Completion Engineering

Data Handbook
for
Completions,
Remedial Stimulation,
Workovers, & Fishing

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

The information published in this work has been obtained
from sources believed to be reliable by Weatherford.
However, neither Weatherford, nor its authors, guarantees
the completeness and accuracy of the information
published herein. Neither Weatherford, not its authors, will
be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages
caused by the use of this information. This handbook is
being published with the understanding that Weatherford,
and its authors, are supplying information, but are not
performing engineering or professional services. If such
work is required, the use of appropriate professional
services should be obtained.
Every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy during
the compilation of this Completion Engineering Data
Handbook.

© 2003 WEATHERFORD.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
First Printing 9-00

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TUBULAR DATA

1. TUBULAR DATA

FLUID GRADIENTS

4. FLUID GRADIENTS

TUBING ANCHORS

5. TUBING ANCHORS

Houston, TX USA

GENERAL INFORMATION

6. GENERAL INFORMATION

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

3. PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

SLACK-OFF, STRETCH &
WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA

2. SLACK-OFF, STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Houston.THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

........................................................ 3 TUBING DATA .................TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD............................................................................................................................................ 21 Non-Upset Tubing .....................................API Internal Upset Drill Pipe ......... 56 ................ 50 Tool Joint Interchangeability Charts ................................................ 23 Integral Joint Tubing ........................... 55 Drill Pipe Stretch Table .... 5 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data ................ 51 Drill Pipe Sizes and Capacities ............. 8 Recommended Make-Up Torque ..SECTION 1 ......................................... 43 API Short Thread Casing ................................ 46 DRILL PIPE DATA .................................................TUBULAR DATA TUBULAR DATA TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA PER API SPEC......... 43 API Long Thread Casing ................................. 21 External Upset Tubing .......................................API Tubing .................................................................... 25 Casing Sizes and Areas .......... 40 Recommended Make-Up Torque ............................................ All Rights Reserved Houston......................... 25 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data .... 50 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data ................................................................................................................... 7 Dimensional Data Non-API Tubing ............................. 5CT .......API Casing .......................... 24 CASING DATA .................................................................. TX USA Page 1-1 SECTION 1 .................... 28 Casing Sizes and Capacities ..................................................................................................... 5 Tubing Sizes and Capacities ............................................................................................................................

All Rights Reserved Page 1-2 Houston.TUBULAR DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA AS PER A.P.I. SPECIFICATION 5CT
N o m i na l N o m i na l N o m i na l M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um
O . D . S i ze W e i g ht
I. D .
O.D .
O.D .
Wa l l
Wa l l
I. D .
I. D .
( i n)
(lb /ft)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)

D ri ft
Dia.
( i n)

1 .2 0

.8 2 4

1 .0 8 1

1 .0 1 9

. 11 3

.0 9 9

.8 8 2

.7 9 3

.7 3 0

1 .3 1 5

1 .8 0

1 .0 4 9

1 .3 4 6

1 .2 8 4

.1 3 3

. 11 7

1 . 11 2

1 .0 1 8

.9 5 5

1 .6 6 0

2 .4 0

1 .3 8 0

1 .6 9 1

1 .6 2 9

.1 4 0

.1 2 3

1 .4 4 5

1 .3 4 9

1 .2 8 6

1 .9 0 0

2 .9 0

1 .6 1 0

1 .9 3 1

1 .8 6 9

.1 4 5

.1 2 8

1 .6 7 6

1 .5 7 9

1 .5 1 6

4 .7 0

1 .9 9 5

2 .4 0 6

2 .3 4 4

.1 9 0

.1 6 7

2 .0 7 2

1 .9 6 4

1 .9 0 1

5 .9 5

1 .8 6 7

2 .4 0 6

2 .3 4 4

.2 5 4

.2 2 4

1 .9 5 9

1 .8 3 6

1 .7 7 3

2 -3 /8
6 .5 0

2 .4 4 1

2 .9 0 6

2 .8 4 4

.2 1 7

.1 9 1

2 .5 2 4

2 .4 1 0

2 .3 4 5

8 .7 0

2 .2 5 9

2 .9 0 6

2 .8 4 4

.3 0 8

.2 7 1

2 .3 6 4

2 .2 2 8

2 .1 6 5

TUBULAR DATA

1 .0 5 0

2 -7 /8
9 .3 0

2 .9 9 2

3 .5 3 1

3 .4 6 9

.2 5 4

.2 2 4

3 .0 8 4

2 .9 6 1

2 .8 6 7

1 2 .9 5

2 .7 5 0

3 .5 3 1

3 .4 6 9

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

2 .8 7 1

2 .7 1 9

2 .6 2 5

11 . 0 0

3 .4 7 6

4 .0 3 1

3 .9 6 9

.2 6 2

.2 3 1

3 .5 7 0

3 .4 4 5

3 .3 5 1

9 .5 0

4 .0 9 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 0 5

.1 8 0

4 .1 8 4

4 .0 6 8

3 .9 6 5

1 0 .5 0

4 .0 5 2

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 2 4

.1 9 7

4 .1 5 1

4 .0 3 0

3 .9 2 7

11 . 6 0

4 .0 0 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 5 0

.2 2 0

4 .1 0 5

3 .9 7 8

3 .8 7 5

1 3 .5 0

3 .9 2 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 9 0

.2 5 5

4 .0 3 5

3 .8 9 8

3 .7 9 5

11 . 5 0

4 .5 6 0

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 2 0

.1 9 4

4 .6 6 3

4 .5 3 5

4 .4 3 5

3 -1 /2
4

4 -1 /2

5

5 -1 /2

1 3 .0 0

4 .4 9 4

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 5 3

.2 2 3

4 .6 0 5

4 .4 6 9

4 .3 6 9

1 5 .0 0

4 .4 0 8

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 9 6

.2 6 0

4 .5 2 9

4 .3 8 3

4 .2 8 3

1 8 .0 0

4 .2 7 6

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.3 6 2

.3 1 9

4 .4 1 3

4 .2 5 1

4 .1 5 1

2 1 .4 0

4 .1 2 6

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.4 3 7

.3 8 5

4 .2 8 1

4 .1 0 1

4 .0 0 1

2 3 .2 0

4 .0 4 4

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.4 7 8

.4 2 1

4 .2 0 9

4 .0 1 9

3 .9 1 9

2 4 .1 0

4 .0 0 0

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

4 .1 7 0

3 .9 7 5

3 .8 7 5

1 4 .0 0

5 .0 1 2

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.2 4 4

.2 1 5

5 .1 2 6

4 .9 8 5

4 .8 8 7

1 5 .5 0

4 .9 5 0

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.2 7 5

.2 4 2

5 .0 7 1

4 .9 2 3

4 .8 2 5

1 7 .0 0

4 .8 9 2

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.3 0 4

.2 6 8

5 .0 2 0

4 .8 6 5

4 .7 6 7

2 0 .0 0

4 .7 7 8

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.3 6 1

.3 1 8

4 .9 2 0

4 .7 5 1

4 .6 5 3

2 3 .0 0

4 .6 7 0

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.4 1 5

.3 6 5

4 .8 2 5

4 .6 4 3

4 .5 4 5

2 0 .0 0

6 .0 4 9

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.2 8 8

.2 5 3

6 .1 8 4

6 .0 1 6

5 .9 2 4

2 4 .0 0

5 .9 2 1

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

6 .0 7 2

5 .8 8 8

5 .7 9 6

2 8 .0 0

5 .7 9 1

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.4 1 7

.3 6 7

5 .9 5 7

5 .7 5 8

5 .6 6 6

3 2 .0 0

5 .6 7 5

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.4 7 5

.4 1 8

5 .8 5 5

5 .6 4 2

5 .5 5 0

6 -5 /8

1 7 .0 0

6 .5 3 8

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.2 3 1

.2 0 3

6 .6 6 3

6 .5 0 3

6 .4 1 3

2 0 .0 0

6 .4 5 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.2 7 2

.2 3 9

6 .5 9 1

6 .4 2 1

6 .3 3 1

2 3 .0 0

6 .3 6 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.3 1 7

.2 7 9

6 .5 1 2

6 .3 3 1

6 .2 4 1

2 6 .0 0

6 .2 7 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.3 6 2

.3 1 9

6 .4 3 3

6 .2 4 1

6 .1 5 1

2 9 .0 0

6 .1 8 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 0 8

.3 5 9

6 .3 5 2

6 .1 4 9

6 .0 5 9

3 2 .0 0

6 .0 9 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 5 3

.3 9 9

6 .2 7 3

6 .0 5 9

5 .9 6 9

3 5 .0 0

6 .0 0 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 9 8

.4 3 8

6 .1 9 4

5 .9 6 9

5 .8 7 9

3 8 .0 0

5 .9 2 0

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.5 4 0

.4 7 5

6 .1 2 0

5 .8 8 5

5 .7 9 5

2 4 .0 0

7 .0 2 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 0 0

.2 6 4

7 .1 7 3

6 .9 8 7

6 .9 0 0
6 .8 4 4

7

2 6 .4 0

6 .9 6 9

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 2 8

.2 8 9

7 .1 2 4

6 .9 3 1

2 9 .7 0

6 .8 7 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

7 .0 4 1

6 .8 3 7

6 .7 5 0

3 3 .7 0

6 .7 6 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.4 3 0

.3 7 8

6 .9 4 4

6 .7 2 7

6 .6 4 0
6 .5 0 0

7 -5 /8
3 9 .0 0

6 .6 2 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

6 .8 2 1

6 .5 8 7

4 2 .8 0

6 .5 0 1

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 6 2

.4 9 5

6 .7 1 2

6 .4 6 3

6 .3 7 6

4 5 .3 0

6 .4 3 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 9 5

.5 2 4

6 .6 5 4

6 .3 9 7

6 .3 1 0

4 7 .1 0

6 .3 7 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.6 2 5

.5 5 0

6 .6 0 1

6 .3 3 7

6 .2 5 0

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

Page 1-3

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA PER API SPEC. 5CT

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA AS PER A.P.I. SPECIFICATION 5CT

TUBULAR DATA

N o m i na l N o m i na l N o m i na l M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um
O . D . S i ze W e i g ht
I. D .
O.D .
O.D .
Wa l l
Wa l l
I. D .
I. D .
( i n)
(lb /ft)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)

8 -5 /8

D ri ft
Dia.
( i n)

