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Completion Engineering

Data Handbook
for
Completions,
Remedial Stimulation,
Workovers, & Fishing

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

The information published in this work has been obtained
from sources believed to be reliable by Weatherford.
However, neither Weatherford, nor its authors, guarantees
the completeness and accuracy of the information
published herein. Neither Weatherford, not its authors, will
be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages
caused by the use of this information. This handbook is
being published with the understanding that Weatherford,
and its authors, are supplying information, but are not
performing engineering or professional services. If such
work is required, the use of appropriate professional
services should be obtained.
Every attempt has been made to ensure accuracy during
the compilation of this Completion Engineering Data
Handbook.

© 2003 WEATHERFORD.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
First Printing 9-00

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TUBULAR DATA

1. TUBULAR DATA

FLUID GRADIENTS

4. FLUID GRADIENTS

TUBING ANCHORS

5. TUBING ANCHORS

Houston, TX USA

GENERAL INFORMATION

6. GENERAL INFORMATION

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

3. PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

SLACK-OFF, STRETCH &
WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA

2. SLACK-OFF, STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER

THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Houston.

........................................................... 25 Casing Sizes and Areas ................................................................................................................................ 7 Dimensional Data Non-API Tubing ................. 23 Integral Joint Tubing . 21 External Upset Tubing .....SECTION 1 .. 51 Drill Pipe Sizes and Capacities .............................................................................................. 56 ............................... 43 API Long Thread Casing .............. 50 Tool Joint Interchangeability Charts .... TX USA Page 1-1 SECTION 1 .........................TUBULAR DATA TUBULAR DATA TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA PER API SPEC..................... 5CT .......................................................................................................API Internal Upset Drill Pipe ................................................................... 40 Recommended Make-Up Torque ...................................................................................TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD............................................API Casing ......................................................................... 8 Recommended Make-Up Torque ..................................... 24 CASING DATA .................................................................... 55 Drill Pipe Stretch Table ....................... 43 API Short Thread Casing ............... 46 DRILL PIPE DATA ......... 50 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data ............................. 5 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data ................... 25 Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data .......................API Tubing .............. 21 Non-Upset Tubing ..................... 5 Tubing Sizes and Capacities ..................................................................................................................................................................... All Rights Reserved Houston........... 28 Casing Sizes and Capacities ............. 3 TUBING DATA .........

All Rights Reserved Page 1-2 Houston. TX USA .TUBULAR DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA AS PER A.P.I. SPECIFICATION 5CT
N o m i na l N o m i na l N o m i na l M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um
O . D . S i ze W e i g ht
I. D .
O.D .
O.D .
Wa l l
Wa l l
I. D .
I. D .
( i n)
(lb /ft)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)

D ri ft
Dia.
( i n)

1 .2 0

.8 2 4

1 .0 8 1

1 .0 1 9

. 11 3

.0 9 9

.8 8 2

.7 9 3

.7 3 0

1 .3 1 5

1 .8 0

1 .0 4 9

1 .3 4 6

1 .2 8 4

.1 3 3

. 11 7

1 . 11 2

1 .0 1 8

.9 5 5

1 .6 6 0

2 .4 0

1 .3 8 0

1 .6 9 1

1 .6 2 9

.1 4 0

.1 2 3

1 .4 4 5

1 .3 4 9

1 .2 8 6

1 .9 0 0

2 .9 0

1 .6 1 0

1 .9 3 1

1 .8 6 9

.1 4 5

.1 2 8

1 .6 7 6

1 .5 7 9

1 .5 1 6

4 .7 0

1 .9 9 5

2 .4 0 6

2 .3 4 4

.1 9 0

.1 6 7

2 .0 7 2

1 .9 6 4

1 .9 0 1

5 .9 5

1 .8 6 7

2 .4 0 6

2 .3 4 4

.2 5 4

.2 2 4

1 .9 5 9

1 .8 3 6

1 .7 7 3

2 -3 /8
6 .5 0

2 .4 4 1

2 .9 0 6

2 .8 4 4

.2 1 7

.1 9 1

2 .5 2 4

2 .4 1 0

2 .3 4 5

8 .7 0

2 .2 5 9

2 .9 0 6

2 .8 4 4

.3 0 8

.2 7 1

2 .3 6 4

2 .2 2 8

2 .1 6 5

TUBULAR DATA

1 .0 5 0

2 -7 /8
9 .3 0

2 .9 9 2

3 .5 3 1

3 .4 6 9

.2 5 4

.2 2 4

3 .0 8 4

2 .9 6 1

2 .8 6 7

1 2 .9 5

2 .7 5 0

3 .5 3 1

3 .4 6 9

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

2 .8 7 1

2 .7 1 9

2 .6 2 5

11 . 0 0

3 .4 7 6

4 .0 3 1

3 .9 6 9

.2 6 2

.2 3 1

3 .5 7 0

3 .4 4 5

3 .3 5 1

9 .5 0

4 .0 9 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 0 5

.1 8 0

4 .1 8 4

4 .0 6 8

3 .9 6 5

1 0 .5 0

4 .0 5 2

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 2 4

.1 9 7

4 .1 5 1

4 .0 3 0

3 .9 2 7

11 . 6 0

4 .0 0 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 5 0

.2 2 0

4 .1 0 5

3 .9 7 8

3 .8 7 5

1 3 .5 0

3 .9 2 0

4 .5 4 5

4 .4 7 8

.2 9 0

.2 5 5

4 .0 3 5

3 .8 9 8

3 .7 9 5

11 . 5 0

4 .5 6 0

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 2 0

.1 9 4

4 .6 6 3

4 .5 3 5

4 .4 3 5

3 -1 /2
4

4 -1 /2

5

5 -1 /2

1 3 .0 0

4 .4 9 4

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 5 3

.2 2 3

4 .6 0 5

4 .4 6 9

4 .3 6 9

1 5 .0 0

4 .4 0 8

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.2 9 6

.2 6 0

4 .5 2 9

4 .3 8 3

4 .2 8 3

1 8 .0 0

4 .2 7 6

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.3 6 2

.3 1 9

4 .4 1 3

4 .2 5 1

4 .1 5 1

2 1 .4 0

4 .1 2 6

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.4 3 7

.3 8 5

4 .2 8 1

4 .1 0 1

4 .0 0 1

2 3 .2 0

4 .0 4 4

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.4 7 8

.4 2 1

4 .2 0 9

4 .0 1 9

3 .9 1 9

2 4 .1 0

4 .0 0 0

5 .0 5 0

4 .9 7 5

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

4 .1 7 0

3 .9 7 5

3 .8 7 5

1 4 .0 0

5 .0 1 2

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.2 4 4

.2 1 5

5 .1 2 6

4 .9 8 5

4 .8 8 7

1 5 .5 0

4 .9 5 0

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.2 7 5

.2 4 2

5 .0 7 1

4 .9 2 3

4 .8 2 5

1 7 .0 0

4 .8 9 2

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.3 0 4

.2 6 8

5 .0 2 0

4 .8 6 5

4 .7 6 7

2 0 .0 0

4 .7 7 8

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.3 6 1

.3 1 8

4 .9 2 0

4 .7 5 1

4 .6 5 3

2 3 .0 0

4 .6 7 0

5 .5 5 5

5 .4 7 3

.4 1 5

.3 6 5

4 .8 2 5

4 .6 4 3

4 .5 4 5

2 0 .0 0

6 .0 4 9

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.2 8 8

.2 5 3

6 .1 8 4

6 .0 1 6

5 .9 2 4

2 4 .0 0

5 .9 2 1

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

6 .0 7 2

5 .8 8 8

5 .7 9 6

2 8 .0 0

5 .7 9 1

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.4 1 7

.3 6 7

5 .9 5 7

5 .7 5 8

5 .6 6 6

3 2 .0 0

5 .6 7 5

6 .6 9 1

6.592

.4 7 5

.4 1 8

5 .8 5 5

5 .6 4 2

5 .5 5 0

6 -5 /8

1 7 .0 0

6 .5 3 8

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.2 3 1

.2 0 3

6 .6 6 3

6 .5 0 3

6 .4 1 3

2 0 .0 0

6 .4 5 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.2 7 2

.2 3 9

6 .5 9 1

6 .4 2 1

6 .3 3 1

2 3 .0 0

6 .3 6 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.3 1 7

.2 7 9

6 .5 1 2

6 .3 3 1

6 .2 4 1

2 6 .0 0

6 .2 7 6

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.3 6 2

.3 1 9

6 .4 3 3

6 .2 4 1

6 .1 5 1

2 9 .0 0

6 .1 8 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 0 8

.3 5 9

6 .3 5 2

6 .1 4 9

6 .0 5 9

3 2 .0 0

6 .0 9 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 5 3

.3 9 9

6 .2 7 3

6 .0 5 9

5 .9 6 9

3 5 .0 0

6 .0 0 4

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.4 9 8

.4 3 8

6 .1 9 4

5 .9 6 9

5 .8 7 9

3 8 .0 0

5 .9 2 0

7 .0 7 0

6 .9 6 5

.5 4 0

.4 7 5

6 .1 2 0

5 .8 8 5

5 .7 9 5

2 4 .0 0

7 .0 2 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 0 0

.2 6 4

7 .1 7 3

6 .9 8 7

6 .9 0 0
6 .8 4 4

7

2 6 .4 0

6 .9 6 9

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 2 8

.2 8 9

7 .1 2 4

6 .9 3 1

2 9 .7 0

6 .8 7 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

7 .0 4 1

6 .8 3 7

6 .7 5 0

3 3 .7 0

6 .7 6 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.4 3 0

.3 7 8

6 .9 4 4

6 .7 2 7

6 .6 4 0
6 .5 0 0

7 -5 /8
3 9 .0 0

6 .6 2 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

6 .8 2 1

6 .5 8 7

4 2 .8 0

6 .5 0 1

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 6 2

.4 9 5

6 .7 1 2

6 .4 6 3

6 .3 7 6

4 5 .3 0

6 .4 3 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.5 9 5

.5 2 4

6 .6 5 4

6 .3 9 7

6 .3 1 0

4 7 .1 0

6 .3 7 5

7 .7 0 1

7 .5 8 7

.6 2 5

.5 5 0

6 .6 0 1

6 .3 3 7

6 .2 5 0

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

Page 1-3

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA PER API SPEC. 5CT

TUBULAR DIMENSIONAL DATA AS PER A.P.I. SPECIFICATION 5CT

TUBULAR DATA

N o m i na l N o m i na l N o m i na l M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um M a xi m um M i ni m um
O . D . S i ze W e i g ht
I. D .
O.D .
O.D .
Wa l l
Wa l l
I. D .
I. D .
( i n)
(lb /ft)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)
( i n)

8 -5 /8

D ri ft
Dia.
( i n)

