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National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore
Textile Fibres and Their Properties
TEXTILE FIBRES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
TEXTILE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Forecasting Trend Development
End use Aesthetic Requirement Functional Performance Material Preference Price Point Delivery Requirement
Psychographics Price - point
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Design & Styling
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Fibre content Yarn design and styling Fabric Structure Fabrication details Colouration Method Aesthetic Finishes Functional Finishes
1 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN, NIFT Bangalore
TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM
FABRIC PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES
“Properties relating to visual effects, as well as those perceived by touch” * Flexibility * Hand * Lusture * Pilling * Resiliency * Thermo plasticity
“Properties relating to resistance to wear and destruction in use” * Abrasion Resistance * Strength
* Chemical Effects * Environmental Conditions
“Properties relating to physical comfort” * Absorbency * Wicking * Cover * Elasticity & Recovery Dimensional Stability
“Properties relating to danger or risk of injury” * Flammability * Chemical Effects
Care & Maintenance
¨ Washing, Dry cleaning, Tumble Drying and Ironing ¨ Use of Household Bleaches, Softeners, and Optical Brighteners. ¨ Storage Condition
2 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN, NIFT Bangalore
TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM
Tencel Origin Wood Pulp / Cotton Linter ‘’ ‘’ ‘’ B. Regenerated Cellulose Fibre Type 1. Sand. Ramie 5. Cotton 2. Metallic 3 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Tri-Acetate 4. Metal Fibres 1. Acrylic 4. Natural Fibres Classification A. Flax 4. Spandex 6. Polyester 2. Nylon 3. Graphite Poly EtheleneTeripthalate Polyamide Acrylonitrite Acrylonitrite Polyurethane Ethelene Silica. Silk 2. Olefin 7. Acetate 3. Limestone Carbon Aluminum Silver Gold C. Cellulosic / Vegetable Fibres Fibre Type 1. Manmade Fibres Classification A. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Mod Acrylic 5. Hemp Origin Cotton Ball / Seed Hair Stalk Stalk Grass Stalk Cultivated or Wild Silk Worm Sheep Animal / Protein Fibres 1. Wool Mineral Fibres Asbestos Varieties of rock Calcium and Magnesium Silicates II.COMPOSITION / ORIGIN OF FIBRES I. Viscose Rayon 2. SIVALINGAM . Glass 8. Jute 3. Synthetic Fibres 1.
Silk -> Viscose. Moisture regain is the amount of water a dry fabric will absorb from the air under standard atmospheric condition of 65% relative humidity. 20 to 22o C temperature. results that sparks and clinging occurs Stain Removal Ø It is easier to remove stains from hydrophilic fibres because water and detergent are absorbed in to the fibre 4 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Nylon is extensively used for active sports wear because it is very strong and resists abrasion extremely well. Jute -> Wool. Absorbency “An ability to take in moisture from atmosphere” Expressed as a percentage of moisture regain. which are able to absorb water easily” All Natural Cellulosic fibres Animal Protein Fibres Man Made -> Cotton.ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF TEXTILE FABRICS Abrasion Resistance “An ability to resist wear from rubbing” Mainly contributes to fabric durability. SIVALINGAM . Flax. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. which are not able to absorb or has difficulty in absorbing water” All synthetics are Hydrophobic in nature Absorbency is related to many factors Skin Comfort Ø Little absorption of perspiration results in a clammy feeling Static Charges Build up Ø Static charges can be easily build up in hydrophilic fibres. Acetate & Tencel Hydrophobic Fibres “Fibres. Moisture Regain = Original Weight – Oven Dry Weight x 100 Oven Dry Weight Hydrophilic Fibres “Fibres.
Complete recovery will help to prevent bagginess occurring at elbows & knees. The effect of chemicals relates directly to the care required in cleaning. Increases the breaking strength of the fabric. alkalis. Shape b. Ø Cellulosic fibres -> Swelling in water Ø Wool -> Felting in washing (Relaxation of stress and strain during washing) Ø Reduction in size -> ‘Shrinkage’ Ø Increase in size -> ‘Growth’ Elasticity “The ability to increase in length when under tension “Elasticity” and then return to the original length when tension released “Elastic Recovery” Makes a fabric more comfortable garment. Wicking is desirable for jogging & exercise clothes. Cotton is hydrophilic and also possess good wicking action. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. as well as preventing the garment become loose fitting. Surface c. Causes less seam stress. SIVALINGAM . 300 – 400% Elongation.Wicking “The ability of a fibre/fabric to spread of moisture on the surface of the fibre” Based on the chemical and physical composition of the outer structure. Chemical Effects “An ability of fibres how they are reacting with different chemicals like acids. 98 – 100% Recovery Flexibility: “Drape” “The ability of a fibre (fabric) to bend easily under its own weight” Ø Thinner the fibre (Sheer fabric) the better is the drapability Example: Acetate. dyeing. Cotton has poor resistance to acids but excellent resistance to alkalis. Configuration 5 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Nylon and Polyester Hand “The way a fibre (yarn or fabric) feels when handled” Ø The hand of the fibre is affected by its: a. Silk. printing and finishing process. Smooth surface reduces wicking action. bleaching. Olefin is hydrophobic but has good wicking when micro-denier in size. organic solvents. rubber are “Elastomeric Fibres”. Wool athletic socks turns yellow if washed with Chlorine bleaches Dimensional Stability “An ability of a fabric to retain its shape during washing. bleaching agents etc. Spandex.
Ø The fibre shape vary from round, flat, tri-lobed and multi-lobed Ø The fibre surface differ from smooth, serrated or scaly Ø The fibre configuration is either crimp or straight Ø Type of yarn, fabric construction and finishing Process used for fabric development also affect the ‘hand’ of a fabric
Resiliency or Wrinkle Resistance or Crease Resistance
“The ability of a fabric to spring back to shape after being creased, twisted or distorted” Fabric that has good resiliency does not wrinkle easily and therefore tends to retain its good appearance; Polyester and Wool fabrics have excellent resiliency.
“Refers to the light reflecting quality from the surface of the fabric” Factors that are affecting lusture of the fabric; Crimp and Waviness in fibre; Cross sectional shape of fibre length; In man-made fibres, the degree of lusture can be controlled by a chemical ingredient (de lusturing agent ‘Titanium Dioxide’ so be made bright, semi-dull and dull
“Pilling is the formation of groups of short or broken fibres on the surface of a fabric which are tangled together in the shape of tiny balls called pills” Pills usually form in the areas that are rubbed such as collars; Hydrophobic fibres tend to pill much more than hydrophilic fibres.
“ Thermoplastic fibres melts or soften when heat is applied” All synthetic fibres are thermoplastic; Permanent creases and pleats can be made on fabrics containing thermoplastic fibres.
6 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN, NIFT Bangalore
TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM
An ability of fabric how it behaves to certain exposure like sunlight, storage and wet condition Wool garments should be moth protected when stored; Nylon and silk fabrics looses its strength and colour when they exposed to prolonged sunlight.; Hence, not preferred for curtains and draperies; Cotton has poor resistance to fungus. Should not be allowed to remain wet for long periods of time
Natural electrical charges in textile materials These are induced when the fabrics are in dry and humid condition; Hydrophobic fibres are having natural tendency to induce static problem because or poor absorbency
“Is the ability to resist stress and strain” Expressed as tenacity (grams per denier); Synthetic fibres are generally stronger than natural and regenerated cellulosic fibres; Strength and abrasion resistance contributes to durability of fabric; For outerwear and uniforms and industrial applications strength is most important
7 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN, NIFT Bangalore
TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM
Performance properties of textile fibres
Grows in seed pot of the Cotton plant, composed 90% of Cellulose. Length of Cotton fibres varies from ½“ – 2½“. When viewed under microscope, each fibre is a single elongated cell that is twisted and ribbon like with wide inner hollow (lumen).
Grades of Cotton fibres are based on:
¨ Colour: From white to yellowish or grey ¨ Purity: Amount of foreign matter present ¨ Staple length: Average length of fibre
¨ Long stapled Cotton: South American Pima, Egyptian Cotton, Sea Island ¨ Short staple Cotton: India, Pakistan and Other Asian countries
Properties and performance of Cotton fabrics: Aesthetics:
Ø Basically, Cotton fabrics have poor luster due to its natural colour. But it can be improved by: ¨ Using long stapled cotton fibres ¨ Mercerized and Ammonia treated fabrics have soft and pleasant luster ¨ Weave; Cotton Sateen’s luster due to weave structure Ø Drape, luster, texture, hand etc are affected by type of yarn, yarn count, fabric structure and finishes. Ø Feels cool, inelastic, soft and dry. Ø Poor resiliency: - Cotton fabrics wrinkle easily Ø Poor dimensional stability: - Shrink easily Ø No problem with pilling but Cotton fabrics have ‘lint’, due to short fibres.
Good strength and abrasion resistance; In wet condition, strength is increased by 20%; Good resistance to alkalis and organic solvents; Poor resistance to Acids; Easily attacked by fungus and mildew; Poor resistance to sunlight.
8 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN, NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM
Poor elasticity and moderate recovery ¨ Recommended care ð Machine wash and dry clean (apparel) ð Steam of dry clean with caution (furnishing) End uses: § Apparels: Because of Comfort / Durability / Easy Care Formal and Casual shirts. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V.5% Ø Good wicking Ø Gives cooling effect – good for hot weather Ø Absorbs moisture quickly and dries quickly § § Cover depends on type of yarn and yarn count. sheets. Ease of Dyeing finishing and Towels. SIVALINGAM . curtains. upholstery. slip covers and wall coverings 9 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. drapes. moisture regain is 8. pillow cases. wide range of cotton / polyester blends § Furnishings: Because of Versatility. intimate apparel and ladies dress materials. bed spreads. Natural comfort.Comfort § Hydrophilic. trousers.
Medium weight fiber and fiber length varies between 2” – 36”. Drape well.FLAX General Features: Flax comes from the stem of the flax plant. Linen fabrics are ‘lint’ free because no short fibers. Adequate dimensional stability Negative Features: § Attacked by mildew and silver fish. Absorb moisture quickly and dries quickly Completely washable and dry cleanable. 20% stronger when wet condition. fabric wears evenly. light weight. and resist soiling. 12% moisture regain. Fair abrasion resistance and fair elasticity “Not as durable as Cotton” and Poor resiliency Uses: Because of its high production cost and the fact that it wrinkles easily linen is used only in limited extend in apparels. Flax fibers are spun and twisted to form a yarn and woven the finished fabric is called ‘Linen’ Properties and performance of Linen fabrics: Positive Features: Excellent Strength: Twice as long as Cotton. They are suited for higher quality fashion aspects or professional wear. No pilling and static problems. because linen fabrics are strong. feel cool. summer apparel and household linen: bed. However. The natural color of flax varies from light ivory to tan color. table and bath items 10 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. v ‘Good fabric for hot weather’ #1. More hydrophilic than Cotton. and mainly composed of cellulose. Under microscope it is shaped like bamboo. SIVALINGAM . Good hand and high natural luster. Highest safe ironing temperature 234° C. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Excellent moisture regain #2.
Good resistance to dry cleaning solvents. regular and transparent Major producers of Silk: China. better than wool. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. wrinkles hangout fairly readily but not as quickly as wool § Hand: Luxurious hand. prolonged exposure results in change of colour and destroy silk faster than Cotton and Wool. clean silk fabrics are not attacked by moths and other insects. silk appears as a single fibre. looses 15% . Nitric acid causes silk to become yellow. smooth. deodorants and plain salt water. SIVALINGAM . smooth and dry § Pilling: No problem Durability performance: Ø Strength: Strongest animal fibre. Concentrated. Poor resistance to chlorine bleaches Effect of Environmental Conditions: Poor resistance to sun light. Ø May look in natural colour like grey or yellow because of a gum substance ‘sericin’ ¨ The raw Silk that comes from the cocoons consist of fibroin (fibre) and sericin to hold filaments together Ø Sericin is insoluble in water. crisp.SILK General Features: Ø Silk is a natural animal fibre composed of protein and obtained from Silk cocoons. high brightness after sericin is removed. feels warm. it can be dissolved by strong acids and alkalies to make silk fabric soft and glossy. strong acids will destroy silk. Damaged by substance containing chloride salts which are found in perspiration.20% when wet Ø Abrasion resistance: Fair – good depends on fabric construction Ø Chemical effects: Good resistance to acids. The removal of sericin is called de-gumming Ø Silk is an only natural fibre available as filaments. After degumming. High resistance to mildew. dissolved by 5% NaOH. Poor resistance to alkalies. 11 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Drape: Light weight fibre => excellent drape gives graceful appearance to garment which is made out of this fibre Resiliency: Silk ranks next to wool. One cocoon will yield 1000 – 2500 yards of filament Ø Raw silk appears as a double fibre with an irregular surface structure. Korea. Japan and India Properties and performance of Silk fabrics: Aesthetic performance: § § § Luster: Luxurious appearance.
NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. firm. 12 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. In Home Furnishings. In addition to their aesthetic qualities Silk furnishings are comfortable and durable. 11% moisture regain Ø Fair Wicking Rate of absorption Rate of drying .Comfort Performance: Ø Hydrophilic fibre. It is used for lower grades of cloth for apparel.Slow . Ø For daytime wear. fabric structure and garment construction. silk provides comfort.Quick Ø Covering Power: Poor. yet yielding hand gives a pleasant tactile sensation. 20% elongation at breaking point Ø Elastic recovery: Poor recovery if stretched beyond 2% elongation Ø Dimensional Stability: Good resistance to stretch tends to shrink when laundered or dry cleaned Care and Maintenance: Ø Usually dry cleaned. Ø Silk is rarely used to make heavy fabrics because it is expensive due to finer yarns Ø Spun silk is less elastic. End Uses of Silk: Silk is versatile. Silk fabrics provide: A richness. Damaged by body oils / perspiration and water salts / from steam. Ø For apparels. Ø Safe ironing temperature is 150 degree Celsius. The brilliance of colour and the natural luster delights the eyes. SIVALINGAM . silk offers: High strength. excellent drape. dry. It may be woven or knitted in to sheerest chiffon / lingerie or the heaviest velvets. a pleasing lusture and beautiful colours. durability and wrinkle resistance to garments that proclaim the weaver’s consciousness of quality. may be laundered depending upon finishing agents. Discolors at 120 degrees. comfort. Dupion silk and Spun silk provide an interesting textural effects in upholstery and drapery fabrics. Ø Elasticity: Very elastic. fibres are thin and more yarns required producing cloth. duller and stiffer than filament silk. luxurious hand.