2 4 .0 0

8 .0 9 7

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.2 6 4

.2 3 2

8 .2 4 7

8 .0 5 4

7 .9 4 1

2 8 .0 0

8 .0 1 7

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.3 0 4

.2 6 8

8 .1 7 6

7 .9 7 4

7 .8 9 2

3 2 .0 0

7 .9 2 1

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

8 .0 9 2

7 .8 7 8

7 .7 9 6

3 6 .0 0

7 .8 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.4 0 0

.3 5 2

8 .0 0 7

7 .7 8 2

7 .7 0 0

4 0 .0 0

7 .7 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.4 5 0

.3 9 6

7 .9 1 9

7 .6 8 2

7 .6 0 0

4 4 .0 0

7 .6 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

7 .8 3 1

7 .5 8 2

7 .5 0 0

4 9 .0 0

7 . 5 11

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.5 5 7

.4 9 0

7 .7 3 1

7 .4 6 8

7 .3 8 6

3 2 .3 0

9 .0 0 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 1 2

.2 7 5

9 .1 7 2

8 .9 5 3

8 .8 4 5
8 .7 6 5

3 6 .0 0

8 .9 2 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

9 .1 0 2

8 .8 7 3

4 0 .0 0

8 .8 3 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 9 5

.3 4 8

9 .0 2 6

8 .7 8 7

8 .6 7 9

4 3 .5 0

8 .7 5 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

8 .9 5 6

8 .7 0 7

8 .5 9 9

4 7 .0 0

8 .6 8 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.4 7 2

.4 1 5

8 .8 9 1

8 .6 3 3

8 .5 2 5

5 3 .5 0

8 .5 3 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.5 4 5

.4 8 0

8 .7 6 2

8 .4 8 7

8 .3 7 9

5 9 .4 0

8 .4 0 7

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.6 0 9

.5 3 6

8 .6 4 9

8 .3 5 9

8 .2 5 1

6 4 .9 0

8 .2 8 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.6 7 2

.5 9 1

8 .5 3 9

8 .2 3 3

8 .1 2 5

7 0 .3 0

8 .1 5 7

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.7 3 4

.6 4 6

8 .4 2 9

8 .1 0 9

8 .0 0 1

7 5 .6 0

8 .0 3 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.7 9 7

.7 0 1

8 .3 1 9

7 .9 8 3

7 .8 7 5

9 -5 /8

3 2 .7 5

1 0 .1 9 2

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.2 7 9

.2 4 6

1 0 .3 6 6

1 0 .1 3 8

1 0 .0 3 6

4 0 .5 0

1 0 .0 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.3 5 0

.3 0 8

1 0 .2 4 2

9 .9 9 6

9 .8 9 4

4 5 .5 0

9 .9 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 0 0

.3 5 2

1 0 .1 5 4

9 .8 9 6

9 .7 9 4

5 1 .0 0

9 .8 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 5 0

.3 9 6

1 0 .0 6 6

9 .7 9 6

9 .6 9 4

5 5 .5 0

9 .7 8 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 9 5

.4 3 6

9 .9 8 6

9 .7 0 6

9 .6 0 4

6 0 .7 0

9 .6 6 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.5 4 5

.4 8 0

9 .8 9 8

9 .6 0 6

9 .5 0 4

6 5 .7 0

9 .5 6 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.5 9 5

.5 2 4

9 .8 1 0

9 .5 0 6

9 .4 0 4

7 3 .2 0

9 .4 0 6

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.6 7 2

.5 9 1

9 .6 7 5

9 .3 5 2

9 .2 5 0

7 9 .2 0

9 .2 8 2

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.7 3 4

.6 4 6

9 .5 6 6

9 .2 2 8

9 .1 2 6

8 5 .3 0

9 .1 5 6

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.7 9 7

.7 0 1

9 .4 5 5

9 .1 0 2

9 .0 0 0

1 0 -3 /4

11 - 3 / 4

1 3 -3 /8

16

1 8 -5 /8

20

4 2 .0 0

11 . 0 8 4

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.3 3 3

.2 9 3

11 . 2 8 1

11 . 0 2 5

1 0 .9 2 8

4 7 .0 0

11 . 0 0 0

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

11 . 2 0 8

1 0 .9 4 1

1 0 .8 4 4

5 4 .0 0

1 0 .8 8 0

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

11 . 1 0 2

1 0 .8 2 1

1 0 .7 2 4

6 0 .0 0

1 0 .7 7 2

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.4 8 9

.4 3 0

11 . 0 0 7

1 0 .7 1 3

1 0 .6 1 6

6 5 .0 0

1 0 .6 8 2

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.5 3 4

.4 7 0

1 0 .9 2 8

1 0 .6 2 3

1 0 .5 2 6

4 8 .0 0

1 2 .7 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.3 3 0

.2 9 0

1 2 .9 2 8

1 2 .6 4 8

1 2 .5 5 9

5 4 .5 0

1 2 .6 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.3 8 0

.3 3 4

1 2 .8 4 0

1 2 .5 4 8

1 2 .4 5 9

6 1 .0 0

1 2 .5 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.4 3 0

.3 7 8

1 2 .7 5 2

1 2 .4 4 8

1 2 .3 5 9

6 8 .0 0

1 2 .4 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.4 8 0

.4 2 2

1 2 .6 6 4

1 2 .3 4 8

1 2 .2 5 9

7 2 .0 0

1 2 .3 4 7

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.5 1 4

.4 5 2

1 2 .6 0 4

1 2 .2 8 0

1 2 .1 9 1

6 5 .0 0

1 5 .2 5 0

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

1 5 .5 0 0

1 5 .1 7 0

1 5 .0 6 2

7 5 .0 0

1 5 .1 2 4

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.4 3 8

.3 8 5

1 5 .3 8 9

1 5 .0 4 4

1 4 .9 3 6

8 4 .0 0

1 5 .0 1 0

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.4 9 5

.4 3 6

1 5 .2 8 9

1 4 .9 3 0

1 4 .8 2 2

8 7 .5 0

1 7 .7 5 5

1 8 . 8 11

1 8 .5 3 2

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

1 8 .0 4 6

1 7 .6 6 2

1 7 .5 6 7

9 4 .0 0

1 9 .1 2 4

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.4 3 8

.3 8 5

1 9 .4 2 9

1 9 .0 2 4

1 8 .9 3 6

1 0 6 .5 0

1 9 .0 0 0

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

1 9 .3 2 0

1 8 .9 0 0

1 8 .8 1 2

1 3 3 .0 0

1 8 .7 3 0

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.6 3 5

.5 5 9

1 9 .0 8 2

1 8 .6 3 0

1 8 .5 4 2

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Page 1-4

Houston, TX USA

Houston, TX USA

Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data - API Tubing

Page 1-5

2-7/8
73,00

2-3/8
60,33

2-1/16
52,40

1,900
48,26

6.50

5.95

5.80

6.40

4.70

2.90

2.40

1.80

1.20

4.60

4.00

2.75

2.30

1.70

1,315
33,40

1,660
42,16

1.14

T& C
U p set
(lb/ft)

Nominal Weight

T& C
Non-Upset
(lb/ft)

1,050
26,67

OD
(in.)
(mm)

3.25

.217

.254

.190

.167

.156

.145

.125

2.40

2.76

.140

.125

2.10

2.33

.133

.113

1.72

Integral
Joint
(lb/ft)

Wall
Thickness
(in)

.955
24,26

1.049
26,64

2.1382
137,95

1.773
45,03

2.347
59,61

1.867
47,42

2.441
62,00

1.901
48,29

1.995
50,67

4.6798
301,94

2.7377
176,63

3.1259
201,68

3.2717
211,09

1.947
49,45

2.041
51,84

2.0358
131,35

2.4080
155,36

1.516
38,51

1.4957
96,503

1.5614
100,74

.8643
55,76

.5333
34,40

ID
Area
(in.2)
(mm2)

1.751
44,48

1.610
40,89

1.650
41,91

1.380
35,05

1.286
32,66

.730
18,54

.824
20,93

1.410
35,81

Drift
Dia.
(in.)
(mm)

6.4918
418,85

4.4301
285,83

4.4301
285,83

4.4301
285,83

3.3426
215,66

2.8353
182,91

2.8353
182,91

2.1642
139,63

2.1642
139,63

1.3581
87,62

.8659
55,87

OD
Area
(in.2)
(mm2)

1.8120

1.6925

1.3042

1.1584

.9346

.7995

.6970

.6685

.6028

.4939

.3326

CrossSectional
Area
(in.2)

1.6109

.9654

.7842

.710

.4277

.3099

.2759

.1947

.1787

.0873

.0370

Moment
of
Inertia, I
(in.4)

1.178

1.272

1.191

1.164

1.178

1.180

1.152

1.203

1.177

1.254

1.274

OD
ID
Ratio
R

3.500
88,90

2.875
73,03

2.875
73,03

2.875
73,03

2.200
55,88

2.054
52,17

1.660
42,16

1.313
33,35

N on
U p set
(in.)
(mm)

3.668
93,17

3.063
77,80

3.063
77,80

2.500
63,50

2.200
55,88

1.900
48,26

1.660
44,16

U p set
R eg .
(in.)
(mm)

3.460
87,88

2.910
73,91

2.910
73,91

U p set
Spec. Cl.
(in.)
(mm)

Coupling or Box OD

2.325
59,05

2.110
53,59

2.110
53,59

1.880
47,75

1.880
47,75

1.550
39,37

Integral
Joint
(in.)
(mm)

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80
P-105

C-75
N-80
P-105

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80
P-105

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

5,580
7,680
10,470
11,160
14,010

14,330
15,280
20,060

5,890
8,100
11,040
11,780
15,460

5,230
7,190
9,520
9,980

5,590
7,690
10,480
11,180

5,640
7,750
10,570
11,280

4,920
6,640

H-40
J-55
H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

6,180
8,490
11,580
12,360

5,570
7,660

7,270
10,000
13,640
14,550

7,680
10,560
14,410
15,370

5,280
7,260
9,910
10,570
13,870

14,040
14,970
19,650

5,600
7,700
10,500
11,200
14,700

4,920
6,770
9,230
9,840

5,290
7,280
8,920
10,590

5,340
7,350
10,020
10,680

4,610
6,330

5,900
8,120
11,070
11,810

5,270
7,250

7,080
9,730
13,270
14,160

7,530
10,360
14,120
15,070

Collapse
Internal
Resistance
Yield
(psi)
Pressure
(psi)

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

Grade

DIMENSIONAL & MINIMUM PERFORMANCE DATA - API TUBING

ID
Nom.
(in.)
(mm)

52,780
72,580
98,970
105,570
138,560

96,560
102,990
135,180

35,960
49,450
67,430
71,930
94,410

30,130
41,430
56,500
60,260

19,090
26,250
35,800
38,180

15,530
21,360
29,120
31,060

10,960
15,060
20,540
21,910

6,360
8,740
11,920
12,710

72,480
99,660
135,900
144,960
190,260

126,940
135,400
177,710

52,170
71,730
97,820
104,340
136,940

31,980
43,970
59,960
63,960

26,740
36,770
50,140
53,480

19,760
27,160
37,040
39,510

13,310
18,290
24,950
26,610

T& C
U p set
(lb.)

35,690
49,070
66,910
71,370

26,890
36,970
50,420
53,780

26,890
36,970

22,180
30,500
41,600
44,370

22,180
30,500

15,970
21,960
29,940
31,940

Integral
Joint
(lb.)

Joint Yield Strength
T& C
N onU p set
(lb.)

TUBULAR DATA

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TX USA Page 1-7 Tubing Sizes and Capacities .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

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TUBULAR DATA

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TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-18 Houston.

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All Rights Reserved Page 1-20 Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-21 Non-Upset Tubing .Recommended Make-Up Torque TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-22 Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-23 External Upset Tubing .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

All Rights Reserved Page 1-24 l Joint Tubing Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-25 Casing Sizes and Areas . All Rights Reserved Houston.

All Rights Reserved Page 1-26 Houston. TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA Page 1-27 .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston.API Casing . TX USA Page 1-28 sional and Minimum Performance Data .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-29 .

All Rights Reserved Page 1-30 Houston. TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

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TX USA Page 1-39 . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-40 Sizes and Capacities Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-41 . All Rights Reserved Houston.

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TX USA Page 1-45 .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

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All Rights Reserved Page 1-48 Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-49 .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

50 13.280 Nominal Wall (in) 2931 3535 3736 5730 7635 4490 7041 11458 4686 7525 10975 12655 5704 9012 10914 7074 12015 14472 7640 14223 8522 13378 9633 19912 6827 11622 15190 3252 4048 4130 6542 9011 4935 8241 14514 3353 4235 4336 6865 9626 5067 8765 16042 5190 5352 8868 9467 13901 15350 16030 17718 6508 10795 13825 8284 8813 15218 16820 18331 20260 9017 18016 10161 10912 16945 18729 3429 4611 4714 7496 11177 5661 10029 20510 5908 10964 18806 22780 7445 13836 18593 10093 21626 26049 11186 25602 12891 24080 5977 6557 6633 7876 9055 7104 8688 12000 7227 8987 11467 13333 7860 9900 11400 8709 12617 15394 9057 15110 9600 14147 7571 8305 8401 9977 11469 8998 11005 15200 9154 11383 14524 16889 9956 12540 14440 11031 15982 19499 11473 19139 12160 17920 X 8368 9179 9286 11027 12676 9946 12163 16800 10117 12581 16053 18667 11004 13860 15960 12192 17664 21552 12680 21153 13440 19806 G 10759 11802 11939 14177 16298 12787 15638 21600 13008 16176 20640 24000 14148 17820 20520 15675 22711 27710 16303 27197 17280 25465 S Premium Class Pipe Grade S E G Premium Class Pipe Grade E X Internal Yield/Burst Pressure Collapse Pressure 387466 422418 294260 244780 391285 259155 311535 414690 213258 260165 322916 367566 182016 224182 253851 152979 212150 250620 106946 166535 490790 535063 372730 436721 495627 328263 394612 525274 270127 329542 409026 465584 230554 283963 321544 193774 268723 317452 135465 210945 97398 136313 X S 542452 591385 697438 760352 529669 620604 704313 466479 560764 746443 362817 436150 580566 411965 482692 547799 383864 468297 581248 661620 327630 403527 456931 275363 381870 451115 192503 299764 138407 193709 298561 364231 452082 514593 254823 313854 355391 214171 297010 350868 149725 233149 107650 150662 G Premium Class Pipe Grade 76893 107616 E Tensile Strength DIMENSIONAL DATA AND PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF API INTERNAL UPSET DRILL PIPE TUBULAR DATA .670 4.90 24. (in) .75 16.500 3.276 4.00 22.901 4.449 .85 14.408 4.65 6. All Rights Reserved Houston.50 11.151 1.85 10.70 13.Page 1-50 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.82 16.330 .380 .778 4.430 .815 Nominal I.476 3.70 25.362 .361 .826 3. TX USA sional and Minimum Performance Data .262 .330 .995 1.60 19.00 15.296 .20 27. (in) 2-3/8 2-7/8 3-1/2 4 4-1/2 5 5-1/2 6-5/8 5.441 2.20 21.362 .40 9.602 2.500 .000 3.190 .217 .D.25 19.30 15.60 20.70 Nominal O.965 5.API Internal Upset Drill Pipe Weight per Foot with Coupling (lb/ft) 4.240 2.892 4.640 3.337 .992 2.304 .50 25.D.958 3.415 .254 .362 .764 2.500 .368 .340 3.271 .85 6.

TX USA Page 1-51 Tool Joint Interchangeability Charts . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

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All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-53 .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

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All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-55 Drill Pipe Sizes and Capacities .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 1-56 pe Stretch Table Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-57 .