2 4 .0 0

8 .0 9 7

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.2 6 4

.2 3 2

8 .2 4 7

8 .0 5 4

7 .9 4 1

2 8 .0 0

8 .0 1 7

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.3 0 4

.2 6 8

8 .1 7 6

7 .9 7 4

7 .8 9 2

3 2 .0 0

7 .9 2 1

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

8 .0 9 2

7 .8 7 8

7 .7 9 6

3 6 .0 0

7 .8 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.4 0 0

.3 5 2

8 .0 0 7

7 .7 8 2

7 .7 0 0

4 0 .0 0

7 .7 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.4 5 0

.3 9 6

7 .9 1 9

7 .6 8 2

7 .6 0 0

4 4 .0 0

7 .6 2 5

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

7 .8 3 1

7 .5 8 2

7 .5 0 0

4 9 .0 0

7 . 5 11

8 . 7 11

8 .5 8 2

.5 5 7

.4 9 0

7 .7 3 1

7 .4 6 8

7 .3 8 6

3 2 .3 0

9 .0 0 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 1 2

.2 7 5

9 .1 7 2

8 .9 5 3

8 .8 4 5
8 .7 6 5

3 6 .0 0

8 .9 2 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 5 2

.3 1 0

9 .1 0 2

8 .8 7 3

4 0 .0 0

8 .8 3 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.3 9 5

.3 4 8

9 .0 2 6

8 .7 8 7

8 .6 7 9

4 3 .5 0

8 .7 5 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

8 .9 5 6

8 .7 0 7

8 .5 9 9

4 7 .0 0

8 .6 8 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.4 7 2

.4 1 5

8 .8 9 1

8 .6 3 3

8 .5 2 5

5 3 .5 0

8 .5 3 5

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.5 4 5

.4 8 0

8 .7 6 2

8 .4 8 7

8 .3 7 9

5 9 .4 0

8 .4 0 7

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.6 0 9

.5 3 6

8 .6 4 9

8 .3 5 9

8 .2 5 1

6 4 .9 0

8 .2 8 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.6 7 2

.5 9 1

8 .5 3 9

8 .2 3 3

8 .1 2 5

7 0 .3 0

8 .1 5 7

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.7 3 4

.6 4 6

8 .4 2 9

8 .1 0 9

8 .0 0 1

7 5 .6 0

8 .0 3 1

9 .7 2 1

9 .5 7 7

.7 9 7

.7 0 1

8 .3 1 9

7 .9 8 3

7 .8 7 5

9 -5 /8

3 2 .7 5

1 0 .1 9 2

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.2 7 9

.2 4 6

1 0 .3 6 6

1 0 .1 3 8

1 0 .0 3 6

4 0 .5 0

1 0 .0 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.3 5 0

.3 0 8

1 0 .2 4 2

9 .9 9 6

9 .8 9 4

4 5 .5 0

9 .9 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 0 0

.3 5 2

1 0 .1 5 4

9 .8 9 6

9 .7 9 4

5 1 .0 0

9 .8 5 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 5 0

.3 9 6

1 0 .0 6 6

9 .7 9 6

9 .6 9 4

5 5 .5 0

9 .7 8 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.4 9 5

.4 3 6

9 .9 8 6

9 .7 0 6

9 .6 0 4

6 0 .7 0

9 .6 6 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.5 4 5

.4 8 0

9 .8 9 8

9 .6 0 6

9 .5 0 4

6 5 .7 0

9 .5 6 0

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.5 9 5

.5 2 4

9 .8 1 0

9 .5 0 6

9 .4 0 4

7 3 .2 0

9 .4 0 6

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.6 7 2

.5 9 1

9 .6 7 5

9 .3 5 2

9 .2 5 0

7 9 .2 0

9 .2 8 2

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.7 3 4

.6 4 6

9 .5 6 6

9 .2 2 8

9 .1 2 6

8 5 .3 0

9 .1 5 6

1 0 .8 5 8

1 0 .6 9 6

.7 9 7

.7 0 1

9 .4 5 5

9 .1 0 2

9 .0 0 0

1 0 -3 /4

11 - 3 / 4

1 3 -3 /8

16

1 8 -5 /8

20

4 2 .0 0

11 . 0 8 4

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.3 3 3

.2 9 3

11 . 2 8 1

11 . 0 2 5

1 0 .9 2 8

4 7 .0 0

11 . 0 0 0

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

11 . 2 0 8

1 0 .9 4 1

1 0 .8 4 4

5 4 .0 0

1 0 .8 8 0

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

11 . 1 0 2

1 0 .8 2 1

1 0 .7 2 4

6 0 .0 0

1 0 .7 7 2

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.4 8 9

.4 3 0

11 . 0 0 7

1 0 .7 1 3

1 0 .6 1 6

6 5 .0 0

1 0 .6 8 2

11 . 8 6 8

11.691

.5 3 4

.4 7 0

1 0 .9 2 8

1 0 .6 2 3

1 0 .5 2 6

4 8 .0 0

1 2 .7 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.3 3 0

.2 9 0

1 2 .9 2 8

1 2 .6 4 8

1 2 .5 5 9

5 4 .5 0

1 2 .6 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.3 8 0

.3 3 4

1 2 .8 4 0

1 2 .5 4 8

1 2 .4 5 9

6 1 .0 0

1 2 .5 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.4 3 0

.3 7 8

1 2 .7 5 2

1 2 .4 4 8

1 2 .3 5 9

6 8 .0 0

1 2 .4 1 5

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.4 8 0

.4 2 2

1 2 .6 6 4

1 2 .3 4 8

1 2 .2 5 9

7 2 .0 0

1 2 .3 4 7

1 3 .5 0 9

1 3 .3 0 8

.5 1 4

.4 5 2

1 2 .6 0 4

1 2 .2 8 0

1 2 .1 9 1

6 5 .0 0

1 5 .2 5 0

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.3 7 5

.3 3 0

1 5 .5 0 0

1 5 .1 7 0

1 5 .0 6 2

7 5 .0 0

1 5 .1 2 4

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.4 3 8

.3 8 5

1 5 .3 8 9

1 5 .0 4 4

1 4 .9 3 6

8 4 .0 0

1 5 .0 1 0

1 6 .1 6 0

1 5 .9 2 0

.4 9 5

.4 3 6

1 5 .2 8 9

1 4 .9 3 0

1 4 .8 2 2

8 7 .5 0

1 7 .7 5 5

1 8 . 8 11

1 8 .5 3 2

.4 3 5

.3 8 3

1 8 .0 4 6

1 7 .6 6 2

1 7 .5 6 7

9 4 .0 0

1 9 .1 2 4

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.4 3 8

.3 8 5

1 9 .4 2 9

1 9 .0 2 4

1 8 .9 3 6

1 0 6 .5 0

1 9 .0 0 0

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.5 0 0

.4 4 0

1 9 .3 2 0

1 8 .9 0 0

1 8 .8 1 2

1 3 3 .0 0

1 8 .7 3 0

2 0 .2 0 0

1 9 .9 0 0

.6 3 5

.5 5 9

1 9 .0 8 2

1 8 .6 3 0

1 8 .5 4 2

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Page 1-4

Houston, TX USA

Houston, TX USA

Dimensional and Minimum Performance Data - API Tubing

Page 1-5

2-7/8
73,00

2-3/8
60,33

2-1/16
52,40

1,900
48,26

6.50

5.95

5.80

6.40

4.70

2.90

2.40

1.80

1.20

4.60

4.00

2.75

2.30

1.70

1,315
33,40

1,660
42,16

1.14

T& C
U p set
(lb/ft)

Nominal Weight

T& C
Non-Upset
(lb/ft)

1,050
26,67

OD
(in.)
(mm)

3.25

.217

.254

.190

.167

.156

.145

.125

2.40

2.76

.140

.125

2.10

2.33

.133

.113

1.72

Integral
Joint
(lb/ft)

Wall
Thickness
(in)

.955
24,26

1.049
26,64

2.1382
137,95

1.773
45,03

2.347
59,61

1.867
47,42

2.441
62,00

1.901
48,29

1.995
50,67

4.6798
301,94

2.7377
176,63

3.1259
201,68

3.2717
211,09

1.947
49,45

2.041
51,84

2.0358
131,35

2.4080
155,36

1.516
38,51

1.4957
96,503

1.5614
100,74

.8643
55,76

.5333
34,40

ID
Area
(in.2)
(mm2)

1.751
44,48

1.610
40,89

1.650
41,91

1.380
35,05

1.286
32,66

.730
18,54

.824
20,93

1.410
35,81

Drift
Dia.
(in.)
(mm)

6.4918
418,85

4.4301
285,83

4.4301
285,83

4.4301
285,83

3.3426
215,66

2.8353
182,91

2.8353
182,91

2.1642
139,63

2.1642
139,63

1.3581
87,62

.8659
55,87

OD
Area
(in.2)
(mm2)

1.8120

1.6925

1.3042

1.1584

.9346

.7995

.6970

.6685

.6028

.4939

.3326

CrossSectional
Area
(in.2)

1.6109

.9654

.7842

.710

.4277

.3099

.2759

.1947

.1787

.0873

.0370

Moment
of
Inertia, I
(in.4)

1.178

1.272

1.191

1.164

1.178

1.180

1.152

1.203

1.177

1.254

1.274

OD
ID
Ratio
R

3.500
88,90

2.875
73,03

2.875
73,03

2.875
73,03

2.200
55,88

2.054
52,17

1.660
42,16

1.313
33,35

N on
U p set
(in.)
(mm)

3.668
93,17

3.063
77,80

3.063
77,80

2.500
63,50

2.200
55,88

1.900
48,26

1.660
44,16

U p set
R eg .
(in.)
(mm)

3.460
87,88

2.910
73,91

2.910
73,91

U p set
Spec. Cl.
(in.)
(mm)

Coupling or Box OD

2.325
59,05

2.110
53,59

2.110
53,59

1.880
47,75

1.880
47,75

1.550
39,37

Integral
Joint
(in.)
(mm)

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80
P-105

C-75
N-80
P-105

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80
P-105

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

5,580
7,680
10,470
11,160
14,010

14,330
15,280
20,060

5,890
8,100
11,040
11,780
15,460

5,230
7,190
9,520
9,980

5,590
7,690
10,480
11,180

5,640
7,750
10,570
11,280

4,920
6,640

H-40
J-55
H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

6,180
8,490
11,580
12,360

5,570
7,660

7,270
10,000
13,640
14,550

7,680
10,560
14,410
15,370

5,280
7,260
9,910
10,570
13,870

14,040
14,970
19,650

5,600
7,700
10,500
11,200
14,700

4,920
6,770
9,230
9,840

5,290
7,280
8,920
10,590

5,340
7,350
10,020
10,680

4,610
6,330

5,900
8,120
11,070
11,810

5,270
7,250

7,080
9,730
13,270
14,160

7,530
10,360
14,120
15,070

Collapse
Internal
Resistance
Yield
(psi)
Pressure
(psi)

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

H-40
J-55
C-75
N-80

Grade

DIMENSIONAL & MINIMUM PERFORMANCE DATA - API TUBING

ID
Nom.
(in.)
(mm)

52,780
72,580
98,970
105,570
138,560

96,560
102,990
135,180

35,960
49,450
67,430
71,930
94,410

30,130
41,430
56,500
60,260

19,090
26,250
35,800
38,180

15,530
21,360
29,120
31,060

10,960
15,060
20,540
21,910

6,360
8,740
11,920
12,710

72,480
99,660
135,900
144,960
190,260

126,940
135,400
177,710

52,170
71,730
97,820
104,340
136,940

31,980
43,970
59,960
63,960

26,740
36,770
50,140
53,480

19,760
27,160
37,040
39,510

13,310
18,290
24,950
26,610

T& C
U p set
(lb.)

35,690
49,070
66,910
71,370

26,890
36,970
50,420
53,780

26,890
36,970

22,180
30,500
41,600
44,370

22,180
30,500

15,970
21,960
29,940
31,940

Integral
Joint
(lb.)

Joint Yield Strength
T& C
N onU p set
(lb.)

TUBULAR DATA

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-6 Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-7 Tubing Sizes and Capacities .

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TUBULAR DATA

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TUBULAR DATA

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TUBULAR DATA

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TUBULAR DATA

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TUBULAR DATA

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All Rights Reserved Page 1-18 Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

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TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 1-20 Houston.

TX USA Page 1-21 Non-Upset Tubing .Recommended Make-Up Torque TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 1-22 Houston.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-23 External Upset Tubing . All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-24 l Joint Tubing Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-25 Casing Sizes and Areas . All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-26 Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TX USA Page 1-27 . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

API Casing . All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-28 sional and Minimum Performance Data .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

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TX USA Page 1-31 .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.

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All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-35 .

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TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 1-40 Sizes and Capacities Houston. TX USA .

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-41 . All Rights Reserved Houston.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-42 Houston.

TX USA Page 1-43 API Short Thread Casing . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

All Rights Reserved Page 1-44 Houston. TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-45 . All Rights Reserved Houston.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-46 ng Thread Casing Houston.

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All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-49 .

380 .262 .85 14.00 15.30 15.50 25.340 3.217 .90 24.361 .965 5.40 9.000 3.602 2.670 4.441 2.500 3.992 2.764 2.430 .271 .296 .240 2.362 .25 19.362 .500 .70 13.415 .20 27.60 20.65 6.75 16.190 .368 .330 .50 13.60 19.500 .Page 1-50 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.00 22.449 .815 Nominal I.826 3.85 6.280 Nominal Wall (in) 2931 3535 3736 5730 7635 4490 7041 11458 4686 7525 10975 12655 5704 9012 10914 7074 12015 14472 7640 14223 8522 13378 9633 19912 6827 11622 15190 3252 4048 4130 6542 9011 4935 8241 14514 3353 4235 4336 6865 9626 5067 8765 16042 5190 5352 8868 9467 13901 15350 16030 17718 6508 10795 13825 8284 8813 15218 16820 18331 20260 9017 18016 10161 10912 16945 18729 3429 4611 4714 7496 11177 5661 10029 20510 5908 10964 18806 22780 7445 13836 18593 10093 21626 26049 11186 25602 12891 24080 5977 6557 6633 7876 9055 7104 8688 12000 7227 8987 11467 13333 7860 9900 11400 8709 12617 15394 9057 15110 9600 14147 7571 8305 8401 9977 11469 8998 11005 15200 9154 11383 14524 16889 9956 12540 14440 11031 15982 19499 11473 19139 12160 17920 X 8368 9179 9286 11027 12676 9946 12163 16800 10117 12581 16053 18667 11004 13860 15960 12192 17664 21552 12680 21153 13440 19806 G 10759 11802 11939 14177 16298 12787 15638 21600 13008 16176 20640 24000 14148 17820 20520 15675 22711 27710 16303 27197 17280 25465 S Premium Class Pipe Grade S E G Premium Class Pipe Grade E X Internal Yield/Burst Pressure Collapse Pressure 387466 422418 294260 244780 391285 259155 311535 414690 213258 260165 322916 367566 182016 224182 253851 152979 212150 250620 106946 166535 490790 535063 372730 436721 495627 328263 394612 525274 270127 329542 409026 465584 230554 283963 321544 193774 268723 317452 135465 210945 97398 136313 X S 542452 591385 697438 760352 529669 620604 704313 466479 560764 746443 362817 436150 580566 411965 482692 547799 383864 468297 581248 661620 327630 403527 456931 275363 381870 451115 192503 299764 138407 193709 298561 364231 452082 514593 254823 313854 355391 214171 297010 350868 149725 233149 107650 150662 G Premium Class Pipe Grade 76893 107616 E Tensile Strength DIMENSIONAL DATA AND PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF API INTERNAL UPSET DRILL PIPE TUBULAR DATA .892 4.304 .330 .362 .D.276 4.API Internal Upset Drill Pipe Weight per Foot with Coupling (lb/ft) 4.901 4.D.254 .70 Nominal O.640 3.476 3.778 4. (in) 2-3/8 2-7/8 3-1/2 4 4-1/2 5 5-1/2 6-5/8 5.20 21.50 11.85 10.337 . TX USA sional and Minimum Performance Data . All Rights Reserved Houston.408 4.995 1. (in) .70 25.82 16.958 3.151 1.

TX USA Page 1-51 Tool Joint Interchangeability Charts . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-52 Houston.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 1-53 .

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 1-54 Houston.

TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-55 Drill Pipe Sizes and Capacities . All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA .TUBULAR DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 1-56 pe Stretch Table Houston.

TUBULAR DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 1-57 . All Rights Reserved Houston.