15 350 3-4 200 good good Bivoltine China. SIVALINGAM . Eri. The resultant fabrics would be dull appearance and uneven. Muga Silk: Ø The natural tan or light brown coloured coarse filament fabrics of irregular appearance raised from un-cultivated silk worms Dupioni Silk: Thick and thin irregular slub yarn fabrics. Silk worms raised under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions. Types of Mulberry Silk: Mutivoltine Origin Single Cocoon Weight Average Length (mts) Filament Denier Breaking length (mts) Luster Uniformity India 1. Yarns are produced by an interlocking double filaments that are processed from two silk worms purposely nesting together to form one cocoon. Spun silk: Silk filaments cut in to short staple fibres from broken cocoons and made in to silk spun yarn by regular spinning process. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V.5 1030 2–3 900 excellent excellent 13 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Japan 1. Wild Silk / Tussah.IMPORTANT TYPES OF SILK PRODUCTS Cultivated silk / Mulberry silk: Ø The smooth. comprising of 100% silk without any metallic salts. even textured filament fabric. Raw silk: Silk filaments reeled in the gum state (Sericin). Pure Silk: Superior silk fabrics.
Thin. Ø Abrasion resistance: Good to long Chemical effects: Poor resistance to chlorine bleaches. Most wool is white. Poor resistance to water-borne stains. moisture regain 13% Ø Wool is a warm fabric. straight and may be brown or black Properties and performance of Wool fabrics: Aesthetic Performance: Ø Luster: Generally dull appearance. Good resistance to acids. damaged by oxidizing bleaches. The scale structure. brown and black. long. For which. depends on quality of fibre Ø Drape: Worsted fabrics drape well than woolen fabrics Ø Resiliency: Good wrinkle resistance Ø Hand: Wool fabrics feels warm. Natural colour. Ø The coarser wool: . The quality of wool depends upon Fibre fineness. Poor resistance to alkalies. Strong yarns can be produced due staple fibres.Rough scale structure. white and have definite crimp. Poor resistance to mildew if exposed to damp conditions for prolonged periods. however it may be found in gray. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The surface of the fibre is covered with scales. Highly resistant to organic solvents. Good resistance to oil-borne stains. there are two reasons: 1. Ø The finer wool: . SIVALINGAM . Effect of Environmental Conditions: Fair to Good resistance to sunlight. Comfort Performance Ø Hydrophillic fibre. The part of fleece from which it is derived. Most wool fibres are between 2 – 20cm staple length and elliptical cross section. Poor Wicking: Rate of absorption & Rate of drying = Poor 14 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Easily damaged by carpet bleaches and moths. Staple length.WOOL General Features: Wool is a natural animal fibre and composed of protein. springy rough and dry Ø Pilling: Poor pilling resistance Durability Performance: Ø Strength: Relatively weak fibre. The amount of impurities contained in the fleece.
Germany. Ø Wool stretches well and has excellent elastic recovery => Wool yarns will permit garments to give with the motion of the body. Safety Performance: Good flame resistance.2. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Re-processed wool Ø Processed fibres. Wool and wool blends provide long life. Ø Dimensional Stability: Felting: Interlocking of fibres due to scales when subjected to wet mechanical action. Good Cover: The high level crimp and loose structure of wool yarn results air to be trapped on the outer surface of the fabric. In home furnishings. The result is “progressive shrinkage” Care & Maintenance: When subjected to the tumbling action of a washing machine. wool garments shrinks in very large extent. and in men’s and women’s suits for its wrinkle resistance. and dye ability for floor coverings and carpets. for its warmth and durability. yarns or fabrics that have not been used by the consumers but is broken down and converted in to fibre state to be made in to yarns and fabrics again. for its abrasion resistance and ability to absorb moisture. End Uses: In apparel. comport and durability. Self-extinguishing. SIVALINGAM . wool is found in outer wear. Types of wool products Virgin wool Ø It is processed from unused fibres obtained from fleece of sheep. ‘Trapped air’ has insulating behaviour. wool provides resiliency. Merino Wool Ø A fine long-stapled and soft wool fibres from the ‘Marino sheep’ which is raised in Australia and New Zealand Botany Wool Ø Wool from Merino sheep raised in the Botany bay area of Australia Saxony Wool Ø A fine long-stapled and soft wool fabric made from sheep raised in Saxony. excellent comfort properties. durability. and excellent esthetics to upholstery. Burns slowly with slight sputtering. hand. 15 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Dry cleaning is preferred. and in socks.
Fair – Good Ø Resiliency: Poor. can be produced in dull. Ø Drape: Better than cotton.Shetland Wool Ø A fine long-stapled and soft Wool fabric from the Shetland Island in Scotland Lambs Wool Ø Virgin Wool fibre clipping obtained from 7 to 8 months old lambs VISCOSE RAYON General Features: Viscose Rayon is regenerated cellulose. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. soft and cool to touch Ø Pilling: No problem Durability Performance: Ø Strength: Poor. Wrinkles easily when worn Ø Hand: Pleasant. Produced in both filament and staple fibre form. Under Microscope. It is a man-made fibre and it consists of almost entirely cellulose. Mildew discolours and weakens the fabric. 20 – 30% shrinkage “ Progressive Shrinkage” 16 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Moisture regain 13% Wicking: Good. semi dull and bright colors. SIVALINGAM . Poor Ø Abrasion resistance: Ø Chemical Effects: Easily damaged by strong acids. May be attacked by silver fish and insects but resistant to moths. Concentrated alkalies will cause swelling and reduce strength. Resist mildew if clean and dry. Good resistance to alkalies. Properties and performance of Rayon fabrics: Aesthetic Performance: Ø Luster: Bright and luxurious appearance can be modified according to end uses by adding de-lusturing pigments during manufacturing. Cover: Poor Elasticity / Recovery: 20% extension & 80% recovery at 2% extension Dimensional Stability: Poor. Comfort Performance: Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Absorbency: Hydrophilic. the fibre is ridged and has deeply serrated cross section. Mildew depends on humidity and temperature. Naturally white colour. Rate of absorption / drying: Fast. Both oxidizing / reducing bleaches used in spot and stain removal. Hot dilute mineral acids or cold concentrated acids damage the fabric. Ø Effect of Environmental Conditions Lengthy exposure to sunlight weakens the fabric. Good resistance to organic solvents. Loses 30 – 40% of strength when wet.
Higher wet / dry strength than regular Rayon. It is highly flammable. safe ironing temperature limit 122 degree Celsius Safety Performance: Ø Burns rapidly v High Wet Modulus (HWM) Rayon / Polynosic Rayon To produce High Wet Strength Rayon. 50% strong when dry. Can be given shrinkage treatment to make fabric dimensionally stable. home furnishings and automobile tires. thus it is not used in children’s sleepwear. Blending rayon with polyester and nylon. May be laundered for low priced seasonal apparels. Dries slowly. 17 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. For apparel use rayon fibres may be used for lightweight summer blouses and skirts as readily as for heavy. Crease resistant finishes can be applied without loss of strength. long-lasting colors and pleasing luster. 100% strong when wet.Care / Maintenance: Dry cleaning preferred for highly value added apparels. Finishing treatment used on Cotton fabrics can also be applied to fabrics made of HWM Rayon End uses Viscose rayon is widely used in apparel. Tightly constructed heavy rayon fabrics give satisfactory durability and ease of care. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM . Absorbs less water than regular rayon and swell less. In home furnishings. bottom-weight fabrics for trousers. filament and spun yarns of rayon provide fashion appeal with bright. and inexpensive. easy to iron. yields fabrics that are softer. Rayon is one of the least expensive fibre. the fibre producer modifies the regular Viscose Rayon procedure. more comfortable.
ADVANTAGES OF SYNTHETIC FABRICS Thermo plasticity: Can be moulded or shaped in desired form. High ironing temperature will melt the fabric. Water stains penetrate fibre slowly and can be easily removed. Out standing wrinkle resistance Strength: High dry and wet strength Biological Resistance: Excellent resistance to damage by mildew. moths and sunlight Easy Care: Washes easily and dries quickly. SIVALINGAM . butter) penetrate the fibre and became difficult or impossible to remove. Permanent setting of pleats by heat setting Abrasion Resistance: Withstands surface wear. Static Electricity: Builds up static charges causing the fabric to cling to the body Thermo plasticity: Over drying or high heat application sets undesirable creases and wrinkles. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Shows minimum wear Resiliency: When crushed. Fabric feels either cold and clumsy or hot and uncomfortable on the body Staining: § Oil base stains (grease. springs back quickly. Perspiration condenses between body and garment. 18 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Disadvantages of Synthetic Fabrics: Absorbency: Poor absorbency due to inability of fibre to absorb moisture.
Excellent recovery from wrinkling / creasing Ø Hand: Feels cool. even. SIVALINGAM . Good resistance to dry cleaning solvents. under microscope: Smooth. Oil borne stains difficult or impossible to remove End Use of Polyesters: v Woven fabrics 19 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Completely resistance to bacteria. produced as filament and staple length. produces electric Durability Performance: Very good.Rate of absorption & Rate of drying are fast Ø Cover: Poor Ø Elasticity: Fair – Good. fungus. require little or no ironing. Greater than Cotton and Rayon Ø Elastic recovery: 97% recovery at 2% elongation Ø Dimensional Stability: Excellent resistance to shrinkage and Shape retention. Attracts lint. Machine dry at low temperature. Less than Nylon. Moisture regain 0. mildew / moth Comfort performance: Ø Absorbency: Hydrophobic. Good resistance to oxidizing and reducing bleaches Ø Effect of Environmental Conditions Good resistance to sunlight. smooth and slick Ø Pilling / Static: charges Ø Strength: Subject to pilling and static build up. no loss of strength when wet Good Ø Abrasion resistance: Ø Effect of Chemicals Good resistance to most acids / alkalies. Rate of drying is fast v Micro-denier Polyester . Care / Maintenance: Laundered or dry cleaned. may be de-lustered Ø Drape: Good – Excellent Ø Resiliency: Outstanding.4% Ø Wicking: Rate of absorption is slow.POLYESTER General Features: Synthetic Poly Ethylene Terepthalate molecular structure. Safe ironing temperature is 163 degree Celsius. elastic. rod likes shape. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. naturally white in colour Properties and performance of Polyester fabrics: Aesthetic Performance: Ø Luster: High natural luster.
tyre cords. Top and bottom weight men’s / women’s formal / casual wears Blankets. Pile fabrics. men’s suitings of fine gauge polyester warp knits (Raschel) Women’s dresses. Lingerie have proved very successful Furnishings such as tricot warp knit sheets.Spun yarns blended with Cotton & Rayon made in to durable press / wrinkle free fabrics.6 to 0. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. tents. comforters. ropes. Ski wear.7 denier / filament: Intimate apparels. bed spreads. 0. blouses. exercise clothing ¨ Micro fibres provides amazing and exciting drape / hand for high fashion women’s wear. Snow jackets 2. quilted house holds and apparel fabrics and winter jackets.5 to 1 denier / filament: Ski Jackets. parachute cloths. suits and jackets. curtains that match bedspreads mattress ticking. 0. sail cloths. Outer wear sports wear. Smooth textured filaments are used in uniforms. fishing nets. conveyor belts. seed / fertilizer bags Polyester Microfibre: 1. durability. shoulder pads and mattress inner linings. ¨ Improved wicking provides good comfort performance for intimate / body fit / sports wear 20 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. table linen and upholstery fabrics Filament yarn fabrics are used in glass curtains because polyester has excellent light resistance v Knitted Fabrics Majorly used filament and textured filaments knit shirt for men and blouses for women. v Fibre fill applications: Hollow cross section fibres provides high resiliency and loft. shirting. comfort and easy care performances are highly suitable for pillows. filters. bedspreads. Industrial Applications: Carpets. SIVALINGAM . Outer wear. Body fit. upholstery and window treatment fabrics. tricot structure. v Non Wovens: Inner linings / interfacings for coats.
Feels cool. Good drape and crease resistance. easy to launder. outer wear and house hold furnishings. quick drying. fungi and insects Poor resistance to sunlight. White or Off-white Properties and performance of Acrylic fabrics: § Products bulk to lightweight fabric. Generally round cross-section. Round cross section or bell shaped cross section. prolonged exposure weakens and causes deterioration of color / strength. elastic. Color. Produced as filaments and staple. Produced in both staple and filament fibres. Slow absorption and Quick drying. safe ironing temperature limit is 122 degree Celsius · · · Nylon in Consumer Use: Widely used in hosiery. Not affected by oxidizing / reducing bleach. but can be engineered any shape. not affected by alkalis. may be de-lustered. in 100% fabrics/ blends / combination Mainly used for outer wear / swim wear fabrics. expensive ACRYLIC General Features: Manufactured fibre composed of at least 85% by weight of Acrylo nitrile units. Good crease resistance. Subject to static build up. Poor absorbency: Hydrophobic in nature. Nylon 6 6. Rate of absorption of moisture is Slow and Rate of Drying is Quick. Weakened by strong acids. Feels cool.NYLON General Features: Synthetic Polyamide molecular structure. Good Elasticity and recovery. Good Drape. which are nearly identical. SIVALINGAM . High natural luster. smooth and slick. Excellent abrasion resistance. Resistant to moths. Naturally white color. however. Exceptionally strong in both wet / dry condition. May be harmed by Chlorine / strong oxidizing bleaches. Ski pants and active sports wear Used for lining material in coats / jackets because of excellent durability. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. may be de-lustered. very good recovery from wrinkling or creasing. smooth and slick. Susceptible to pilling. Appearance & hand similar o wool. strong in both wet / dry condition. The most common and heavily produced polyamides are Nylon 6. Good abrasion resistance: § 21 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Susceptible to pilling. Subject to static build up. produces electric charges. Machine dry at low temperature. elastic. Good Dimensional Stability: Can be heat set to maintain shape “ No Shrinkage” May be laundered or dry cleaned. Properties and performance of Nylon fabrics: · High natural luster’s.
