T E AC H I N G W I T H
SUN, WIND, & LIGHT
2 0 0 1 S B S E S U M M E R R E T R E AT
Mark DeKay, assistant professor College of Architecture and Design University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37966 314.935.6282, firstname.lastname@example.org
SUN, WIND, AND LIGHT is a 400 page book for designers who want to consider the form-generating potential of climatic forces in the earliest stages of the design process. The second edition was recently published in January of 2001. The second edition project expands the original, increasing its scope by 40%, providing more recent architectural examples, updating the methods, and incorporating more than a decade of research in the field. The Idea of the Book Sun, Wind, and Light is designed to fit with the rapid, conceptual, exploratory, and synthetic thinking that characterizes the beginning of the design process. It stresses the energy implications of sun, wind, and light, however, it is organized by the architectural elements designers manipulate – streets, open spaces and buildings, rooms and courtyards, walls, roofs, floors, and windows. These elements are discussed in terms of their organization and their attributes. The second edition of Sun, Wind, and Light represents one of the only sources to fundamentally integrate the formal language of preliminary architectural design with the discipline of building science. Climatic forces are important in architecture because a building’s response to climate is directly related to its energy consumption, and because climate is a powerful local context giving designers a means of regional expression and placemaking. The book’s audience is practicing architects and architecture students. Its purpose is to help architects integrate architectural design and energy, to design more energy efficient buildings, while also making humane, sustainable, aesthetic buildings. Organization The book is organized into three parts: 1) Analysis Techniques, which give tools for understanding the climatic context of the design problem, along with the pre-design implications of program and form; 2) Design Strategies, which give strategies for shaping architectural form to achieve low energy consumption, user thermal comfort, and effective lighting; and 3) Supplemental Strategies, which give mechanical/ electrical-assisted strategies for supplementing the architecturally-based (passive) strategies. Each design strategy is intended to support designers at making important schematic-level design decisions about the form or organization of building groups, sites, buildings, or building elements. Each gives a short statement of the strategy, and explanation of its energy-related phenomenon, an example of how the strategy has been used in an elegant way by another architect in buildings of high design quality, and very importantly, offers a tool that helps to make a design decision such as size, shape, organization, color, material, etc. (see diagram on following page). Making Patterns Visual, Translating Science for Designers The book is graphics-intensive, with one or more handdrawn architectural illustrations on every page. It is graphic for three reasons: 1) to communicate in the language of architects; 2) to simplify the methods and reduce calculation, such as with nomographs; and 3) to make the connection between patterns of form and their
There is a wealth of literature and research on these topics. such as plans. this knowledge explosion has not penetrated very deeply into either education or practice. doctoral dissertations. such as the effect of latitude and building height on light in an atrium.
A å ~ í ç ® ó n ° ` S ì å . and Light required either assembling and translating existing research into a form useful to designers or developing a novel technique for designers to use. there are analytical and interpretive diagrams that show how a building works. Finally. such as how air moves through a plan. Second. W á√ å Ç . sections. heating. The illustrations take several forms. there are charts and graphs that make the patterns of phenomena and their relationship to architectural elements visible. well-defined research projects. and perspectives that show the formal implication or application of an idea. there are illustrative architectural drawings.associated energy processes. Wind.
What is available is often presented in the language of engineering and science. Techniques and Strategies The matrix on the following page shows all of the 109 analysis techniques and design strategies categorized by both their part and section within the book’s structure (horizontal axis) and by their role in building environmental controls issues of daylighting. or explore the interactions of important variables. Unfortunately. Each design strategy and technique in Sun. Much of the knowledge is inaccessibly stored in engineering studies. First. The book is also a long series of small. ` åÇ L á√ Ö ﬁ í D É ë á√ Ö ‰ S í ê~ í ÉÖ Ô
. and obscure journals. Patterns must be drawn and mapped. and cooling (vertical axis). increasing at a rapid rate.