.............. API Tubing 10.... 15 2............. 9 TUBING STRETCH CHARTS .........D................ 26 2.... 9 Length Change due to Tension Force ..............D............................................................................... 17# API Tubing .... 37 2... 12.......875” O.......................... 4 Calculating Free Point Constants ....75# API Tubing .... 42 .........000 ft Depth .... 3 Determining Free Point .......... TX USA Page 2-1 SLACK-OFF...........500” O.....................D..................... 14 2.............500” O..... API Tubing ..............000 ft Depth .................. API Tubing 15....000 ft Depth ......... 17# API Tubing to 20.....375” O............. 36 2...............500” O..........................875” O................................... 35 2............. API Tubing . 9 Length Change due to Slack-off Force ............ API Tubing ................ 18 4........................375” O...............D.................................D.........................D.000” O.. API Tubing to 60.......75# API Tubing to 15.....500” O. API Tubing ................................ All Rights Reserved Houston......................6/12.....................000 ft Depth ........000 ft Depth ...............D...........D... 30 5...........500” O........000 ft Depth ............................. 10 1...........063” O........... 27 3....... 39 4...............500” O.... 29# API Tubing ..........................000 ft Depth ............... 3 General Stretch Formula ...... 16 3................SECTION 2 .. 5 Casing Stretch Table .............6/12..................660” O.................................... DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH DATA ....000 lbs Slack-off ..... API Tubing ...........D.........................000 lbs Slack-off ........................................D.. API Tubing ..D.................................875” O............................ 29 4..................... API Tubing ...D.................................500” O..................... 22 1............................. 29# API Tubing to 20. 32 SLACK-OFF WEIGHT ON PACKER CHARTS ........................ API Tubing ........................ 23 1......75# API Tubing ........................................... 4 Tubing Stretch Table .......... 34 1............................. API Tubing ...........900” O..................... STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD..500” O..........D............... 31 7.D..............................375” O.........................................875” O.......................... 17 3..D............................900” O.......................500” O................. 21 LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF CHARTS ..........D............063” O..............................6/12.... 40 5.........000” O........................................D....................... 3 Stretch ................................000” O.................... 7 MECHANICALLY APPLIED EFFECT FORMULAE ....................................................................D... API Tubing 15....063” O...... API Tubing to 120.................... 19 5.......................... STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA FORMULAE FOR TUBING. 3 Calculating Stretch Constants .......... API Tubing 10....D..........................D..................D......D....... API Tubing . 11 2............. 12 2..........D...............................................500” O............................................. 12..... 17# API Tubing ............................... 38 3..D..000 ft Depth .......D.....................900” O........... API Tubing ...................D... 12......... 25 2.......660” O.D.......... 29# API Tubing ........ API Tubing 10...... API Tubing ................D.......................... 24 2. 33 1.................................................................SLACK-OFF.... 13 2.................................D...........D..........D..... API Tubing 15................................................................. API Tubing . API Tubing ...............660” O............. 20 7............................. 28 3................................375” O................................................ 41 7.................... 10 1..................500” O..............000 ft Depth ....

All Rights Reserved Page 2-2 Houston.SLACK-OFF. TX USA . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

of stretch/thousands of pounds/thousand feet of length) SC = 0.000 lb. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels Stretch ∆L = F x L x SC Where: ∆ L = Stretch (in) F = Pull/Tension force.4 As Calculating Stretch Constants Where: SC = Stretch Constant (in/1000 lb/1000 ft) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH DATA FORMULAE FOR TUBING. All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBING. F = 50) L = Length of the string (ft) SC = Stretch Constant (in. TX USA Page 2-3 SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA ∆ L = Stretch (in) . in thousands of pounds (for example: for 50. DRILL PIPE & CASING STRETCH ∆L = F × L × 12 E × As DATA General Stretch Formula Where: F = Pull/Tension force (lb) L = Length of the string (ft) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) E = Modulus of elasticity.

or length being stretched (ft) ∆L = Stretch (in) F = Pull/Tension force (1000 lb) FPC = Charted Free Point Constant * Since there will be friction forces present. TX USA . This formula. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Where: L = * Minimum length of the free pipe. All Rights Reserved Page 2-4 Houston. the length of free pipe may be longer than calculated. Calculating Free Point Constants FPC = 2500 x As Where: FPC = Charted Free Point Constant As = Cross-sectional area of the tubular (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.Determining Free Point L= ∆L × F P C F SLACK-OFF. therefore. assumes that there are no friction forces. which cannot be easily determined.

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 2-5 .SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 2-6 Houston.SLACK-OFF. TX USA .

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.SLACK-OFF. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 2-7 .

SLACK-OFF. All Rights Reserved Page 2-8 Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .

All Rights Reserved Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Where: ∆L s = Length change due to slack-off force (in) .(lb/gal) Length Change due to Tension Force ∆L t = Ft × L E × As Where: ∆L t = Length change due to tension force (in) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Ft = Tension force (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity. Fluid Wt. TX USA Page 2-9 SLACK-OFF.0034 x Final Ann. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels © 2003 WEATHERFORD.(Tubing ID)4] x π ÷ 64 Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x .MECHANICALLY APPLIED EFFECT FORMULAE Length Change due to Slack-off Force ∆Ls = L × Fs r 2 × Fs2 + E × A s 8 × E × I × (Ws + Wi .Wo ) r = Radial clearance between the tubing and the casing (in) r = [(Casing ID . Fluid Wt.Tubing OD) ÷ 2] As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Fs = Slack-off force (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity.(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo =(Tubing OD)2 x .0034 x Final Tbg. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) I = [(Tubing OD)4 .

000 30.000 35.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tubing Stretch . API Tubing 0 5. All Rights Reserved 1.900” O. TX USA 1.000 25.660" O.000 40. API Tubing 6000 Depth (FT) 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 SLACK-OFF.000 10.000 20.000 15. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 9000 8000 7000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Page 2-10 Houston.D .D.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.660” O.1.D.

000 15.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 6000 Depth (FT) 110 130 120 140 150 170 160 180 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF.000 25.000 45.000 30.D. API Tubing 10000 9000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston.000 20. API Tubing 0 5.900" O.1.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 10. TX USA Page 2-11 Pull on Tubing (LBS) .000 35. All Rights Reserved D.000 Tubing Stretch .000 40. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 50.

000 20. API Tubing 0 10.D.000 50.063” O. TX USA 2. API Tubing 6000 Depth (FT) 170 180 110 120 140 130 150 160 SLACK-OFF.375” O.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D .000 30. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 9000 8000 7000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Page 2-12 Houston.000 60.000 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tubing Stretch .000 40.D. All Rights Reserved 2.2 1/16" O.

D.000 2 4 6 8 10 15.000 20.000 lbs Tension 37” Stretch ∴String Length = 8000 ft EXAMPLE Depth (FT) 2-3/8" O. API Tubing 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF.000 ft Depth © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 30. API Tubing 10.000 25.D. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Tubing Stretch 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 10000 9000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston.000 15.000 10. TX USA Page 2-13 Pull on Tubing (LBS) . All Rights Reserved 0 5.

000 20.000 90.500 10. TX USA 2.D.000 5.000 70.000 100. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.000 ft Depth 0 10.D.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 7.000 40.375” O.500 1.875” O.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D .000 2.000 60.000 30. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 15. All Rights Reserved 2.000 80.000 12.000 50.500 Depth (FT) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 2-3/8" O.000 Page 2-14 Houston. API Tubing 15.

TX USA Page 2-15 .000 4 10.000 10 3000 1000 Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.000 6 15.000 8 20.000 25. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 8000 7000 Depth (FT) 6000 Tubing Stretch 5000 4000 2 2000 0 5.D.000 40.000 ft Depth Houston.10000 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 9000 2-7/8" O.000 35. API Tubing 10.000 30. All Rights Reserved D.

000 5.000 40.500” O.000 30.000 12.875” O.000 130.000 Page 2-16 Houston.000 2.000 20.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 7.500 1.D.000 80.D . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 15.000 150.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 100.000 ft Depth 0 10.500 Depth (FT) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 2-7/8" O.000 140. API Tubing 15.000 50. All Rights Reserved 2.D.000 60. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.000 110.500 10.000 120.000 90.000 70. TX USA 3.

000 65.000 60.D.000 20.000 55.000 15. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Tubing Stretch 10000 9000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Houston.D.000 ft Depth © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 2 4 6 8 10 Depth (FT) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 3-1/2" O. TX USA Page 2-17 Pull on Tubing (LBS) . All Rights Reserved 0 5.000 25.000 10.000 45.000 50.000 30.000 70.000 35.000 40. API Tubing 8000 7000 SLACK-OFF. API Tubing 10.

D.500 Depth (FT) 300 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 15.000 50.500 10.000 110.000 5.000 12.000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Tubing Stretch 3-1/2" O.000 70.000 20.D.500” O.000 90. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 7.Pull on Tubing (LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved 3.500 1.000 40.000 30.500” O.000 130.000 120. API Tubing SLACK-OFF.000 60.000 Page 2-18 Houston.000 140. TX USA 4.000 2.000 100.000 150.D .000 80. API Tubing 15.000 ft Depth 0 10.

12.000 ft Depth Page 2-19 .75# API Tubing to 15. TX USA D. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.SLACK-OFF.6/12.

000 ft Depth 7.500” O. All Rights Reserved Houston.SLACK-OFF.000” O. TX USA Page 2-20 5. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D . 17# API Tubing to 20.D.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA © 2003 WEATHERFORD.SLACK-OFF. 29# API Tubing to 20. TX USA Page 2-21 .000 ft Depth Houston. All Rights Reserved D.

If there is space between the tubing and casing. and you also lose inches due to the sideways movement of tubing buckling. Assuming that steel is perfectly elastic throughout the range of compression or stretch.000# down will also compress the same sample six inches. Buckling inside casing 3. and how much went to bottom.LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF CHARTS There may be times when you are required to operate a tool without a benefit of a weight indicator. When tubing buckles inside casing. you still don’t know how much of this weight will be transferred to bottom. All Rights Reserved Houston. Buckling Slacking-off weight on drill pipe. its buckled shape follows the contour of the casing forming a corkscrew shape. While slackingoff. friction is not taken into account. if 20. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Slacking off the tubing. you will see that 3-1/2” tubing in 7” casing accommodates little buckling. it will not tell you how much of this weight went into friction. and the annular space available to accommodate buckling. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. while 2-3/8” tubing in 9-5/8” casing allows for considerably more buckling. SLACK-OFF. Steel compression 2. As you can see.D . has three resultant effects on the string: 1. you lose inches due to steel compression. has a tendency to buckle the string. Example: Refer to the 2-7/8” Slack-off chart for an example of these calculations. However. From the charts. or tubing. the tubing will buckle outward until it contacts the wall of the casing. the casing ID. or helix. Friction between tubing & casing Steel Compression Steel compresses at the same rate as it stretches. it does not completely describe the mechanics of slack-off. The number of inches to slack-off tells how much weight has been transferred from the elevators to some point within the well. When you have calculated how many inches to slack-off.660” O. While this simple principle is involved in the slack-off charts. into a well. TX USA Page 2-22 1. The following ten charts show the number of inches to slack-off to account for steel compression and buckling. 20.000# stretches a simple six inches. Slack-off charts give the amount of tubing to slack off to get a pre-determined weight set down on the tool or seal assembly. the number of inches to slack-off to account for buckling will be dependent on the tubing OD. or the indictor available is not functioning properly.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 10000 .D. All Rights Reserved D. API Tubing Houston.660" O.1.4# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 8000 6000 7" 80 5 1/2" 4000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 50 4 1/2" 40 2000 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 2-23 SLACK-OFF. 2.

All Rights Reserved Houston.900" O. API Tubing 2.D.900” O. TX USA Page 2-24 1.063” O.D . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 7" 6000 90 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 80 5 1/2" 70 4000 Slackoff Inches 60 50 40 4 1/2" 2000 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D. 2.1.9# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 10000 8000 SLACK-OFF.

All Rights Reserved D.25# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 90 10000 8000 80 6000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 4000 50 7" 8 5/8" 40 30 2000 5 1/2" 20 4 1/2" 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 3. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) . API Tubing Houston.2 1/16" O.D. TX USA Page 2-25 SLACK-OFF.

API Tubing 2.D. TX USA Page 2-26 2.7# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 SLACK-OFF.D. All Rights Reserved Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 90 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 80 8000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 9 5/8" 40 4000 8 5/8" 7" 30 20 2000 5 1/2" 10 4 1/2" 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.375” O.D . 4.2 3/8" O.875” O.

000 lbs results in: 19" Buckling 19” Buckling 35" Steel Compression 35” Steel Compression 54" Total 54” Total Slack-off .D. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Using 2 7/8" tubing tubing in 9 5/8" casing Using 2-7/8” inside 9-5/8” at 8000 feet: casing at 8000 ft. TX USA Page 2-27 SLACK-OFF.2 7/8" O. Slackoff of 20.000# results in: Slacking-Off 20. 6. API Tubing Houston. All Rights Reserved D.5# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 100 EXAMPLE EXAMPLE: 90 80 12000 70 10000 Slackoff Inches 60 8000 50 6000 40 30 9 5/8" 4000 20 8 5/8" 2000 10 7" 5 1/2" 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

D.500” O.3# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) SLACK-OFF.000 lbs Slack-off 3. TX USA Page 2-28 3.3 1/2" O.D .D. All Rights Reserved Houston. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 90 10000 80 8000 70 Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 40 4000 30 8 5/8" 20 9 5/8" 2000 7" 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.500” O. 9. API Tubing to 60.

3# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 150 10000 140 SLACK-OFF. API Tubing to 120.D. 9. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 130 9 5/8" 120 110 100 8 5/8" 8000 Slackoff Inches 90 80 70 60 6000 50 40 7" 30 4000 20 10 2000 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved D.000 lbs Slack-off Houston.3 1/2" O. TX USA Page 2-29 .

D.75# API Tubing 5. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 10000 13 3/8" 100 8000 90 Slackoff Inches 80 10 3/4" 70 60 6000 50 9 5/8" 40 30 8 5/8" 4000 20 7" 10 2000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.4 1/2" O.D . All Rights Reserved Houston.D.500” O. TX USA Page 2-30 4. 12. 12.6/12.75# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 120 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 110 SLACK-OFF.500” O.

D. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 8000 80 70 13 3/8" Slackoff Inches 60 6000 50 40 30 4000 10 3/4" 20 9 5/8" 10 8 5/8" 2000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved D.5 1/2" O. TX USA Page 2-31 . 17# API Tubing Houston. 17# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 100 10000 SLACK-OFF.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 100 10000 Straight Diagonal Lines = Depth (FT) 90 8000 80 70 Slackoff Inches 60 50 6000 40 30 4000 13 3/8" 20 10 10 3/4" 2000 9 5/8" 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 Slackoff Force (1000 LBS) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 29# API Tubing 225 250 275 300 .000” O.7" O.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.D. TX USA Page 2-32 7. 29# API Tubing Calculated In Fresh Water No Allowances Made for Couplings 12000 SLACK-OFF.

for a given casing size. as published in the technical insert. depending on the type and operating characteristics of the particular tool involved. The friction has become so great between the tubing and casing that it will not allow any more weight to pass to bottom. All charts assume that the weight.SLACK-OFF WEIGHT ON PACKER CHARTS Slack-Off Weight Actually Reaching Bottom The following charts estimate how much force will get to bottom for a tubing/casing configuration. Slacking off this amount of weight. Once the tubing has been buckled into contact with the casing wall. The amount of weight necessary to set a packer. is available for slack-off. to be used. does not mean that the weight is available at the tool. the more it can buckle and the greater the friction force. treat it as if it were the first string. The logic is that even though you don’t have the same radial clearance for buckling. you will reach a point where the friction force is enough to support the weight of the rest of the string. there is the added friction of the primary string. This frictional force will eventually be capable of supporting more weight than can be applied by the string. and a number of other variables. Values obtained should be considered estimated. the condition of the tubing OD. This added friction offsets the benefit of reduced annular clearance. Please consult the Weatherford Packer technical insert for options. a coefficient of friction must be assumed. additional slack-off transfers very little additional weight to bottom. TX USA Page 2-33 SLACK-OFF. is the weight required at the tool. At this point. The smaller the tubing. a portion of the additional slack-off is lost due to friction between the tubing and casing. they have been found to be reasonably accurate. however. you have the problem of estimating how much of this weight actually gets down to the tool. When running the second string of a dual string of tubing. All Rights Reserved Houston. you will not be able to get any more weight to bottom. There are a number of options available at this point. at surface. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA Whether you intend to slack off weight using inches. This implies that the tubing has buckled into a helix. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. The effects of friction are highly dependent upon the fluid in the casing. It should be understood that to calculate how much weight will get to bottom. It should be noticed that after slacking off so much weight. not at the surface. or by the weight indicator. These slack-off charts were not put in this calculation handbook to be used as absolute numbers. As more and more of the tubing comes in contact with the casing wall. the condition of the casing ID. .

API Tubing 1.900” O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 3500 5 1/2" 3000 7" Force On Packer 2500 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.660" O.D.1.D. 2.D . All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 2-34 1.660” O.4# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 4000 SLACK-OFF.

900" O.1.9# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 6000 SLACK-OFF. All Rights Reserved D.D. 2. API Tubing Houston. TX USA Page 2-35 . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 5000 5 1/2" 4000 Force On Packer 7" 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 8000 7000 4 1/2" 6000 5 1/2" Force On Packer 5000 7" 8 5/8" 4000 9 5/8" 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.063” O.375” O.D . TX USA Page 2-36 2.D.D. All Rights Reserved Houston. 3.25# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF.2 1/16" O. API Tubing 2.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 4 1/2" 12000 Force On Packer 10000 5 1/2" 7" 8000 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 6000 4000 2000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 2-37 .2 3/8" O.D. API Tubing Houston. All Rights Reserved D.7# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 14000 SLACK-OFF. 4.

2 7/8" O. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 18000 5 1/2" 16000 7" Force On Packer 14000 8 5/8" 12000 9 5/8" 10000 EXAMPLE EXAMPLE: 8000 Using 2 7/8" tubing in 9-5/8” Using 2-7/8” tubing inside 9 5/8" casing casing.200 lbs reaching the packer 6000 packer.5# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 20000 SLACK-OFF. Slack-off 20.875” O. API Tubing 3.500# reaches the Only 10. 4000 2000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D.D . 6.D. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 lbs Slackoff 20.000# Results Onlyin: 10. TX USA Page 2-38 2.500” O.

All Rights Reserved D.D. TX USA Page 2-39 SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 35000 .3 1/2" O. 9. API Tubing Houston.3# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 40000 5 1/2" 30000 7" Force On Packer 25000 8 5/8" 9 5/8" 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 70000 60000 7" Force On Packer 50000 9 5/8" 40000 10 3/4" 30000 13 3/8" 20000 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.75# API Tubing 5.D. TX USA Page 2-40 4.500” O.6/12. 12. All Rights Reserved Houston.4 1/2" O.D . 12.D.75# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF.500” O.

5 1/2" O. All Rights Reserved D. 17# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 80000 9 5/8" 10 3/4" 60000 13 3/8" Force On Packer 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 17# API Tubing Houston.D. TX USA Page 2-41 SLACK-OFF. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 70000 .

7" O. All Rights Reserved Houston.D. 29# API Tubing 200 225 250 .D. TX USA Page 2-42 7. STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA 200000 9 5/8" 175000 10 3/4" 150000 Force On Packer 125000 13 3/8" 100000 75000 50000 25000 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 Slackoff Force x 1000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 17# API Tubing No Allowances Made for Couplings or Friction Reference SPE 26511 SLACK-OFF.000” O.

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 2-43 . STRETCH & WEIGHT TO PACKER DATA THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.SLACK-OFF.

...... 19 4.................500” O............... 5 Length from the Packer to the Neutral Point ..........................................D..PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.......75# API Tubing .......... 14 1........................................................................................................................................................................................ API Tubing .....................D............ API Tubing ........ 10 Temperature Effect Calculations ............. 17# API Tubing ............................... 21 7................875” O.......................... API Tubing ........... 17 2.................................... 7 Length Change .................................................................... 12 Temperature Force .................................. 8 Annulus Pressure Component .......................................D........................................................ 12 Elongation of Tubing Due to Temperature when Running in the Hole ................. API Tubing .375” O.............................D................................. API Tubing .................... 4 Piston Force ............ 15 2............................................................................... 5 Corrected Length Change Due to Buckling ................ All Rights Reserved Houston.....000” O................... 12 Length Change ........... 20 5................................................................................................. 4 BUCKLING EFFECT FORMULAE ............................... 7 BALLOONING FORCE CHARTS ................063” O........................................... 12............................. API Tubing ..........................................500” O................................ 4 Length Change .......................500” O...................................................................... 29# API Tubing ............D..............SECTION 3 ............................ 3 PISTON EFFECT FORMULAE ....900” O........................................... 13 TEMPERATURE EFFECT CHARTS .......PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS TUBING WEIGHT FACTORS ...........................D... 18 3.. 22 ........D....... 9 TEMPERATURE EFFECT ......................... 8 Tubing Pressure Component .............................................................. 5 Length Change ...................660” O................................................................................................................D..................... 7 Ballooning Force ................................................... 6 BALLOONING EFFECT CALCULATIONS .............................. 16 2........................................................................6/12............... 14 1.........................D....... TX USA Page 3-1 SECTION 4 ..................................

PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 3-2 Houston. TX USA .

All Rights Reserved Houston.PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 3-3 .

D. 30 x 106 psi (for carbon steels) As = Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D. (in2) Ai = Area of the tubing I.PISTON EFFECT FORMULAE PISTON FORCE F1 = ∆Po(Ap – Ao) .∆Pi(Ap – Ai) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Where: F1 = Piston Effect Force change (lbf) Ap = Packer valve area (in2) Ao = Area of the tubing O. (in2) ∆Po = Change in total annular pressure at packer (psi) ∆Pi = Change in total tubing pressure at packer (psi) ∆L1 = F1 × L E × As LENGTH CHANGE Where: ∆L 1 = Change in length of the tubing string (in) L = Length of the tubing (in) F1 = Piston Effect Force change (lbf) E = Modulus of elasticity. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 3-4 Houston.

0034 x Final Ann.Po initial) .8 × E × I × (W s + W i .(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo =(Tubing OD)2 x .∆ Po ) . TX USA Page 3-5 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆Po = Change in the total annulus pressure at the packer (psi) ∆Po = (Po final .Po final] ( W s + W i .BUCKLING EFFECT FORMULAE LENGTH CHANGE 2 r 2 × Ap × ( ∆ Pi . A p = Packer valve area (in2) Pi final = Total tubing pressure at the packer that will exist for the given condition(psi) Po final = Total annulus pressure at the packer that will exist for the given condition(psi) Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.Pi initial) E = Modulus of elasticity. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steels I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) I = [(Tubing OD)4 .(Tubing ID)4] x π ÷ 64 Ws = Weight of the tubing (lb/in) Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x . This distance may also be referred to as the length of buckled tubing. Fluid Wt.0034 x Final Tbg.W o) Where: n = The distance from the packer to the neutral point (in). Fluid Wt.W o) 2 ∆ L2 = Where: ∆L 2 = Length change due to buckling (in) r = Radial clearance between the tubing and the casing (in) r = [(Casing ID -Tubing OD) ÷ 2] Ap = Packer valve area (in2) ∆Pi = Change in the total tubing pressure at the packer (psi) ∆Pi = (Pi final .(lb/gal) LENGTH FROM THE PACKER TO THE NEUTRAL POINT n = Ap × [Pi final .

Fluid Wt.0034 x Final Ann.(lb/gal) Wo = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the annulus per unit length (lb/in) Wo = (Tubing OD)2 x . All Rights Reserved Page 3-6 Houston. Fluid Wt.(lb/gal) CORRECTED LENGTH CHANGE DUE TO BUCKLING ∆L'2 = ∆L 2 × L L × [2 .( )] n n Where: PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆L’2 = Length change due to buckling when neutral point is above wellhead (in) ∆L 2 = Length change due to buckling (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) n = The distance from the packer to the neutral point (in) This distance may also be referred to as the length of buckled tubing. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA .0034 x Final Tbg.Wi = Weight of the final fluid displaced in the tubing per unit length (lb/in) Wi = (Tubing ID)2 x .

TX USA Page 3-7 ..D.1) Where: ∆L 3 = Change in length (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) γ = Poissons ratio.3 for steel E = Modulus of elasticity. to the tubing I. (in2) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS F3 Length Change ∆ L3 = 2 × L × γ (R2 × ∆Poa) . All Rights Reserved Houston.BALLOONING EFFECT CALCULATIONS Ballooning Force ∆F3 = .∆Pia Ai) Where: = Ballooning Effect Force change (lbf) ∆Poa = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Ao = Area of the tubing O. 30 x 106 psi for carbon steel ∆Pia = Change in average tubing pressure (psi) ∆Poa = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) R2 = Ratio of the tubing O.D. squared [where R2 = (OD ÷ ID)2] © 2003 WEATHERFORD. .∆Pia × E (R2 .D.D.6(∆Poa Ao . (in2) ∆Pia = Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Ai = Area of the tubing I.

Ballooning Effect
40,000

35,000

3 1/2

2 7/8

EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE:
Positive
pressure change
Positive pressure change
of
7500psi @ surface in 2of 7,500 PSI @ surface in
7/8”
tubing
results
in a
2 7/8" tubing
results
in
21,000
lbs force
force when
21,000# tension
tubing
is anchored
when latched.

30,000

Force Acting on Tubing (LBS)

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

2 3/8

25,000

2 1/16
20,000
1.900

15,000
1.660

10,000

5,000

0
15000

12500

10000

7500

5000

2500

0

Surface Pressure Change in Tubing (PSI)

BALLOONING FORCE CHARTS
© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

Page 3-8

TUBING PRESSURE COMPONENT

Annulus P

Reverse Ballooning Effect
3 1/2

40,000

2 7/8

2 3/8

30,000

2 1/16

25,000

1.900

20,000

1.660

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
15000

12500

10000

7500

5000

2500

0

Surface Pressure Change in Casing (PSI)

© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Pressure Component

Houston, TX USA

Page 3-9

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

Force Acting on Tubing (LBS)

35,000

TEMPERATURE EFFECT
Temperature Effects on Tubing Length Due to Injecting Cold Fluids
Heated metal expands and cooled metal contracts. In a long string of tubing with a
temperature change over it’s entire length, this expansion or contraction can be
considerable and run to several feet.
When a well is completed the tubing takes on the temperature gradient of the
surrounding geology, and settles down to an average length.
The main areas where temperature effects are prevalent are:

PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

Production
When the hotter fluids from the formation are produced up the tubing string the
average temperature of the tubing will increase. The amount of temperature increase
will be dependent upon the reservoir temperature and the rate of flow. This will cause
the tubing to expand and so lengthen if free to move. If the lower end of the tubing
is anchored to the packer, then a compressive force is applied to the packer and the
tubing may begin to buckle. The type and extent of buckling will be dependent upon
the OD of the tubing and the ID of the production casing.
Steam Injection
As with production the injection of steam will increase the average temperature of
the tubing and the same effects will be apparent. The main difference with steam
injection over production is that the effects will take place in a much shorter period
of time and tend to be more extreme.
Fluid Injection
The most common situation for the service tool hand is the injecting of cold fluids
(as encountered during stimulation operations, hydraulic fracturing treatments and
sand-control completions) which are almost always colder than the well temperature
and tend to shorten the string.
This shortening can pick up a tubing expansion device (PBR, TSR, locator seal
assembly, etc.) or rob set down weight from a compression set packer. In extreme
cases the tensile strength of the tubing may be exceeded and the tubing may part.
When determining the effects of temperature, there are a number of important
points that have to be taken into consideration:
• If the well is on production, or fluid is being injected, the temperature of the tubing
is assumed to be the same as the fluid inside it. If the well is static, or shut-in,
the tubing temperature is assumed to be the same as the surrounding fluid.
• The temperature of any unheated injection fluid is assumed to be the same as
the ambient air temperature at the well site, unless it is heated by some method.
• During production or remedial operations (fluid injection), assume that the entire
length of the tubing will heat up, or cool down, to the temperature of the produced,
or injected, fluids. This may not always be the case depending on the duration
but making the assumption will allow for calculation of the worst case scenario.
• Temperature effects are not always felt immediately at the packer, as it can take
from several minutes to several hours for the tubing string to completely heat up
or cool down. It is generally assumed that the temperature effect will occur
immediately, so that it can be considered to act at the same time as all of the
other effects, again this will give the worst case scenario.
• The temperature of injection fluids will vary with the ambient temperature of the
injected fluids. In extreme cases, mainly during the winter, this effect can be
extremely severe.
© 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Page 3-10

Houston, TX USA

Injection for long periods. such as waterfloods. temperature of the bottom of the string is brought down close to the temperature of the injected fluid. For a hydraulic fracturing or acid treatment.Example: 7000 ft depth 210°F BHT 60°F Fluid 2-7/8” Tubing Water in annulus Injection rate of 2 BPM (barrels/minute) for 1 hour brings the temperature at the bottom of the string down to 83°F Injecting at 4 BPM for 1 hour would yield 72°F Injecting at 6 BPM for 1 hour would yield 68°F Injecting at 2 BPM for 6 hours would yield 62°F At these rates and times. the bottom of the string is cooled 168°F. the bottom of the string was cooled to within 4°F of the injection fluid temperature. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. even at the lowest rate and the shortest time. will cool the string down to the temperature of the injected fluid.000 feet depth 270°F BHT 60°F Injection Fluid 2-7/8” Tubing Injection rate of 2 BPM for 1 hour would bring the temperature of the bottom of the string down to 102°F Injecting at 4BPM for 1 hour would yield 83°F Injecting at 6BPM for 1 hour would yield 76°F Injecting at 2BPM for 6 hours would yield 64°F In the preceding examples. In the 6-hour test. All Rights Reserved Houston. This assumption results in maximum tubing movement. PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Example: 10. TX USA Page 3-11 . it is accepted practice to make calculations based on the string being cooled to the injection fluid temperature.