.......................................................75# API Tubing ... 29# API Tubing to 20...................500” O.........000” O....................................... 10 1........... API Tubing ..........SECTION 2 ...D.............. 4 Tubing Stretch Table .... STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA FORMULAE FOR TUBING............ 25 2...................D......... API Tubing ..............000 ft Depth .............. 24 2...D. 9 Length Change due to Tension Force ........... 41 7.... 27 3....... API Tubing ..........D. API Tubing to 120................D..D..... 14 2. API Tubing 15...... 34 1.. 15 2.....................................900” O.......... 21 LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF CHARTS ..................................................... 29# API Tubing ................ API Tubing 15....................................................... 23 1.......................... 5 Casing Stretch Table ...................................................D............D........D........ API Tubing 10..... API Tubing ........375” O....660” O... 17# API Tubing to 20..... API Tubing ...................... 30 5..6/12.. 4 Calculating Free Point Constants ...........................D........ 31 7.......................................... TX USA Page 2-1 SLACK-OFF...................... 29# API Tubing . API Tubing .........D...................... 18 4............ All Rights Reserved Houston.................................................D.......... 29 4....... API Tubing ....6/12.... 17# API Tubing ..... 12................... API Tubing .....................................D...............................500” O............. 9 TUBING STRETCH CHARTS ... 22 1.. 26 2.000” O............................D.............875” O..... 13 2.................. API Tubing ........................... 32 SLACK-OFF WEIGHT ON PACKER CHARTS ........ 3 Determining Free Point ........... 3 Stretch ..500” O.....................................000 ft Depth .375” O............ API Tubing 10..D.................................500” O..........D.......................875” O............ API Tubing ................................D.......D.............. 38 3............75# API Tubing .....................................D..... API Tubing .......D.............D......875” O.............D................. 20 7.................... 40 5..............D................500” O..................D.... 7 MECHANICALLY APPLIED EFFECT FORMULAE .................................75# API Tubing to 15.....000 ft Depth ...... 16 3..............................................063” O.............000 ft Depth .................................000 ft Depth ..........D............................000 ft Depth ............................... 36 2........... 12.....................900” O...............SLACK-OFF...900” O...................000 ft Depth .. API Tubing to 60..... DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH DATA ................063” O.................................... 37 2............... 17 3............660” O...............000 lbs Slack-off ..................063” O...................................... 12....D.000 ft Depth ................D..........6/12.............................. API Tubing .. 10 1................500” O.. 12 2... API Tubing . API Tubing 10............................................500” O.375” O.................. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD...............500” O....... 17# API Tubing ......500” O............................D..................... 9 Length Change due to Slack-off Force .................000 lbs Slack-off .......660” O.............................................................000” O............................D............................ 3 Calculating Stretch Constants ............. 11 2.........................500” O. API Tubing .......... 28 3............. 3 General Stretch Formula ............. 35 2................................................................ 19 5..................000 ft Depth .............D...........................D..........875” O.........................375” O............500” O........... API Tubing 15...................................................... 33 1....................... 39 4.................... 42 ................................

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 2-2 Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.SLACK-OFF.

000 lb.4 As Calculating Stretch Constants Where: SC = Stretch Constant (in/1000 lb/1000 ft) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. F = 50) L = Length of the string (ft) SC = Stretch Constant (in. DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH DATA FORMULAE FOR TUBING. TX USA Page 2-3 SLACK-OFF. of stretch/thousands of pounds/thousand feet of length) SC = 0. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels Stretch ∆L = F x L x SC Where: ∆ L = Stretch (in) F = Pull/Tension force.TUBING. in thousands of pounds (for example: for 50. All Rights Reserved Houston. DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH ∆L = F × L × 12 E × As DATA General Stretch Formula Where: F = Pull/Tension force (lb) L = Length of the string (ft) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) E = Modulus of elasticity. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA ∆ L = Stretch (in) .

TX USA . This formula. the length of free pipe may be longer than calculated. therefore. which cannot be easily determined. assumes that there are no friction forces. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Where: L = * Minimum length of the free pipe.Determining Free Point L= ∆L × F P C F SLACK-OFF. Calculating Free Point Constants FPC = 2500 x As Where: FPC = Charted Free Point Constant As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. or length being stretched (ft) ∆L = Stretch (in) F = Pull/Tension force (1000 lb) FPC = Charted Free Point Constant * Since there will be friction forces present. All Rights Reserved Page 2-4 Houston.

SLACK-OFF. TX USA Page 2-5 . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

SLACK-OFF. All Rights Reserved Page 2-6 Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

All Rights Reserved Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 2-7 .SLACK-OFF.

TX USA .SLACK-OFF. All Rights Reserved Page 2-8 Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA Page 2-9 SLACK-OFF.Wo ) r = Radial clearance between the tubing and the casing (in) r = [(Casing ID .0034 x Final Tbg. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Where: ∆L s = Length change due to slack-off force (in) .0034 x Final Ann.(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo =(Tubing OD)2 x .(Tubing ID)4] x π ÷ 64 Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x .Tubing OD) ÷ 2] As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Fs = Slack-off force (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity.(lb/gal) Length Change due to Tension Force ∆L t = Ft × L E × As Where: ∆L t = Length change due to tension force (in) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Ft = Tension force (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity. Fluid Wt. All Rights Reserved Houston.MECHANICALLY APPLIED EFFECT FORMULAE Length Change due to Slack-off Force ∆Ls = L × Fs r 2 × Fs2 + E × A s 8 × E × I × (Ws + Wi . 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) I = [(Tubing OD)4 . 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels © 2003 WEATHERFORD. Fluid Wt.

TX USA 1.D.000 35.D.900” O.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tubing Stretch .000 40.D . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 9000 8000 7000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Page 2-10 Houston. All Rights Reserved 1. API Tubing 0 5.000 25.660" O.1.000 30. API Tubing 6000 Depth (FT) 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 SLACK-OFF.000 15.000 10.660” O.000 20.

D.000 15.000 Tubing Stretch .000 25.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 6000 Depth (FT) 110 130 120 140 150 170 160 180 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF.000 10.1.000 35.000 45.900" O. All Rights Reserved D.000 20.000 40. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 50. API Tubing 10000 9000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston. TX USA Page 2-11 Pull on Tubing (LBS) . API Tubing 0 5.000 30.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.

Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 30. API Tubing 6000 Depth (FT) 170 180 110 120 140 130 150 160 SLACK-OFF.000 50.375” O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 9000 8000 7000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Page 2-12 Houston. API Tubing 0 10.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tubing Stretch .D . All Rights Reserved 2.2 1/16" O.000 40.D.063” O.000 20.D.000 60. TX USA 2.

000 lbs Tension 37” Stretch ∴String Length = 8000 ft EXAMPLE Depth (FT) 2-3/8" O. API Tubing 10.D. TX USA Page 2-13 Pull on Tubing (LBS) . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Tubing Stretch 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 10000 9000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston.000 10.000 20. All Rights Reserved 0 5.D. API Tubing 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF.000 ft Depth © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 15.000 25.000 30.000 2 4 6 8 10 15.

500 1.875” O.000 12. TX USA 2.500 Depth (FT) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 2-3/8" O.500 10.D.375” O.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 7. API Tubing 15.000 50. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 15. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.000 90.000 20.D .000 5.D.000 ft Depth 0 10.000 80.000 40.000 Page 2-14 Houston.000 2.000 100. All Rights Reserved 2.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 60.000 30.000 70.

TX USA Page 2-15 .000 6 15.D.000 40.000 25. API Tubing 10.10000 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 9000 2-7/8" O.000 30.000 10 3000 1000 Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 8 20.000 4 10. All Rights Reserved D.000 35.000 ft Depth Houston. API Tubing SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 8000 7000 Depth (FT) 6000 Tubing Stretch 5000 4000 2 2000 0 5.

000 130.500” O.000 12.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 7. All Rights Reserved 2.000 40.000 140.000 80.D .D. API Tubing SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 15.000 30.875” O.000 2.000 100.000 5.000 Page 2-16 Houston.000 50. TX USA 3.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 110.000 ft Depth 0 10.500 Depth (FT) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 2-7/8" O.000 120. API Tubing 15.000 20.500 1.000 90.000 70.000 60.500 10.D.000 150.

000 ft Depth © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 35.000 2 4 6 8 10 Depth (FT) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 3-1/2" O.000 70.000 15.000 30.000 20. API Tubing 10.000 60. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Tubing Stretch 10000 9000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston.000 45.000 40.D.000 50.000 10.000 55.000 65.D. All Rights Reserved 0 5.000 25. TX USA Page 2-17 Pull on Tubing (LBS) . API Tubing 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF.

000 ft Depth 0 10.000 50.D. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.500 10.500” O.000 70.500” O.000 60.500 1.000 20.000 150.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 90.000 110. All Rights Reserved 3.D .D.000 130.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 3-1/2" O.000 100.000 12. API Tubing 15.000 140. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 7.000 80. TX USA 4.000 40.000 5.000 2.500 Depth (FT) 300 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 15.000 30.000 120.000 Page 2-18 Houston.

12.75# API Tubing to 15.6/12.000 ft Depth Page 2-19 .SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA D. All Rights Reserved Houston.

D .D.500” O.SLACK-OFF.000 ft Depth 7. All Rights Reserved Houston. 17# API Tubing to 20.000” O. TX USA Page 2-20 5. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA Page 2-21 .000 ft Depth Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 29# API Tubing to 20. All Rights Reserved D.SLACK-OFF.

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. The number of inches to slack-off tells how much weight has been transferred from the elevators to some point within the well. While slackingoff. Friction between tubing & casing Steel Compression Steel compresses at the same rate as it stretches.000# down will also compress the same sample six inches. From the charts. you will see that 3-1/2” tubing in 7” casing accommodates little buckling. while 2-3/8” tubing in 9-5/8” casing allows for considerably more buckling. it does not completely describe the mechanics of slack-off. All Rights Reserved Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Slacking off the tubing. However. or the indictor available is not functioning properly. you still don’t know how much of this weight will be transferred to bottom. or helix. its buckled shape follows the contour of the casing forming a corkscrew shape. and the annular space available to accommodate buckling. it will not tell you how much of this weight went into friction. Buckling Slacking-off weight on drill pipe.D . Buckling inside casing 3. TX USA Page 2-22 1. and how much went to bottom. the casing ID. Slack-off charts give the amount of tubing to slack off to get a pre-determined weight set down on the tool or seal assembly. Example: Refer to the 2-7/8” Slack-off chart for an example of these calculations. you lose inches due to steel compression.000# stretches a simple six inches.660” O. As you can see. Steel compression 2. or tubing. SLACK-OFF. When tubing buckles inside casing. has three resultant effects on the string: 1. While this simple principle is involved in the slack-off charts. 20. When you have calculated how many inches to slack-off. the number of inches to slack-off to account for buckling will be dependent on the tubing OD. into a well. has a tendency to buckle the string. Assuming that steel is perfectly elastic throughout the range of compression or stretch. the tubing will buckle outward until it contacts the wall of the casing. if 20.LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF CHARTS There may be times when you are required to operate a tool without a benefit of a weight indicator. If there is space between the tubing and casing. The following ten charts show the number of inches to slack-off to account for steel compression and buckling. friction is not taken into account. and you also lose inches due to the sideways movement of tubing buckling.

TX USA Page 2-23 SLACK-OFF.D. All Rights Reserved D. API Tubing Houston. 2.4# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 8000 6000 7" 80 5 1/2" 4000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 50 4 1/2" 40 2000 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.660" O.1. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 10000 .

900" O. API Tubing 2. TX USA Page 2-24 1.9# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 10000 8000 SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 7" 6000 90 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 80 5 1/2" 70 4000 Slackoff Inches 60 50 40 4 1/2" 2000 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D . 2. All Rights Reserved Houston.900” O.D.063” O.1.D.

25# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 90 10000 8000 80 6000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 4000 50 7" 8 5/8" 40 30 2000 5 1/2" 20 4 1/2" 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. API Tubing Houston. All Rights Reserved D.2 1/16" O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) . 3. TX USA Page 2-25 SLACK-OFF.D.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 90 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 80 8000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 9 5/8" 40 4000 8 5/8" 7" 30 20 2000 5 1/2" 10 4 1/2" 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.875” O. API Tubing 2.7# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 SLACK-OFF.D.D .375” O.2 3/8" O. TX USA Page 2-26 2. 4. All Rights Reserved Houston.D.

API Tubing Houston.5# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 100 EXAMPLE EXAMPLE: 90 80 12000 70 10000 Slackoff Inches 60 8000 50 6000 40 30 9 5/8" 4000 20 8 5/8" 2000 10 7" 5 1/2" 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 6. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Using 2 7/8" tubing tubing in 9 5/8" casing Using 2-7/8” inside 9-5/8” at 8000 feet: casing at 8000 ft.D.000 lbs results in: 19" Buckling 19” Buckling 35" Steel Compression 35” Steel Compression 54" Total 54” Total Slack-off . TX USA Page 2-27 SLACK-OFF.2 7/8" O. Slackoff of 20. All Rights Reserved D.000# results in: Slacking-Off 20.

3# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) SLACK-OFF.D .000 lbs Slack-off 3.3 1/2" O.D. API Tubing to 60.500” O. 9. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 90 10000 80 8000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 40 4000 30 8 5/8" 20 9 5/8" 2000 7" 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 2-28 3.500” O.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA Page 2-29 . All Rights Reserved D.D.3 1/2" O. API Tubing to 120. 9. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 130 9 5/8" 120 110 100 8 5/8" 8000 Slackoff Inches 90 80 70 60 6000 50 40 7" 30 4000 20 10 2000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.3# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 150 10000 140 SLACK-OFF.000 lbs Slack-off Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston. 12.D. 12.500” O.D .500” O.75# API Tubing 5.D.4 1/2" O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 13 3/8" 100 8000 90 Slackoff Inches 80 10 3/4" 70 60 6000 50 9 5/8" 40 30 8 5/8" 4000 20 7" 10 2000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 2-30 4.75# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 120 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 110 SLACK-OFF.6/12.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 8000 80 70 13 3/8" Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 40 30 4000 10 3/4" 20 9 5/8" 10 8 5/8" 2000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.5 1/2" O.D. All Rights Reserved D. TX USA Page 2-31 . 17# API Tubing Houston. 17# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 10000 SLACK-OFF.

