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You are given that the Median value is 46. (a) (b) Using the Median formula fill up the missing frequencies. Calculate the arithmetic mean of the completed table,

Solution: (a) Let the missing frequency be f1 for class-interval 3040 and f2 for class-interval 5060. Computation of Median Variable 1020 2030 3040 4050 5060 6070 7080 f or N= 150 +f1+f2 Frequency (f) 12 30 f1 65 f2 25 18 = 229 (given) Cumulative Frequency (c.f.) 12 42 42+f1 107+f1 107+f1+f2 132+f1+f2 150+f1+f2

Middle item is N/2 =229/2 =114.5 Median value is 46 (given) and it lies in the class-interval 4050. Using the Median formula . M = l1+(l2-l1)/f1 (m-c) we get 46 = 40+(50-40)/65 [114.5-(42+f1)] 46 =40+(10/6572.5-f1 ) 46 = 40+(725-10f_1)/65 or 6 = (725-10f_1)/65 390 = 725-10f1 or -335 = -10f1 f1 = 33.5 or 34 since the frequency cannot be in fraction Now f = 150+f1+f2 (Given) or 229 = 150+34+f2 or f2 = 45

(b) Now mean can be calculated by completing the series by putting the value of f1 and f2. The calculation of mean would be done by the method explained earlier. The value of the mean in the question would come to 45.83.

Example: The median and the mode of the following distribution are known to be $ 335 and $ 340 respectively. Three frequency values from the table are, however, missing. Find the missing values : Wages in Frequency 0100 4 100200 16 200300 60 300400 ? 400500 ? 500600 ? 600700 4 230 Solution: Let the missing frequencies be x1 x2 and x3 for the class-intervals 300400, 400500 and 500600 respectively. Now 230 = 84+x1+x2+x3 or x3=23084x1x2 or x3 = 146 (x3+x2) Now we will recast the table as follows : Wages. Frequency. Cumulative frequency. ($) 0100 4 4 100200 16 20 200-300 60 80 300400 x1 80+x1 400-500 X2 80+x1+x2 500600 x3 80+x1+x2+x3 600700 4 84+x1+x2+x3 Median and Mode, as given, both lie in 300- 400 class interval. Median = 335 =l1+(l2-l1)/f1 (m-c) = 300 +100/x1 (11580) or

335 = 300 +3500/x1 or 35 = 3500/x1 or x1 = 100 Mode = 340 = l1+(f1-f0)/(2f1-f0-f2 ) (l2-l1) = 300 + (x1-60)/(2x1-60-x2 100 340 = 300 + (100-60)/(200-60-x2 ) 100 or 40 = 4000/(140-x2 ) or 40 (140x2) = 4000 or x2 = 40 X3 = 146 x1x2 = 146 10040 = 6 Thus the missing values are 100, 40 and 6 respectively.

Example: Calculate the median from the following data: Value Less than Frequency 4 16 40 76 Value Less than 50 60 70 80 Frequency 96 112 120 125

10 20 30 40

Cumulative Frequency 010 4 4 1020 12 16 2030 24 40 3040 36 76 4050 20 96 5060 16 112 6070 8 120 7080 5 125 Middle item is 125/2 or 62.5 which lies in 3040 group

Cumulative frequency table can be of 'more than' type also. In such cases also the data have to be converted into a simple continuous series and median calculated according to the rule explained in example. The following illustration would clarify the point. or or f2 = 100-(56+f1) f2 = 44f1

Calculation of Median Expenditure 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 No. of families 14 f1 27 44-f1 15 Cumulative frequency 14 14+f1 41+f1 85+f1f1 or 85 100

Median is given in this problem as 50. Middle item of the series is also 100/2 or 50 which means it lies in the class-interval 4060. Now,

270 =720-20f1 or

or

-450=-20f1

f1 = 450/20 =22.5

Since the frequency in this problem cannot be in fraction so f1 would be taken as 23. f2 = 44f1 or 4423 or 21. Thus the missing values in the question are 23 and 21.

Example: From the following data, calculate the median and the first and third quartile wages: Weekly wages ($) 3032 3234 3436 3638 3840 No. of workers 2 9 25 30 49 Weekly wages ($) 4042 4244 4446 4648 4850 No. of workers 62 39 20 11 3

Weekly wages (Rs.) 3032 3234 3436 3638 3840 4042 4244 4446 4648 4850

Median is the value of (250/2) th or 125th item which lies in the 4042 group. Its value would be M = l2 + (l2-l1)/f1 (m-c) = 40+ 2/62 (125115) =40.32 Lower Quartile is the value of (250/4) th or 62.5th item which lies in 3638 group. Its value would be Q1 = l1+ (l2-l1)/f1 (q1c) where q1 is the quartile number or 62.5 = 36 + (38-36)/ 30 (62.5-36) =-37.75 Upper Quartile is the value of (3(N))/4th or 187.5th item which lies in 4244 group. Its value would be,

Continuous Series-Exclusive

Example: (Continuous series-exclusive).

Find the median of the following distribution. Class intervals $ 13 35 57 79 911 Frequencies Class-intervals $ 1113 1315 1517 Frequencies

6 53 85 56 21

16 4 4

245 Solution: Calculation of median Class-intervals Frequency Cumulative frequency 1-3 6 6 3-5 53 59 5- 7 85 144 7- 9 56 200 9-11 21 221 11-13 16 237 13-15 4 241 15-17 4 245 Median=the value of N/2 i.e., 122.5th item, which lies in 57 group Applying the formula of interpolation. M = l1 + l2 - l1 / f1 (m - c) we have, M = 5 + (7-5)/85(122.559) = 6.5 In the above example median is the value of 122.5th items which lies in 57 group. In this group the number of items is 85. On the presumption that these items are uniformly distributed in this class-interval, we can calculate median by direct arithmetical process also. 59th item has the value of 5 and the next 85 items up to 144, are spread over two values from 5 to 7. From Wm to 122.5 there are 63.5 items. The value of 63.5 item after 59th (or the value of 122.5 item) would exceed 5 (the value of 59th item) by 2/85X 63.5 or by 1.5. Thus the value of the 122.5th item would be 5+1.5 or 6.5. If the above problem is solved by the alternate formula given above the same result would be obtained. This will be clear from the following calculation. Median = L + N/2 - c.f. / f i = 5 + 122.5 - 59 / 85 2 = 6.5

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