. Temp. TX USA .0000069 in/in/oF ∆T = Change in average tubing temperature (oF) ∆T = Final Avg. Avg. . Tbg. Tbg.TEMPERATURE EFFECT CALCULATIONS ∆ F 4 = 207 × A s × ∆ T Temperature Force Where: F4 = Temperature Effect Force change (lbf) As = Tubing cross sectional area (in2) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ∆T = Change in average tubing temperature (oF) ∆T = Final Avg. Temp.Init. Temp. Temp. Tbg. Tbg. ∆ L4 = L × β × ∆T t Length Change Where: ∆L 4 = Length change due to the temperature effect (in) L = Length of the tubing string (in) β = Coefficient of thermal expansion for steel. Avg. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. .Init. All Rights Reserved Page 3-12 Houston.

The average temperature of the string in the well is taken to be the mean yearly temperature (70°F) averaged with the BHT. you can use the simple Lubinski formula for tubing movement due to temperature: ∆L = L x β x ∆T x 12 = = = ∆T = Length change (in) Length of tubing string (ft) Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (0.Charts The following charts are calculated based on the ambient conditions referenced. TX USA Page 3-13 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Where: ∆L L β . Elongation of Tubing Due to Temperature when Running in the Hole Tubing will elongate due to temperature when run in the hole. please consult the stretch charts. should length be required. All Rights Reserved Houston. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. The output of the charts is in units of force (lbs).0000069 in/in/oF for steel) Change in average tubing temperature (oF) The average temperature of the string before running is assumed to be the ambient air temperature. To calculate this elongation.

000 120 22.000 12. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 38.000 180 14.000 8.000 200 10.D.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 1.000 2.000 40 32.660” O.000 4.900” O . All Rights Reserved Houston. API TUBING 1.000 26.40.000 20.D.000 160 16.000 20 36.000 100 24. TX USA Page 3-14 1.000 80 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 28.000 140 18.000 60 30.660" O.000 6.000 34.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

000 10.D. API TUBING Houston.000 14. All Rights Reserved O. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 40 38.000 28.000 60 36.000 4.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 140 22.000 100 30.000 200 12.000 80 32.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 1.000 18.000 .900" O.D.000 160 20.000 34. TX USA Page 3-15 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 120 26.000 6.000 8.000 2.000 180 16.40.000 24.

000 18. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 48.000 100 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 34. TX USA Page 3-16 2.000 160 22.000 140 26.D. API TUBING 2.000 10.000 12.000 0 20 40 46.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 80 38.000 8.000 180 20.000 2.50.063” O.000 28.000 200 16.000 6.000 36.000 40.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 1/16" O.375” O .000 60 42. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 14.000 44.D.000 32.000 4.000 24.000 120 30.

D.000 120 40.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 60 55.000 5.000 15.000 100 45. All Rights Reserved O. API TUBING Houston.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 3/8" O.000 140 35.000 80 50.000 180 25. TX USA Page 3-17 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 40 .D.60.000 10.000 160 30.000 200 20.

TX USA Page 3-18 2.500# BHT results 38.100.D.875” O.000 160 40.500 lbs tension force tension force.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 2 7/8" O. in a well with 300 degree F Results in: in 38. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 20.D.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 10.000 180 200 30.000 140 50.000 100 120 60. API TUBING 3.500” O .000 40 60 80. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature ( ) -20 0 20 EXAMPLE: EXAMPLE Injecting 80 80odegree F fluid in a well with Injecting F fluid o 300 F BHT.000 80 Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS 70. 90.

000 10. All Rights Reserved O.000 120 140 70. API Tubing Injection Fluid Temperature (F) -20 0 20 40 60 110.D.000 80 100. TX USA Page 3-19 PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS Tension Force in Tubing (LBS) 80.D. API TUBING Houston.000 200 40.000 20.000 180 50.000 Temperature Effects of Fluid Injection 3 1/2" O.120.000 .000 160 60.000 0 100 200 300 400 500 Bottom Hole Temperature (F) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 30.000 100 90.

TX USA Page 3-20 4.500” O .PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D.500” O.6/12.75# API TUBING 5. 12. All Rights Reserved Houston.

17# API TUBING Houston.PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D. All Rights Reserved O. TX USA Page 3-21 .

000” O.PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 29# API TUBING .D. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 3-22 7.

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 3-23 .PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE EFFECTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

5 Fluid Gradient Tables ............................. 9 Nitrogen Pressure vs.. Slurry Density .................................. All Rights Reserved Houston....................................................................................... 12 GAS FLUID DENSITY TABLE ................. 13 FLUID DENSITY AND PRESSURE ..... BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE ............ 4 Hydrostatic Pressure ......... 4 Chart of Fluid Gradient vs.. 4 Slurry Gradients .... BHP to 20..000 ft ............................................................................. BHP to 20........................................................................................................................................FLUID GRADIENTS FLUID GRADIENT & PRESSURE FORMULAE ............................. 6 GAS PRESSURE AT SURFACE VS...............................................................................000 ft .......... 3 Liquid Gradients ....................... BHP to 10........SECTION 4 ......000 ft ........000 ft .... 10 Natural Gas Pressure vs.... Slurry Density ................. 3 Fluid Gradient vs.......................................................................FLUID GRADIENTS ................. BHP to 10.............. 8 Nitrogen Pressure vs............................... 11 Natural Gas Pressure vs........................ TX USA Page 4-1 SECTION 3 ................... 14 FLUID GRADIENTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.....

FLUID GRADIENTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 4-2 Houston.

= (9.2 + 2) ÷ [(.052 = 0. Calculate fluid gradient = 10. To properly operate that tool.144 lb/gallon. Use the calculation procedure from the preceding chapter to determine pressures at the tool. All Rights Reserved Houston. based on the true density of the sand being 22. you will need to know the hydrostatic pressure exerted by a column of this slurry.534 psi/ft NOTE: The chart on the next page depicts the graphical solution to this example.0456 x PSA) + 1] where: MW PSA = #/gal of fluid = pounds of sand added per gallon of fluid Example of Calculation: The customer tells you he is going to pump 500 bbls of 9. TX USA Page 4-3 . The following chart will provide fluid gradient factors needed in making this calculation.264 x 0.2 #/gal gelled brine adding 2 pounds of sand per gallon of fluid. SLURRY DENSITY (HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXERTED BY FLUID/SAND MIXTURES) On occasion you may be required to operate a tool in the presence of a sand laden slurry. © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0456 x 2) + 1] = 10. Densities of Sand/Fluid Slurries: #/Gal Slurry = (MW + PSA)÷ [(.FLUID GRADIENT & PRESSURE FORMULAE FLUID GRADIENT VS.264 #/Gal Slurry FLUID GRADIENTS #/Gal Slurry Note: This is the fluid density used to calculate hydrostatic pressure.

007 where. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/ft3) Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = SG x . All Rights Reserved Page 4-4 Houston. SG = Specific Gravity of Fluid Liquid gradient (psi /ft) = 61.LIQUID GRADIENTS Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = MW x .433 where. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/gal) HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) = LG x L where. o API = API scale of Specific Gravity for Oil FLUID GRADIENTS SLURRY GRADIENTS Slurry Gradient (psi/ft) = ( [ MW + (lbs of sand added per gal)] ) × . TX USA .052 where.27 (131.052 1 + [(. MW = Fluid Weight (lb/gal) Liquid gradient (psi/ft) = MW x . LG = Liquid gradient (psi/ft) L = Vertical Depth (ft) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0456 gal/lb) x (lbs of sand added per gal)] where.5 + o API) where.

38 .534 psi/ft . All Rights Reserved Houston.Slurry Density .44 .36 .42 EXAMPLE .58 .34 .48 .78 10 .68 7 .74 .52 FLUID GRADIENTS Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) .84 12 .88 13 .40 9.80 . Slurry Density .56 Diagonal Curved Lines = Density of Carrier Fluid (LB/GAL) .2 lb/gal Fluid 2 lb sand/gal added Fluid Gradient = .86 .54 .64 .46 .32 .60 .72 8 .Fluid Gradient . TX USA Page 4-5 Chart of Fluid Gradient vs.90 .70 .76 9 .62 .30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Pounds Sand Added © 2003 WEATHERFORD.82 11 .50 .66 6 .

3200 0.918 6.760 6.FLUID GRADIENTS Fluid Gradient Table Weight (#/GAL) Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Density API Gravity 6.81 73.4468 0.4183 0.001 7.799 6.5195 0.200 10.3491 0.786 7.000 0.685 7.29 80.5610 0.5506 0.32 68.000 10.490 7.4270 0.085 7.3637 0. TX USA .3573 0.220 8.878 6.200 9.800 10.3594 0.586 7.5714 62.3452 0.4675 0.3376 0.600 10.3992 0.800 11.325 6.4987 0.83 67.3891 0.400 8.3615 0.5091 0.31 74.042 7.5299 0.84 64.4571 0.29 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.499 6.600 9.82 70.3703 0.959 7.000 9.33 65.4099 0.3658 0.4779 0.215 7.800 9.304 7.400 10.3414 0.160 6.259 7.3748 0.30 77.5403 0.80 79.3512 0.890 8.721 6.646 6.052 8.572 6.396 7.37 62.600 8.3532 0.3681 0.171 7.3941 0.4883 0.838 6.337 8.3286 0.32 71.3794 0.3552 0. All Rights Reserved Page 4-6 Gradient Tables Houston.3725 0.337 0.4331 0.3842 0.400 9.3771 0.79 82.4364 0.4045 0.81 76.128 7.4331 60 55 50 48 46 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 15 12 10 Weight (#/GAL) Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Weight (#/cu ft) 8.

6026 0.800 16.23 104.69 121.0390 83.400 15.18 125.66 130.8519 0.17 128.600 17.200 19.74 100.800 15.9039 0.800 14.000 14.800 19.12 146.14 140.200 11.5818 0.800 20.9143 0.7065 0.600 19.75 97.65 136.6961 0.000 18.8312 0.6338 0.70 115.77 88.8623 0.15 137. TX USA Page 4-7 .6857 0.600 18.20 116.8727 0.400 18.400 11.800 13.25 98.800 12.26 92.9247 0.13 143.77 91.5922 0.8000 0.0286 1.9662 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.7584 0.9766 0.21 113.74 103.61 FLUID GRADIENTS Weight (#/GAL) Steel = 65 PPG © 2003 WEATHERFORD.24 101.70 118.6545 0.25 95.400 19.600 13.9455 0.400 12.200 14.64 139.800 17.600 14.8935 0.73 106.200 12.8104 0.78 85.63 145.8416 0.600 12.8831 0.18 122.7481 0.000 13.16 131.000 19.600 15.7688 0.9870 0.63 142.600 11.7273 0.27 89.22 110.200 16.800 18.62 148.0182 1.400 14.8208 0.000 15.6753 0.200 17.400 16.9974 1.15 134.6649 0.600 16.7896 0.68 124.76 94.9351 0.400 17.71 112.000 0.7792 0.67 127.200 18.200 13.Fluid Gradient Table Fluid Gradient (PSI/FT) Weight (#/cu ft) 11.6442 0.22 107.66 133.000 12.000 16.9558 0.11 149.6130 0.0078 1.400 13.200 15.72 109.19 119.6234 0.7169 0.000 17.28 86.7377 0.

and hence the weight. volume. BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE Bottom Hole Pressure for a Column of Nitrogen It is often necessary to calculate the bottom hole pressure for a well displaced with nitrogen gas. calculate the bottom hole pressure at the tool (hydrostatic of the column of fluid).GAS PRESSURE AT SURFACE VS. then down to get nitrogen pressure at the wellhead. increases with an increase in pressure and decreases with an increase in temperature. and temperature.016°F per foot geothermal temperature gradient. To present a simplified graph of bottom hole pressure and hydrostatic pressure with different wellhead pressures. To use the chart on the following page. FLUID GRADIENTS The density. but an average temperature is assumed for this graph. this would equate to 230°F BHT. It is not to be used to calculate bottom hole pressure. This average will be 70°F at surface with a 0. It is well known that temperatures are not the same in all wells at a specific depth. TX USA . its weight changes with temperature and pressure according to the “Perfect Gas Law” PV = nRT This formula is presented for your information only to show the linear relationship between pressure. Being a gas. we must assume a surface temperature and temperature gradient. © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 foot deep vertical well. The primary purpose of calculating the bottom hole pressure of a column of nitrogen is to balance fluids across a packer. On a 10. read across to the well depth. The difference between bottom hole pressure and the nitrogen pressure at the wellhead is the hydrostatic head of the column of nitrogen gas. All Rights Reserved Page 4-8 Houston.

All Rights Reserved Houston.000 2.000 ft .Nitrogen Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of . TX USA Page 4-9 Nitrogen Pressure vs. BHP to 10.000 10000 6.000 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 N2 Wellhead Pressure (PSI) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.96685 with Respect to Air 8.000 7.000 FLUID GRADIENTS Bottom Hole Pressure (PSI) Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 3.000 2500 4.000 1.000 5000 5.

000 5000 15. All Rights Reserved Page 4-10 Pressure vs.000 5.000 20000 15000 10000 Bottom Hole Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS 20.Nitrogen Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .96685 with Respect to Air 30.000 0 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 ft Houston.000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 25.000 10. BHP to 20. TX USA 15000 10000 5000 0 N2 Wellhead Pressure .

000 1. All Rights Reserved Houston. BHP to 10.Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .000 ft .000 3. TX USA Page 4-11 Natural Gas Pressure vs.650 with Respect to Air 7.000 5000 2500 4.000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 10000 6.000 0 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure (PSI) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.000 FLUID GRADIENTS Bottom Hole Pressure (PSI) 5.000 2.

