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Agriculture Sector of Pakistan

Agriculture Sector of Pakistan

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Published by: yousuf adil on Aug 13, 2012
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• • • • • Major crops of Pakistan Minor crops of Pakistan Irrigated and un-irrigated area Agricultural inputs Role of agriculture in economic development of country • Problems in agriculture sector

Introduction
• Contributes 20.9% to GDP • Employs 44% of workforce • Contributes more than 66% to export earnings • Important role in development of country

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Features of Pakistan Agriculture
• Climate • Irrigation • Land utilization

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Sub sectors of Agriculture
• Crops • Livestock • Fisheries

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Major & Minor Crops

Source: Ministry of Food

Food Crops • Wheat • Rice • Maize • Barley • Gram

Cash Crops • Cotton • Sugarcane • Tobacco • Oil seed & vegetable oils

Wheat
• Principal food crop • Contributes 3% to GDP • Covers 8494 hectares

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Area, Production & Yield of Wheat
Year 2002-03 2003-04 Area hectare 000 8034 8216 Production 000 tons 19183 19500 Yields Kgms/Hec. 2388 2375

2004-05
2005-06 2006-07 2007-08

8358
8448 8494 8414

21612
21277 23520 21749

2568
2519 2769 2585

Source: Ministry of Food

Additional Measures to Increase Wheat Yield
• • • • • Development of new high yielding varieties Production and distribution of certified seeds Timely sowing of seeds Timely availability of fertilizer Elimination of weed from seeds

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Rice
• 2nd largest food crop • Contributes 1.2% to GDP • Accounts for 6.1% of total export earnings

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Area, Production & Yield of Rice
Year 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Area hectare 000 2225 2461 2519 2620 2581 2515 Production 000 tons 4478 4848 5025 5547 5438 5563 Yields Kgms/Hec. 2013 1970 1995 2116 2107 2211

Source: Ministry of Food

Importance
• Basmati rice • Pakistan 5th largest rice exporting country in the world

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Cotton
• Most important cash crop of Pakistan • Earns main foreign exchange • Contributes 1.8% to GDP • Golden & silver fiber of Pakistan • Covers an area of 3054000 hectares
Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Area, Production & Yield of Rice
Year 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Area hectare 000 2794 2989 3193 3103 3075 3054 Production 000 bales 10211 10048 14265 13019 13000 11655 Yields Kgms/Hec. 622 572 760 714 712 649

Source: Ministry of Food

Cotton production system 2006-07
• Subsidy of Rs. 200 per bag of fertilizer • Quick technology transfer through electronic media • Availability of agricultural credit at doorsteps of farmers

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Oil seed & Vegetable Oils
• Crops for oil rape, mustard seeds, sunflower, safflower, soybeans • Fulfills 32 % of total requirement

Major & minor crops of Pakistan

Irrigated and un-irrigated areas of Pakistan:

Irrigation:
• Refers to the artificial application of water to the soil. • It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas during periods of inadequate rainfall.

Explanation:
• Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. • About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world

• In 2007, the total cultivated area was estimated at almost 22.3 million hectares, or 75 percent of the cultivable area.

List of 1st 10 countries by irrigated land area:
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 Country/Region India China United States Pakistan European Union Iran Irrigated land (km²) 558,080 545,960 223,850 182,300 168,050 76,500 Date of information 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 est. 2003

6
7 8 9 10

Mexico
Turkey Thailand Bangladesh Russia

63,200
52,150 49,860 47,250 46,000

2003
2003 2003 2003 2003

Pakistan’s agricultural input:
• Three main inputs of Pakistan: 1. Forestry. 2. Livestock. 3. Fisheries.

1. Forestry:
• The total area of Pakistan is 80 million hectares. • Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forests. • The contribution of forestry to GDP is recorded at 2.2% in 2009-10.