This is an appropriate and growing end use for acrylics because of their good sunlight resistance and weathering properties. Static and pilling are problems § § Modacrylic in Consumer Use: Major uses are Fur pile fabrics.§ Safely bleached by all household bleaches. rugs and carpets. Good resistance to flame. § § Acrylic in Consumer Use: Fleece fabrics frequently used in jogging outfits and active sports wear sweaters and socks. Washes well and dries quickly Easily dyed with bright colors. fluffy. SIVALINGAM . pillows. Good resistance to fungus and micro organisms and insects Produces thick. and jackets 22 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Upholstery fabrics may be flat woven fabrics or velvets and drapery fabrics. Linings in coats. bedspreads. linings. and resiliency. dress and suiting fabrics. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. wrinkle resistance and strength. Excellent resistance to sunlight and weather. hence they can be used to make durable fabric. Sweaters. slowly burns. Fair abrasion resistance. Thick. cheaper prices. Excellent affinities for dyes. protective clothing for electric line personnel. Good fire resistance. Blends well with other fibres Hydrophobic in nature. good drape. bulk fabric to lightweight makes warmer for winter dress materials. Fair to Good resiliency. Good resistance to mineral acids alkalis and organic solvents Excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering. Widely used in draperies. jackets. Have good bulking power. MODACRYLIC General Features: Modacrylic is a manufactured fibre in which the fibre forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85% but at least 35% by weight of Acrylonitrile units Properties and performance of Mod acrylic fabrics: § The fabrics made from modacrylic fibre have a warm. pleasant hand. children’s sleepwear. snuggy furs that are used for coats. Good strength & Elasticity. Fair resistance to alkalis.
NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. White spandex becomes yellowish from prolonged exposure to air. flexible rod with little internal structure. damaged by hot alkalis cause rapid deterioration. Properties and characteristics of yarn depend on: · · · · · · · · Composition of fiber Length of fiber (staple or filament) Type of yarn (spun or filament) Count (thickness or fineness) Number of strands of yarn (single or plied) Amount of yarn twist Direction of yarn twist Construction of yarn (simple. however some types shrink exposure to high temperature Good resistance to house hold bleaches and most acids. resistant to dry cleaning solvents. Very good resiliency and highly flexible. Very good abrasion resistance. complex or textured) 23 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. wrinkle free. Lycra in hosiery (Tricot Knit Lingere) provides improved comfort. cross section varies dog-bone / peanut shapes. SIVALINGAM . poor absorbency. It also improves the quality of Knitted / Woven fabrics as it prevents bagging and accelerate wrinkle recovery. Power stretch fabrics in which the high restrictive forces of the electrometric cloth can shape and control body contours in particularly for Body fit garments Excellent elastic properties up to 500% Elongation at break. Superior dye ability with brilliant colors. Ironing should be done quickly with low temperature setting § § Spandex in Consumer Use: v Lycra Adds life to clothes Lycra in swimwear. produced as mono filament / multi filaments Properties and performance of spandex (lycra) fabrics: § Fibres may be stretched at least 200% before they break and rapidly recover when tensile forces are released.SPANDEX (LYCRA) General Features: Segmented Poly Urethane Synthetic molecular structure. Good dimensional stability in wet. 100% recovery. luxurious smooth and soft feel and define the shape and body without binding YARN CLASSIFICATION AND PROPERTIES Most apparel and furnishing fabrics are produced from yarns. extra comfort and an elegant drape. Lycra in tailored clothes and fashion wear freedom of movement. Poor strength. Made from natural staple or man-made filament fibers. innerwear and active sports wear means lasting fit with comfort and freedom of movement. Spandex is a salt. A yarn is defined as linear strand of twisted fibers.
More uniform in diameter than spun yarns. Loosely twisted. Made from natural cotton. Produce high seam and yarn slippage. Dull appearance than filament yarns Filament yarns: Made from natural silk or man made filament fibers. or wool staple fibers. Provides lustrous and shiny appearance. fiber ends protrude from surface. Bulkier than filament yarns. more imperfections or irregularities More amount of twist than filament yarns. Rough or soft to touch depends on amount of twist. Stronger than spun yarns of the same diameter and fiber content 24 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. SIVALINGAM . Made from natural (silk) or man made filaments which are cut in to short lengths. flax.Selection of yarns for fabrics depends on: · · · · · Performance expectation of fabric End use of fabric Type of fabric Need or demand of fabric Cost of fabric Spun yarns: Composed of staple fibers. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Filaments can be separated when untwisted and can be counted. More hairiness and fuzzy appearance. Fine and smooth and more pliable than spurn yarns.
Yarns-construction and properties .
Medium softness 25 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. SIVALINGAM . flax. Helical orientation of fibers in all areas. Good yarn strength. made from natural staple or man-made filament fibers. Poor evenness. More imperfections or irregularities. Moderate thermal retention. Yarns are the basic materials that are used in the production of woven and knitted fabrics. Low pilling propensity. Dull appearance than filament yarns. More amount of twist than filament yarns. complex or textured) Selection of yarns for fabrics depends on v Performance expectation of fabric v End use of fabric v Type of fabric v Need or demand of fabric v Cost of fabric Characteristics of spun yarns Composed of staple fibers. home furnishings and industrial applications.YARNS. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. High yarn hairiness. Low yarn stiffness. Made from natural (silk) or man made filaments which are cut in to short lengths. Fair abrasion resistance. More imperfections and irregularities. Compact yarn structure. or wool staple fibers.Defined as linear strand of twisted fibers. Produced wide range of yarn counts. Bulkier than filament yarns. Can be used wide range of end uses like fabrics for apparel. Low insulation. Provide good covering power Characteristics of Ring Spun yarn High parallelisation of fibers. Low surface roughness. Properties and characteristics of yarn depend on ¨ Composition of fiber ¨ Length of fiber (staple or filament) ¨ Type of yarn (spun or filament) ¨ Count (thickness or fineness) ¨ Number of strands of yarn (single or plied) ¨ Amount of yarn twist ¨ Direction of yarn twist ¨ Construction of yarn (simple. More hairiness and fuzzy appearance.CONSTRUCTION AND PROPERTIES Yarn . Fiber ends protrude from surface throughout the length. Rough or soft to touch depends on amount of twist. Made from natural cotton.
NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Smooth and finer yarn. the basic steps of processing are essentially the same. The processing of staple fibres in to yarn requires the following steps. More uniformity. Coarser or thicker yarns. Produce loose or napped fabric structure. and blending of fibres intensive cleaning through individualization of fibres alignment of fibres through doubling and drafting of fibres micro cleaning and alignment of fibres through parallelization attenuating drawn slivers twisting drafted roving in to yarn 26 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN.Characteristics of carded spun yarns Made from short staple cotton fibbers. separating. The wool spinning system is designed to operate on long. Dull appearance or uneven look Characteristics of combed yarn Made from long staple cotton fibers. SIVALINGAM . weak and crimped fibres. The two systems differ in that their machinery has been designed to operate with different fibre types. strong and smooth fibres. opening. More bright and even look Spun Yarn Manufacturing Ring spinning All staple fibres must be subjected to certain mechanical processing steps during yarn manufacture. Uneven yarn. The processing of the fibres may be by the cotton spinning system or by the wool spinning system. more imperfections/irregularities. however. Blow room process Carding Drawing Combing Roving Spinning : : : : : : sorting. less imperfections and irregularities. The cotton spinning spinning system machines is made to process short. cleaning.
drafted and condensed in to single sliver. strength and trash content. fineness. During combing process the short fibres. 27 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The slivers are flattened. leaves and sand particles. bulky untwisted strand called a sliver. The drawing frame contains three or four drafting rollers rotating at successively increasing speeds. stretched out (drawn) and re combined as they pass through the rollers. carded slivers are subjected to combing process. the resultant drawn sliver is six or more times longer than original sliver. The final thin web is pulled through a funnel and condensed into a soft and bulky sliver similar to the original sliver. where they are combined. Combing For producing yarns for fine quality fabrics with better uniformity. Here the sliver is passed through another set of drafting rolls. flexibility. micro dust particles. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The sheet of carded fibres is drawn through funnel in to a soft. impurities and trashes are separated from the fibres. remove the impurities like dirt. Prior to this process the carded slivers are fed into lap former where they are reformed in to thin fibrous web. At the same time. neps and other foreign matters are removed at maximum extent. The tufts are pulled apart so the fibres are loosened from each other. The cylinder and flat strips rotate at different speeds so that the fine needles individualize the fibers effectively. This is done by feeding fibres from different bales in to the chute of the opener. These fibres differ in quality and spin able properties like staple length. later it is processed in combing. Drawing Six or more slivers are fed to the drawing frame. the spinner must sort the fibers as to grade. Roving The carded or combed sliver is delivered to the ROVING FRAME. Carding In carding the tufts of fibres are individualized by means of carding action for efficient removal of fine trash particles. A small amount of twist is inserted in the material at this stage known as roving as it is being wound onto a rotating spindle. The roving is about one-eighth the diameters and eight times the length of the sliver. which produce roving by reducing the diameter and increasing the length of the material. an enclosed chamber containing a rotating cylinder equipped with spiked teeth or set of oscillating toothed bars. more uniform than carded sliver. less hairy texture and strength. In order to insure uniformity and quality of the product. and blend the fibres from different bales.Blow room process Cotton fibres that have been compressed into large bales are delivered to the spinning mill from a number of suppliers. At the end of this process the bulk of fibres either converted in to thick lap or opened loose fibres are fed into a carding process by means of chute feed system. luster. The carding action is achieved by the fibre tufts caught between a cylinder which is covered with fine needles and flat strips. SIVALINGAM . However. Combed sliver is better aligned.
It is obvious that with so many steps involved in the spinning of the fiber to yarn manufacturers are constantly searching for more rapid and expensive methods. Small amounts of foreign material have a more deleterious effect on the production speed and yarn properties in OE spinning than in ring spinning. A more rapid method of preparing spun yarns uses an integrated spinning frame which converts sliver to yarn without the necessity for drawing and drafting . The card sliver is fed through a set of fluted rollers and beaters which open and draft the sliver so that the fibers are more or less separated from one another . This latter is important to the fabric manufacturer. SIVALINGAM .end /Rotor Spun Yarns 28 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. but processing costs are greatly reduced. The performance properties of OE spun yarns are compared to those of ring spun yarns.000m/min). and is removed through the center of the funnel. The final pair of rollers spins at about thirty times the speed of the first pair.the steps in processing the fibers are essentially the same as in the standard process. They are currently used for making coarser yarns. Characteristics of Open. but in the future they may be used more and more for finer yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. but they take place in one machine. which rotates on a ring surrounding the spindle. Yarns made in this manner are not as fine as those made in the standard way.6 to no 24. The major advantages of OE spinning are high production speed (over 10. Centrifugal force maintains the fibers on the surface of the cone.the loose strand is then fed onto the inner surface of a rotating funnel. reduced power consumption. The integrated carding device and the integrated spinning frame mentioned above are the two of the means for reducing cost and increasing productivity. while the drawing action of the take off rolls pulls the yarn out . from the circular path around the funnel to the lateral path through its center. The traveler rotates at a speed slightly slower than the spindle and is capable of an up-and down-motion . and improved evenness of yarn and the ability to produce larger packages.) and the requirements for the careful cleaning of the fibers before spinning. a process for converting strands of untwisted fiber (sliver) directly into yarn.The change in direction of motion. The major disadvantages of OE spinning are the limited range of production capability (from yarn size no. since it means fewer knots in the final product and greater uniformity of supply yarn. inserts twist into the yarn. The oscillating motion of the traveler winds the yarn into a neat package. The highly attenuated yarn is fed onto a high-speed spindle by a traveler.the difference in speed between the traveler and the spindle determines the degree of the twist of the yarn. Open end spinning The most important new development in spinning technology is open end (OE) spinning.Spinning The roving is mounted on the RING SPINNING FRAME and fed through another set of drafting rolls.
More imperfections and irregularities than OE-spun and better than ring spun yarn. Less Compact yarn structure. Good insulation. Produced only courser yarn counts. cannot be separated. Heavy weight apparel and home furnishing.spun yarn. Better softness than OE& ring spun yarn. Yarn count is not as fine as ring spun yarn. Produce loose or napped fabric structure. which is produced by spinning process. Maintain desired creases and offers better formability and shape retention Single-Ply yarn A yarn composed of single strand. Multifilament Yarns Yarns are composed of two or more filament strands twisted together to form one yarn. Good insulating properties & providing less warmth. High abrasion resistance. Smooth. Produce insulating properties and providing warmth. Low yarn hairiness. finer yarns and highly twisted. SIVALINGAM . High pilling propensity. Low yarn stiffness. Poor yarn strength. More rigid. axial orientation in yarn core. When Un twisted. Moderate thermal retention. can be used apparel. Less compact yarn structure. Coarse / bulky / thicker/ fuzzy. when untwisted. More uniformity/ less imperfections and irregularities. more imperfections/irregularities. less evenness than OE. Better softness. Better evenness. Best thermal retention. bedding and furnishing fabrics Characteristics of Woolen Yarns Made from short staple wool fibres. Low yarn hairiness. each filament can be counted. but finer than OE-spun. Pilling propensity less than OE. § Characteristics of Dreff / Air-jet Spun Yarns § § § § § Parallelisation of fibers high at yarn core and less at yarn edge.spun. Less imperfections and irregularities Better abrasion resistance. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Uneven yarn. Dull appearance or Un even look. Medium surface roughness. it is an indivisible component. yarn strength better than OE-spun and inferior than ring spun.§ Low parallelisation of fibers. the fibers can be separated Monofilament Yarn A single strand of filament yarn. Moderate insulation. 29 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Resist wrinkling and do not maintain desired crease Characteristics of Worsted Yarns Made from long staple wool fibers. Helical orientation of fibers in inner core. Fair surface roughness. more hairiness.