000 10000 Bottom Hole Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS 5000 15.000 ft Houston. All Rights Reserved Page 4-12 as Pressure vs.650 with Respect to Air 25.Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure vs Bottom Hole Pressure Calculated Using Temperature Compensation for Depth and Gas Gravity of .000 10.000 5.000 0 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA 15000 10000 5000 1000 Natural Gas Wellhead Pressure . BHP to 20.000 Diagonal Lines = True Vertical Depth (FT) 20000 15000 20.

00 0.27 0.800 3.800 5.10 0.282 5.60 0.50 0.18 0.000 13.42 0.600 9.800 8.60 0.43 0.10 0.10 0.600 3.78 0.85 0.68 0.200 4.400 12.67 0.183 3.600 7.009 0.135 2.93 0.400 11.191 3.800 10.400 13.022 0.35 0.35 0.25 0.03 0.800 6.400 3.52 0.800 13.200 14.309 5.265 5.278 5.800 9.209 4.600 10.00 0.85 0.187 3.226 4.43 0.217 4.27 0.600 13.222 4.60 0.600 6.256 4.074 1. All Rights Reserved Pressure 7.200 3.200 12.42 0.200 2.400 8.35 0.43 0.75 0.77 0.200 1.000 3.200 8.02 0.322 6.065 1.178 3.070 1.85 0.304 5.052 1.213 4.18 0.67 0.800 14.10 0.105 2.295 5.400 14.200 10.235 4.230 4.170 3.02 0.261 5.10 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.800 2.000 6.600 12.000 Gradient LBS/GAL 0.274 5.091 1.148 2.100 1.20 0.239 4.096 1.200 6.43 0.317 6.75 0.152 2.000 12.400 6.800 15.85 0.77 0.313 6.17 0.400 2.005 0.600 8.02 0.000 5.078 1.600 14.200 3.68 0.000 7.400 4.252 4.60 0.27 0.044 0.269 5.287 5.165 3.600 1.400 9.326 6.800 7.10 0.126 2.800 11.000 0.048 0. TX USA GAS FLUID DENSITY TABLE Page 4-13 FLUID GRADIENTS 0 200 400 600 800 1.300 5.60 0.035 0.039 0.600 11.25 0.200 5.93 0.122 2.400 5.35 0.139 2.000 4.28 Houston.35 0.243 4.85 0.600 5.52 0.000 1.93 0.400 1.85 0.118 2.196 3.200 11.000 11.68 0.50 0.087 1.6 with respect to air) Pressure Gradient LBS/GAL 0.109 2.000 8.10 0.157 3.131 2.000 2.17 0.031 0.248 4.018 0.000 10.800 4.02 0.60 0.144 2.77 0.026 0.000 9.95 0.000 14.35 0.27 0.52 0.92 0.68 0.161 3.Gas Fluid Density Assumed Gas Gradient for Varied Pressures (For Dry Gas Specific Gravity 0.061 1.600 2.52 0.057 1.600 4.200 9.174 3.400 10.200 13.113 2.400 .083 1.013 0.291 5.18 0.18 0.200 7.93 0.800 12.204 3.

1151 0.Degrees API 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Specific Gravity 0.175 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.871 0.031 1.127 1.891 0.878 7.849 0.872 0.175 Page 4-14 lb/gal 6.433 0. TX USA Buoyancy Factor 0.38 58.0779 0.62 49.509 Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.31 48.0965 0.965 1.085 7.537 7.320 0.865 0.83 64.683 6.0933 0.079 1.965 1.052 8.1103 0.000 1.64 56.825 0.758 0.151 1.738 0.45 53.328 0.1127 0.876 0.400 8.1000 0.880 0.800 lb/cu ft 46.151 1.0738 0.457 0.498 0.868 0.488 0.888 0.32 68.400 9.1079 0.600 9.0825 0.849 .758 0.933 0.24 60.0904 0.1007 0.825 0.436 0.33 65.859 0.801 0.446 0.800 9.0849 0.007 1.418 0.325 6.0876 0.357 0.127 1.23 62.849 0.876 0.160 6.379 0.000 9.81 73.903 0.304 7.347 0.738 0.786 8.99 51.1055 0.103 1.200 9.82 70.467 0.82 67.079 1.900 0.862 0.055 1.36 62.856 0.391 0.404 0.600 8.477 0.1175 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.337 8.904 0.876 0.852 0.055 1.031 1.00 54.779 0.103 1.31 71.779 0.000 1.884 0.905 0.08 47.336 0.0801 0.499 6.007 1.0758 0.368 0.801 0.933 0.1031 0.897 0.904 0.30 g/cc 0.894 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.

571 0.74 100.803 0.623 0.550 0.1319 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.806 0.343 1.80 76.223 1.583 1.400 10.400 11.200 11.26 92.23 FLUID GRADIENTS Degrees API g/cc 1.843 0.822 0.25 95.415 1.79 79.535 1.271 1.607 lb/gal 10.319 1.1511 0.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.607 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.797 0.247 1.569 1.1271 0.75 94.24 98.271 1.600 11.800 12.834 0.199 1.199 1.1247 0.1583 0.561 0.200 12. TX USA Page 4-15 Specific Gravity 1.685 0.644 0.1415 0.1295 0.816 0.000 10.840 0.583 1.27 86.511 1.295 1.223 1.559 1.696 Fluid Density and Pressure THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK Buoyancy Factor 0.1463 0.29 80.592 0.000 12.200 10.581 0.391 1.664 0.1199 0.200 13.633 0.1607 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.000 13.600 12.400 lb/cu ft 74.675 0.519 0.612 0.77 88.487 1.800 11.247 1.400 12.28 83.602 0.1439 0.846 0.810 0.800 0.78 82.1535 0.343 1.511 1.27 89.30 77.819 0.000 11.487 1.831 0.794 .1487 0.828 0.76 91.367 1.367 1.529 0.295 1.535 1.439 1.1367 0.391 1.463 1.1391 0.439 1.540 0.825 0.319 1.75 97.813 0.1559 0.1343 0.654 0.600 10.415 1.1223 0.800 13.463 1.837 0.78 85.

851 0.871 1.883 Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS Buoyancy Factor 0.841 0.70 115.782 0.737 0.967 1.000 16.716 0.748 0.Page 4-16 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.19 119.23 104.000 15.015 2.1823 0.727 1.1703 0.800 14.727 1.631 1.21 110.799 0.991 2.823 1.2039 Fluid Head psi/ft 0.200 14.631 1.788 0.919 1.69 118.16 g/cc 1.68 121.776 0.823 1.1679 0.015 2.727 0.742 0.872 0.18 122.1895 0.71 109.1751 0.895 1.745 0.200 16.761 0.748 0.73 103.739 .69 124.1727 0.67 127.991 2.775 1.1847 0.20 116.754 0.810 0.770 0.767 0.679 1.800 17.919 1.764 0.847 1.1655 0.400 16.789 0.655 1.943 1.600 15.799 1.600 14.847 1.895 1.1991 0.773 0.399 14.785 0.1631 0.820 0.871 1.799 1.757 0.862 0.17 125.706 0.1871 0.000 14.779 0.600 13.831 0.967 1.800 15.775 1.000 lb/cu ft 101.72 106.039 (At 60 degrees F) Density kg/sq cm/m 0.400 15.703 1.2015 0.22 107.751 1.20 113.1919 0.758 0.768 0.1799 0.800 16.655 1.779 0. TX USA Degrees API Specific Gravity 1. All Rights Reserved Houston.679 1.703 1.039 lb/gal 13.791 0.200 15.943 1.600 16.71 112.751 1.1967 0.1775 0.751 0.1943 0.

326 2.183 2.000 lb/cu ft 128.2087 0.600 19.800 19. TX USA Page 4-17 Specific Gravity 2.400 19.2374 0.063 2.374 2.2255 0.11 149.200 19.028 1.976 0.400 18.718 0.087 2.374 2.893 0.2231 0.2326 0.255 2.2111 0.715 0.800 18.2207 0.302 2.63 142.326 2.727 0.730 0.736 0.398 lb/gal 17. Actual hook load = length of string (ft) x weight of string (lb/ft) x Buoyancy Factor.699 0.135 2.702 0.111 2.000 18.400 17.800 20.183 2.007 1.696 0.14 137.2350 0.2159 0.087 2.2063 0.13 140. All Rights Reserved Buoyancy Factor 0.15 134.063 2.2183 0.16 131.61 g/cc 2.159 2.955 0.966 0.62 145.350 2.693 .278 2.65 133.733 0.018 1.038 kg/sq cm/m 0.2302 0.207 2.64 136.924 0.721 0.111 2.000 19.Houston.2135 0.350 2.64 139.997 1.398 psi/ft 0.712 0.935 0.159 2.200 17.914 0.61 148.302 2.12 143.231 2.278 2.987 0.945 0. Applicable only when tubing or casing is completely filled with fluid.724 0.200 18.705 0.708 0.903 0.231 2.600 18.2278 0. Degrees API (At 60 degrees F) Density Fluid Density and Pressure FLUID GRADIENTS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.66 130.255 2.2398 Fluid Head Buoyancy factor is used to compensate for loss of weight when steel tubulars are immersed in fluid.12 146.600 17.207 2.135 2.

........................................................... 4 Tension Force Tables ....... 7 TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.........TUBING ANCHORS SUCKER ROD STRING WEIGHT IN AIR ...........2-3/8” Tubing .. 5 Tension Force Tables .. 4 Tension Force Tables .................................................... 6 SHEAR PIN SELECTION TABLE ....................SECTION 5 ......3-1/2” Tubing ............................... All Rights Reserved Houston......2-7/8” Tubing ..................... TX USA Page 5-1 ...... 3 TUBING ANCHOR TENSION FORCE FACTORS ........................................................................

All Rights Reserved Page 5-2 Houston.800 # Caution: We are now within 5% of the joint yield strength of the tubing. where the rods and pump cannot be pulled and the tubing is trapped full of fluid. you must now pull the weight of the tubing plus the shear value of the tool.800 + 50. as the required tension is considerably less than the shear value. The table does not take into account. © 2003 WEATHERFORD. If the rods. it is suggested a lighter shear value be used. Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing Wt.800 + 8000 = 82.000 = 68. Minimum Shear Values Tubing Anchors are shipped with all shear screws installed (maximum shear value). Our options include a lighter shear value or a stronger tubing string. If too high a shear value is used.800 + 50. For this application. We must now add the weight of the rod string to the answer directly above. TX USA . This release is a secondary or safety release and is not used unless the anchor cannot be released normally. It is usual practice to run anchors with a high shear value to insure against accidental or pre-mature releasing.000 + 6000 = 74. but the tubing remains full of trapped fluid. + Shear + Fluid Wt. In the unlikely event that the sucker rods are pulled. the shear value should have been reduced to allow for all operational contingencies. + Shear Value = 18. In the preceding example. as some types require tension higher than FT to install. and standing valve are pulled from the well and the anchor must be sheared to release. If too low a value is used. it may be impossible to use the shear release without damaging the tubing. you would be required to pull the weight of the string plus the shear value of the tool. Force to shear release tubing anchor = 74.800 # We now risk tubing damage by pulling over the joint strength.800 # Tubing damage is now certain with this configuration. The following table lists minimum recommended shear values.Tubing Anchor Example Calculations: Shear Release Tubing Anchors are furnished with an adjustable shear release. the type of donut or tubing hanger used. plus the weight of the column of fluid. pump. TUBING ANCHORS Assuming the worst case. = 18. In the previous case: Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing WT. you run the risk of pre-mature release.

000 14.000 4.000 5/8" 8.Weight of Rod Strings 20. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 16.000 18.000 TUBING ANCHORS 2.000 6.000 7/8" 3/4" 10.000 1 1/8" Weight of Rods (LBS) 1" 12. TX USA Page 5-3 .000 0 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Length of Rod String (FT) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

© 2003 WEATHERFORD.TUBING ANCHORS NOTE: The total tension required to offset piston. bouyancy. and temperature effects is obtained by Ft (total tension)= F1+F2-F3. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 5-4 ANCHOR TENSION FORCE FACTORS Houston.

TX USA Page 5-5 . All Rights Reserved Houston.TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 5-6 Houston. TX USA .

Buoyancy and Temperature Effects is obtained by: Ft = F1 + F2 + F3 Ft = total tension TUBING ANCHORS © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.000 .000 lbs 50.000 lbs Important Note: Total tension required to offset Piston.SHEAR PIN SELECTION TABLE FOR ANCHOR CATCHER.20.000 lbs 10.30.40.000 lbs 25.000 .000 lbs 20.10. TUBING & REDUCED SHEAR-OUT VALVES FT (Prestrain Tension) Minimum Shear Value (Including Safety Factor) 0 . TX USA Page 5-7 .000 .000 lbs 30.000 lbs 30.000 lbs 40.

All Rights Reserved Page 5-8 Houston. TX USA .TUBING ANCHORS THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

............... TX USA Page 6-1 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 CALCULATING GAS FLOW THROUGH A CHOKE ............................................... 23 DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONS OF ONE INCH IN INCHES AND MILLIMETERS .. 19 Average Fluid Velocities Past Packers (ft/sec) ..... 10 TOP JOINT TENSION FORMULA ....................... 19 Average Equivalent Flow Rates Past Packers (bbl/min) ............................................................................................................................. 17 CALCULATING STRESS DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF ....................................... 14 FORCE AND IMPACT FORCE .. 17 SAND FILL-UP VOLUME VS..................................................................... 22 FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER ................................................... 3 ENGLISH/METRIC AND METRIC/ENGLISH UNIT CONVERSIONS ..... 12 LENGTH / AREA / VOLUME ..................................... 17 WEIGHT OF TUBING/CASING STRINGS IN AIR FORMULA ............................................ LINEAR HEIGHT FORMULA ...................................................................................... 16 Between Tubing and Hole ......................................... 15 AREA FORMULAE ......... 21 FORMULAE FOR CAPACITIES OF CYLINDRICAL & RECTANGULAR TANKS ... 16 Between Casing and Casing ..................... All Rights Reserved Houston...... 17 FORCE ........................................... 22 Capacity of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Flat Ends ......... 16 Between Casing and Hole ...................................................... 22 CONTENTS OF PIPELINES ................................................................................. 16 VOLUME & HEIGHT FORMULAE ........ 19 Open Ended Tubing ........... 8 TUBING MOVEMENT FORMULAE ......................................................................................... 22 Capacity of Rectangular Tanks with Flat Ends ........................................ 18 CALCULATING AVERAGE FLUID VELOCITIES & FLOW RATES PAST PACKERS ..................................................... 13 RULES OF THUMB ........ 24 GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.................................................................................... 11 BASIC FORMULAS FOR MEASUREMENT ........GENERAL INFORMATION COMMON FORMULAS AND CONVERSION FACTORS ............................. 16 Between Tubing and Casing ........SECTION 6 ...... 19 TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS .......................................................................... 19 Bull Plugged Tubing .............................................................................................................................................. 17 FORCE DUE TO BUOYANCY FORMULA ...... 16 Between Multiple Tubing Strings and Casing ........................................................................................