7" O.D.000” O.D. TX USA Page 2-32 7. 29# API Tubing 225 250 275 300 . All Rights Reserved Houston. 29# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 100 10000 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 8000 80 70 Slackoff Inches 60 50 6000 40 30 4000 13 3/8" 20 10 10 3/4" 2000 9 5/8" 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

The logic is that even though you don’t have the same radial clearance for buckling. All Rights Reserved Houston. . is available for slack-off. As more and more of the tubing comes in contact with the casing wall. Slacking off this amount of weight. depending on the type and operating characteristics of the particular tool involved. not at the surface. When running the second string of a dual string of tubing. at surface. the condition of the casing ID. a portion of the additional slack-off is lost due to friction between the tubing and casing. however. The friction has become so great between the tubing and casing that it will not allow any more weight to pass to bottom. the more it can buckle and the greater the friction force. you will reach a point where the friction force is enough to support the weight of the rest of the string. It should be understood that to calculate how much weight will get to bottom. It should be noticed that after slacking off so much weight. and a number of other variables. The smaller the tubing. as published in the technical insert. they have been found to be reasonably accurate. you have the problem of estimating how much of this weight actually gets down to the tool. additional slack-off transfers very little additional weight to bottom. There are a number of options available at this point. This implies that the tubing has buckled into a helix. Values obtained should be considered estimated. a coefficient of friction must be assumed. This frictional force will eventually be capable of supporting more weight than can be applied by the string. treat it as if it were the first string. to be used. The effects of friction are highly dependent upon the fluid in the casing. you will not be able to get any more weight to bottom. Please consult the Weatherford Packer technical insert for options. the condition of the tubing OD. All charts assume that the weight. TX USA Page 2-33 SLACK-OFF.SLACK-OFF WEIGHT ON PACKER CHARTS Slack-Off Weight Actually Reaching Bottom The following charts estimate how much force will get to bottom for a tubing/casing configuration. there is the added friction of the primary string. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Whether you intend to slack off weight using inches. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. At this point. Once the tubing has been buckled into contact with the casing wall. does not mean that the weight is available at the tool. The amount of weight necessary to set a packer. is the weight required at the tool. for a given casing size. These slack-off charts were not put in this calculation handbook to be used as absolute numbers. This added friction offsets the benefit of reduced annular clearance. or by the weight indicator.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 3500 5 1/2" 3000 7" Force On Packer 2500 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D .D.660" O. 2. TX USA Page 2-34 1.1.900” O. API Tubing 1.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.660” O.4# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 4000 SLACK-OFF.

All Rights Reserved D.D. API Tubing Houston.1.9# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 6000 SLACK-OFF.900" O. TX USA Page 2-35 . 2. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 5000 5 1/2" 4000 Force On Packer 7" 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA Page 2-36 2.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.25# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF. API Tubing 2.2 1/16" O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 8000 7000 4 1/2" 6000 5 1/2" Force On Packer 5000 7" 8 5/8" 4000 9 5/8" 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D.D .063” O.375” O. 3.

7# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 14000 SLACK-OFF.2 3/8" O. 4.D. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 12000 Force On Packer 10000 5 1/2" 7" 8000 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 6000 4000 2000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. API Tubing Houston. TX USA Page 2-37 . All Rights Reserved D.

6.2 7/8" O.000 lbs Slackoff 20.D .5# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 20000 SLACK-OFF.875” O.200 lbs reaching the packer 6000 packer.500” O.D. All Rights Reserved Houston. 4000 2000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 18000 5 1/2" 16000 7" Force On Packer 14000 8 5/8" 12000 9 5/8" 10000 EXAMPLE EXAMPLE: 8000 Using 2 7/8" tubing in 9-5/8” Using 2-7/8” tubing inside 9 5/8" casing casing.D. Slack-off 20.500# reaches the Only 10. TX USA Page 2-38 2. API Tubing 3.000# Results Onlyin: 10.

D. 9. All Rights Reserved D. TX USA Page 2-39 SLACK-OFF.3# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 40000 5 1/2" 30000 7" Force On Packer 25000 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. API Tubing Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 35000 .3 1/2" O.

D .6/12. TX USA Page 2-40 4.75# API Tubing 5.D. All Rights Reserved Houston. 12. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 70000 60000 7" Force On Packer 50000 9 5/8" 40000 10 3/4" 30000 13 3/8" 20000 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D.75# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF. 12.4 1/2" O.500” O.500” O.

TX USA Page 2-41 SLACK-OFF. 17# API Tubing Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 70000 .5 1/2" O.D. 17# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 80000 9 5/8" 10 3/4" 60000 13 3/8" Force On Packer 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved D.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 200000 9 5/8" 175000 10 3/4" 150000 Force On Packer 125000 13 3/8" 100000 75000 50000 25000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.7" O.000” O. TX USA Page 2-42 7.D.D. All Rights Reserved Houston. 29# API Tubing 200 225 250 . 17# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.SLACK-OFF. TX USA Page 2-43 .

............. API Tubing .... TX USA Page 3-1 SECTION 4 ............................875” O............................................................. 13 TEMPERATURE EFFECT CHARTS ............................................ 6 BALLOONING EFFECT CALCULATIONS ........................... 8 Tubing Pressure Component .............. 22 .... 15 2.......660” O...............................D................................ 29# API Tubing .................................................... 17# API Tubing ...... 18 3.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 1.. 7 Ballooning Force ..........500” O..............................75# API Tubing ..................063” O.............................................................. API Tubing .................. 16 2............. 5 Length from the Packer to the Neutral Point ...................................... All Rights Reserved Houston.. 4 BUCKLING EFFECT FORMULAE .... API Tubing ..............................................................SECTION 3 ..............................500” O... 12 Temperature Force ......D................................ 10 Temperature Effect Calculations ................................................. 7 Length Change ............. 4 Piston Force ............................D............................... 8 Annulus Pressure Component ...... 20 5....... API Tubing .......................................................................................................... API Tubing ............................................................ API Tubing ....................................PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS TUBING WEIGHT FACTORS ...................................375” O.......900” O...............000” O........D.. 7 BALLOONING FORCE CHARTS ..................................6/12...........D................. 12 Length Change ................ 19 4............................................PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD..............................D.............. 12 Elongation of Tubing Due to Temperature when Running in the Hole ............................................................................................................................................................................. 12.......................... 5 Length Change .D................................... 14 1. 17 2........ 5 Corrected Length Change Due to Buckling ............D......................D............. 21 7....... 3 PISTON EFFECT FORMULAE ............... 4 Length Change ................... 9 TEMPERATURE EFFECT .....................................................................................500” O..............

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 3-2 Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 3-3 .PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

PISTON EFFECT FORMULAE PISTON FORCE F1 = ∆Po(Ap – Ao) .D. 30 x 106 psi (for carbon steels) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . (in2) ∆Po = Change in total annular pressure at packer (psi) ∆Pi = Change in total tubing pressure at packer (psi) ∆L1 = F1 × L E × As LENGTH CHANGE Where: ∆L 1 = Change in length of the tubing string (in) L = Length of the tubing (in) F1 = Piston Effect Force change (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity.D.∆Pi(Ap – Ai) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Where: F1 = Piston Effect Force change (lbf) Ap = Packer valve area (in2) Ao = Area of the tubing O. All Rights Reserved Page 3-4 Houston. (in2) Ai = Area of the tubing I.

8 × E × I × (W s + W i .(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo =(Tubing OD)2 x . All Rights Reserved Houston. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) I = [(Tubing OD)4 .0034 x Final Ann.Po final] ( W s + W i . This distance may also be referred to as the length of buckled tubing.0034 x Final Tbg. A p = Packer valve area (in2) Pi final = Total tubing pressure at the packer that will exist for the given condition(psi) Po final = Total annulus pressure at the packer that will exist for the given condition(psi) Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. Fluid Wt. Fluid Wt.(lb/gal) LENGTH FROM THE PACKER TO THE NEUTRAL POINT n = Ap × [Pi final . TX USA Page 3-5 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆Po = Change in the total annulus pressure at the packer (psi) ∆Po = (Po final .Po initial) .(Tubing ID)4] x π ÷ 64 Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x .Pi initial) E = Modulus of elasticity.∆ Po ) .BUCKLING EFFECT FORMULAE LENGTH CHANGE 2 r 2 × Ap × ( ∆ Pi .W o) 2 ∆ L2 = Where: ∆L 2 = Length change due to buckling (in) r = Radial clearance between the tubing and the casing (in) r = [(Casing ID -Tubing OD) ÷ 2] Ap = Packer valve area (in2) ∆Pi = Change in the total tubing pressure at the packer (psi) ∆Pi = (Pi final .W o) Where: n = The distance from the packer to the neutral point (in).

0034 x Final Ann.( )] n n Where: PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆L’2 = Length change due to buckling when neutral point is above wellhead (in) ∆L 2 = Length change due to buckling (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) n = The distance from the packer to the neutral point (in) This distance may also be referred to as the length of buckled tubing.(lb/gal) CORRECTED LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO BUCKLING ∆L'2 = ∆L 2 × L L × [2 . Fluid Wt. TX USA . Fluid Wt.(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo = (Tubing OD)2 x .Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x . © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 3-6 Houston.0034 x Final Tbg.

. (in2) ∆Pia = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Ai = Area of the tubing I. .∆Pia × E (R2 . TX USA Page 3-7 .∆Pia Ai) Where: = Ballooning Effect Force change (lbf) ∆Poa = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Ao = Area of the tubing O.3 for steel E = Modulus of elasticity.6(∆Poa Ao .D. (in2) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS F3 Length Change ∆ L3 = 2 × L × γ (R2 × ∆Poa) .1) Where: ∆L 3 = Change in length (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) γ = Poissons ratio. squared [where R2 = (OD ÷ ID)2] © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.D.BALLOONING EFFECT CALCULATIONS Ballooning Force ∆F3 = . 30 x 106 psi for carbon steel ∆Pia = Change in average tubing pressure (psi) ∆Poa = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) R2 = Ratio of the tubing O.D. to the tubing I.

Ballooning Effect
40,000

35,000

3 1/2

2 7/8

EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE:
Positive
pressure change
Positive pressure change
of
7500psi @ surface in 2of 7,500 PSI @ surface in
7/8”
tubing
results
in a
2 7/8" tubing
results
in
21,000
lbs force
force when
21,000# tension
tubing
is anchored
when latched.

30,000

Force Acting on Tubing (LBS)

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

2 3/8

25,000

2 1/16
20,000
1.900

15,000
1.660

10,000

5,000

0
15000

12500

10000

7500

5000

2500

0

Surface Pressure Change in Tubing (PSI)

BALLOONING FORCE CHARTS
© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

Page 3-8

TUBING PRESSURE COMPONENT

Annulus P

Reverse Ballooning Effect
3 1/2

40,000

2 7/8

2 3/8

30,000

2 1/16

25,000

1.900

20,000

1.660

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
15000

12500

10000

7500

5000

2500

0

Surface Pressure Change in Casing (PSI)

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Pressure Component

Houston, TX USA

Page 3-9

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

Force Acting on Tubing (LBS)

35,000

TEMPERATURE EFFECT
Temperature Effects on Tubing Length Due to Injecting Cold Fluids
Heated metal expands and cooled metal contracts. In a long string of tubing with a
temperature change over it’s entire length, this expansion or contraction can be
considerable and run to several feet.
When a well is completed the tubing takes on the temperature gradient of the
surrounding geology, and settles down to an average length.
The main areas where temperature effects are prevalent are:

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

Production
When the hotter fluids from the formation are produced up the tubing string the
average temperature of the tubing will increase. The amount of temperature increase
will be dependent upon the reservoir temperature and the rate of flow. This will cause
the tubing to expand and so lengthen if free to move. If the lower end of the tubing
is anchored to the packer, then a compressive force is applied to the packer and the
tubing may begin to buckle. The type and extent of buckling will be dependent upon
the OD of the tubing and the ID of the production casing.
Steam Injection
As with production the injection of steam will increase the average temperature of
the tubing and the same effects will be apparent. The main difference with steam
injection over production is that the effects will take place in a much shorter period
of time and tend to be more extreme.
Fluid Injection
The most common situation for the service tool hand is the injecting of cold fluids
(as encountered during stimulation operations, hydraulic fracturing treatments and
sand-control completions) which are almost always colder than the well temperature
and tend to shorten the string.
This shortening can pick up a tubing expansion device (PBR, TSR, locator seal
assembly, etc.) or rob set down weight from a compression set packer. In extreme
cases the tensile strength of the tubing may be exceeded and the tubing may part.
When determining the effects of temperature, there are a number of important
points that have to be taken into consideration:
• If the well is on production, or fluid is being injected, the temperature of the tubing
is assumed to be the same as the fluid inside it. If the well is static, or shut-in,
the tubing temperature is assumed to be the same as the surrounding fluid.
• The temperature of any unheated injection fluid is assumed to be the same as
the ambient air temperature at the well site, unless it is heated by some method.
• During production or remedial operations (fluid injection), assume that the entire
length of the tubing will heat up, or cool down, to the temperature of the produced,
or injected, fluids. This may not always be the case depending on the duration
but making the assumption will allow for calculation of the worst case scenario.
• Temperature effects are not always felt immediately at the packer, as it can take
from several minutes to several hours for the tubing string to completely heat up
or cool down. It is generally assumed that the temperature effect will occur
immediately, so that it can be considered to act at the same time as all of the
other effects, again this will give the worst case scenario.
• The temperature of injection fluids will vary with the ambient temperature of the
injected fluids. In extreme cases, mainly during the winter, this effect can be
extremely severe.
© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Page 3-10

Houston, TX USA

such as waterfloods. the bottom of the string was cooled to within 4°F of the injection fluid temperature. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. This assumption results in maximum tubing movement. even at the lowest rate and the shortest time.Example: 7000 ft depth 210°F BHT 60°F Fluid 2-7/8” Tubing Water in annulus Injection rate of 2 BPM (barrels/minute) for 1 hour brings the temperature at the bottom of the string down to 83°F Injecting at 4 BPM for 1 hour would yield 72°F Injecting at 6 BPM for 1 hour would yield 68°F Injecting at 2 BPM for 6 hours would yield 62°F At these rates and times. will cool the string down to the temperature of the injected fluid. PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Example: 10. In the 6-hour test. TX USA Page 3-11 . Injection for long periods.000 feet depth 270°F BHT 60°F Injection Fluid 2-7/8” Tubing Injection rate of 2 BPM for 1 hour would bring the temperature of the bottom of the string down to 102°F Injecting at 4BPM for 1 hour would yield 83°F Injecting at 6BPM for 1 hour would yield 76°F Injecting at 2BPM for 6 hours would yield 64°F In the preceding examples. the bottom of the string is cooled 168°F. temperature of the bottom of the string is brought down close to the temperature of the injected fluid. For a hydraulic fracturing or acid treatment. it is accepted practice to make calculations based on the string being cooled to the injection fluid temperature. All Rights Reserved Houston.