Provides lustrous and shiny appearance. More uniform in diameter than spun yarns. Good stretch and elongation recovery. chemical or thermal manipulation of filament yarns. Produce high seam and yarn slippage. Good covering power than untextured yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Better shape retention. Texturizing produces a permanent change in physical structure of the yarn. Improves resistance to yarn and seam slippage. Texture varies from soft to crisp. False twister 30 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Better strength and abrasion resistance.Characteristics of filament yarns Made from natural silk or man made filament fibers. Fine and smooth and more pliable than spurn yarns. Good resistance to undesirable crease and wrinkles. Provides insulating properties. Spongy and springy feel. Stronger than spun yarns of the same diameter and fiber content. Better dimensional stability and opaque fabric structure · Types of textured yarns Stretch yarns Man made filaments can be treated to produce yarns with some degree of stretch and recovery by chemical and mechanical methods. The resultant yarn will have the following qualities: § § § Good bulk and stretch characteristics Complete recovery Produced soft hand Stretch and recovery of yarn is controlled by: v v v v v The amount and direction of twist in the yarn Single or plied yarns Amount of false twist induced Heat set temperature Degree of tension and feed roll mechanism Following texturization process are used to produce stretch yarns: 1. TEXTURED FILAMENT YARNS · · Textured yarns are end result of physical. SIVALINGAM . Improved absorbency and dyeing properties. Loosely twisted. higher bulk without added weight. Filaments can be separated when untwisted and can be counted. Poor covering power.
heated box forces the feed yarn. In either device. curls and waviness in the yarn. To overcome this.2. Stuffer Box The delivery roll into a narrow. the yarn is heated near its transition temperature by the heater and then allowed to cool as it passes the twister. Stuffer-box texturing is slower than false-twist texturing. manufacturers often apply S and Z twist yarn together to produce a balanced double yarn. Provides warmth/ insulating properties. Untwisted multi filament yarn is fed through the delivery rolls to the twister. which insert the twist. the yarn is looped over a pin within a hollow cylinder. and removed by the take-up rolls. The textured yarn is passed over the take-up-rolls and wound on packages. with rates of 400 mpm (440 ypm) attainable on low denier-yarns. the process introduces crimp. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM . Beyond the twister. Reduces strength and luster. Increased bulkiness. so they tend to kink in processing. False-twist textured yarns attain a residual twist. The treated fibers retain a saw tooth shape. Production rates of 175 to 225 meters per minute (190. the yarn is passed continuously through the false-twist apparatus. from 70 to 100 turns per inch. 31 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Retain bulkiness both stressed and relaxed conditions. the torque on the yarn is released and the filaments partially untwist. Methods of Texturization False-Twist In FALSE-TWIST texturing.250 ypm) are common. but is better suited to heavy deniers such as carpet yarn and tow. While twisted. The filaments of the yarn now have been given a permanent crimp. Improved covering power due to bulkiness. Characteristics: Made of staple or filament fibers. the yarn is caught between rotating disks. In the spindle twister. either S or Z. Gear crimping 4. which may be of the spindle type or friction type. In the friction twister. These yarns are produced by · Air texturization · Knit and de knit method The resulting yarns of these processes are bulked and twisted. loftiness and volume without added weight. Stuffer box Bulk yarns Bulk yarns are created and processed by nonlinearly and loop formation in yarn structure. Edge crimping 3. The heated filaments are crushed into an accordion like configuration. Rotation of the cylinder inserts the twist in the yarn. the section of yarn between delivery rolls and the twister is a high degree of twist. loops.
10) is not popular as other methods because critical control of the temperature and pressure are required to prevent breakage of the filaments. and the molecules in this region lose their orientation. so it can be used for non-thermoplastic fibers such as rayon. as the yarns are passed over the heated edge. SIVALINGAM . It is possible to simulate a knife-edged textured yarn by drawing a strip of paper or a ribbon across the edge of a scissors and causing a strip to curl. The process does not require that the filaments be heat-set. Note that the resulting “yarn” is quite bulky and has a high degree of stretch. as shown in the figure 18. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. the lower portion of the filaments in contact with the metal is heated. Air Jet A high velocity jet of hot turbulence air stream textures yarns undergoing this method. gear crimping. Gear crimping (figure 18. This produces a fiber in which one portion has the characteristics different from the other. Egdge Crimp Drawing of the thermoplastic yarn over a hot knife-edge. The dissimilarities in the physical properties cause the filament to coil much like wool fibers. It has also been used to texture glass yarns for use in drapery. The yarn is fed into a bulking chamber where it is blown about by turbulent jet of air steam so that individual filaments are looped and curled about each other. and simply passes the yarn a set of heated. toothed gears.Gear Crimp Another texturing process based on crushing the heated filaments. The filaments are deformed into a saw tooth shape much as in stuffer-box method.12. Edge-crimped yarns have a high degree of stretch with a little tendency to twist. 32 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Airjet methods generally increase the apparent volume of the yarn without greatly increasing the stretch.
Pilling and snagging is critical problem. SIVALINGAM 33 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The different size yarns are twisted together at a different rate with the thinner yarn twisting around the thicker yarn. Brushed / Napped Yarn § A staple yarn in which the short fibres of the yarn are brushed to the surface to form a soft bulked effect. tight loops protruding from the body of the yarn at widely spaced intervals. Hand varies soft to light and harsh to rough. Chenille Yarn § A yarn with pile fibres held between plied core yarns producing a hairy or velvety effect. NIFT Bangalore . Strength varies different part of the fabric.FANCY / NOVELTY YARNS Novelty Yarns are single or plied yarn structures characterized by intentionally introduced irregularities in size. Reduced abrasion resistance. Novelty yarn construction § § § Base yarn – to control length and stability Effect yarn – to add texture and aesthetic value Binder yarn – to hold effect yarn with the base yarn Texture and aesthetics of novelty yarns depends on ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ Changing type and count of yarn Changing the amount of twist / direction of twist Adding metallic yarns Adding different colored yarns Characteristics of novelty yarns Enhance texture and design to fabric. TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Corkscrew Yarn § § A two-ply yarn consisting of one slack twisted and one hard-twisted fine yarn. variation in styling and unusual appearance in fabric. Uneven performance in wear. twist and multi colored effects. Un-uniform thickness throughout the fabric. Produces surface interest. TYPES OF NOVELTY YARNS Boucle Yarn § A three-ply yarn with small.
SIVALINGAM . NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Seed Yarn § A tiny. 34 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN.Flock / Flake Yarn § § A single yarn in which round or elongated tufts of fibres are inserted at regular intervals. thick yarn and one hardtwisted fine yarn. lofty portions produced by irregular intervals of twist and lack of twist in the yarn formation. The tufts are held in place by the twist of the base yarn. Ratine Yarn § A core yarn with a rough surface effect in an over all appearance in which the small loops are closely spaced and securely twisted to the core yarn. Spiral Yarn § § A two-ply yarn consisting of the staple twisted soft. Splash Yarn § An elongated enlargement or nub produced by crimping and twisting a yarn over base yarn at a regular intervals. The thick yarn is twisted and wound spirally around the fine yarn. Slub Yarn § A thick and thin yarn with randomly spaced soft. Nub Yarn § A multiple-ply yarn in which one yarn is twisted around the other yarn several times forming a built-up enlarged or knotted effect on the surface of the base yarn. round or oval enlarged nub produced by crimping and twisting a yarn repeatedly over a base yarn at regular intervals.
Cotton count – Ne Defined as number of hanks weigh in 1 pound weight of yarn 1 Hank = 840 yards As the yarn number increases. yarns and global markets. It is the relationship between length and weight. Direct yarn Numbering Fineness of yarn is measured in weight per unit length. Metric count – Nm Defined as number of units weigh in 1 kilo gram weight of yarn 1 unit = 1000 meters 35 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN.made / synthetic spun yarn and cotton/synthetic blended spun yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Mainly used for cotton spun yarn. As the yarn number increases. It is indicated by a numerical value. Decitex Defined as weight in grams of 10000 meters length of yarn. 1. Tex Defined as weight in grams of 1000 meters length of yarn. Indirect yarn Numbering In this system fineness of yarn is measured in length per unit weight. yarns and global markets. Denier Defined as weight in grams of 9000 meters length of yarn. As the yarn number increases. the yarn gets thicker or coarser. In this case weight is a constant factor and length is a variable. SIVALINGAM . Mainly used for filament yarns.YARNS QUALITY PARTICULARS Yarn count /size/ fineness Yarn count expresses the fineness or linear density of yarn. Applicable for all types of fibres. 2. man. the yarn gets thicker or coarser. the yarn gets thinner or finer. silk spun yarn. In this case length is a constant factor and weight is a variable. Applicable for all types of fibres. the yarn gets thicker or coarser. As the yarn number increases.
bottom weights and Furnishing Fine quality shirting’s & women’s dress materials 80s-more Super fine counts Women’s Sheer fashion fabrics Combed Filament yarn count Yarn denier 40 -70 75 – 120 140. towels.840 1040 End Use Sheer hosiery. some knitting yarns 1. Mainly used for woolen and worsted yarns. or four ply yarns v Objectives: Yarns plied to Blending of different fiber yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Plied yarns are identified as two. sheer curtains Crepe. Tricot lingerie. Plied yarn A yarn composed of two or more single strands that are twisted together.As the yarn number increases. georgette. blouses. Modify texture and color composition 36 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. chiffon. Combine spun and filament yarns. and denims Shirting’s. SIVALINGAM .uses of yarn counts Cotton yarn count 1s – 20s 21s –40s 41s –80s Coarser counts Carded Medium counts Carded/combed Finer counts Combed Furnishings. shirts. Minimize irregularities.200 250 -520 600. draperies Upholstery Carpets. Utilize multi strands of fine yarns to produce thick strand. three. satins Men’s / women’s wear medium weight Outer wear. the yarn gets thinner or finer. when untwisted. single strands can be counted. Io improve the strength of yarn. End. Introduce textured or novelty yarns.
3. which is composed of two or more plied yarns are twisted together. Core-spun yarn A yarn which has one type of fiber wrapped around the another yarn. man-made or blended fiber yarn. the spiral arrangement of fibres around the yarn axis. 3. YARN TWIST Twist. May differ in amount of twist and direction of twist 2. The inherent property of yarn is influenced by inner core. Twist binds the fibres together and contributes strength to the yarn. which could be spandex or any other type yarn.6-ply cord yarn indicates that there are three plies in the yarn construction. Differ in count. each of the three plies contains six single strands. Affect drape of the fabric. Less flexible than single yarn. · The amount of twist varies with § § § Staple length of the fiber Count of the yarn End use of the fabric Degree of yarn twist the following characteristics of fabrics § § § § § Hand Appearance Texture Drape Durability 37 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The structure consists of a core.Characteristics of Plied yarns: Thicker. heavier and courser. SIVALINGAM . Amount of Twist The amount or degree of yarn twist is measured in number of turns per inch (TPI). and outer layer usually of natural. Cord/ Cable-ply yarn A multiple ply yarn. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. the outer layer determines the hand and texture.
An acrylic/ wool blend can provide a comfortable and bulky cloth at lower cost than 100% wool fabric. Fabrics produced from blended yarns are also called blends. Weft. obtains high strength and wrinkle resistance from the polyester and comfort from cotton. smooth. Smooth 2-3 tpi Warp. The polyester filament. A blend of polyester and cotton. It is possible to make a woven fabric in which the warp yarns are different from the weft yarns. when held in vertical position and twist flows up wards in left-hand direction. however it is possible to combine two or more filament yarns to produce a filament blend. the combination fabric would perform better than 100% polyester. Z – twist is more common in both woven and knits. and provide a better hand and surface texture to the fabric. Direction o f twists mainly affects light reflecting qualities. 12 tpi Bulky. 16-20 tpi Regular. Blends are usually spurn yarns. A blend fabric is one in which all the yarns are a homogeneous and intimate mixture of two or more fibres. SIVALINGAM . Z – Twist.Amount of yarn twist and end uses Low twist Napping twist Average twist Voile twist Crepe twist Filament yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. In this case. a polyester/ viscose blend or 100% viscose fabric. texture and hand of the fabrics. An example of this construction is an apparel fabric in which the warp yarns are 60-40 polyester/viscose blend yarn and weft yarns are 100% filament polyester. stronger and more dimensionally stable. for example. soft and weak Weft. durable and comfortable High twisted singles 35-40 tpi Finer yarns. when held in vertical position and twist flows upwards in right-hand direction. Yarns produced from fibre blends in order to improve their properties by drawing upon the best qualities of both fibres or to reduce cost of the product. Blends and Combinations Single yarns composed of different mixture of two or more fibres are called blended yarns. The spun yarns are more comfortable than filament yarns. strong and harsher are plied with 16-18 tpi hand Singles 40-80 or more tpi are Snarling or kink plied with 2-5 tpi Fabrics with good drape and texture Direction of yarn twist S – Twist. 38 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. 6-8 tpi Warp. It is properly known as combination fabric. 25-30 tpi Most common.
Fabric manufacturing .
Package size. Ø WINDING o Warp winding or Cheese / Cone winding o Weft winding or Pirn winding Ø WARPING Ø SIZING Ø DRAWING – IN Ø DENTING . These Yarns are taken from packages called beams. which fits in shuttle. After yarn formation. both spun and continuous filament yarns are not immediately usable in fabric manufacturing. The yarn sufficiently strong to withstand the stress and friction of weaving without excessive end breakage. Shuttle looms need a special weft yarn package. The warp must be uniformly sized and the amount of size added must be sufficient to protect the yarn from abrasion at the harness and reed so as to prevent the formation of a hairy surface on the warp threads. NIFT Bangalore . TEXTILE SCIENCE V. clean.IN Ø WEAVING The essential features of good warp preparation are as follows: § § § § The yarn must be uniform. pirn or quill. For weaving. The ends of warp must be parallel and each must be wound on the loom beam at an even and equal tension. many yarns are presented simultaneously in the form of warp sheet. The yarn package as it comes from spinning must be repackaged to meet the particular needs and demands of the fabric manufacturing. SIVALINGAM § 39 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. enabling them to pass easily through the heald eyes and reeds of the looms. build and other factors make it necessary for the yarn to be further processed to prepare it to be handled efficiently during fabric manufacturing. Knots should be of standard type and size. In case of shuttle less looms use yarn from large package called cheeses or cones. and free from knots.FABRIC MANUFACTURING Preparatory process for weaving The yarns as manufactured and packaged are not in the optimum condition to be used produce fabrics. A flow chart outlining the steps in the preparation of yarn for weaving is given in the fig.
nebs or loose fibers from the yarn Winding requirements § § § The fault level in the yarn must be reduced to an acceptable level The yarn must not be damaged in any way in the winding process The package size. Excessive tension can damage the yarn whereas low tension can lead to loose package which will not unwind smoothly The tensioning device must be reliable and easily threaded 40 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM . shape and build must be most technologically suitable for the particular end use § The package size should be controlled to meet the particular economic requirement FLOW OF MATERIAL AND WORKING PRINCIPLES OF WARP WINDING Guides ð It is necessary to control the yarn path during winding operation due to ballooning They are made up of hard smooth steel or ceramic Tension devices ð Yarn tension plays an important role in winding. slubs.WARP WINDING Objectives § § To transfer yarn from spinner bobbin to another suitable package for warping machines To remove irregularities or imperfections like thick or thin places.
which are laid very nearly parallel to layers already existing in the package. SIVALINGAM . which is laid in the package at an appreciable helix angle so that the layers cross one another to yield stability. Usually the yarn is made to support a light feeler. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. It may be in cylindrical form and weight of the package varies from 1 – 2 Kgs The traversing necessary to build a cone or a cheese is slightly different. ð There are two basically different types of packages that are commonly produced Types of Yarn Packages 1) Cone: This comprises 1 or more thread. Traverse motions ð The to and fro movement of yarn as it is laid on to a package usually called traverse or chase is controlled by a moveable guide. the angle and spacing of traverse are constant in case of the cheese but vary in the case of the cone. It may be tapered in both sides and package weight varies from 1-2 Kgs. If the yarn breaks the feeler moves and causes the package drive to be disconnected.Yarn guides ↓ Tension controllers ↓ Stop motions ↓ Traverse motions ↓ Package drive. Due to the difference in geometry between the tubular cheese package and the conical cone package. 2) Cheese: This type usually consists of a single thread. Stop motions ð During winding process it is necessary to stop winding if a yarn breaks or the yarn supply is exhausted. 41 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN.