All Rights Reserved Page 6-2 Houston. TX USA .GENERAL INFORMATION THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

645.11924 Cubic metres Barrels (oil) 42.316 Litres Cubic feet of steel 489.4047 Hectares Acre feet 7.4 Square varas (Texas) Acres 0.0 Pounds of cement Barrels per hour 0.055.6 Pounds of steel .1934 Pounds per square inch Chains 66 Feet Chains 4 Rods Cubic centimetres 0.7 Pounds per square inch Barrels 5.0 Cubic centimetres Cubic feet 0.2928 Watt hours BTU 1.5 Gallons Barrels 158.9 Litres Barrels of cement (dry weight) 376.03381 Ounces (US fluid) Cubic feet 28.02356 Horsepower BTU's per second 1.0 Microns Centimetres of mercury 0.700 Gallons per minute Barrels per hour 2.4 Watts Centigrade heat units 1.94 Feet of water Atmospheres 29.6417 x 10-4 Gallons Cubic centimetres 0.047 Square metres Acres 160 Square rods Acres 5.8 BTU Centimetres 1 x 108 Angstrom units Centimetres 0.9869 Atmosphere British thermal unit 0.© 2003 WEATHERFORD.5 Cubic metres Atmospheres 33.0936 Cubic feet per minute Barrels per hour 0.06 Joules BTU's per minute 0.317.695 Cubic inches per second Barrels per day 0.6146 Cubic feet Barrels (oil) 0.01 Metres Centimetres 0.03281 Feet Centimetres 0.0 Gallons Barrels (US liquid) 31. All Rights Reserved Houston.054.758 Barrels Acre feet 1. TX USA Page 6-3 GENERAL INFORMATION COMMON FORMULAS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Multiply By To Obtain Acres 43.02917 Gallons per minute Bars 0.481 Gallons (US) Cubic feet 28.15899 Cubic metres Barrels (US liquid) 0.233.0010567 Quarts (US fluid) Cubic centimetres 0.000.3937 Inches Centimetres 10.06102 Cubic inches Cubic centimetres 2.1781 Barrels Cubic feet 7.92 Inches of mercury Atmospheres 760 Millimetres of mercury Atmospheres (at sea level) 14.560 Square feet Acres 4.

785 0.314 1.03175 0.03704 2.686 28.4331 0.00058 0.3600 0.387 0.GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet / atmosphere Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Cubic feet per second Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic metres Cubic metres Cubic metres Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Fathoms Fathoms Feet Feet Feet Feet of water @ 60° F Feet per minute Feet per second Foot / pounds Foot / pounds Foot / pounds per second Foot / pounds Foot / pounds per second Foot / pounds (force) Gallons (US liquid) Gallons (US) Gallons Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons (US) Gallons per minute By 1728 0.0012856 3.028317 0. TX USA .429 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0013558 5.656 0.48 0.785 0.829 30.8089 27 46. All Rights Reserved Page 6-4 To Obtain Cubic inches Cubic metres Cubic yards Foot / pounds Barrels per hour Cubic inches per second Gallons per minute Gallons per second Cubic centimetres per second Gallons per second Million gallons per day Millilitres Cubic centimetres Cubic feet Gallons Litres Barrels Cubic feet Cubic yards Barrels Cubic feet Cubic inches Cubic metres Feet Metres Centimetres Metres Varas (Texas) Pounds per square inch Centimetres per second Miles per hour BTU Kilowatt / hours Kilowatts Horsepower / hours Horsepower Joules Barrels (US liquid) Barrels Cubic metres Cubic centimetres Cubic feet Cubic inches Litres Gallons (imperial) Barrels per hour Houston.5080 0.8327 1.64632 16.3048 0.766 x 10-7 0.387 16.00433 0.3 10.68182 0.481 0.308 4.0 7.2897 35.0 1.1247 472.3558 0.13368 231 3.051 x 10-7 0.0018182 1.76456 6.116.8 7.02381 0.0164 6.003785 3.48 0.

© 2003 WEATHERFORD.37 Metres 1.002205 Grams per litre 58.01714 Grams 15.4912 Inches of water @ 60° F 0.0648 Grains per gallon 17.418 Hectare 2.86 Grains per gallon 0.094 .7 Horsepower (British) 1.0567 Metres 100 Metres 3.42 Horsepower 0.000 Litres 61.010 Horsepower (British) 2.134 Inches of mercury 0.0254 Inches 2.5144 Knots (nautical miles per hour) 1.02 Litres 0. All Rights Reserved To Obtain Cubic feet per minute Cubic feet per second Barrels per day Grams Parts per million Pounds per million gallons Grams per litre Grains Kilograms Milligrams Ounces Pounds Grains per gallon Acres Square kilometres BTU per hour BTU per minute Kilowatts Watts Horsepower (metric) Foot pounds per minute Foot / pounds per second Metres Centimetres Feet Feet of water Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds Grams Miles Feet PSI BTU Horsepower Metres per second Miles per hour Cubic centimetres Cubic inches Gallons Quarts Centimetres Feet Inches Yards Houston.26418 Litres 1.54 Inches 0.47 Inches 0.545.6214 Kilometres 3.000 Horsepower (metric) 542.432 Grams 0.03527 Grams 0.414.286 Grains (Avoirdupois) 0.000 Grams 0.0 Kilowatts 1.0361 Kilograms per square centimetres 14.1516 Litres 1.000 Kilometres 0.281 Kilopascals 0.0 Horsepower (British) 42.7457 Horsepower (British) 745.471 Hectare 0.2046 Kilograms 1.3410 Knots (international) 0.118 Grains per gallon 142.001 Grams 1.281 Metres 39.0139 Horsepower 33.1451 Kilowatt / hours 3.1337 Gallons per minute 0. TX USA Page 6-5 GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply By Gallons per minute 0.002228 Gallons per minute 34.223 Kilograms 2.08333 Inches of mercury 1.

0703 0.4482 0.1198 0.0703 6.45359 4.0353 51.6 0.2835 437.5 0.000 453.05835 8.76 1.57 0.909 x 10-4 0.076.36 101.3861 10.5 28.609.11982 1.3495 29.196 640 2.467 57. TX USA .0929 6.895 0.3 1.590 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.052 2.89 7. All Rights Reserved Page 6-6 To Obtain Feet Metres Kilometres Varas (Texas) Feet Miles (US statute) Feet per second Metres Radians Kilograms Grains Grams Millilitres Grains per gallon Pounds per million gallons Litres Grains Grams Kilograms Newtons Grams per cubic centimetre Pounds/sq inch/feet of depth Feet of water at 60° F Inches of mercury Millimetres of mercury Kilograms per sq centimetre Kilopascals Parts per million BTU Kilopascals Kilograms/Sq centimetre Litres Millilitres Pounds Degrees Radians per second Feet Square inches Square centimetres Square metres Square centimetres Square miles Square feet Square yards Acres Square kilometres Houston.452 0.8 6.8 6.697 0.900.946 946.10472 16.001 2.34 1.GENERAL INFORMATION Multiply Miles Miles Miles Miles Miles (international nautical) Miles (international nautical) Miles per hour Millimetres Minutes (angle) Ounces Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (US fluid) Parts per million Parts per million Pints (US liquid) Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds force Pounds per gallon Pounds per gallon Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per square inch Pounds per million gallons Pounds C° units (PCU) PSI PSI Quarts Quarts Quintal (Mexican) Radians Revolutions per minute Rods Square centimetres Square feet Square feet Square inches Square kilometres Square metres Square metres Square miles Square miles By 5.4667 0.30 0.1550 929 0.1033 1.609 1.8947 0.309 2.1508 1.280.0 1.

0 6.000. divide by the conversion factor.000.0 2.0 2.9144 To Obtain Square metres Kilograms Pounds Barrels of water @ 60° F Kilograms Pounds Tons (short or net) Tons (metric) Kilograms Pounds Feet Metres Note: To convert the right column to the left column.Multiply Square miles Tons (long) Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (metric) Tons (short or net) Tons (short or net) Tons (short or net) Vara (Texas) Yards By 0.18 2.8361 1. TX USA Page 6-7 .204.7778 0. GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston.102 0.9072 907.240.0 2.6 1.016.297 1.

“A” units by the factor in Col. “C” © 2003 WEATHERFORD. “B” to unit in Col. multiply the number of Col. “B”. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 6-8 Houston. “A” to units in Col.GENERAL INFORMATION English-To-Metric Unit Conversion To convert from units in Col. “A”. “D” Metric-To-English Unit Conversion To convert from units in Col. “B” units by the factor in Col. multiply the number of Col.

78) x 1.33 = kg cm2/m Temperature (°C + 17.02 = kg/m3 lb/gal x 0.240 lb) = 1.4 = lb/ft3 kg/m3 x 0.895 = psi bar x 1.70 = psi atm x 1.8 = °F C + 273 = °K (°F .205 = lb lb x 0.003755 = m3 gal (US) x 0.013 = bar psi x 0. TX USA Page 6-9 GENERAL INFORMATION Density .155 = in2 m2 x 10.03527 = oz oz x 28.281 = feet US in x 2.452 = cm2 ft2 = 0.000 lb) = 907 kgs 1 long ton (2.448 = N Length lbf x 0.81 = N kgf x 2.50 = psi bar x 0.3937 = inches m x 3.54 = cm ft x 0.06102 = in3 m3 x 35.3147 = ft3 m3 x 6.205 = lbf lbf x 4.001 = g/cm3 lb/ft x 0.3871 = cm3 ft3 x 0.0929 = m2 Volume cm3 (cc) x 0.Metric cm x 0.159 = m3 gal x 0.3048 = m Area cm2 x 0.43536 = kg 1 short ton (2.000 kgs g/cm3 x 62.32) x 0.1781 = bbl ft3 x 1728 = in2 Pressure kg/cm2 x 14.6804 = atm Force Newtons x 0.0295 = atm ft of water x 0.35 = g kg x 2.145 = KPa psi x 0.02832 = m3 bbl x 0.2 = gal in3 x 16.76 = ft2 in2 x 6.29 = bbl m3 x 264.481 = gal bbl x 42 = gal bbl x 5.07031 = kg/cm2 atm x 14.454 = kgf Weight / Mass g x 0.231 = psi/ft ft of water x 0.02 = kg/cm2 psi x 0.2234 = psi bar x 14. All Rights Reserved Houston.5555 = °C © 2003 WEATHERFORD.49 = lb/ft3 Gradient kg cm2/m x 0.987 = atm KPa x 6.01602 = g/cm3 lb/ft x 16.83267 = gal (imp) ft3 x 7.433 = psi psi/ft x 4.225 = lbf kgf x 9.1199 = g/cm3 gal/ft x 7.6146 = ft3 ft3 x 0.016 kgs 1 tonne (metric) = 1.

6 (∆Poa Ao . (in2) Area of the tubing I. TX USA .∆Pia Ai) Temperature Effect Force F4 = 207× As × ∆T The forces calculated by the above formulae are in pounds (lbs). For easy reference. Change in length (in) Change in force (lbs) © 2003 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Page 6-10 Force Change Houston. the formulae used for calculating the forces developed by this expansion/ contraction are shown below: Piston Effect Force F1 = ∆Po(Ap – Ao) . Avg. Tbg. (in2) Change in total annular pressure at packer (psi) Change in total tubing pressure at packer (psi) Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Change in average annulus pressure (psi) Change in average tubing temperature (oF) Final Avg. 30 x 106 psi (for carbon steels) Cross-sectional area of the tubing (in2) Packer valve area (in2) Area of the tubing O. . Temp.D. or can be calculated using the following formula: Stretch or Contraction GENERAL INFORMATION ∆L = Where: F L E As Ap Ao Ai ∆Po ∆Pi ∆Poa ∆Pia ∆T ∆T ∆L ∆F = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = F ×L E × As ∆F = ∆L × E × A s L Force (lbs) Tubing string length (in) Modulus of elasticity. Tbg.∆Pi(Ap – Ai) Buckling Effect Force F2 = usually neglible Ballooning Effect Force F3 = . and the equivalent tubing movement (expansion or contraction) can be obtained from the stretch charts in other sections of this data handbook.Init. as detailed in the Weatherford “Fundamental Completion Training Manual”.D.TUBING MOVEMENT FORMULAE Changes in temperature and pressure can cause expansion or contraction of a tubing string. Temp.

(in2) Po final = Final annulus pressure at packer (psi) Pi final = Final tubing pressure at packer (psi) Fa = [( Ap .( Ap . TX USA Page 6-11 . All Rights Reserved Houston.Ai) × Pi final] GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.A o ) × Po final .D.(Fp) Where: Tubing Weight (TW) = String length (ft) x Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) Fp = Packer to Tubing Force (ÇÈ) Fa = Actual or End Area Force (lbs) Ap = Packer sealbore or valve area (in2) Ao = Area of the tubing O. (in2) Ai = Area of the tubing I.D.TOP JOINT TENSION FORMULA Three forces are combined to determine the Top Joint Tension (TJT): • Weight of Tubing String in Air (lbs) • Tubing to Packer Force (lbs) • End Area Force (lbs) TJT = TW + (Fa) .