Temp. . . . Avg. Tbg. All Rights Reserved Page 3-12 Houston. Tbg.Init. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. Temp. Temp. ∆ L4 = L × β × ∆T t Length Change Where: ∆L 4 = Length change due to the temperature effect (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) β = Coefficient of thermal expansion for steel. Avg. TX USA .TEMPERATURE EFFECT CALCULATIONS ∆ F 4 = 207 × A s × ∆ T Temperature Force Where: F4 = Temperature Effect Force change (lbf) As = Tubing cross sectional area (in2) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆T = Change in average tubing temperature (oF) ∆T = Final Avg. Tbg. Temp.0000069 in/in/oF ∆T = Change in average tubing temperature (oF) ∆T = Final Avg.Init. Tbg.

TX USA Page 3-13 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Where: ∆L L β . The average temperature of the string in the well is taken to be the mean yearly temperature (70°F) averaged with the BHT. please consult the stretch charts. should length be required. © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0000069 in/in/oF for steel) Change in average tubing temperature (oF) The average temperature of the string before running is assumed to be the ambient air temperature.Charts The following charts are calculated based on the ambient conditions referenced. To calculate this elongation. you can use the simple Lubinski formula for tubing movement due to temperature: ∆L = L x β x ∆T x 12 = = = ∆T = Length change (in) Length of tubing string (ft) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (0. The output of the charts is in units of force (lbs). Elongation of Tubing Due to Temperature when Running in the Hole Tubing will elongate due to temperature when run in the hole. All Rights Reserved Houston.

000 40 32.660" O.000 140 18.000 8.000 60 30.000 6. API TUBING 1. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 1.000 26.000 120 22.000 160 16.D.000 200 10.000 2.000 20 36.40.900” O .000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 34.000 12. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 38. TX USA Page 3-14 1.660” O.000 100 24.000 4.000 20.000 180 14.D.000 80 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 28.

000 60 36.000 10.000 24.000 140 22.000 160 20. TX USA Page 3-15 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 120 26.000 14.000 6.000 18.000 80 32.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 34.000 2.900" O.000 28.000 .000 8. All Rights Reserved O.D.000 4.000 100 30.40.D. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 40 38.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 1. API TUBING Houston.000 180 16.000 200 12.

000 10.000 80 38.000 0 20 40 46. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 48.000 60 42.000 4.000 44.000 2.000 18.000 14.000 40.063” O.D.375” O .000 32.000 12.000 28. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 140 26.D.000 180 20.000 100 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 34.000 120 30.000 8. API TUBING 2.000 36.50.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 160 22.000 200 16. TX USA Page 3-16 2.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 1/16" O.000 24.000 6.

000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved O.000 15. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 60 55.000 200 20.60. TX USA Page 3-17 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 40 .000 180 25.D.000 10.000 120 40.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 3/8" O.000 140 35.D.000 160 30.000 100 45. API TUBING Houston.000 5.000 80 50.

000 20. in a well with 300 degree F Results in: in 38.000 80 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 70.D.100. API TUBING 3. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature ( ) -20 0 20 EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE Injecting 80 80odegree F fluid in a well with Injecting F fluid o 300 F BHT.000 10. TX USA Page 3-18 2.000 40 60 80.500” O .500 lbs tension force tension force.000 160 40.875” O. 90.000 140 50.000 180 200 30.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.500# BHT results 38.D.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 7/8" O. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 100 120 60.

D. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 40 60 110.000 . API TUBING Houston.000 200 40.000 10.000 80 100.000 180 50.000 100 90.120. TX USA Page 3-19 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 80.000 20.D.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved O.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 3 1/2" O.000 30.000 120 140 70.000 160 60.

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 3-20 4. 12. All Rights Reserved Houston.500” O .75# API TUBING 5.D.500” O.6/12.

TX USA Page 3-21 .PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved O.D. 17# API TUBING Houston.

000” O.PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 3-22 7.D. 29# API TUBING . All Rights Reserved Houston.

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 3-23 .

............................................... 10 Natural Gas Pressure vs.......................................000 ft .............................. 13 FLUID DENSITY AND PRESSURE .................. BHP to 20.................................................FLUID GRADIENTS ............FLUID GRADIENTS FLUID GRADIENT & PRESSURE FORMULAE .................................................... 3 Liquid Gradients ...................... 4 Slurry Gradients ..... BHP to 10.......... 14 FLUID GRADIENTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD............................ 4 Hydrostatic Pressure ............ 12 GAS FLUID DENSITY TABLE ....................... TX USA Page 4-1 SECTION 3 ............ 4 Chart of Fluid Gradient vs....................... 11 Natural Gas Pressure vs.................................................... All Rights Reserved Houston.....................................000 ft ......................................... BHP to 10. 8 Nitrogen Pressure vs....................................................... 6 GAS PRESSURE AT SURFACE VS.................................. 5 Fluid Gradient Tables ........ BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE ... 3 Fluid Gradient vs................................ Slurry Density .......................SECTION 4 ..................... BHP to 20........000 ft ......000 ft ......... Slurry Density ...................................................................... 9 Nitrogen Pressure vs...

TX USA .FLUID GRADIENTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 4-2 Houston.

To properly operate that tool.144 lb/gallon.2 #/gal gelled brine adding 2 pounds of sand per gallon of fluid. you will need to know the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a column of this slurry.264 #/Gal Slurry FLUID GRADIENTS #/Gal Slurry Note: This is the fluid density used to calculate hydrostatic pressure.0456 x 2) + 1] = 10.052 = 0. Use the calculation procedure from the preceding chapter to determine pressures at the tool. Calculate fluid gradient = 10. Densities of Sand/Fluid Slurries: #/Gal Slurry = (MW + PSA)÷ [(. TX USA Page 4-3 . = (9.0456 x PSA) + 1] where: MW PSA = #/gal of fluid = pounds of sand added per gallon of fluid Example of Calculation: The customer tells you he is going to pump 500 bbls of 9. All Rights Reserved Houston. based on the true density of the sand being 22. SLURRY DENSITY (HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXERTED BY FLUID/SAND MIXTURES) On occasion you may be required to operate a tool in the presence of a sand laden slurry.2 + 2) ÷ [(. © 2003 WEATHERFORD.534 psi/ft NOTE: The chart on the next page depicts the graphical solution to this example.264 x 0. The following chart will provide fluid gradient factors needed in making this calculation.FLUID GRADIENT & PRESSURE FORMULAE FLUID GRADIENT VS.

007 where.052 where. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/gal) Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = MW x . All Rights Reserved Page 4-4 Houston. o API = API scale of Specific Gravity for Oil FLUID GRADIENTS SLURRY GRADIENTS Slurry Gradient (psi/ft) = ( [ MW + (lbs of sand added per gal)] ) × .LIQUID GRADIENTS Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = MW x . SG = Specific Gravity of Fluid Liquid gradient (psi /ft) = 61.27 (131. LG = Liquid gradient (psi/ft) L = Vertical Depth (ft) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .5 + o API) where.052 1 + [(. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/gal) HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = LG x L where.433 where.0456 gal/lb) x (lbs of sand added per gal)] where. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/ft3) Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = SG x .

32 .42 EXAMPLE . TX USA Page 4-5 Chart of Fluid Gradient vs.60 .36 .Fluid Gradient .88 13 .84 12 .30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pounds Sand Added © 2003 WEATHERFORD.54 . All Rights Reserved Houston.74 .80 .76 9 .68 7 .78 10 .64 .66 6 .38 .Slurry Density .70 .48 .2 lb/gal Fluid 2 lb sand/gal added Fluid Gradient = .56 Diagonal Curved Lines = Density of Carrier Fluid (LB/GAL) .62 .50 .34 .82 11 .86 .52 FLUID GRADIENTS Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) .90 .72 8 .40 9.44 .58 .46 . Slurry Density .534 psi/ft .

83 67.29 80.84 64.29 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.3286 0.572 6.760 6.4331 0.600 10.685 7.3748 0.32 68.4331 60 55 50 48 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 15 12 10 Weight (#/GAL) Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Weight (#/cu ft) 8.5299 0.5506 0.4571 0.000 9.3376 0.3200 0.80 79.337 0.3491 0.400 9.81 73.4364 0.799 6.259 7.959 7.79 82.4779 0.878 6.128 7.800 10.3414 0.3842 0.3552 0.3771 0.890 8.32 71.200 9.586 7.052 8.000 10.4468 0.5714 62.304 7.82 70.4099 0.4183 0.000 0.3452 0.5610 0.31 74.215 7.3891 0.3573 0.5403 0. TX USA .220 8.3725 0.FLUID GRADIENTS Fluid Gradient Table Weight (#/GAL) Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Density API Gravity 6.042 7.786 7.3703 0.490 7.918 6.33 65.5091 0.4883 0.325 6.499 6.085 7.3658 0.400 8.4045 0.3532 0.3512 0.200 10.171 7.600 9.600 8.721 6.4987 0.37 62.396 7. All Rights Reserved Page 4-6 Gradient Tables Houston.3992 0.81 76.337 8.30 77.3637 0.5195 0.001 7.3615 0.3941 0.160 6.800 11.3794 0.4270 0.4675 0.400 10.800 9.3594 0.646 6.838 6.3681 0.

8312 0.74 103.25 95.6649 0.6753 0.000 12.6338 0.9766 0.600 14.22 110.600 17.9247 0.6130 0.200 18.78 85.16 131.66 130.000 13.9870 0.68 124.400 14.000 17.6857 0.7584 0.7896 0.600 19.77 88.400 12.77 91.22 107.12 146.21 113.200 14.66 133.400 17.28 86.9143 0.67 127.17 128.8104 0.000 0.8935 0.400 15.62 148.800 13.76 94.200 15.63 142.24 101.9455 0.20 116.000 15.27 89.7273 0.6026 0.19 119.9662 0.18 125.6961 0.72 109.15 134.0182 1.61 FLUID GRADIENTS Weight (#/GAL) Steel = 65 PPG © 2003 WEATHERFORD.400 19.600 15.11 149.7377 0.800 19.74 100.600 18.200 16.18 122.9039 0.000 19.8208 0.14 140.400 11.000 18.73 106.400 16.800 16.9351 0.63 145.13 143.5818 0.8519 0.75 97.8727 0.70 118. All Rights Reserved Houston.23 104.7481 0.800 12.8416 0.600 12.7688 0.Fluid Gradient Table Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Weight (#/cu ft) 11.200 13.400 18.6545 0.400 13.71 112.200 17.7065 0.200 12.800 20.0078 1.64 139.6442 0.800 14.7792 0.0286 1.25 98.800 18.65 136.9558 0.7169 0.800 15.5922 0.800 17.26 92.9974 1. TX USA Page 4-7 .200 19.8831 0.69 121.600 11.000 16.600 13.8000 0.70 115.200 11.6234 0.15 137.600 16.8623 0.000 14.0390 83.

000 foot deep vertical well. On a 10.016°F per foot geothermal temperature gradient. To present a simplified graph of bottom hole pressure and hydrostatic pressure with different wellhead pressures. TX USA . and temperature. this would equate to 230°F BHT. Being a gas. To use the chart on the following page. read across to the well depth. volume. calculate the bottom hole pressure at the tool (hydrostatic of the column of fluid). then down to get nitrogen pressure at the wellhead. we must assume a surface temperature and temperature gradient. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE Bottom Hole Pressure for a Column of Nitrogen It is often necessary to calculate the bottom hole pressure for a well displaced with nitrogen gas. FLUID GRADIENTS The density. The difference between bottom hole pressure and the nitrogen pressure at the wellhead is the hydrostatic head of the column of nitrogen gas.GAS PRESSURE AT SURFACE VS. and hence the weight. The primary purpose of calculating the bottom hole pressure of a column of nitrogen is to balance fluids across a packer. It is not to be used to calculate bottom hole pressure. It is well known that temperatures are not the same in all wells at a specific depth. but an average temperature is assumed for this graph. increases with an increase in pressure and decreases with an increase in temperature. All Rights Reserved Page 4-8 Houston. This average will be 70°F at surface with a 0. its weight changes with temperature and pressure according to the “Perfect Gas Law” PV = nRT This formula is presented for your information only to show the linear relationship between pressure.

All Rights Reserved Houston.000 1.000 5000 5.000 10000 6.000 FLUID GRADIENTS Bottom Hole Pressure (PSI) Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 3.000 2.000 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 N2 Wellhead Pressure (PSI) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.Nitrogen Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of . TX USA Page 4-9 Nitrogen Pressure vs. BHP to 10.000 7.000 ft .000 2500 4.96685 with Respect to Air 8.

000 0 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA 15000 10000 5000 0 N2 Wellhead Pressure .000 ft Houston. BHP to 20.000 20000 15000 10000 Bottom Hole Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS 20.000 10.96685 with Respect to Air 30.000 5. All Rights Reserved Page 4-10 Pressure vs.000 5000 15.Nitrogen Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 25.

000 ft .000 2.000 1.000 3.000 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure (PSI) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 5000 2500 4. BHP to 10.000 FLUID GRADIENTS Bottom Hole Pressure (PSI) 5. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 4-11 Natural Gas Pressure vs.650 with Respect to Air 7.000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 10000 6.Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .

All Rights Reserved Page 4-12 as Pressure vs.Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .000 0 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 10000 Bottom Hole Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS 5000 15. TX USA 15000 10000 5000 1000 Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure .650 with Respect to Air 25.000 5. BHP to 20.000 10.000 ft Houston.000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 20000 15000 20.