WEFT WINDING If the yarn is to be used as weft in shuttle looms it must be repackaged on a pirn.In applications where the package wind angle is important. It is also important that the wind angle be such that the force required to remove the yarn remain constant. which facilitates dye penetration in to the package. If fabric design needs for yarn dyeing then yarn is wound on a special tube. or at least reduce. The pirn is designed to rest within the shuttle. This reduces no of pirn changes during weaving Yarn guides ↓ Tension controllers ↓ Stop motions ↓ Traverse motions ↓ Package driver 42 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. it is important to ascertain and maintain a critical wind angle to prevent. After dyeing the yarn is normally rewound and sent to the next operation. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Objectives · · Removal of slubs and weak places during processing Productions of tighter packages have more yarns per pirn. a condition wherein many coils of yarn unwind at a time from the package. This condition is known as slough-off. SIVALINGAM . such as yarn for weft in shuttle less weaving.
Traverse motions To produce these packages require a traversing mechanism on the winding machine to give correct build. SIVALINGAM .Yarn guides · · They are made up of hard smooth steel or ceramic It is necessary to control the yarn path during winding operation due to ballooning Tension devices · Yarn tension plays an important role in winding. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The to and fro movement of yarn as it is laid on to a package usually called traverse or chase is controlled by a moveable guide. Usually the yarn is made to support a light feeler. If the yarn breaks the feeler moves and causes the package drive to be disconnected. It can be used to make warp sheets. WARPING The purpose of warping is to arrange a convenient no of warp yarns that can be collected in a sheet form and wound on to a warper’s beam There are two types of warping 1) Beam warping: it is used for long runs of grey fabrics and simple patterns of colored yarns. Excessive tension can damage the yarn whereas low tension can lead to loose package which will not unwind smoothly The tensioning device must be reliable and easily threaded It must be easily adjustable and not to be affected by heat The operating surface must be smooth and must not be affected by oil or dirt · · · Stop motions During winding process it is necessary to stop winding if a yarn breaks or the yarn supply is exhausted. 43 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Sectional warping or pattern warping: it is used for short runs especially for fancy pattern fabrics where the amount of colored yarn is more than 15% of the total. The total amount of colored yarns involved is less than 15% of the total 2.
It is necessary to have a stop motion since a good warp should not contain many broken ends. they are subjected to tension constantly as well as intermittently during let-off. the warp yarns are subjected to rubbing and chafing against various metallic parts of loom by threaded through backrest. stress and strain in weaving. any stop motion must be working in such a way as to allow sufficient time for any stop to occur before the broken end reaches the headstock. Objectives · · To improve strength and abrasion resistance of the warp yarns by causing the fibers to adhere together. stop rotation. The tensions are not high and it is usually sufficient to apply just enough to prevent the yarn snarling and entangling. therefore one tension device per end is needed. Measuring roller: it is most desirable specially in pattern warping. harness and reed. Thus. each end of the tape like section is threaded through tension devices. contracting vee reed and then is led over a measuring roller to the drum. 44 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Each end has to be controlled. It is usual to make the creel package of such a size as to produce an integral no of beams. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. take-up. All of these lead to increase the end breakage level during weaving. They are constantly being rubbed together during shedding. drop wires. shedding and beat-up. it is desirable to produce as high quality warp as possible to with stand the excessive rubbing. Tension devices: it is necessary to control tension such that all ends are as nearly alike as possible.The warping machine consists of creel. SIVALINGAM . Stop motions: if any warp end breaks the mentioned should be stopped immediately. which should be minimized. to control the length of the warp wound and a measuring roller is used in combination with a suitable counting device to stop the machine at the appropriate delivered length. Since creeling takes a considerable time. it is essential to make it possible to transfer from one creel to another and this may be done by moving the headstock with respect to some fixed creels or by making the creels with respect to the fixed head stocks. In making the warp. leasing rods. To make smooth and to lubricate the warp yarns so that there is minimum friction where they rub together various parts in the weaving process. SIZING In the weaving process. Consequently. a head stock and control devices The main purpose of the creel is to hold the supply package of cone or cheeses.
NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. It is also necessary to control the 45 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The size box temperature is usually maintained uniformly by means of steam pipes and the steam flow is regulated to control the temperature. wheat.Sizing ingredients Adhesives: Potato starch Starch from corn. Then it’s passed through the squeeze rollers where the yarns are pressed to penetrate the desired percentage of the size material in the yarns and squeeze out excess size. rice etc Carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) Ploy-vinyl alcohol (PVA) Lubricants: Mineral waxes. The size box is used to apply the size liquor to the yarn. oils Vegetable waxes. oils Animal fats (tallow/ soap Additives: Salicylic acid Zinc chloride Phenol Emulsifier THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN CHOOSING SIZE INGREDIENTS ARE: · · · · · · · The recipe should be that which gives fewest end breaks It should be that which permits easy desizing It should give good fabric characteristics It should be compatible with the machinery It should not cause any health hazard It should not cause any degradation of the textile material The cost of sizing should be minimum Warping beams are used to supply a sheet of yarn to the size box. The warp sheet is guided through the solution by means of the immersion roller. SIVALINGAM .
It is required to dry the wet sized yarn rapidly. This prevents the excessive size from building up on the cans. temperature of drying. The comb is usually an expanding one that enables the no of ends per unit and width to be controlled Factors that effect the properties of sized yarns · · · · · · · Lubricant added to the adhesive as part of the recipe Adhesive type Recipe (as % of adhesive and % of lubricant etc) Size add-on or size pick-up (the amount of size penetrates on the yarn) Operational conditions such as yarn speed.The first three or four cans are usually coated with Teflon. In order to prevent the adhesion between the yarns it is necessary to separate each sized end from the others before the warp can be used for weaving. TEXTILE SCIENCE V. SIVALINGAM 46 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. A single comb is used to maintain the division of sheets into separate ends and to position them for winding on the beam. A typical range of temperature used is from 80. There are different methods of drying system employed · · · Multi cylinder drying Hot air-drying Infra red drying On a multi cylinder machine. The warp yarn sheet is now ready to be put on the loom beam. thoroughly and uniformly. It is threaded through an expansion or ”zigzag” comb that is adjusted to allow the warp sheet to come to the width required to fill the loom beam. To separate the ends the out going sheet is divided into 2 sections the Lease rods are used to divide the main sheet as described. The yarn is wound on to the loom beam at the headstock in a manner similar to that in the beaming operation. In practice.150°C.level of solution in the size box as well as concentration of size is kept as constant as possible to assure both correct and uniform size pick up by the warp yarns. The drying section determines the maximum effectiveness of sizing process. yarn tension etc Weave room relative humidity. it is possible to control accurately the drying temperatures to which given sheets of yarns are subjected. it is found desirable to increase the temp during the first phase of drying and to decrease it during the last phases. NIFT Bangalore .
The basic functions of loom illustrated in fig. The woven fabric is the result of interlacing of warp and weft yarns according to weave design. weft stop. There are relatively inexpensive portable machines which can tie-in the new warp at a rate of up to 600 ends / minute. As the harness frames move up and down an opening tunnel be formed due to separation of ends. the operation of tying-in is performed. The various motions on the loom should be set in correct timing and properly to perform their functions to produce good quality of fabric according to market demands. warp protector and temple motions. Then weft pick is inserted through shed from one end to another by means of shuttle which holds a weft yarn package called a pirn. warp stop. then drawing-in must be performed. 47 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The yarns that run crosswise are called weft yarns or picks or fillings. tying-in is most prevalent. WEAVING AND WEAVING MACHINES A woven fabric consists of two sets of yarns. These three motions are known as primary motions repeat again in order to perform weaving process. an eye in the harness and a dent in the reed. Drawing –in is the process of providing each end with a drop wire. SIVALINGAM . They are take-up. When the mills producing long runs of the same fabric. If the new warp does not correspond exactly to the old warp or the loom does not have a warp begin with. let-off. If the new warps corresponds one for one in number of ends and weave pattern with warp presently in place. is called beat-up. which is attached with sley. A weaving machine is also known as loom is used to produce woven fabrics. namely warp and weft. Tying-in is merely the cutting-off of the old warp and end-to-end tying of the yarns from the new beam to the corresponding warp yarns already in place on the loom. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. but rather in another area in the mill. Thus. pushes the pick towards the cloth already woven. The yarns that are placed lengthwise or parallel to the selvedges of the fabric are called warp yarns or ends. Besides the three basic motions. These auxiliary motions helps in order to produce a fault free fabrics and enhance the quality. unless the mill is very large and produces many short run fabrics of different design. Drawing-in machines are available but they are extremely expensive. The rising and lowering of warp ends are carried out by harness frames that hold the ends by means harness and harness eyes. manual drawing-in is more prevalent. known as picking. Then a comb like device called the reed. Drawing-in does not generally occur at the loom. called a shedding.DRAWING-IN AND TYING-IN The next operation is dependent upon the current beam (or lack of beam) on the loom. there are other auxiliary motions necessary for weaving continuously in weaving machine. This operation generally takes place at the loom.
In this case the healds are all operated by jacks and levers and occupy less spaces as compared to tappet Shedding-mechanism. however. : To pull the cloth forward after the beat-up of the weft. 48 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. which is controlled by a pattern chain that gives a good scope for weaving designs repeating a large number of picks and ends. as per the lifting plan. the basic and auxiliary motions and their functions on weaving machines are as follows: Shedding Picking Beat-up Take –up : To separate warp yarns in to two layers. SIVALINGAM . This will actuate further as it works as fulcrum. the number of heald frames and order of drawing the ends remains the same. It is very easy to change the pattern chain whenever a new design is required to be woven. The other important advantage is the order of lifting and inserting the heald frames. : To allow the warp sheet to unwind from the warp beam during weaving and also to maintain a uniform constant tension of warp as it weaves down. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. According to the pegs in the pattern cylinder the corresponding feeler ‘M’ gets the motion and it is transmitted through needles ‘N’ and this motion is further actuate the cams then the corresponding T lever (B) gets the movement. towards fell of the cloth. The bowls on the knife leavers are kept always in contact with the cams by special springs. Let –off Warp stop Weft stop : To stop the loom when weft yarn breaks or weft runs out of the pirn (weft package) DOBBY LOOM Dobby Shedding is improved mechanism for patterns requiring up to 36 harnesses. maintaining the same pick density and spacing 6throught weaving weaving of a cloth and winding the woven cloth on to a take up roller. A simple line diagram shown in fig illustrates the working of modern cam dobby. : To stop the loom when warp yarn breaks or excessively loose. which contact the pegs in the pattern chain.To summarize. This action further helps to engage the corresponding hook towards baulk lever. The knives are only pushed by the cams and the returning is carried out by springs. The connection and disconnection of the hooks is caused by needles and feelers. This motion is magnified by the bulk lever action of the Jack and is transmitted to the harness. one layer is raised and other lowered to provide an insertion path to weft yarn. The fig illustrates the actuating of the knives by cams. : To insert a weft yarn across the warp ends through the shed by means a shuttle or other weft carriers. : To push the weft yarn that has been inserted across the warp ends.
an expensive form of weaving as it is accompanied with designing. It is a negative type of shedding. suspended from the harness. thus protecting harness wires from damage. When these cards engage the needles that control the harness strings through the mails of which are drawn the warp threads of the cloth. SIVALINGAM . they move up or down the warp threads. The loom is bolted to the flooring and jacquard is suspended from the ceiling resting on heavy beams. Jacquard weaving is. These hooks can be raised in any required number or order corresponding to the warp threads to be raised for the passage of the shuttle. HIGH SPEED JACQUARD High-speed jacquards are suited for use in high-speed shuttle less weaving machines and are recommended also for double width weaving. The hooks formed at the end of the vertical wire can be allowed to remain over to be pushed away from a lifting giraffe by the presence or absence of holes in paper cards that is pressed against the needles by a perforated cylinder. and termed as lingoes. The shuttle flying across binds the weft yarn with the wrap threads and completes the weaving. The jacquard loom consists of two parts the loom and jacquard device. The two are connected by a series of cords known as harness. A number of weaves may be used in combination to produce a jacquard design with the desired effects. however. Jacquard mechanism device is simply a frame containing a number of wire hooks and needles. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. the lifting of the ends being done by hooks and lowering is done by dead weights. The pattern cards tied together in a set revolve around the cylinder of the jacquard. The capacity of harness can be possible upto 28-36 JACQUARD LOOM Jacquard Shedding can be used suitably for producing beautiful elaborate and intricate ornamental designs in forms and multi colors in which a large number of warp threads are required to be controlled individually. The speed of the loom is lower than other types of looms. Reduced warp breakages because of smaller depth of shed. card cutting.Advantages of Modern Cam Dobby Loom: · · · Very smooth movement of harness. Those desired up are revealed on the cloth and those not wanted just at that point are suppressed and concealed in back of the fabric. Jacquard device is a piece of shedding mechanism for selecting and lifting or lowering a group of warp and in a repeat individually for each shed. The knife frames are actuated by bilateral baulk levers in combination with a connecting arm with cams and large surface 49 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. lacing.
30. SIZE AND FIGURING CAPACITY OF JACQUARD Size of the Machine 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 900 1000 1200 Hooks in a short row 4 8 8 8 10 12 12 12 10 12 Hooks in a long row 26 26 38 51 or 52 51 51 or 52 70 72 100 104 Total hooks 104 208 304 408 or 416 510 612 or 624 840 924 1000 1248 Usually one row of hooks is intended to be used in operating the selvedge threads of the cloth. Screen for displaying all stored data plus a facility for displaying selected enlarged areas of the pattern. standard and fine. Each floppy can hold up to 136 different patterns within the maximum possible number of picks of 8722 with 1344 hook configuration. 2. It is necessary to decide the pattern and type of cloth to be woven. There are three main pitches: coarse.heavy-duty ball bearings.000 picks with 2688 hooks on Staubli Cx860 jacquard machine. SIVALINGAM . 5. before ordering a jacquard. Keyboard for selecting and editing different functions and programs. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. It is also possible to connect the jacquard to a network system Sizes and Figuring Capacities of Jacquards Jacquards are usually built in standard sizes. 50 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The knife frames are guided by low friction sliders.15. Floppy disc for loading hard disc. The size and the figuring capacity of a jacquard are also standardized to a certain extent.000 picks with 1344 hooks or 1. Large machines are obtained by placing two smaller machines. Outstanding features of computer Jacquard weaving machines are: control Jacquard/Electronic 1. Hard disc for storing program data specific to machine and number of picks with a maximum of 2. 300. 3. All other pivots also have ball or needle bearings. Table indicates the size and the figuring capacity of different jacquards. 4. 400 and 600 are the most common sizes used.