BASIC FORMULAS FOR MEASUREMENT Area (A) L Square A = L x W L Rectangle A = L x W Circle A = π R2 d Diameter (D) = 2 x Radius (R) Volume pi (π) = 3. TX USA . All Rights Reserved Page 6-12 Houston.14 (and is constant) L Tank = L x W x D D W R Cylinder (tubing / casing) = π R2 x D D GENERAL INFORMATION Pressure Force per unit area = F A Hydrostatic Pressure = = Pressure created by a column of fluid Density x Vertical depth of column Force = Pressure x Area Impact Force = Mass x Acceleration © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

5708 1. TX USA Page 6-13 .4646 GENERAL INFORMATION Electrical Ohm's Law Watt's Law 3.7725 1.1416 1.000 Watt / hours Amps =Watts Volts © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0472 2.1013 1.7854 D2 = πD Rectangle/ Parallelogram A = ab Trapezoid A = 1/2 a (b1 + b2) Cube V = b3 Formulas Prism / Cylinder V = a x (Area of base) Pyramid / Cone V = 1/3 a x (Area of base) Sphere V = 4/3 π r3 = π D3 6 Constants π π/2 π/3 2π/3 1 /π = = = = = π2 1 2 /π √π 3 √π = = = = 9. All Rights Reserved Houston.0944 0.8696 0.b2 = √c2 .LENGTH / AREA / VOLUME Legends A a r D = = = = Area Altitude (height or depth) Radius Diameter Any Triangle A = 1/2 a b Right Triangle a b c = √c2 .3183 A = 4 π r2 Volts = Amps x Ohms Watts = Amps x Volts Kilowatt hour=1.a2 = √a2 + b2 Circle A A C = π r2 = 0.

5 12.81.131. x Depth in ft.RULES OF THUMB Rules Of Thumb provides an approximate value for rapid field use and/or checking the magnitude of calculated values.5 ÷ SG . Approximate hydrostatic head = 0. Bottom hole pressure of gas column = Surface pressure x Gas correction factor.433 = Gradient of fluid.32° x 0. 10. Rule of thumb for finding the fill up volume of any size pipe is the inside diameter squared equals barrels per 1. ID2 = bbls / 1. Approximate hydrostatic head in KPa = kg / litre x Depth in meters x 9. Partial pressure = psi x 100 141. 9. All Rights Reserved Page 6-14 Houston. 2. 5.052 x Wt / gal. Hydrostatic head = Gradient x True vertical depth. Specific gravity = GENERAL INFORMATION API + 131. 4. 8. Centigrade x 1.8 + 32° = °F. 3. To convert specific gravity to gradient : SG of fluid x 0. % H2S / CO2 11. TX USA . To convert specific gravity to API = 141.5 = °API.5 © 2003 WEATHERFORD. 7. 6. 1. 1 Pascal = 1 Newton / square metre (using SI units). Centigrade = Fahrenheit .000 ft.5555.000 ft.

14 x = 5. = = π R2 3.700 lbf ( ) 2. Result Less impact available. Whenever a pressure differential downhole acts on a crosssectional area.000 psi pressure differential is: F Area Force 2. More impact available.750" packing bore) with a 5. The amount of force created is directly proportional to the mass of the stem.Fluid viscosity. Smaller shear pin diameters in shear down tools.Hole deviation. Stem Weight Calculation (approximate) Stem weight (lbs) = Stem OD (inches) x Length (ft). TX USA Page 6-15 GENERAL INFORMATION Downward Jar Action Acceleration due to gravity only. and the speed at the point where jars are fully opened or closed.94 in2 = = = Pressure x Area 5. . © 2003 WEATHERFORD. This impact force is critical to achieve the desired movement and shearing action in downhole tools and equipment. Force = Pressure x Area Example The force of 3 1/2" x plug (2.94 29. the force created is directly proportional to the pressure and the area. Limited by . . All Rights Reserved Houston. Stem can be accelerated through heavy fluid and in deviated holes by wireline from the surface.FORCE AND IMPACT FORCE 2 types of Force are relevant to wireline operations: 1. Larger shear pin diameters in shear up tools. Impact Force = Mass x Acceleration Upward Jar Action More acceleration available from wireline unit speed on the surface.750 2 2 P Impact Force created during downhole jarring action.000 x 5. Force created by a pressure acting on an area.

D.d 2 ) Volume (Bbl /lin.005454 Volume (lin.35 (D 2 .2 ) End Area of Tubulars. ft /gal) = 24.0009714 or GENERAL INFORMATION Volume (lin.2 ) ÷ 4 = . TX USA .7854 x (DO² .d 2 ) Volume (gal /lin.I. ft) = (D 2 .4 Where: Between Tubing and Hole D = Diameter of the hole (in) d = Tubing OD (in) Between Casing and Hole D = Diameter of the hole (in) d = Casing OD (in) Between Tubing and Casing D = Casing ID (in) d = Tubing OD (in) Between Casing and Casing D = Outer Casing ID (in) d = Inner Casing OD (in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.d 2 ) (D 2 .Di²) VOLUME & HEIGHT FORMULAE Volume(ft3) = Area x Length = A (in2) x L (in) ÷ 1728 Volume (ft 3 /lin.51 (D 2 .D. AS (in2) = . All Rights Reserved Page 6-16 Houston.d 2 ) × .0408 Volume (lin.D. A (in2) = π x D2 ÷ 4 = . ft /ft 3 ) = 183. ft) = (D 2 .d 2 ) × . ft) = (D 2 .2 .d 2 ) × .I.4 (D 2 . AS (in2) = π x (O.d 2 ) 1029 .2 .7854 x (O.7854 x D2 Cross-sectional Area.D. ft /Bbl) = 1029.AREA FORMULAE Surface Area.

1 Where: MW = mud weight (lbs/gal) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.07 gal / ft3. 005454 Where: n = number of tubing strings SAND FILL-UP VOLUME vs.ft / ft ) = 183 . All Rights Reserved Houston.3 x ((. (S.NOTE: Between Multiple Tubing Strings and Casing In cases where multiple tubing strings are used. FORCE F=mxa Where: F m a = = = force (lbs) mass (lbs) acceleration (32 ft/sec2) WEIGHT OF TUBING/CASING STRINGS IN AIR FORMULA Weight (lbs) = String length (ft) x Pipe Weight (lbs/ft) FORCE DUE TO BUOYANCY FORMULA Buoyancy Factor= (MW ÷ 65. and open hole/casing can be modified from the formulae above. 005454 3 Volume ( lin . 35 [D 2 ( n × d 2 )] × . of the same size.63) .72) Bulk Volume of sand is .7854 x D2 x 12) / 231) Linear ft. TX USA Page 6-17 GENERAL INFORMATION Buoyancy Force (lbs) = Pressure (psi) x area under pressure (in2) . the formulae for the volume and height between multiple tubing strings.07 x (231/(. LINEAR HEIGHT FORMULA Lbs Sand / Linear ft. / 100 lbs sack of sand = . For example: Volume ( ft 3 / lin . = 1. = 14.G.ft ) = [D 2 − ( n × d 2 )] × .3 lbs / gal.7854 x D2 x12)) x 100 Assumes the use of 20-40 Mesh Sand Bulk density of sand is 14.

I. TX USA .4 ) ÷ 64 GENERAL INFORMATION As © 2003 WEATHERFORD. r = (Casing ID . All Rights Reserved Page 6-18 Houston. I = π x (O.CALCULATING STRESS DUE TO TUBING SLACK-OFF (BEFORE PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES OCCUR) So = Fs (Tbg OD) x (r ) x (Fs ) + As 4xI Where: So = Tubing Stress caused by slacking off tubing weight onto the packer (psi) Fs = Slack-off force (lbs) Tbg OD = O. of the tubing (in) Casing ID = I.D.D.4 .Tubing OD) ÷ 2 I = Moment of inertia of the tubing (in4) where. of the casing (in) = Tubing cross-sectional area (in2) r = Radial clearance between tubing and casing (in) where.D.D.

07421 Where: Flow Rate = Avg. All Rights Reserved Houston.D. area (in2) = Lowering speed of the pipe (ft/sec) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O.Ao packer) = Tubing I.96 (Ai csg. TX USA Page 6-19 GENERAL INFORMATION Ai csg . area (in2) LS = Lowering speed of the pipe (ft/sec) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O. area (in2) Bull Plugged Tubing Fluid Velocity (ft/sec) = (Ai csg) × LS × 9.D.96 (Ai csg .Ao packer) Where: Fluid Velocity= Velocity past the packer when lowering the pipe (ft/sec) Ai csg = Casing I. of the packer (in2) FV = Fluid velocity past the packer when lowering the pipe (ft/sec) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.D.D.D. equiv.D.AVERAGE FLUID VELOCITIES PAST PACKERS (FT/SEC) Open Ended Tubing Fluid Velocity (ft/sec) = Where: Ai tbg LS (Ai csg. flow rate past the packer when lowering the pipe (bbl/min) = Casing I.Ao packer) × FV × .Ai tbg) ×LS × 9. area (in2) Ao packer = Packer area calculated on the gauge ring O.D. of the packer (in2) Ai csg = Casing I. of the packer (in2) AVERAGE EQUIVALENT FLOW RATES PAST PACKERS (BBL/MIN) Flow Rate (bbl / min) = (Ai csg .

TX USA .TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS o = (oC x 1. All Rights Reserved Page 6-20 Houston.8) + 32 o = (oF .32) ÷ 1.8 o = o C + 273 o = o F + 460 o = degrees Fahrenheit o = degrees Centigrade o = degrees Kelvin o = degrees Rankine F C K R Where: F C K GENERAL INFORMATION R © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

at 60oF & atmospheric pressure (MCF per day) C = Choke Coefficient (see table for various choke sizes) T = Absolute Gas Temperature.44 1/4 26. All Rights Reserved Houston.74 3/4 260.64 3/8 61.72 5/8 179. upstream of the choke (gage reading + 15 psi) (psia) SG = Gas Specific Gravity o R = degrees Rankine (oF + 460) Choke Coefficient Table Choke Size (in) Coefficient C 1/8 6. upstream of the choke (oR) Pa = Absolute Pressure.99 GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.21 7/16 85.51 5/16 43. TX USA Page 6-21 .25 3/16 14.13 1/2 112.CALCULATING GAS FLOW THROUGH A CHOKE Q= C × Pa SG × T Where: Q = Gas Flow Rate.

01484 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (gal) = .62340 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (ft3) = . All Rights Reserved Page 6-22 Houston.06545 x D2 Where: D = diameter (ft) Capacity of Rectangular Tanks with Flat Ends Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (Bbl) = .4 ÷ D2 Contents (lin.7854 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (ft3) = .FORMULAE FOR CAPACITIES OF CYLINDRICAL & RECTANGULAR TANKS Capacity of Vertical Cylindrical Tanks with Flat Ends Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (Bbl) = .17808 x L x W Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (Bbl) = . ft/gal) = 24. TX USA .08333 x L x W Contents per linear foot (Bbl) = . ft/Bbl) = 1029.4896 x D2 Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (ft3) = .51 ÷ D2 Where: L = length (ft) W = width (ft) GENERAL INFORMATION CONTENTS OF PIPELINES Where: D = diameter (in) © 2003 WEATHERFORD.0408 x D2 Contents (lin.8752 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (gal) = .1399 x D2 Capacity per inch of depth of liquid (Bbl) = .01165 x D2 Capacity per foot of depth of liquid (gal) = 5.0009714 x D2 Contents per linear foot (gal) = .

000584 BPM = barrels per minute BPH = barrels per hour BPD = barrels per day GPM = gallons per minute Where: Pressure = pressure (psi) GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Page 6-23 .0245 Hydraulic Horsepower = BPH x Pressure x .000409 Hydraulic Horsepower = BPD x Pressure x .FORMULAE FOR CALCULATING HYDRAULIC HORSEPOWER Hydraulic Horsepower = BPM x Pressure x .000017 Hydraulic Horsepower = GPM x Pressure x . All Rights Reserved Houston.

18750 4.31250 7.07813 1.20313 5.12813 55/64 .66875 11/64 .51563 13.68438 3/32 .34375 8.62500 15.52500 7/8 .93750 23.21875 5.23438 5.24063 5/16 .63750 21/64 .00313 1/2 .85938 21.25625 15/64 .84375 19/64 .01563 1/32 .90625 31/32 .14375 25/32 .28750 5/64 .06563 3/16 .39688 33/64 .53125 3/64 13.75000 19.84375 21.90625 23.65313 1/4 .54688 13.79688 20.92188 57/64 .11250 15/16 .40625 10.57188 41/64 .57813 14.54063 51/64 .25000 6.92188 23.87500 9/64 .71875 18.71563 59/64 .87500 22.03125 .26563 6.46875 11.82813 3/8 . TX USA .31875 29/32 .38125 19/32 .15938 45/64 .56250 14.89063 22.17500 5/8 .35000 3/4 .03438 11/32 .01875 27/64 .98438 37/64 .95313 24.09375 2.77813 39/64 .76250 11/16 .28125 7.49375 .76563 19.70000 1 1.64063 16.93750 13/16 .47813 1/8 .85938 7/32 .42188 10.19063 35/64 .08125 7/64 .48438 12.00000 25.06250 1.29688 7.33438 53/64 .44688 9/32 .78125 19.12500 3.05000 17/64 .30313 63/64 .70313 17.27188 5/32 .32813 8.81250 20.39063 9.62188 13/32 .60938 15.81250 29/64 .67188 17.65625 16.55625 23/32 .96875 21/32 .45313 11.50000 12.68750 17.41563 7/16 .46250 13/64 .43750 11.36563 43/64 .79375 17/32 .09688 .04688 1.73125 27/32 .DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS OF FRACTIONS OF ONE INCH GENERAL INFORMATION Fraction Decimal Millimeters Fraction Decimal Millimeters 1/64 .14063 3.10938 2.35938 9.96875 24.40000 © 2003 WEATHERFORD.73438 18.20938 15/32 .22500 25/64 .82813 21.74688 49/64 .59375 15.17188 4.43125 23/64 .60625 31/64 .95313 47/64 .98438 25.37500 9.50938 61/64 .89063 1/16 .15625 3. All Rights Reserved Page 6-24 Houston.58750 9/16 .

All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Page 6-25 .PERSONAL NOTES THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK GENERAL INFORMATION © 2003 WEATHERFORD.

All Rights Reserved Page 6-26 Houston. TX USA .GENERAL INFORMATION PERSONAL NOTES © 2003 WEATHERFORD.