178 3.000 3.18 0.43 0.317 6.43 0.200 10.67 0.291 5.800 11.68 0.165 3.10 0.800 9.200 5.27 0.800 13.43 0.235 4.800 6.600 3.77 0.191 3.026 0.400 1.161 3.057 1.02 0.85 0.400 5.77 0.213 4.170 3.75 0.274 5.35 0.03 0.135 2.25 0.800 7.326 6.005 0.200 4.43 0.10 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.10 0.68 0.400 3.68 0.95 0.000 1.000 10.17 0.200 14.200 1.68 0.35 0.400 2.00 0.118 2.269 5.35 0. TX USA GAS FLUID DENSITY TABLE Page 4-13 FLUID GRADIENTS 0 200 400 600 800 1.144 2.200 2.018 0.800 12.065 1.200 6.044 0.252 4.074 1.Gas Fluid Density Assumed Gas Gradient for Varied Pressures (For Dry Gas Specific Gravity 0.052 1.85 0.93 0.113 2.800 14.10 0.157 3.50 0.061 1.600 1.000 12.93 0.217 4.35 0.27 0.60 0.322 6.400 8.000 Gradient LBS/GAL 0.222 4.28 Houston.096 1.35 0.27 0.93 0.60 0.400 14.600 6.000 9.000 4.261 5.42 0.18 0.10 0.85 0.083 1.85 0.20 0.209 4.600 13.400 12.200 12.800 2.6 with respect to air) Pressure Gradient LBS/GAL 0.313 6.27 0.183 3.600 2.105 2.800 5.000 0.400 9.600 5.239 4.800 4.400 4.52 0.02 0.200 11.035 0.009 0.300 5.92 0.800 15.126 2.187 3.230 4.265 5.600 10.087 1.139 2.85 0.152 2.600 12.200 7.122 2.600 8.400 11.60 0.287 5.022 0.10 0.25 0.174 3.282 5.42 0.60 0.078 1.52 0.000 2.000 7.295 5.93 0.100 1.278 5.226 4.600 14.200 8.600 11.000 11.200 3.17 0.070 1.78 0.800 10.52 0.248 4.013 0.000 8.10 0. All Rights Reserved Pressure 7.18 0.02 0.200 9.600 9.304 5.200 13.000 14.309 5.039 0.109 2.091 1.800 8.35 0.196 3.000 5.256 4.600 7.000 6.60 0.60 0.031 0.50 0.85 0.200 3.52 0.400 13.400 .243 4.048 0.800 3.204 3.131 2.77 0.18 0.67 0.600 4.400 6.148 2.000 13.400 10.75 0.00 0.02 0.

357 0.99 51.0904 0.320 0.055 1.436 0.200 9.36 62.903 0.33 65.800 lb/cu ft 46. All Rights Reserved Houston.884 0.32 68.0965 0.738 0.871 0.031 1.127 1.031 1.1103 0.127 1.052 8.1007 0.825 0.433 0.31 48.933 0. TX USA Buoyancy Factor 0.488 0.83 64.1079 0.876 0.175 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.800 9.400 9.007 1.400 8.880 0.151 1.00 54.801 0.62 49.894 0.000 9.758 0.865 0.872 0.900 0.758 0.0779 0.600 8.779 0.849 .175 Page 4-14 lb/gal 6.0849 0.446 0.103 1.849 0.888 0.0738 0.1000 0.965 1.82 67.325 6.45 53.000 1.477 0.404 0.825 0.079 1.055 1.347 0.30 g/cc 0.38 58.160 6.457 0.81 73.600 9.328 0.1175 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.08 47.904 0.337 8.509 Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.498 0.683 6.368 0.0801 0.891 0.151 1.085 7.0825 0.103 1.779 0.862 0.467 0.897 0.000 1.379 0.418 0.23 62.876 0.82 70.24 60.876 0.0758 0.868 0.1031 0.537 7.304 7.336 0.1127 0.801 0.904 0.007 1.1151 0.852 0.738 0.Degrees API 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Specific Gravity 0.079 1.391 0.499 6.31 71.0933 0.0876 0.965 1.859 0.933 0.905 0.1055 0.856 0.878 7.786 8.849 0.64 56.

439 1.623 0.797 0.540 0.1223 0.822 0.535 1.600 12.644 0.1295 0.400 12.271 1.800 11.000 13.569 1.1487 0.199 1.816 0.79 79.75 94.415 1. All Rights Reserved Houston.1535 0.571 0.1319 0.24 98.602 0.000 11.559 1.78 82.487 1.400 10.561 0.200 13.800 0.25 95.223 1.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.463 1.600 11.75 97.607 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.1343 0.1415 0.529 0.200 12.1463 0.23 FLUID GRADIENTS Degrees API g/cc 1.247 1.343 1.825 0.27 89.1367 0.685 0.77 88.583 1.519 0.1199 0.295 1.415 1.831 0.000 10.319 1.1247 0.800 13.000 12.840 0.583 1.846 0.27 86.511 1.837 0.26 92.511 1.828 0.550 0.810 0.813 0.834 0.1439 0.806 0.343 1.696 Fluid Density and Pressure THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK Buoyancy Factor 0.391 1.1271 0.607 lb/gal 10.1583 0.80 76.633 0.1607 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.76 91. TX USA Page 4-15 Specific Gravity 1.367 1.1559 0.803 0.319 1.800 12.200 11.199 1.794 .200 10.439 1.30 77.1391 0.28 83.843 0.581 0.400 11.400 lb/cu ft 74.367 1.78 85.592 0.675 0.819 0.223 1.295 1.654 0.247 1.1511 0.664 0.391 1.535 1.271 1.612 0.29 80.74 100.487 1.600 10.463 1.

1799 0.1655 0.775 1.773 0.799 1.761 0.1823 0.742 0.16 g/cc 1.703 1.000 14.800 16.600 14.17 125.789 0.862 0.200 16.851 0.919 1.2039 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.748 0.67 127.847 1.1631 0.871 1.600 16.1991 0.799 0.Page 4-16 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.1727 0.764 0.1679 0.706 0.015 2.847 1.1775 0. TX USA Degrees API Specific Gravity 1.800 17.779 0.895 1.1967 0.943 1.967 1.1751 0.600 13.751 1.70 115.22 107.775 1.631 1.800 15.919 1.1847 0.000 15.655 1.039 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.21 110.943 1.820 0.400 15.799 1.23 104.810 0.200 15.991 2.727 0.600 15.872 0.737 0.751 1.20 116.768 0.2015 0.20 113.000 16.399 14.1943 0.831 0.895 1.788 0.782 0.679 1.716 0.1919 0.841 0.1895 0.631 1.785 0.1703 0.739 .745 0.655 1.767 0.68 121.72 106.727 1.19 119.800 14.757 0.000 lb/cu ft 101.703 1.967 1.748 0.754 0.73 103.1871 0.679 1.69 118.400 16. All Rights Reserved Houston.823 1.991 2.69 124.71 109.200 14.779 0.71 112.871 1.770 0.823 1.015 2.727 1.751 0.791 0.758 0.18 122.776 0.883 Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS Buoyancy Factor 0.039 lb/gal 13.

721 0.13 140.183 2.350 2.600 19.278 2.705 0.724 0.302 2.2183 0.200 18.11 149.702 0.699 0.712 0.64 139.66 130.696 0.2350 0.159 2.2087 0.65 133.736 0.183 2.018 1.2398 Fluid Head Buoyancy factor is used to compensate for loss of weight when steel tubulars are immersed in fluid.400 19.14 137.350 2.2135 0.111 2.903 0.087 2.2207 0.693 .12 143.800 19.935 0.087 2.302 2.733 0.231 2.2255 0. Applicable only when tubing or casing is completely filled with fluid.16 131.966 0.374 2.398 psi/ft 0.007 1.914 0.111 2.400 18.255 2.028 1.200 19.000 19.64 136.231 2.12 146.800 20.2374 0.987 0. Actual hook load = length of string (ft) x weight of string (lb/ft) x Buoyancy Factor.800 18.200 17.159 2.398 lb/gal 17.62 145.955 0.2159 0. TX USA Page 4-17 Specific Gravity 2.976 0.255 2.997 1.400 17.893 0.61 148.2302 0.61 g/cc 2.207 2.Houston. All Rights Reserved Buoyancy Factor 0.063 2.326 2. Degrees API (At 60 degrees F) Density Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.2231 0.063 2.600 18.326 2.207 2.715 0.2111 0.135 2.15 134.278 2.000 18.000 lb/cu ft 128.374 2.2326 0.924 0.2278 0.945 0.2063 0.135 2.718 0.730 0.63 142.727 0.038 kg/sq cm/m 0.600 17.708 0.

.........2-3/8” Tubing ...............3-1/2” Tubing ..................... All Rights Reserved Houston................... 3 TUBING ANCHOR TENSION FORCE FACTORS .............2-7/8” Tubing ............... 7 TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD..................................SECTION 5 ........ 4 Tension Force Tables .........................TUBING ANCHORS SUCKER ROD STRING WEIGHT IN AIR ..... 4 Tension Force Tables ............................... 6 SHEAR PIN SELECTION TABLE ............... TX USA Page 5-1 ............................................ 5 Tension Force Tables ..................................................

it is suggested a lighter shear value be used. All Rights Reserved Page 5-2 Houston.800 + 50. it may be impossible to use the shear release without damaging the tubing. In the preceding example.800 # Caution: We are now within 5% of the joint yield strength of the tubing. pump. The following table lists minimum recommended shear values. TUBING ANCHORS Assuming the worst case.000 + 6000 = 74. and standing valve are pulled from the well and the anchor must be sheared to release. = 18.800 + 8000 = 82. you would be required to pull the weight of the string plus the shear value of the tool.800 # Tubing damage is now certain with this configuration. In the unlikely event that the sucker rods are pulled. If too low a value is used. where the rods and pump cannot be pulled and the tubing is trapped full of fluid. If too high a shear value is used. This release is a secondary or safety release and is not used unless the anchor cannot be released normally. + Shear + Fluid Wt. Minimum Shear Values Tubing Anchors are shipped with all shear screws installed (maximum shear value).Tubing Anchor Example Calculations: Shear Release Tubing Anchors are furnished with an adjustable shear release. Our options include a lighter shear value or a stronger tubing string. the type of donut or tubing hanger used. Force to shear release tubing anchor = 74. + Shear Value = 18.800 # We now risk tubing damage by pulling over the joint strength. as the required tension is considerably less than the shear value. Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing Wt. It is usual practice to run anchors with a high shear value to insure against accidental or pre-mature releasing.800 + 50. In the previous case: Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing WT. The table does not take into account. For this application. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. We must now add the weight of the rod string to the answer directly above. as some types require tension higher than FT to install. you must now pull the weight of the tubing plus the shear value of the tool. If the rods.000 = 68. plus the weight of the column of fluid. you run the risk of pre-mature release. but the tubing remains full of trapped fluid. TX USA . the shear value should have been reduced to allow for all operational contingencies.

000 7/8" 3/4" 10.000 14.000 4.000 0 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Length of Rod String (FT) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 18.000 TUBING ANCHORS 2. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 6.000 5/8" 8. TX USA Page 5-3 .Weight of Rod Strings 20.000 1 1/8" Weight of Rods (LBS) 1" 12.000 16.

TX USA .TUBING ANCHORS NOTE: The total tension required to offset piston. bouyancy. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. and temperature effects is obtained by Ft (total tension)= F1+F2-F3. All Rights Reserved Page 5-4 ANCHOR TENSION FORCE FACTORS Houston.

TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 5-5 .

TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 5-6 Houston.

SHEAR PIN SELECTION TABLE FOR ANCHOR CATCHER.000 .000 .000 lbs 25. TUBING & REDUCED SHEAR-OUT VALVES FT (Prestrain Tension) Minimum Shear Value (Including Safety Factor) 0 . Buoyancy and Temperature Effects is obtained by: Ft = F1 + F2 + F3 Ft = total tension TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 lbs 30.10.40. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 .000 lbs 30.30.000 lbs Important Note: Total tension required to offset Piston.000 lbs 40.000 lbs 10.20.000 lbs 50. TX USA Page 5-7 .000 lbs 20.

TUBING ANCHORS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 5-8 Houston. TX USA .

... 12 LENGTH / AREA / VOLUME . 18 CALCULATING AVERAGE FLUID VELOCITIES & FLOW RATES PAST PACKERS ............................................. 16 VOLUME & HEIGHT FORMULAE ....................................................................... 17 WEIGHT OF TUBING/CASING STRINGS IN AIR FORMULA ........................................................................... 16 Between Tubing and Casing . 17 SAND FILL-UP VOLUME VS............ All Rights Reserved Houston...................................................... 17 CALCULATING STRESS DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF ............. 11 BASIC FORMULAS FOR MEASUREMENT ..................................................SECTION 6 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 AREA FORMULAE .... 10 TOP JOINT TENSION FORMULA ........................................................ 14 FORCE AND IMPACT FORCE ... 23 DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONS OF ONE INCH IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS ....................... 19 Open Ended Tubing ................................................................ LINEAR HEIGHT FORMULA ...GENERAL INFORMATION COMMON FORMULAS AND CONVERSION FACTORS ...................... 19 TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS ..... 17 FORCE DUE TO BUOYANCY FORMULA ............... 24 GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD....................................................................... 17 FORCE . 22 Capacity of Rectangular Tanks with Flat Ends .............. 19 Average Equivalent Flow Rates Past Packers (bbl/min) ......................................... 16 Between Tubing and Hole .............................................................................................................................................. 3 ENGLISH/METRIC AND METRIC/ENGLISH UNIT CONVERSIONS ....... 16 Between Casing and Casing ....................................................................................................................................................... 19 Bull Plugged Tubing ........ TX USA Page 6-1 ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Between Multiple Tubing Strings and Casing .................................................... 8 TUBING MOVEMENT FORMULAE ......................... 22 CONTENTS OF PIPELINES ....................................................................................... 19 Average Fluid Velocities Past Packers (ft/sec) ............ 21 FORMULAE FOR CAPACITIES OF CYLINDRICAL & RECTANGULAR TANKS .............. 20 CALCULATING GAS FLOW THROUGH A CHOKE ....................................................................... 22 Capacity of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Flat Ends ...................................................... 16 Between Casing and Hole ............. 22 FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER ................................ 13 RULES OF THUMB .