This affects the maximum running speed of the loom and it can also affect the fabric quality. the drawbacks of the shuttle looms are § Small weft package size. This movement depends on which lever is moving and about which fulcrum the levers are moving. § Limited control over the quality of the fabric produced. When movement is required. fulcrum f1 on lever 1. multicoloured weft insertion involves considerable mechanical problems. According to the demands of the pattern. In the first. The maximum number of colors used is equal to number of boxes of the loom minus one. counts. Smaller weft packages require frequent replenishment. which are gear driven from the looms crankshaft. four and six boxes one side and one box on the opposite side normally referred as 2x1. for each variety weft one shuttle is required and there must be an empty box on the opposite side to receive the shuttle. In nutshell. fibres or twists across in weft wise of the fabric. A multiple box loom may have two. clutches are engaged to cause the appropriate cam (or cams) to rotate sufficiently to cause the lever system to take up one of the configuration shown in fig. 4x1. 2x2 and 4x2 looms. These looms for inserting colored weft or different types of weft as per weft pattern. In the second 51 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. In conventional looms. The most common mechanism used in 4x1 box motion. the relatively massive shuttle must be accelerated and decelerated. SIVALINGAM . § Higher consumption of spare parts due high rate of wear and tear. It is possible to have several shuttle boxes on each side of the loom and such looms are denoted as 4x4. shuttle less loom technology has proceeded in two general directions in its attempt to replace the shuttle. and 6x1 box looms respectively. requiring frequent replenishment. In view of the drawbacks in shuttle loom. which increase the workload of weaver. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. another solid carrier replaces the shuttle. This mechanism uses two levers to produce a compound movement at the box rod. The wear life of loom parts are also limited due to the heavy impact and shock that they have to withstand. Lever 2 (fig) moves about the fixed fulcrum f2 to move. They are some times used to permit the use of more colors and odd numbers of picks from each color. as found in projectile and rapier looms.This naturally takes time and energy and cause noise and vibration. SHUTTLESS WEAVING MACHINES In conventional weaving to move shuttle weighting around half a kg through the shed.DROP BOX OR MULTIPLE BOX LOOMS Multiple box motions are used to insert yarns of different color. they are known as pick-at-will looms. Further more pick and pick. The levers are usually moved by means of cams. § Complicated mechanism on multicolored loom § Space and worker required for weft pirn winding. § Limited scope for increase in speed and performance.
There is no weft winding. let-off. warp stop etc. stationery crops wound package. Picking always takes place from one side. During its flight through the shed the projectile runs in a rake like steel guides. upholstery etc.55 in x 0. but several projectiles are employed and all of them return to the picking side by a conveyor chain underneath the warp shed. The replacement of shuttle by other methods of weft insertion does not bring any fundamental change in the in the sequence of weaving operations. PROJECTILE WEAVING MACHINE Projectile weaving machine differ from a conventional automatic loom mainly in two aspects: § § The method of weft insertion in to the warp shed The method of moving the reed and the projectile track Other motions like shedding. 52 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. SIVALINGAM . The weft is drawn directly from a large. Positive shedding mechanism is used to supplement the high speeds and in certain cases. 90mm long 14mm wide and 6mm thickness (3. The different systems of weft insertions have been developed to cater to the specific fields of applications. Air jet and water jet looms can be used for medium range mass production requirement.5in x 0. and the projectile looms for apparel fabrics. so that the warp threads are touched neither by the projectile nor weft thread. fluid jet looms in which a high-pressure jet of air or water is used to carry the weft through the shed. The gripper projectile is picked across the warp shed at very high speed. the rapier for its versatility in weaving fashion materials of different constructions like suiting. It carries the weft thread into the warp shed. take-up and let-off are more or less. of the same principle.14in) weights 40g (1.direction. picking and beat up except the method of weft insertion is changed. beating-up mechanism is also modified. do not differ in principle from those in shuttle looms.33oz). although they are more precise in design. that is shedding. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The working and main features are as follows The gripper projectile made of fine steel. Other mechanisms such as take-up. special varieties like denim and industrial fabrics. the picking energy being derived from the energy stored in a metal torsion bar which is twisted at predetermined amount and released to give the projectile a high rate of acceleration.
The reed is not reciprocated as in a shuttle loom. SIVALINGAM . Similar length of weft also projects from the selvedge on the receiving side. leaving a length about 15mm from the edge. The weft is supplied from magazine cones weighing 3-4kg placed at the right hand side of the machine. thus providing firm selvedges. The rapiers are made of coated steel or reinforced high performance carbon fibre. with a hairpin shaped loop to form a smooth and uniform conventional selvedge at the right hand side of the cloth and an unconventional leno selvedge at the left hand side. Weft is inserted by two flexible rapiers and the weft is laid in two pick weft insertion cycle. The reed and projectile guides are stationary during pick insertion. which are flexible tapes or rigid rods. In present version the weft is inserted by the gripper heads are attached to rapiers. The lower warp breakage rate in a Projectile Weaving Machine may be due to Smaller warp shed · · · · RAPIER LOOM Insertion of weft by rapier is a mechanically modern and refined version of fabric production.Every pick is cut off at the picking side near the selvedge after weft insertion. In case of weft breakage. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The ends of weft thread projecting on both sides of the cloth are tucked into the next shed by means of a special tucking device and woven in with next pick. but rocked about its axis by a pair of cams. 53 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. is possible depending upon the width of the weaving machine The color changing mechanism is less complicated. Advantages of Projectile Weaving · · · It is possible to achieve weaving performances with breakage rates per square meter of cloth 50% of the number of breaks that would occur on a conventional loom. Two or three cloths can be woven simultaneously Weft insertion rate up to 900 to 1500 m/min. There is facility of inserting two picks in the same shed without the use of dobby. the take-up beam and heald frames can be driven in reverse by a pick finding mechanism.
The nozzle D spouts the weft yarn by high-speed compressed turbulence air. SIVALINGAM . Straightener also known as tensioner C loosens the weft yarn prior to weft insertion. One rapier (called the giver) takes the weft yarn from supply package and carries it to the center of the shed. The major drawback to this type of loom is the air pressure diffuses quite rapidly so the width of fabric is limited. concurrently. The working principle and features of air jet loom are as follows The weft yarn is positively drawn out from a cheese/cone by measuring drum. At this time the taker collects the yarn whereupon both the rapiers are withdrawn.6a. The color changing mechanism is less complicated. AIR JET LOOM In an air jet loom. which continuously rotates three times for every cycle of weft insertion. the other rapier (called the taker) also travels to the center and the two meets at center. is possible depending upon the width of the weaving machine. 54 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. The end of weft is firmly held by the weft gripper G at the entrance of the shed. This requires that the weft be transferred from one to the other in the middle of the warp shed during the weft insertion operation. Advantages of Rapier Loom · · · · Weft insertion rate up to 600 to 1100 m/min. Modern air jet loom use air guides or air guides with auxiliary jets to extend the distance that the yarn can be carried. The weft is correctly positioned for reception by the weft positioner E and weft depressor F.The cycle of operations are as follows As shown in the figure 18. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The rapiers A (called the giver) and B (called the taker) are about to enter the shed on the first pick of the insertion cycle. high-pressure air carries the weft yarn through the shed. It works speeds up to 200-300 ppm. There is facility of inserting two picks in the same shed without the use of dobby. the giver returning empty and the taker completing the motion of the length of the weft yarn. Weft yarn A is measured by a measuring drums B equivalent to the width of cloth.
Leno selvedge is formed at both ends. The machine uses rubber emery and rubber temple rings. is possible depending upon the width of the weaving machine. SIVALINGAM . which come in contact with water. The basic machine is built in mild steel with a protective waterproof spray paint. rust or erode the high precision components of the machine. polyester. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. It works speeds up to 350-500 ppm. When warps are sized.The figure shows the weft yarn spouted the longest distance. about 20cm longer than width of the cloth. polypropylene. Suction tube H that is placed on the offside of the loom guides the inserted weft and inhales the weft end. WATER JET LOOM Differences between Air jet and Water jet looms Water jet looms are similar in many ways to air-jet looms but they differ in construction. operating conditions and performance. The air jet must be kept spouting from the nozzle up to this movement. are of either stainless steel or brass and the guide rolls are of hard chrome dull finish. To get the best results it is important that the water used does not scale.e. Warp and weft yarns must be water insensitive i. All the machine parts that get wet must be resistant to corrosion. The heald frames are of aluminum. At the time of beating motion.g. Advantages of Air-Jet Looms · · · Weft insertion rate up to 1300m/min. it must be with water incentive sizes like acrylic ester size. The nuts and bolts. the wire healds and reed are of stainless steel. the cutters E on both sides cut the weft yarn so that its ends project about 6mm beyond the edge of cloth. Although no compressor is required as with air jet weaving machines. are used. each water jet loom is provided with its own miniature pump to feed water under pressure to the nozzle. hydrophobic in nature. and acetate etc. which is cut by cutter. The color changing mechanism is less complicate. Thermoplastic yarns e. 55 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. nylon. glass.
from there it passes to the picking nozzle. Finer yarn count and balanced construction generally yields better performance. Weft insertion rate up to 1500-2000 m/min is possible depending upon the width of the weaving machine WOVEN FABRICS The formation of woven fabric is made by interlacement of yarns at right angles to each other. which is ends per inch (EPI) X picks per inch (PPI). 56 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Interlacing yarns at right angles to each other makes the basic weaves.Weft supply system Weft supply system of a water jet loom is shown in Fig. The yarn passes from the supply package over a guide and through a tensioning device to the measuring drum. the water jet loom is the least flexible as the fabric woven must be hydrophobic and the range of fabrics is limited to medium weight fabrics although light fabrics can be woven but with a greater difficulty. the fabric width and the weight (gsm) in terms of grams per square meter. yarn count (Nw x Nwf). The central portion of the woven fabric is called the body and the edges of right and left sides are called the selvedges. Hydraulic method of weft insertion has by far there lowest energy requirements and least noisy. The individual warp yarns are called ends. SPECIFICATION OF WOVEN FABRICS The specification of fabrics is indicated by construction. This is written in the following form. The longitudinal or lengthwise yarns are known as warp. Maximum width of the machine is 230cm. nevertheless water jet looms are the best machines to produce 100% filament fabrics on a mass scale. Merits and Demerits Compared to the other high speed shuttle less looms. The kind of weft that can be used depends upon the nozzle. The selvedges are usually differ from the body of the fabric in both yarn and fabric formation. The widthwise yarns are known as weft or filling. Thus leaving no flexibility in the everchanging market. It is possible to weave at up to 750-1000 ppm. The range of jet and width of loom depends on the water pressure and diameter of the jet. SIVALINGAM . Another problem is the yarn waste generated on these machines due to the basic machine design. The closeness or compactness of fabric is determined by yarn count and construction (yarns per unit area). Fabrics with finer yarn count are denser than those with a coarser yarn count. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The individual yarns are called picks. pump and feeler selection unit.
basket weave can be used to produce patterns that provide a more sprightly appear able. The more open structure of the basket weave increases moisture permeability. BASKET AND RIB WEAVE Provide an interesting patterned effect. GSM Width is measured in inches or cms EPI – Ends per inch PPI – Picks per inch Nw – Warp yarn count Nwf – Weft yarn count GSM – Fabric weight expressed in grams per square meter PLAIN WEAVE Easy to produce. Nw x Nwf. Wherever a reasonably comfort and durability plain weave fabrics are ideally suitable. (To rubbing against surface).Width. TWILL WEAVE Twill weaves patterns produces diagonal lines in the fabric structure. because the yarns are not held as tightly as in the plain weave. 2/2 and 2/1 weft ribs are known as oxford weaves. the larger the floats. they have greater mobility this allows the garment to stretch more as the wearer move about. Since the yarns are free to move. are produced by the weft yarns are made twice the diameter of the warp yarns. they can more readily absorb the stresses caused by their crushing and bending . Thus when the fabric woven. Offers simple and plain background.For this reason the basket weave is more wrinkle resistant than plain weave. which is a popular shirting fabric. Ribs can enhance the body by stiffening the cloth and giving it the feel of a heavier fabric. Producing twill weave structures requires minimum three harnesses in loom. Introducing coarser warp or weft yarns at regular across the fabric can produce ribbed fabrics. or the lower 57 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Twills may have the diagonal lines running from the lower left to upper right (right – hand twill). Further more. As a general rule. the rib pattern is suppressed and the fabric has the overall appearance of a plain Weave. This helps to keep the wearer cool in hot weather. the fabric is more wrinkle resistance and more comfortable. because the yarns are held less tightly in the simple basket and rib weaves. Gives good background for surface ornamentation like embroidery and printing techniques. It will have adequate moisture permeability. SIVALINGAM . Larger floats in basket and rib weave fabrics are subjected to snagging. EPI X PPI. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Simple structure of basket and ribs. However. By proper choice of colored warp and weft yarns. which commonly used for shirting fabric. results less durable.