42. daylight zones 70. heat gains
Heating & Cooling
1. rms. ventilation openings arrangement 99. insulation outside 95. 39. light shelves 98. roof ponds 72. glass types
80. overhead shades 28. reflected sunlight 94. ` åÇ L á√ Ö ﬁ í
. wind catchers 68. movable insulation 81. shading calendar 21. PV walls & roofs 86. balance pt. corridors 27. ext. 23. stratify zones 57. solar radiation 21. earth edges 74. migration 47. electric light zones
3. daylit rm. outdoor rooms 49. daylight availability 10. well-placed window 93. thermal stor. breathing walls 91. daylight obstruction
S T R A T E G I E S Building Parts
78. E-W plan 53. green edges 45. thin plan 54. buffer zones 59. layer of shades 50. thermal collectors 48. facing sun & wind 63. wall 64. sun path diagram 4. eletric loads 25. deep sun 60. hot water loads
29. earth contact 22. separated/combo openings 101. solar apertures 97. air-flow windows
104. thermal mass 88. bldgs. skin thickness 79. surface color 83. external shading 100. solar hot water
T É Å Ü å á√ è ì É ë ` å Ç D É ë á√ Ö ‰ S í ê ~ í É Ö ﬂ√ É ë h√ å S ì å . sundial 2. daylight apertures 77. E-W bldg.D E S I G N Analysis Techniques
8. 65. breezy streets 37. microclimate 33. gradual height transitions 38. 19. evap. depth 52. daylight-enhancing shades 31. Cooling & Daylighting Power
24. bioclimatic cht. wind square 6. groups 41. solar envelopes
96. mech. neighborhood sun 26. earth/air heat x-changers
Heating & Daylighting Daylighting & Cooling Heating. air movement prin. shared shade 36. site microclimate 11. 7. borrowed daylight 58. Supplement
102. low contrast 85. mass vent. profiles
76. solar reflectors 87. permeable bldgs. bldgs. balance point temp. W á√ åÇ . 106. daylight envelope
51. window solar gain 20. heat prod. buffer zones & air/air x-changers 109. night-cooled mass 69. direct gain 61. sky cover 9. bldg. atrium 71. bioclimatic chart 15. breezy/calm courts
Mech/Elec. double skin mat’ls 90. shady courts 46. task lighting 103. glazed streets 35. cross-ventilation 66 stack-ventilation 67. skylight wells 92.
32. + plants 40. clustered rooms 55. + water 44. tall buildings 34. sunspaces 62. space vent. internal shading & inbetween shading 105. cool towers 73. vent. dispersed bldgs. topo. balanced urban patterns 89. water edges 75. heat losses
30. skin heat flow 17. winter outdoor rms. mass absorptance 82. windbreaks
16. rock beds 107. zones 56. infil/vent gain & loss 18. mech. reflecting surfaces 84. loose & dense urban patterns 43. ducts & plenums 108. wind rose 5.
such as window design. Instructors will soon be able to order full or partial sets of slides of these same illustrations for use in lectures. shading. techniques and strategies can be combined to form class exercises or design methods in a variety of ways. The new climate reports will include additional data. It has been used in seminars. The diagrams below show how the content of SWL can be used to support teaching different types of classes. single-scale question. This library is available on CD from Mark DeKay. heating. cooling. In some cases. and type strategies – integrating issues of heating. and power.
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. A window design exercise (or class!) might include a range of parts-scale strategies such as reflection. or the pedagogical approach of the instructor or particular class. along with other architectural window issues if desired. cooling. and moving heat from where it is collected and stored to where it is needed (#107). or a natural ventilation building design. instead of the multi-scalar. Linking Strategies by Topic Many of the techniques and strategies in SWL are linked to each other logically. architectural design studio courses.Use in Different Classes SWL is really a design process resource manual. graphics. Digital Image Library A full library of the 700 illustrations and tables in the book has been developed for use by instructors who adopt the book in their classes. A set of individual techniques and strategies can be built up to form a network of concepts and tools that form a larger integrated system in the student’s design process. For instance. large lecture courses. The four matrices on the following pages show the SWL analysis techniques and design strategies separated out
by the energy topics of daylighting. Through a grant from the Hay Fund of the Renewable Energy Institute at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. The new data and analyses will be keyed to SWL techniques. Depending on the architectural question asked. insulation. organizing the rooms to get sun (#52 & 53) and shaping the rooms and their enclosure to collect sun (#60 & 61). and by professional architects in practice. sizing the windows and thermal mass (#83 & 93). singe-issue approach given above. data for an additional 19 climates are being developed in format similar to that in the SWL appendix. as shown in the matrix for heating. Contact Mark DeKay if you are interested in purchasing slides. one technique is required as data input for another technique or strategy. a solar heated building design requires assessing the potential for solar heating in the climate (#7) and on the site (#18). The techniques and strategies in bold show one possible suggestion for which sections to address first in a typical design problem for a daylighted building design. sizing. not a conventional textbook. and daylighting. a solar heated building design. For instance. and analyses not found in the print edition. Additional Climate Data Resources for SWL The print edition of SWL has data for five climates. positioning. an instructor could ask students to engage a multi-issue. orientation. configuring groups of buildings for solar access in the site plan (#38).
