  and  so  on   –  it  oTen  has  its  own  language  or  lists  of   expressions  which  may  not  make  sense  to   anyone  outside  the  peer  group   –  its  members  usually  discuss  their  problems  with   one  another  but  not  with  outsiders.  

The  Clique  
•  Australian  psychologist  John  CoCerell  (1996)  describes   the  peer  group  to  which  most  adolescents  belong  as  a   clique     •  Clique  is  a  rela1vely  small  group  of  friends  of  similar   age,  and  generally  of  the  same  sex.  For  example,  when   an  adolescent  speaks  of  ‘my  friends’,  ‘my  mates’,  ‘the   girls’,  ‘the  guys’,  they  are  usually  referring  to  a   friendship  clique.    

Peer  pressure  
•  Peer  pressure  is  social   influence  by  peers;  that  is,   real  or  imagined  pressure  to   think,  feel  or  behave   according  to  standards,  or   ‘guidelines’  that  are   determined  by  peers.   •  While  some  adolescent  peer   groups  promote  and  support   an1-­‐social  behaviour,  the   nega1ve  influence  of  the  peer   group  is  oTen  over-­‐ emphasised.   •  The  influence  of  the  peer   group  during  the  adolescence   is  usually  posi1ve  and   construc1ve.    

Peer  pressure  

•  Research  findings  indicate  that  the  age  at   which  young  people  are  more  likely  to  be   influenced  by  peer  pressure  is  between   the  ages  of  11–16  years,  peaking  at   around  age  14  and  declining  thereaTer.   •  But  an1-­‐social  behaviour  resul1ng                                                           from  peer  pressure                                                                       tends  to  peak  a  bit                                                                         later,  during  middle                                               adolescence,  before                                                       declining.  

Peer  Pressure  
•  When  peer  pressure  to  engage  in  smoking,   drinking,  sexual  ac1vity  and  drugs  does  start   to  feature  in  adolescence,  it  may  largely  be   due  to  a  shiT  towards  or  acceptance  of  adult   standards  of  behaviour  rather  than  adolescent   rebellion  and  experimenta1on  (Coleman  &   Hendry,  1999)  

Peer  Pressure  
•  Girls  generally  experience  more   peer  pressure  than  boys,   especially  in  the  areas  of  being   socially  ac1ve,  dress  and   grooming,  and  in  their   rela1onships  with  boys.     •  Being  socially  ac1ve  is  the  area   of  greatest  pressure  for  males,   with  grooming  much  less   important.  However,  boys   report  experiencing  more   pressure  to  drink,  engage  in   sexual  ac1vity  and  take  drugs.  

Risk-­‐taking  Behaviour  
•  Adolescents,  like  most  adults,  engage  in  a  broad  range  of   behaviours.  Some  behaviours  are  very  safe  and  involve   liCle  or  no  risk  of  harm  to  the  individual,  such  as  changing  a   hairstyle  or  trying  a  new  food.  At  other  1mes,  individuals   choose  to  engage  in  behaviour  that  involves  risk  to  their   wellbeing,  such  as  bungee  jumping  or  using  an  illegal  drug.     •  Risk-­‐taking  behaviour  is  behaviour  that  has  poten1al   nega(ve  consequences.  Behaviour  viewed  as  risk-­‐taking   has  the  poten1al  to  harm  the  individual's  psychological   wellbeing  and/or  physical  health  in  some  way.  The  harm   may  range  from  embarrassment  or  a  minor  injury  through   to  long-­‐term  trauma  or  death  (Carr-­‐Gregg,  Enderby  &   Grover,  2003)  

Nega:ve  Risk-­‐taking  
•  Nega:ve  risk-­‐taking  behaviours  are  generally   ac1vi1es  such  as  smoking,  drug  abuse,  binge   drinking,  unsafe  sexual  prac1ces,  prolonged  sun   exposure  without  protec1on  and  dangerous   driving,  which  can  place  adolescent  health  and   wellbeing  at  risk  (Moore  &  Gullone,  1996).     •  Although  a  significant  number  of  adolescents   engage  in  such  risk-­‐taking  ac1vi1es  that  may   result  in  nega1ve  consequences,  risk-­‐taking  does   not  only  involve  nega1ve  behaviours.  

Posi:ve  risk-­‐taking  
•  Posi:ve  risk-­‐taking  includes:  performing  a  brave  deed   on  impulse;  being  socially  outgoing;  being  daring  in   fashion;  taking  a  stand  on  something  believed  to  be   right,  despite  popular  opinion;  choosing  to  study  a   subject  you  have  never  studied  before  or  leaving   school  to  start  an  appren1ceship.     •  These  types  of  posi1ve  risks  involve  behaviour  that   tends  to  have  healthy  rather  than  unhealthy   outcomes;  eg.  an  increase  in  self-­‐confidence  or  self-­‐ esteem.  However,  they  are  considered  to  be  risk-­‐ taking  because  they  also  have  a  poten1al  nega1ve   consequence  (Gullone  &  Moore,  2000).  

4  Types  of  Risk-­‐taking  Behaviour  
•  In  order  to  study  risk-­‐taking  behaviour,  Australian   psychologists  Eleonora  Gullone  and  Susan  Moore  (2000)   gave  a  risk-­‐taking  behaviour  ques1onnaire  adolescents   from  four  government  secondary  schools  in  Melbourne.     •  The  ques1onnaire  required  the  par1cipants  to  name   behaviours  they  believed  to  be  risky,  to  judge  the   riskiness  of  these  behaviours,  and  to  rate  each  risky   behaviour  according  to  how  oTen  they  engaged  in  it.  On   the  basis  of  their  results,  Gullone  and  Moore  categorised   the  responses  into  four  types  of  risk-­‐taking  behaviour:  
–  thrill-­‐seeking   –  reckless   –  rebellious   –  an1-­‐social.  

1.  Thrill-­‐Seeking  
•  Thrill-­‐seeking  risks  involve  behaviours  that  are   challenging  but  rela1vely  socially  acceptable,   such  as  engaging  in  dangerous  sports  (for   example,  skydiving  or  bungee  jumping)  and   experimen1ng  with  rela1onships  and   sexuality.  

2.  Reckless  
•  Reckless  behaviours,  on  the  other  hand,  are   oTen  thrill-­‐seeking  but  have  a  higher  chance  of   not  being  accepted  by  the  adult  popula(on,  and   have  nega(ve  social  or  health-­‐related  outcomes.   Examples  of  reckless  behaviours  are  drinking  and   driving,  speeding,  having  unprotected  sex  and   sharing  needles  when  drug-­‐taking.    

3.  Rebellious  
•  Rebellious  behaviours  involve  experimen1ng   with  ac1vi1es  that  are  usually  acceptable  for   adults  but  are  generally  disapproved  of  for   adolescents.  These  behaviours  may  include   smoking  cigareCes,  drinking  alcohol,  swearing   and  staying  out  late.    

4.  An:-­‐social  
•  An:-­‐social  behaviours  are  those  which  are   considered  unacceptable  for  both  adults  and   adolescents.  Examples  of  an1-­‐social   behaviours  include  chea1ng,  overea1ng  and   bullying  others.  

Results  from  Gullone  &  Moore  (2000)    

Results  from  Gullone  &  Moore  (2000)