In case of steep twills. the performance of a twill fabric also depends upon the pattern. basket or plain weave. The feature of twill weave construction is the improved pliability and wrinkle resistance as compared to the plain weave. PERFORMANCE OF TWILL WEAVES The interaction between structure and yarn count. a 2/1 or 3/2 regular twill weave structure provides greater strength and abrasion resistance than rib.For example. it is known as reclined twill. There is no rule that determines which way the diagonal should run. The 3/2 60 degree steep twill is even more durable. If the diagonal line runs less than 45 degree of angle. patterns and angle allow many more designs to be created in twill weaves. the wind resistance of the fabric is increased. 2.The length of the weft floats is reduced in the steep twill as compared to the regular twill. In weft faced twills more weft yarns and longer floats than warp appear on the surface. However. Such as outerwear and raincoats. If the diagonal line runs exactly 45 degree of angle. These properties make the twill weave construction very essential for outerwear. 4. more of the weft yarns are exposed on the face of the fabric and abrasion resistance is decreased. If the fabric is made of balanced twill. 1. The yarns are not held in tightly in twill weave structure as in the plain weave . Since warp yarns are usually stronger and more abrasion resistance than the weft yarns. Warp faced twills are more durable than the plain weave. the properties of the fabric are the same in either case. Where there are equal numbers of ends and picks and equal length of floats in warp and weft direction on the surface. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. steep twill can be more durable than regular or inclines twills. the abrasion resistance is decreased further more. The durability performance of properly designed twill weave structure is higher than a plain weave of the same yarn count. it is known as regular twills. SIVALINGAM . The stronger warp yarns predominate on the face of the cloth. The angle of the diagonal line is often good indication of quality of the fabric. the diagonal line runs more than 45 degree of angle. provided that the floats are not too long . While removal of soil is equivalent to the plain weave. the fabric known as balanced or even twill. This produces reversible fabric. There are two factors that contribute durability performance of twill weave fabrics. At the same time. there is more warp yarns and layer warps a float than weft yarns on the face side of the fabric. The compactness of warp faced twill structure makes good resistance to soiling.The stress and strains are distributed over more yarns . In warp faced. If reclining twill is used. Twill weaves usually have low permeability of water and moisture or air because of the warp and weft yarns produce for a compact structure. wrinkle resistance is not as great as in the rib or basket weaves without decreasing the durability. construction and weight because of the 58 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. 3. This provides greater abrasion resistance. However.right to the upper left (left-hand twills). The angle of diagonal line is determined by the positioning of the floats.
The extra 59 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Coarser counts. The tensile strength and abrasion resistances of satin fabrics are lesser than plains and twill weave. this is mainly due to larger floats in the weave structure. Satins are also formed in draperies and furniture. luxurious hand and smooth to feel. The soil resistance of weft satin or sateen’s are lesser than satins. In warp faced satins weaves. because they make it easy to slip on garment during wear. The soil resistances of satin weave fabrics are lesser than plain or twill weaves. trouser. Proper selection of yarns. Large numbers of yarns are predominated on the fabrics that invite the penetration of dirt particles. The sateen’s are made from spun yarns. and full-bodied drape. to which they lend appearance formability. Snagging is the common problem of stain weaves fabrics. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. sleek appearance. This device increases the number of harnesses that may be incorporated in the weaving of a fabric. However. yarn count and weave structure will contribute outstanding aesthetic qualities of fabric without affecting in durability and comfort. SATIN WEAVE The outstanding features of stain weave fabrics are lustrous. They are generally used in suits. Because the floats are crosswise rather than warp wise. the compact structure (more yarns per inch) tends to compensate the durability performance. balanced construction and long float in weave structure increases the air permeability for medium weight wear. Finer counts and short floats yield a compact fabric that will feel warm in winter. this owing to long surface floats in the satin pattern. these yarns have lower resistance to tearing. 5. bottom weights. DOBBY WEAVES Simple geometric designs or figuring’s may be produced on a standard loom by the attachment of dobby mechanism. windbreakers and raincoats and work wears. Sateen and weft satins are less durable than warp satins. Twills are generally used in heavier fabrics in whom durability is the most important requirement. slacks. The bindings are the points where the warp and weft yarns are interlaced. in warp direction will have more abrasion resistance than weft direction. The harness capacity of dobby looms varies from 6-40 depending upon complicity of the dobby mechanism. SIVALINGAM .number of bindings in the fabric. Satin fabrics are widely used as linings for coats and jackets.
It is necessary to brush velvets and velveteen’s. VELVET AND VELVETEENS VELVET: . NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The speed of the loom is lower than other types of looms. Dry cleaning is preferred to laundering because excessive agitation in the laundering process may destruct the pile yarns. however. lacing. The light and dark shading of the surface is produced by the difference in light reflected from ends and sides of the fabric. Jacquard weaving is. which acts as insulator to give a cloth its warmth. prickling sensation. areas in which the pile is standing up appear darker than those in which the pile is lying down do. The multitude of fibres that form the pile trap a large amount of air. A number of weaves may be used in combination to produce a jacquard design with the desired effects. The extra yarns used to produce the pile ad weight. JACQUARD WOVENS Jacquard Shedding can be used suitably for producing beautiful elaborate and intricate ornamental designs in forms and multi colors in which a large number of warp threads are required to be controlled individually. 60 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. They must be ironed carefully with low pressure and temperature setting. Thus. The ground cloth for either fabric may be woven with a plain or twill weave . regularly to preserve their aesthetic properties. card cutting.Velvet is a fabric woven from filament yarns. an expensive form of weaving as it is accompanied with designing. The excessive pressure and temperature may crush the pile structure and produce a permanent shine on the surface. SIVALINGAM . in which the pile is formed by the addition of extra weft yarns.Velveteen is a fabric. and give a fuller body and more pleasing drape characteristics. The light that strikes the ends of the fabric is scattered and absorbed. stiffen the fabric.harness allows the weaver to reproduce a small surface figuring’s or multi colored check or plaid. pleasurable. VELVETTEN: . usually woven from spun yarns.the pile configuration may be produced with a v or w interlacing. Soil resistance or standing of velvet and velveteen fabrics is poor than flat woven fabrics. This is mainly due to the pile yarns have large exposed area to contact the soil. in which the pile is formed by the addition of extra warp yarns. The fibre ends from the pile yarn produce mild. while the light that strikes the sides of the fibers are reflected to the viewer’s eye.
This yields a fabric that has a stiffer drape and rougher hand than velveteen corduroy is easily laundered and may be ironed.quality applications. SIVALINGAM . Filament yarns. because of their durability. a twill construction is more durable than plain weave. Varying the length of the floats when the pile yarns are inserting may change the spacing between them. velvets are recommended for higher . Corduroy is expected to be heavier fabric than velvet and velveteen . This fabric differs from velveteen is that the pile yarns are aligned so as to give a warp wise corded stripe on the surface. Velvet and velveteen fabrics provide a warm. other factors being equal. CORDUROY Corduroy is a corded weft pile fabric it is produced by extra weft yarns. Also. which float over one or more warp yarns. In addition. To produce velveteen costs less than velvet because it is easier to insert extra weft yarns than to insert extra weft yarns.Durability performances of velvet and velveteen fabrics are dependent on the construction of the ground cloth. and the interlacing of the pile. tightly woven ground cloth holds the pile yarn more firmly. luxurious hand for such end uses as full – length gowns and jackets for formal wear. 61 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. because it holds the pile yarns under three weft yarns instead only one. such as silk or polyester provide greater durability than spun yarns. W interlacing. Generally. The ground cloth may be of twill or plain weave construction . yields more durability.it is usually made with coarser yarns. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V.The raised portions of the pile are called wale. They are also popular for home furnishings. particularly in drapery and upholstery fabric. Corduroy may be produced with v or w interlacing. spun yarns are usually less expensive than filament yarns. A compact.
terry cloth is made of fibers. SIVALINGAM . and the density of the pile. Seersucker is used in summer suiting. The twist in the pile yarns. the slack yarns crinkle or buckle to form a puckered stripe adds the regular – tensioned yarns form the flat stripe. Since purpose is to keep the body dry. Flexible Tops & Bottoms Heavier & Less Flexible Innerwear & Bottoms. Upholstery Heavier & Less Flexible. The durability of the terry cloth is dependent upon the yarn count of the ground cloth. curtains and sportswear.Types of corduroy Name Feather wale Pin wale Wales / Inch Ozs/Sq. PIQUE WEAVES Pique weave produces a fabric with ridges. that are held up by floats on the back. high cost item because of its slow weaving speed. The stripes are always in the warp direction. Most Durable Coats. that absorbs moisture readily. As the reed beats the weft yarn into place. Upholstery Mid wale Wide wale 11 3-9 10 12 TERRY FABRICS Terry fabric is a weft pile fabric. Terrycloth is more susceptible to snagging and pulling than the velvets and corduroy because of the loops of the pile remains uncut. The pile traps air and maintain body temperature. plaids and prints. such as cotton. stripes. called Wales or cords. Cords or Wales usually run in the lengthwise direction. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Stuffer yarns 62 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Terry cloth is used for toweling and beachwear. It is a low profit. A thick. The yarns are wound onto the two warp beams in-groups of 10 to 16 for a narrow stripe. closely spaced pile woven into a tightly constructed ground cloth gives the longest wear. The yarns on one beam are held at regular tension and those on the other beam are held at slack tension. 18 – 19 5 14 – 16 7 Characteristics / Uses Shallow Pile. Seersuckers are made in plain colors. It is manufactured with extra highly twisted warp yarns that are held slack during part of the weaving process. SEERSUCKER In weaving two warp beams are used to produce this fabric.Yd . Dresses. Flexible Tops / Bottoms Shallow Pile.
slacks. Its spun warp yarns are coarser than the weft yarns. Some are even-sided and some have a decided warp effect. The yarns are plied yarns with one ply made of high twist single yarn. SIVALINGAM . Better quality pique fabrics are made with long staple combed yarns and have at least one stuffer yarn. Pique fabrics are more resistant to wrinkling and have more body than flat fabrics. and uniforms. upholstery. an their presence or absence is one way of determining quality.are laid under the ridges in better quality pique fabrics to emphasize the roundness. The appearance resembles crepe made from high twist yarns. Sand crepe is a common medium to heavy weight crepe weaves fabric of either spun or filament yarns. Pique fabrics are woven on either dobby or jacquard loom depending on the complexity of the design. No float is greater than two yarns in length. 63 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Some are variation of satin weave. window treatments. with weft yarns forming the irregular floats. CREPE WEAVES Crepe is a class of weaves that present a distinct weave effect but give the cloth the appearance of being sprinkled with small pots or seeds. Moss crepe is a combination of high twist crepe yarns and crepe weave. Fabrics made on a loom with a dobby attachment. Moss crepe is used in dress and blouses. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The stuffer yarns are not interlaced with the surface yarns of the fabric and may be easily removed when analyzing a swatch of fabric. It has a repeat pattern of 16 warp yarns and 16 wefts yarns and requires 16 harnesses. Bedford cord is a heavy fabric with wide warp cords used for bedspreads.
Properties and performance of knitted fabrics .
Fiber length – Filament or Staple Count of Yarn – finer or courser core spun Yarn type – spun. SIVALINGAM . twisted. Knit fabrics are classified and named with regard to the · · · · Structure of fabric Method or type of production or construction Type of machine used for its construction Number of guide bars on a machine 64 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. weight. filament. feel or hand and drapablity behaviour of knitted fabrics. thickness and length of needles Operative system of needles – selectively activate and deactivate Number and spacing of needle sets Stitch length or loop length Formation and pattern of stitches The variation of the above factors will affect surface appearance. blend or combination. plied. and novelty Type and capacity of knitting machine – flat or circular knitting machine Special attachments in knitting machine like jacquard and plaiter Type and quality of needles Size. textural configuration. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Man-made cellulosic and synthetic.PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF KNITTED FABRICS Knit Fabric Structure Knit fabric structures are formed through the process of interlocking loops or forming looms with one or more yarns in preceding and succeeding rows. texturised. Knit fabrics are produced by hand or on a variety of knitting machines with one or more needles of different types. properties and characteristics. Variations of knit fabrics may be achieved by manipulating any one or more of the following · · · · · · · · · · · · Fiber Content – Natural.
For example: 65 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Stitches are produced by a knitted loop pulled through a previously formed loop.Differences between Woven and Knitted fabrics Knitted fabric · · · · · · · · High extensibility with complete recovery High crease /wrinkle resistant Weft knitted fabrics is much thicker Because of low twisted yarns Warp and weft knits are soft drape Weft knits feel soft hand and Warp knits Similar to woven fabrics More air permeable than woven fabrics of the similar weight Less stronger Poor dimensional stability Woven fabric more rigid and stiffer low crease /wrinkle resistant less thickness due to high twist yarns woven fabrics of same weight has fuller drape woven feel stiff hand less air permeable more stronger good dimensional stability much Parts of Knit Fabric Structure Stitches The basic element of knit fabric structure. The continuous succession of interlocking loops in made by the same needle. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Construction The number of Wales per inch and courses per inch of a knitted fabric. which accounts for the number of stitches or loops produced per square inch of fabric. Also referred to as course count or wale count. Wale The vertical row of loops whereby one loop is formed under another in the lengthwise direction. It is used to evaluate the closeness and compactness of stitches in a knit fabric. SIVALINGAM . Gauge relates to the number of needles to the inch in a knitting machine. Each loop is made by a different needle. Gauge Gauge determines the fineness or density of the fabric. Course The horizontal row of loops whereby one loop is formed next to the other in the filling or crosswise direction.