GENERAL INFORMATION THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 6-2 Houston. TX USA .

1934 Pounds per square inch Chains 66 Feet Chains 4 Rods Cubic centimetres 0.0 Pounds of cement Barrels per hour 0.0010567 Quarts (US fluid) Cubic centimetres 0.0 Cubic centimetres Cubic feet 0.316 Litres Cubic feet of steel 489.700 Gallons per minute Barrels per hour 2.94 Feet of water Atmospheres 29.03281 Feet Centimetres 0.000.6417 x 10-4 Gallons Cubic centimetres 0.695 Cubic inches per second Barrels per day 0.0936 Cubic feet per minute Barrels per hour 0.02917 Gallons per minute Bars 0.11924 Cubic metres Barrels (oil) 42.03381 Ounces (US fluid) Cubic feet 28.9 Litres Barrels of cement (dry weight) 376.5 Gallons Barrels 158.054.8 BTU Centimetres 1 x 108 Angstrom units Centimetres 0.02356 Horsepower BTU's per second 1.92 Inches of mercury Atmospheres 760 Millimetres of mercury Atmospheres (at sea level) 14.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.2928 Watt hours BTU 1.055.317.06102 Cubic inches Cubic centimetres 2.6146 Cubic feet Barrels (oil) 0.758 Barrels Acre feet 1.6 Pounds of steel .645.5 Cubic metres Atmospheres 33.4 Square varas (Texas) Acres 0.06 Joules BTU's per minute 0.9869 Atmosphere British thermal unit 0.047 Square metres Acres 160 Square rods Acres 5.481 Gallons (US) Cubic feet 28.1781 Barrels Cubic feet 7.4047 Hectares Acre feet 7.233. All Rights Reserved Houston.3937 Inches Centimetres 10.560 Square feet Acres 4.01 Metres Centimetres 0.7 Pounds per square inch Barrels 5.15899 Cubic metres Barrels (US liquid) 0. TX USA Page 6-3 GENERAL INFORMATION COMMON FORMULAS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply By To Obtain Acres 43.0 Gallons Barrels (US liquid) 31.0 Microns Centimetres of mercury 0.4 Watts Centigrade heat units 1.

0 7.02381 0.1247 472.0164 6.8 7.8089 27 46.051 x 10-7 0.785 0.03175 0.GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet / atmosphere Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Cubic feet per second Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic metres Cubic metres Cubic metres Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Fathoms Fathoms Feet Feet Feet Feet of water @ 60° F Feet per minute Feet per second Foot / pounds Foot / pounds Foot / pounds per second Foot / pounds Foot / pounds per second Foot / pounds (force) Gallons (US liquid) Gallons (US) Gallons Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons per minute By 1728 0.0013558 5.68182 0.13368 231 3.8327 1.48 0.0 1.785 0.3 10.00058 0.76456 6.3048 0. TX USA .387 16.387 0.481 0.5080 0.0018182 1.656 0.2897 35.03704 2.3600 0.686 28.028317 0. All Rights Reserved Page 6-4 To Obtain Cubic inches Cubic metres Cubic yards Foot / pounds Barrels per hour Cubic inches per second Gallons per minute Gallons per second Cubic centimetres per second Gallons per second Million gallons per day Millilitres Cubic centimetres Cubic feet Gallons Litres Barrels Cubic feet Cubic yards Barrels Cubic feet Cubic inches Cubic metres Feet Metres Centimetres Metres Varas (Texas) Pounds per square inch Centimetres per second Miles per hour BTU Kilowatt / hours Kilowatts Horsepower / hours Horsepower Joules Barrels (US liquid) Barrels Cubic metres Cubic centimetres Cubic feet Cubic inches Litres Gallons (imperial) Barrels per hour Houston.003785 3.48 0.3558 0.00433 0.314 1.64632 16.0012856 3.116.429 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.766 x 10-7 0.4331 0.829 30.308 4.

37 Metres 1.000 Litres 61.002228 Gallons per minute 34.6214 Kilometres 3.03527 Grams 0.54 Inches 0.1516 Litres 1.26418 Litres 1.86 Grains per gallon 0.0567 Metres 100 Metres 3.000 Grams 0.118 Grains per gallon 142.000 Horsepower (metric) 542.08333 Inches of mercury 1. TX USA Page 6-5 GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply By Gallons per minute 0.002205 Grams per litre 58.001 Grams 1.010 Horsepower (British) 2.47 Inches 0.0 Kilowatts 1.0 Horsepower (British) 42.545.281 Kilopascals 0.432 Grams 0.7 Horsepower (British) 1.0139 Horsepower 33. All Rights Reserved To Obtain Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Barrels per day Grams Parts per million Pounds per million gallons Grams per litre Grains Kilograms Milligrams Ounces Pounds Grains per gallon Acres Square kilometres BTU per hour BTU per minute Kilowatts Watts Horsepower (metric) Foot pounds per minute Foot / pounds per second Metres Centimetres Feet Feet of water Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds Grams Miles Feet PSI BTU Horsepower Metres per second Miles per hour Cubic centimetres Cubic inches Gallons Quarts Centimetres Feet Inches Yards Houston.000 Kilometres 0.0648 Grains per gallon 17.7457 Horsepower (British) 745.223 Kilograms 2.0254 Inches 2.5144 Knots (nautical miles per hour) 1.2046 Kilograms 1.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.01714 Grams 15.134 Inches of mercury 0.418 Hectare 2.1337 Gallons per minute 0.471 Hectare 0.0361 Kilograms per square centimetres 14.286 Grains (Avoirdupois) 0.281 Metres 39.02 Litres 0.414.4912 Inches of water @ 60° F 0.094 .42 Horsepower 0.3410 Knots (international) 0.1451 Kilowatt / hours 3.

4482 0.5 0.2835 437.1198 0.280.3 1.0929 6.895 0.6 0.909 x 10-4 0.1550 929 0.0353 51.946 946. TX USA .8 6.001 2.000 453.0703 0.57 0.11982 1.76 1.452 0.36 101.309 2.8947 0.0703 6.590 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.45359 4.1508 1. All Rights Reserved Page 6-6 To Obtain Feet Metres Kilometres Varas (Texas) Feet Miles (US statute) Feet per second Metres Radians Kilograms Grains Grams Millilitres Grains per gallon Pounds per million gallons Litres Grains Grams Kilograms Newtons Grams per cubic centimetre Pounds/sq inch/feet of depth Feet of water at 60° F Inches of mercury Millimetres of mercury Kilograms per sq centimetre Kilopascals Parts per million BTU Kilopascals Kilograms/Sq centimetre Litres Millilitres Pounds Degrees Radians per second Feet Square inches Square centimetres Square metres Square centimetres Square miles Square feet Square yards Acres Square kilometres Houston.467 57.30 0.10472 16.05835 8.900.34 1.5 28.196 640 2.8 6.GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply Miles Miles Miles Miles Miles (international nautical) Miles (international nautical) Miles per hour Millimetres Minutes (angle) Ounces Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (US fluid) Parts per million Parts per million Pints (US liquid) Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds force Pounds per gallon Pounds per gallon Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per million gallons Pounds C° units (PCU) PSI PSI Quarts Quarts Quintal (Mexican) Radians Revolutions per minute Rods Square centimetres Square feet Square feet Square inches Square kilometres Square metres Square metres Square miles Square miles By 5.052 2.0 1.3495 29.89 7.609 1.1033 1.3861 10.697 0.609.4667 0.076.

102 0. TX USA Page 6-7 .0 2.000.000.9144 To Obtain Square metres Kilograms Pounds Barrels of water @ 60° F Kilograms Pounds Tons (short or net) Tons (metric) Kilograms Pounds Feet Metres Note: To convert the right column to the left column.0 6.8361 1.9072 907. GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.297 1.204. All Rights Reserved Houston.016.18 2.240.7778 0. divide by the conversion factor.0 2.6 1.0 2.Multiply Square miles Tons (long) Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (short or net) Tons (short or net) Tons (short or net) Vara (Texas) Yards By 0.

All Rights Reserved Page 6-8 Houston. “C” © 2003 WEATHERFORD. multiply the number of Col.GENERAL INFORMATION English-To-Metric Unit Conversion To convert from units in Col. “D” Metric-To-English Unit Conversion To convert from units in Col. TX USA . “B”. “B” to unit in Col. “A” units by the factor in Col. multiply the number of Col. “A” to units in Col. “A”. “B” units by the factor in Col.

76 = ft2 in2 x 6.231 = psi/ft ft of water x 0.016 kgs 1 tonne (metric) = 1.001 = g/cm3 lb/ft x 0.2234 = psi bar x 14.454 = kgf Weight / Mass g x 0.433 = psi psi/ft x 4.452 = cm2 ft2 = 0.281 = feet US in x 2.02 = kg/m3 lb/gal x 0.013 = bar psi x 0.240 lb) = 1.155 = in2 m2 x 10.225 = lbf kgf x 9.481 = gal bbl x 42 = gal bbl x 5.70 = psi atm x 1.07031 = kg/cm2 atm x 14.448 = N Length lbf x 0.987 = atm KPa x 6.3937 = inches m x 3.49 = lb/ft3 Gradient kg cm2/m x 0.895 = psi bar x 1.1199 = g/cm3 gal/ft x 7.29 = bbl m3 x 264. All Rights Reserved Houston.4 = lb/ft3 kg/m3 x 0.8 = °F C + 273 = °K (°F .35 = g kg x 2.5555 = °C © 2003 WEATHERFORD.83267 = gal (imp) ft3 x 7.205 = lbf lbf x 4.145 = KPa psi x 0.3871 = cm3 ft3 x 0.0295 = atm ft of water x 0.000 lb) = 907 kgs 1 long ton (2.205 = lb lb x 0.02 = kg/cm2 psi x 0.32) x 0.78) x 1.0929 = m2 Volume cm3 (cc) x 0.3048 = m Area cm2 x 0.Metric cm x 0.159 = m3 gal x 0.33 = kg cm2/m Temperature (°C + 17.50 = psi bar x 0.6804 = atm Force Newtons x 0.02832 = m3 bbl x 0.2 = gal in3 x 16.03527 = oz oz x 28.6146 = ft3 ft3 x 0.3147 = ft3 m3 x 6. TX USA Page 6-9 GENERAL INFORMATION Density .1781 = bbl ft3 x 1728 = in2 Pressure kg/cm2 x 14.000 kgs g/cm3 x 62.54 = cm ft x 0.003755 = m3 gal (US) x 0.01602 = g/cm3 lb/ft x 16.43536 = kg 1 short ton (2.06102 = in3 m3 x 35.81 = N kgf x 2.

TUBING MOVEMENT FORMULAE Changes in temperature and pressure can cause expansion or contraction of a tubing string. or can be calculated using the following formula: Stretch or Contraction GENERAL INFORMATION ∆L = Where: F L E As Ap Ao Ai ∆Po ∆Pi ∆Poa ∆Pia ∆T ∆T ∆L ∆F = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = F ×L E × As ∆F = ∆L × E × A s L Force (lbs) Tubing string length (in) Modulus of elasticity. For easy reference. Change in length (in) Change in force (lbs) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 6-10 Force Change Houston. Tbg.∆Pi(Ap – Ai) Buckling Effect Force F2 = usually neglible Ballooning Effect Force F3 = . Temp. 30 x 106 psi (for carbon steels) Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Packer valve area (in2) Area of the tubing O. . Temp.∆Pia Ai) Temperature Effect Force F4 = 207× As × ∆T The forces calculated by the above formulae are in pounds (lbs). Tbg. and the equivalent tubing movement (expansion or contraction) can be obtained from the stretch charts in other sections of this data handbook.6 (∆Poa Ao . Avg.D. as detailed in the Weatherford “Fundamental Completion Training Manual”. (in2) Change in total annular pressure at packer (psi) Change in total tubing pressure at packer (psi) Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Change in average tubing temperature (oF) Final Avg.D. TX USA .Init. the formulae used for calculating the forces developed by this expansion/ contraction are shown below: Piston Effect Force F1 = ∆Po(Ap – Ao) . (in2) Area of the tubing I.

TOP JOINT TENSION FORMULA Three forces are combined to determine the Top Joint Tension (TJT): • Weight of Tubing String in Air (lbs) • Tubing to Packer Force (lbs) • End Area Force (lbs) TJT = TW + (Fa) .D.Ai) × Pi final] GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.( Ap . (in2) Ai = Area of the tubing I.A o ) × Po final . (in2) Po final = Final annulus pressure at packer (psi) Pi final = Final tubing pressure at packer (psi) Fa = [( Ap .D. All Rights Reserved Houston.(Fp) Where: Tubing Weight (TW) = String length (ft) x Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) Fp = Packer to Tubing Force (ÇÈ) Fa = Actual or End Area Force (lbs) Ap = Packer sealbore or valve area (in2) Ao = Area of the tubing O. TX USA Page 6-11 .