solar apertures 95. daylight zones 70. heat losses 22. and Light is a large and complex resource with 382 pages and 700 illustrations and tables. tall buildings 31. balanced urban patterns 35. separated/combo openings 92. bldg.edu/ecodesign/cdr/. topo. Wind. E-W plan 53. wind square 6. balance pt. Instructors teaching fall 2001 classes can be provided with prerelease data and climatic analyses as available. glass types
28. solar envelopes 30. surface color 82. mass absorptance 79. skin heat flow 17. bioclimatic chart 15. movable insulation 101. giving mean hourly data for several variables. sunspaces 62. thin plan 54. buffer zones & air/air x-changers 109. 42. air movement prin. Check the new SWL web site (appearing late summer <http://dell2002. electric light zones
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D E S I G N Analysis Techniques
1. earth/air heat x-changers
A å~ ä ó È á√ ë T É Å Ü å á√ è ì É ë ` åÇ D É ë á√ Ö ‰ S í ê~ í ÉÖ ﬂ√ É ë enq H É~ í á√ åÖ Preliminary graphic and tabular data are available for download from the Climatic Design Resources web site at http://dell2002. earth contact 21. Additional data will be posted by summer’s end and final products should be posted by late fall 2001. light shelves 98.cap. borrowed daylight 58.D E S I G N Analysis Techniques
8. in the form of Microsoft Excel workbooks. derived from TMY2 files. thermal stor. It has the potential to bridge the two worlds of design and performance: to make energy a relevant concern of any designer by revealing both the great design potential latent in buildings that tap site-based energy. windbreaks
46. End The second edition of Sun. breathing walls 88. solar reflectors 83. stratify zones 57. daylit rm. well-placed window 93.cap. sky cover 9. atrium 71. migration 47. low contrast 85. thermal mass 87. winter outdoor rms. loose & dense urban patterns 34. Supplement
104. infil/vent gain & loss 18. daylight-enhancing shades 101.utk. neighborhood sun 43.utk. facing sun & wind 60. rms. insulation outside 89. thermal collectors 72. daylight envelope
51. balanced urban patterns 33. Supplement
102. and the great consequences for resource consumption (and thus the future) of differing design alternatives. bioclimatic chart 19. 23. daylight apertures 96. ext. depth
Mech/Elec. sun path diagram 3. skin thickness 77. direct gain 61. groups 41. balance point temp. gradual height transitions 38. reflecting surfaces 84. roof ponds 64. profiles
S T R A T E G I E S Building Parts
76. reflected sunlight 94. buffer zones 59. earth edges 74. outdoor rooms 49. ducts & plenums 108. zones 56. solar envelopes 32. rock beds 107. glazed streets 31. wind rose 5. microclimate 29. task lighting 103. skylight wells 89. 7. separated/combo openings 91.edu/ecodesign>) for more instructor resources!
. breezy/calm courts
Mech/Elec. clustered rooms 52. E-W bldg. sundial 2. solar radiation 4. daylight availability 10. heat prod. Contact Mark DeKay for more information. Data currently available are preliminary sets of climate calendars. air-flow windows 97. deep sun 55. site microclimate 11. daylight obstruction
S T R A T E G I E S Building Parts
78. wall 63. glass types
loose & dense urban patterns 36. air-flow windows 96. stack-ventilation 67. thermal mass 88. eletric loads 25. insulation outside 89. migration 47. separated/combo openings 90. balanced urban patterns 33. evap. hot water loads
S T R A T E G I E S Building Parts
80. night-cooled mass 69. mech. zones 56. mech. mass ventilation 106. rms. rock beds 105. windbreaks 44. bldgs. bioclimatic chart 19. bldgs. external shading 100. layer of shades 49. + water 43. 39. air movement prin. green edges 45. ventilation openings arrangement 95. bioclimatic chart 15. topo. buffer zones & air/air x-changers 109. dispersed bldgs. balance pt. internal shading & in-between shading 101. shared shade 28. skin thickness 79. heat gains 22. Supplement
104. window solar gain 17. breezy streets 37. earth edges 73. skin heat flow 16. wind catchers 68. breezy/calm courts 75. shady courts
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. facing sun & wind 63. earth/air heat x-changers
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D E S I G N Analysis Techniques Power
24. 7. balance point temp. outdoor rooms 48. space ventilation 107. heat prod. sundial 2. buffer zones 59. overhead shades
46. ducts & plenums 108. vent. + plants 40. PV walls & roofs 86. wind square 6. corridors 27. infil/vent gain & loss 18. wind rose 5. site microclimate 11. stratify zones 57. microclimate 31. cool towers 72. water edges 74. surface color 81. profiles
S T R A T E G I E S Building Parts
76. ext. glass types
26. earth contact 20. clustered rooms 50. double skin mat’ls 83. shading calendar 21.D E S I G N Analysis Techniques
1. sun path diagram 4. cross-ventilation 66. solar hot water
Mech/Elec. 23. 55. daylight-enhancing shades 99. permeable bldgs. bldg. light shelves 98. roof ponds 65.