However. The same fabric is formed if all the stitches are purl stitches. little run resistance when the yarns are torn or cut. its use in outerwear is limited. underwear. hosiery. recovers most of the stretch so that it is not easily pulled out of shape. Rib knits with an even repeat. Purl Knits Alternating courses of knit and purl stitches makes purl-knit cloth. which has a rather nondescript appearance. it is easy to make on relatively inexpensive machinery. dresses. Furthermore. such as 1/1 or 2/2. This makes it best suited to stoles. In addition. Rib-knit cloth provides greater bulk than jersey of the same weight. The disadvantage of jersey include a tendency to unravel when snagged or pulled. However. are reversible. In this pattern all the stitches are brought toward the face of the fabric – that is. The back of the cloth appears as rows of short dashes or half-circles. therefore. and a tendency to curl when patterns are cut out. and other items that are not subject to crosswise stretching. They can also be made into pile fabrics for other end uses. Rib Knits Alternating Wales of knit and purl stitches makes rib knits. limits its usefulness in hosiery. and sport shirts. The rib stitch appears as a series of hills and valleys running lengthwise across the surface of the cloth. It has relatively good stretch in both lengthwise (wale wise) and widthwise (course wise) directions.Full fashion knits – Numbers of needles per 1 ½” Raschel knits – Number if needles per 2” Tricot knits – Number of needles per 1” Jersey Knits The simplest of the knit cloths is the jersey or plain knit. all the stitches are knit stitches. However. its utility for many garments is limited because of its poor shape retention. wind resistance can be less than in jerseys of the same weight. as in a 2/1 or a 1/2/3 rib. Both its face and back are composed of short dashes or halfcircles lying in the direction of the courses Purl knits provide fabrics of the same bulk as jersey knits. more complex combinations may be formed. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. The jersey is the basic pattern for knit goods. a propensity to shrink when laundered. In the simplest construction the Wales alternate as knit-purl. this pattern provides excellent elasticity in the 66 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. quilts. Jersey knits are used for sweaters. scarfs. this cloth provides fair stretch recovery in the wale wise direction. and can be sewn without great difficulty. Lengthwise columns of Vs characterize the face of this cloth. but can be stretched out of shape in the course wise direction. SIVALINGAM . Its opacity. Since wind can penetrate the fabric more easily.
such garments may be laundered. The stitch structure is shown in Fig. interlock knits do not stretch as readily as single knits. The knit cloth is essentially two rib knits knitted together. care must be taken in construction. however.13. DOUBLE-AND SINGLE-KNIT FABRICS COMPARISION APPEARANCE The properties of double-knit fabrics may be illustrated by a discussion of the interlock knit. The cloth is held together as the knit stitches of one course interloop with the miss stitches of the next. In addition. made from the same yarns. are heavier and more full-bodied than jerseys of the same gauge. The reduced stretch provides 67 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Rib knits do not curl as jersey knits do. Note that each course alternately knits to the front and then to the back of the fabric. shown in Fig. wind is prevented from directly penetrating the fabric. In this weft knit. and its esthetic properties are essentially the same. This fabric has the same appearance as the jersey knit. the rib is used for cuffs and collars to provide a body-fitting closure for neatness and protection against the wind. Alternating knit and purl stitches in both the wale wise and course wise directions produces the interlock knit.8. Moisture transmission. Since one of the desirable properties of rib-knit garments is the close fit they provide. COMFORT Interlock knits can provide good resistance to penetration by wind while allowing transfer of moisture from the body to the outside air. one course is composed of alternating knit and purl stitches while the next course is made up of alternating knit and misses stitches. This easy-care feature has helped enhance the popularity of rib-knit fabrics. the double jersey has two different faces. interlock knits. 13. These two important properties are achieved by the placing of stitches so that the other layer blocks penetration through one layer of loops. it is possible to make a fabric that resembles a jersey knit on the both front and back. is a slower process and the water vapor can follow a zigzag pattern through the fabric to the outside. rib knits have become popular in sweaters and sport shirts. Figure. For this reason. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Interlock Knits By using a knitting machine equipped with two sets of needles. Because of this. With the recent acceptance of form-fitting garments. Double Jersey or Rib Double Knit This fabric has an appearance similar to jersey on one face and to a rib knit on the other. Thus.6. however. so cutting and sewing is not as difficult.7 show how the stitches are arranged. The former property helps to maintain warmth and the latter provides a comfortably dry feel. because they are actually two kind cloths combined into one fabric.course wise direction. because of the ease with which the cloth stretches. However. 13. SIVALINGAM . Note that whereas the interlock is reversible. some shrinkage is tolerable.
SIVALINGAM . and jackets. These two factors have retarded the acceptance of knits in higher-priced men’s suits. Knit cloth. It is difficult to maintain a proper crease and a tailored look with knit fabrics. DURABILITY As expected. with their greater wrinkle resistance and higher elasticity. However. MAINTENANCE The maintenance properties of double knits are essentially those of jersey knits. interlock knits are more easily made into garments. woven cloth is more easily hand-sewn than knit cloth. but at the cost of decreased ease of motion. since either side of the fabric may be used as the face. The men’s wear market has been greatly affected by the introduction of double knits for men’s suits. sleepwear. double jerseys provide an extra degree of esthetic freedom and a greater variety of patterns.greater dimensional stability and shape retention. Resistance to running and raveling is greater in double knits. have provided consumers with clothing better suited to mobile lifestyle. Finally. In addition. except that interlocks do not require as much care in laundering. Uses Double-knit fabrics are used for shirts. double knits has higher strength than single knits. slacks and pants. Double jerseys provide much the same properties as interlocks. in which a great amount of hand sewing and the requirements of an impeccably railroad appearance still give woven cloth the edge. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. These fabrics. and better dimensional stability. is not readily suited to all aspects of men swear. since they cut easily and do not curl as readily as jerseys. Abrasion resistance is the same as in single knits. however. 68 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN.
Warp-knit fabrics are tighter. This combination provides a sheer fabric with a lustrous appearance and a smooth hand. this makes it warm. warp knitting can produce decorative effects that are beyond the capabilities of filling-knit methods. would be used. The combination of compact structure and medium-size yarns would make the durability better than in either of the other cloths. the sweater will not have good abrasion properties. higher gauge means more compact cloth. However. with finer yarns. so although the fabric is more compact. Stocking made from heavy yarn on a 6 gauge. The knitting gauge determines the durability. For example. A comparison of the warp knit shown in Fig. Hosiery is intended to flatter the wearer. It would be made of a medium gauge. The bulk of the yarns provide an opaque fabric.THE EFFECT OF GAUGE The properties of knit fabric are affected by the kind and number of yarns used in its preparation. esthetics. For this end use.2 makes the difference readily apparent. however. and good draping qualities. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. though they would be warm. but would be warmer than the hosiery. Freedom of motion would be retained because of the nature of the pattern. Warpknit fabrics have better dimensional stability. many yarns running in the wale wise direction are looped to form a material in which the courses are interlocked in a zigzag pattern instead o straight across as in weft knits. greater resistance to snagging. a cloth knit of heavy yarns on a 6 gauge traps a lot of air within the fabric. from medium-size yarns. Unfortunately. thicker yarns yield a bulkier cloth. 13. WARP KNITS In warp knitting. Furthermore. will be pulled out of shape easily. This cloth would not have the warmth of the sweater. Between these extremes might lay a fabric to be used in underwear. say 30. and provide freedom of movement. running. TRICOT KNITS 69 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. and comfort of a garment and the size of the yarns used. The warpknit cloths of major importance are TRICOT and RASCHEL. and abrasion. 13. For these examples we can see that proper choice of gauge and yarn size in knit cloth can satisfy a wise range of end-use requirements. SIVALINGAM . and are not as bulky as weft knits. It will also be more elastic and hug the leg. say 60. would not satisfy the consumer’s esthetic requirements. It would have high abrasion resistance and tear strength because of its compact construction. sheerness. and will required careful handling in cleaning. cover the body well. raveling. The loose construction of the cloth assures that it will stretch well. a much higher gauge. In general. its strength and abrasion resistance are low. These characteristics make the cloth suitable for use in a bulky sweater that will be warm. Warp knits are also prized for their soft hand. have less stretch. smoothness. the fine yarn do no withstand stress or abrasion as well as heavy yarns.9 with the simple filling knit shown in Fig. as well as higher strength than weft knits. Laundering of the garment could be accomplished with less care.
11. The yarn may be formed into (1) a closed loop. although the fabric may be napped to give a fuzzy texture well suited to sleepwear. a single layer of cloth characterized by wale wise ribs on the face and course wise ribs on the back is produced. 70 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. (2) an open loop. MAINTENANCE Tricot knits. or stitches. 13. Its dimensional stability and run resistance are also better than those of most weft knits. In the simplest the tricot construction. as with filling knits. but is more often measured by the NEEDLE COUNT or CUT. acceptable elasticity. Except under close inspection the pattern is not readily seen. a soft hand. three basic motions of the knitting needles can produce all tricot cloth. COMFORT Single-warp tricot cloth has good permeability to air and moisture. The hand is usually soft and smooth. so that tricot knits may be machine laundered. 13. because they are usually made from filament yarns. Their structure. A photograph of a single-warpknit tricot cloth is shown in Fig. tend to have good soil and stain resistance. These terms are defined as the number of needles. This ability to use either side of the cloth is useful to the manufacturer because it gives some flexibility in printing or other finishing processes such as napping. as would be expected from a knit fabric. Wind resistance. The spacing of the yarns may be measured by the gauge. Elasticity is good. Singlewarp tricot cloth has good permeability to air and moisture. and good drape. so either the technical face or back of the fabric may be used as the face when the material is being made up into garments. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V.Just as filling-knit patterns can be produced from four basic stitches. the equivalent of 42 gauges. Fig. Stretch. with the yarns running in the wale wise direction. sheer constructions. SIVALINGAM . also improves the soil resistance and ease of soil removal. The drape of tricot-knit fabrics is usually very soft. Properties of Tricot Knits APPEARANCE: Tricot-knit fabrics have a very fine wale wise stripe in the face and a course wise stripe on the back. The standard tricot machine operates with a cut of 28. although less than that of filling knits is greater than that of woven. is dependent upon the gauge or cut.9. as in weft knitting. Wrinkle resistance is excellent. For this reason the cloth is usually made of fine-filament yarns. 13. Dimensional stability is better than that of most weft knits.10 shows the formation of open and closed loops. or (3) no loop is formed. Tricot knitting lends itself readily to light. The loop pattern is illustrated in Fig. in one inch.
Properties and performance of Non-woven fabrics .
NIFT Bangalore . Length wise oriented webs have a grain. Properties of any binders that may be used. Degree of parallelization between the fibres and machine direction. v Fiber orientation describes § § · · · Degree of parallelization among fibres in the web. Ø Mechanical entanglement of the fibres by use of § § § § § § § Added resins Thermal fusion Formation of chemical complexes Selection of the geometrical arrangements of the fibres in the web.Non Woven Fabrics Ø Fabrics that are made directly from fiber. Bond density (number of fibre-to-fibre bonds per unit area ) Ø The properties of Non woven are controlled by Fibrous Web Structure Ø Basic steps § § § · · · · · Selecting the fibres Laying the fibres to make a web Bonding the web together to make a fabric Dry laid Wet laid Spun bonded Spun laced Melt blown Ø There are five techniques are involved Ø Fiber alignment is an important factor in controlling web characteristics. SIVALINGAM v Fibre random alignment describes 71 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Strength and drape properties are related to fiber alignment in web. without the intermediate step of yarn preparation. The properties of the fibres used in the web. Webs the fibres that are not parallel to each other. TEXTILE SCIENCE V.
73 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Ø Air laid or random. and Battery separator. Ø Oriented webs have good strength in the direction of orientation. the strength is uniform in all direction. SIVALINGAM . Interlining. Spun bonded webs Ø Are made immediately after fibres are extruded from spinnerets. Webs can be cross-laid by stacking the carded web so that one layer is oriented lengthwise and the next layer crosswise to give added strength and pliability. Insulation. base fabric for laminating and crafting. Dry Laid Fibre Webs · · · Are made by carding or air laying the fiber in either a random or oriented fashion. battery separators. Ø The continuous hot filaments are laid down in a random fashion on a fast moving conveyer belt. Roofing Substrate. Adhesive carrier. webs are made by machines that disperse the fibres by air. Ø Advantage: exceptional uniformity Uses: Filters.1. Fibres web is produced in carding process. Wicks. leaving random oriented fibrous web. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. filters. This web is similar to the cross-laid web but has a more random fibre distribution. End uses of Dry laid Fiber Webs Ø Wipes. 3. backing for quilted fabrics. interlinings. Ø Random webs have the fibres oriented in a random fashion. Ø Cross laid webs do not have a grain and can be cut more economically. insulation. Wet Laid Fiber Webs Ø Made from a slurry of short fibres and water Ø The water is extracted and reclaimed. but poor cross sectional strength. 2.
and liquid water. wall coverings. Hydro entangled or Spun lace Webs Ø Similar to spun bonded webs except that jets of water are forced through the web. table liners. wall coverings. Ø These webs have greater elasticity and flexibility than spun bonded fabrics. v Sontara is hydro entangled polyester by Dupont. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. tents traps. v Confor Max is a micro denier Olefin and hydro entangling to produce a fabric that is impermeable to wind. roping substrates. adhesive carrier. Ø Further bonded by heat/pressure Ø High tensile and tear strength with low bulk. cold. 4. · Also known as Water needled fabrics. window treatment components. roofing substrate. floppy disk liners. Protective apparel. Ø The degree of entanglement controlled by · · · Number & force of jets Fibre types CAD system maintain the uniform quality. mattress pads.Ø In their semi melted state. 74 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. shattering the filaments into staple fibres and producing woven like structure. Uses: Medical gowns and drapes. It is used in winter active sports wear. insulation. Filters. Ø Water from high-pressure jets on both sides of the fabric entangles the fibres. battery separators. End uses Carpet backing. inter linings. SIVALINGAM . geotextiles. fuse together at their cross points. bags.
Needle punching Ø Properly prepared dry-laid web over a needle loom. Ø Heated air stream that breaks the fibre into short pieces Ø The fibres are collected as a web on a moving conveyer belt Ø And are held together by a combination of fibre interlacing and thermal bonding. SIVALINGAM . NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. 75 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. · · By pulling colored fibres from the lower layer to the top surface. Ø Needle-punched fabrics are finished by pressing -> steaming->calendering ->dyeing -> embossing. causing them to interlock mechanically with other fibres. Ø Needled fabrics can be made of two-layer web with each layer a different color. Ø As the needles stitch up and down through the web. Melt-blown Fibre Webs Ø Made by extruding the polymer velocity. Ø Heat / Pressure are used to bond thermo plastic fibre webs. Uses: Blankets. If the fibres are pulled above the surface a pile fabric results. geometric designs can be made. Carpets Chemical Bonded Non Woven Ø Used with Dry laid or Wet laid webs to bond the fibres together. · Solution dyed fibres are often used. Ø Acrylic emulsions are usually used. the barbs pull a few fibres through the web.5. Eg: Poly propylene (olefin) homo polymer and bicomponent polypropylene core-nylon sheat filaments used by chemical/heatbonded technique is used for industrial fabrics. through a single-extrusion orifice into high 5. Ø Needle loom has barbed needles protruding 2 or 3 inches from the base.
· Difficult to predict the change in hand and drape. Ø the adhesives may be printed on the substrate in a precisely positived maner to give the desired hand to the end product. spider web like fabric of thermoplastic filaments. Ø When the proper technique and correct selection are combined.Fusible Non Woven Ø Contribute body and shape to garments as inter facing or inter linking in shirts. Differential shrinkage. Plasticized poly vinyl chloride and polyamides. Ø Eliminates certain areas of stitching such as zigzag stiches used in coat and suit lapels. 76 Ó 2005 by TEXTILE DESIGN. Problem · · Adhesive may bleed. the layers are bonded by heat and pressure. blouses. NIFT Bangalore TEXTILE SCIENCE V. Ø The fusible fabric is applied to the back of a face fabric. hydrolyzed ethylene vinyl acetate. Ø Fibres web with a heat sealable thermo plastic adhesive. Ø It also may be thin. dresses and outerwear. Ø the adhesives used are polyethylene. SIVALINGAM . increased productivity.
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