14 (and is constant) L Tank = L x W x D D W R Cylinder (tubing / casing) = π R2 x D D GENERAL INFORMATION Pressure Force per unit area = F A Hydrostatic Pressure = = Pressure created by a column of fluid Density x Vertical depth of column Force = Pressure x Area Impact Force = Mass x Acceleration © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .BASIC FORMULAS FOR MEASUREMENT Area (A) L Square A = L x W L Rectangle A = L x W Circle A = π R2 d Diameter (D) = 2 x Radius (R) Volume pi (π) = 3. All Rights Reserved Page 6-12 Houston.

3183 A = 4 π r2 Volts = Amps x Ohms Watts = Amps x Volts Kilowatt hour=1.0944 0.a2 = √a2 + b2 Circle A A C = π r2 = 0.7725 1.8696 0.1416 1.5708 1.1013 1.000 Watt / hours Amps =Watts Volts © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.LENGTH / AREA / VOLUME Legends A a r D = = = = Area Altitude (height or depth) Radius Diameter Any Triangle A = 1/2 a b Right Triangle a b c = √c2 .b2 = √c2 . TX USA Page 6-13 .4646 GENERAL INFORMATION Electrical Ohm's Law Watt's Law 3.0472 2.7854 D2 = πD Rectangle/ Parallelogram A = ab Trapezoid A = 1/2 a (b1 + b2) Cube V = b3 Formulas Prism / Cylinder V = a x (Area of base) Pyramid / Cone V = 1/3 a x (Area of base) Sphere V = 4/3 π r3 = π D3 6 Constants π π/2 π/3 2π/3 1 /π = = = = = π2 1 2 /π √π 3 √π = = = = 9.

052 x Wt / gal. ID2 = bbls / 1. 3. 7.32° x 0. 1. 4.5 = °API.000 ft. 6. Bottom hole pressure of gas column = Surface pressure x Gas correction factor. 1 Pascal = 1 Newton / square metre (using SI units).81. 9.000 ft. To convert specific gravity to API = 141. 8. x Depth in ft.8 + 32° = °F. To convert specific gravity to gradient : SG of fluid x 0. Partial pressure = psi x 100 141.131. 5. Specific gravity = GENERAL INFORMATION API + 131. Centigrade = Fahrenheit .5 12.5555.RULES OF THUMB Rules Of Thumb provides an approximate value for rapid field use and/or checking the magnitude of calculated values. Approximate hydrostatic head = 0.5 ÷ SG . Rule of thumb for finding the fill up volume of any size pipe is the inside diameter squared equals barrels per 1. % H2S / CO2 11. 2.5 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . 10. Approximate hydrostatic head in KPa = kg / litre x Depth in meters x 9. All Rights Reserved Page 6-14 Houston. Centigrade x 1. Hydrostatic head = Gradient x True vertical depth.433 = Gradient of fluid.

Whenever a pressure differential downhole acts on a crosssectional area. Result Less impact available.700 lbf ( ) 2. The amount of force created is directly proportional to the mass of the stem. Limited by . the force created is directly proportional to the pressure and the area.000 psi pressure differential is: F Area Force 2. TX USA Page 6-15 GENERAL INFORMATION Downward Jar Action Acceleration due to gravity only.94 29.Fluid viscosity.750 2 2 P Impact Force created during downhole jarring action.750" packing bore) with a 5. Stem can be accelerated through heavy fluid and in deviated holes by wireline from the surface. Stem Weight Calculation (approximate) Stem weight (lbs) = Stem OD (inches) x Length (ft). More impact available. .000 x 5.94 in2 = = = Pressure x Area 5. . Impact Force = Mass x Acceleration Upward Jar Action More acceleration available from wireline unit speed on the surface. Force created by a pressure acting on an area. and the speed at the point where jars are fully opened or closed. Larger shear pin diameters in shear up tools.FORCE AND IMPACT FORCE 2 types of Force are relevant to wireline operations: 1. = = π R2 3. © 2003 WEATHERFORD.Hole deviation. Force = Pressure x Area Example The force of 3 1/2" x plug (2. This impact force is critical to achieve the desired movement and shearing action in downhole tools and equipment. Smaller shear pin diameters in shear down tools. All Rights Reserved Houston.14 x = 5.

Di²) VOLUME & HEIGHT FORMULAE Volume(ft3) = Area x Length = A (in2) x L (in) ÷ 1728 Volume (ft 3 /lin.d 2 ) (D 2 .0009714 or GENERAL INFORMATION Volume (lin. ft) = (D 2 .51 (D 2 . All Rights Reserved Page 6-16 Houston. TX USA .7854 x (DO² .d 2 ) × .7854 x D2 Cross-sectional Area. ft) = (D 2 .35 (D 2 .D.d 2 ) 1029 .005454 Volume (lin.I.0408 Volume (lin. AS (in2) = . ft) = (D 2 . ft /ft 3 ) = 183.2 ) End Area of Tubulars.4 (D 2 .2 .D.7854 x (O. A (in2) = π x D2 ÷ 4 = .AREA FORMULAE Surface Area.d 2 ) × .2 ) ÷ 4 = . AS (in2) = π x (O.4 Where: Between Tubing and Hole D = Diameter of the hole (in) d = Tubing OD (in) Between Casing and Hole D = Diameter of the hole (in) d = Casing OD (in) Between Tubing and Casing D = Casing ID (in) d = Tubing OD (in) Between Casing and Casing D = Outer Casing ID (in) d = Inner Casing OD (in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.d 2 ) Volume (gal /lin.D. ft /Bbl) = 1029.d 2 ) × . ft /gal) = 24.I.2 .d 2 ) Volume (Bbl /lin.D.

and open hole/casing can be modified from the formulae above.ft / ft ) = 183 .NOTE: Between Multiple Tubing Strings and Casing In cases where multiple tubing strings are used.ft ) = [D 2 − ( n × d 2 )] × . = 14. LINEAR HEIGHT FORMULA Lbs Sand / Linear ft.07 gal / ft3.72) Bulk Volume of sand is .3 lbs / gal. 005454 3 Volume ( lin . TX USA Page 6-17 GENERAL INFORMATION Buoyancy Force (lbs) = Pressure (psi) x area under pressure (in2) . 005454 Where: n = number of tubing strings SAND FILL-UP VOLUME vs. All Rights Reserved Houston.07 x (231/(.63) . FORCE F=mxa Where: F m a = = = force (lbs) mass (lbs) acceleration (32 ft/sec2) WEIGHT OF TUBING/CASING STRINGS IN AIR FORMULA Weight (lbs) = String length (ft) x Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) FORCE DUE TO BUOYANCY FORMULA Buoyancy Factor= (MW ÷ 65. the formulae for the volume and height between multiple tubing strings.7854 x D2 x12)) x 100 Assumes the use of 20-40 Mesh Sand Bulk density of sand is 14. of the same size. For example: Volume ( ft 3 / lin . 35 [D 2 ( n × d 2 )] × . / 100 lbs sack of sand = . (S.3 x ((.7854 x D2 x 12) / 231) Linear ft.1 Where: MW = mud weight (lbs/gal) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.G. = 1.

of the casing (in) = Tubing cross-sectional area (in2) r = Radial clearance between tubing and casing (in) where.D. All Rights Reserved Page 6-18 Houston.I. r = (Casing ID .4 . of the tubing (in) Casing ID = I.D.D.D.Tubing OD) ÷ 2 I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) where. I = π x (O. TX USA .4 ) ÷ 64 GENERAL INFORMATION As © 2003 WEATHERFORD.CALCULATING STRESS DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF (BEFORE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES OCCUR) So = Fs (Tbg OD) x (r ) x (Fs ) + As 4xI Where: So = Tubing Stress caused by slacking off tubing weight onto the packer (psi) Fs = Slack-off force (lbs) Tbg OD = O.

D.96 (Ai csg .D. TX USA Page 6-19 GENERAL INFORMATION Ai csg .D.D.D. area (in2) Bull Plugged Tubing Fluid Velocity (ft/sec) = (Ai csg) × LS × 9.07421 Where: Flow Rate = Avg. area (in2) = Lowering speed of the pipe (ft/sec) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O. area (in2) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O. of the packer (in2) AVERAGE EQUIVALENT FLOW RATES PAST PACKERS (BBL/MIN) Flow Rate (bbl / min) = (Ai csg . area (in2) LS = Lowering speed of the pipe (ft/sec) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O.AVERAGE FLUID VELOCITIES PAST PACKERS (FT/SEC) Open Ended Tubing Fluid Velocity (ft/sec) = Where: Ai tbg LS (Ai csg. of the packer (in2) FV = Fluid velocity past the packer when lowering the pipe (ft/sec) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.Ao packer) × FV × . of the packer (in2) Ai csg = Casing I.Ao packer) Where: Fluid Velocity= Velocity past the packer when lowering the pipe (ft/sec) Ai csg = Casing I. All Rights Reserved Houston.Ai tbg) ×LS × 9.D.96 (Ai csg.Ao packer) = Tubing I. flow rate past the packer when lowering the pipe (bbl/min) = Casing I. equiv.D.

8 o = o C + 273 o = o F + 460 o = degrees Fahrenheit o = degrees Centigrade o = degrees Kelvin o = degrees Rankine F C K R Where: F C K GENERAL INFORMATION R © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 6-20 Houston. TX USA .TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS o = (oC x 1.8) + 32 o = (oF .32) ÷ 1.

99 GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.21 7/16 85.74 3/4 260.CALCULATING GAS FLOW THROUGH A CHOKE Q= C × Pa SG × T Where: Q = Gas Flow Rate. All Rights Reserved Houston. upstream of the choke (oR) Pa = Absolute Pressure.13 1/2 112.44 1/4 26.51 5/16 43. upstream of the choke (gage reading + 15 psi) (psia) SG = Gas Specific Gravity o R = degrees Rankine (oF + 460) Choke Coefficient Table Choke Size (in) Coefficient C 1/8 6.64 3/8 61.25 3/16 14. at 60oF & atmospheric pressure (MCF per day) C = Choke Coefficient (see table for various choke sizes) T = Absolute Gas Temperature. TX USA Page 6-21 .72 5/8 179.

7854 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (ft3) = .01165 x D2 Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (gal) = 5.4896 x D2 Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (ft3) = .01484 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (gal) = .17808 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (Bbl) = . All Rights Reserved Page 6-22 Houston.08333 x L x W Contents per linear foot (Bbl) = .0408 x D2 Contents (lin.8752 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (gal) = .06545 x D2 Where: D = diameter (ft) Capacity of Rectangular Tanks with Flat Ends Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (Bbl) = .4 ÷ D2 Contents (lin. ft/gal) = 24.1399 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (Bbl) = .FORMULAE FOR CAPACITIES OF CYLINDRICAL & RECTANGULAR TANKS Capacity of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Flat Ends Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (Bbl) = . ft/Bbl) = 1029.51 ÷ D2 Where: L = length (ft) W = width (ft) GENERAL INFORMATION CONTENTS OF PIPELINES Where: D = diameter (in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .62340 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (ft3) = .0009714 x D2 Contents per linear foot (gal) = .

000409 Hydraulic Horsepower = BPD x Pressure x .000584 BPM = barrels per minute BPH = barrels per hour BPD = barrels per day GPM = gallons per minute Where: Pressure = pressure (psi) GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0245 Hydraulic Horsepower = BPH x Pressure x . TX USA Page 6-23 .000017 Hydraulic Horsepower = GPM x Pressure x .FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER Hydraulic Horsepower = BPM x Pressure x . All Rights Reserved Houston.

85938 7/32 .49375 .66875 11/64 .63750 21/64 .65625 16.45313 11.03125 .17500 5/8 .43125 23/64 .74688 49/64 .14063 3.96875 21/32 .50000 12.84375 19/64 .24063 5/16 .92188 23.71875 18.55625 23/32 .26563 6.54063 51/64 .78125 19.03438 11/32 .93750 23.06563 3/16 .84375 21.11250 15/16 .76250 11/16 .34375 8.73125 27/32 .28750 5/64 .95313 24.96875 24.20313 5.30313 63/64 .57188 41/64 .15938 45/64 .52500 7/8 .43750 11.50938 61/64 .44688 9/32 .75000 19.12813 55/64 .20938 15/32 .58750 9/16 . TX USA .67188 17.17188 4.90625 23.71563 59/64 .95313 47/64 .70313 17. All Rights Reserved Page 6-24 Houston.09375 2.08125 7/64 .93750 13/16 .12500 3.35938 9.28125 7.82813 21.27188 5/32 .81250 20.89063 1/16 .31875 29/32 .04688 1.68750 17.36563 43/64 .82813 3/8 .09688 .65313 1/4 .06250 1.59375 15.21875 5.23438 5.35000 3/4 .79375 17/32 .25625 15/64 .57813 14.87500 22.54688 13.39688 33/64 .60625 31/64 .79688 20.46250 13/64 .87500 9/64 .60938 15.39063 9.77813 39/64 .18750 4.98438 37/64 .00313 1/2 .19063 35/64 .85938 21.38125 19/32 .73438 18.92188 57/64 .47813 1/8 .42188 10.32813 8.76563 19.62188 13/32 .62500 15.81250 29/64 .14375 25/32 .64063 16.41563 7/16 .10938 2.98438 25.25000 6.31250 7.37500 9.DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONS OF ONE INCH GENERAL INFORMATION Fraction Decimal Millimeters Fraction Decimal Millimeters 1/64 .00000 25.89063 22.05000 17/64 .51563 13.40625 10.22500 25/64 .40000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.90625 31/32 .01875 27/64 .70000 1 1.07813 1.29688 7.48438 12.01563 1/32 .15625 3.53125 3/64 13.68438 3/32 .56250 14.33438 53/64 .46875 11.

TX USA Page 6-25 .PERSONAL NOTES THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 6-26 Houston.GENERAL INFORMATION PERSONAL NOTES © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

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