Yield and demand of wood:

• The forestry sector of Pakistan is a main source of timber and firewood extend over to 1.36 million hectares. • Govt controlled forests produced 93,000 cubic meters timber and 263,000 cubic meter of firewood.

Impact of forests:
• Three main leads: 1. Productive roles. 2. Social role. 3. Protective role.

1. Productive roles:

2. Social role:

3. Protective role:

Strategy for development of forests:
• The govt launches various tree plantation programmes on state and private land twice a year. • Govt is also paying attention to the development of sericulture and wildlife.

2. Livestock:
• It is an important source of essential items of human diet and draught power. • Contribute 10 to 25% of income to small farmers. • The leading daily newspaper “jang” reports that the national herd consists of 24.2 million cattle, 26.3 million buffaloes, 24.9 million sheep, 56.7 million goats and 0.8 million camels. • These animals produce 29.472 million tons of milk . “The food and agriculture organization” reported in June 2006 that Pakistan, is the world's fifth largest milk producing country.

• poultry sector : there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country with more than 530 million birds produced annually.

Importance of livestock:
• • • • • Motor power. Nutritional food. Raw material. Contribution in exports. Contribution to GDP is 10.3% .

Livestock resources:
• • • • • • • • Buffaloes Cattle Goats Poultry Camels Donkeys Horses mules

Problems of livestock:
• Due to increase in population the size of land holding is gradually being reduced. • The slaughter of various livestock is on increase in spite of the fact that the prices of meat have gone up considerably. • Difficult to keep the animals in cities.

Development strategy of livestock in Pakistan:
• New “livestock development policy” has been approved , this will help in bringing radical changes in current livestock production system. • 80% of total cattle population is improved through cross breeding • For promotion of livestock and poultry govt has given fiscal incentives for import of necessary equipments , food items and medicines.

3. fisheries:
• It plays an important role in national economy by reducing pressure on demand for mutton, beef and poultry. • Contributes on an avg about 0.4% to total GDP and 1.3% to agriculture • Main economic activity of the coastal bell of sindh and balochistan.

Improvisation in fisheries sector:
• • • • Strengthening of infrastructure facilities. Introduction of aquaculture techniques. Improvement in post harvest techniques. Up gradation of economic conditions of the fishermen.

ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN

 PROVIDES FOOD AND FIBRE:
• Provide wheat, rice, jute, cotton to the growing population of the country • If fails, then it has an adverse effect on the country.

 TRANSFER OF SURPLUS LABOUR:
• 45% of the labour force is employed in agriculture sector in Pakistan

 PROVISION OF CAPITAL: • it provides capital to meet the requirement of economic development.

 EXPANSION IN DOMESTIC DEMAND:
• There is a rapid growth in demand both of farm good and industrial goods in rural and urban areas

 SOURCE OF FOERIGN EXCHANGE EARNING:

 CONTRIBUTION TO GROWTH: • It provide raw materials as well as a market for
industrial goods

REVIEW OF THE PAST PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN
• IN THE FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN (1955-60) the targets
of increasing food grains production by 9% and cash crops from 15% to 33% were not achieved.

• IN THE SECOND YEAR PLAN (1960-1965) the targets
of increasing food grains by 21% and cotton by 28% was almost achieved.

• IN THE THIRD YEAR PLAN (1965-1970) the use of
adequate water and improved practices in the cultivation of crops raised the agriculture production from 6.2% in 1961-62 to 11.7% in 1967-68

CAUSES OF LOW PRODUCTIVITY OR AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS

 GENERAL FACTORS:
• • • • Over crowding in agriculture Natural factors Inadequate irrigation facilities Socio economic factors

 INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS:
• Small size of holding • Defective pattern of land tenure

 TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS:
• high ratio of labour to land • under utilization of cultivable land • inadequate supply of inputs • lack of mechanization • lack of infrastructure abilities • inadequate agricultural research

REFRENCES:
• www.undp.com • www.wikipedia.org • Economics Of Pakistan, Saeed, M Nasir

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