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prevented throug h effective implementation of already adopted security measures. ± The authorities' ability to protect the people on Utøya Island failed. A more rapi d police operation was a realistic possibility. The perpetrator could have been stopped earlier on 22 July. ± More security and emergency preparedness measures to impede new attacks and miti gate the adverse effects should have been implemented on 22 July. ± The health and rescue services managed to take care of the injured people and ne xt-of-kin during the acute phase in a satisfactory manner. ± The Government's communication with the general public was good. The ministries managed to continue their work despite the devastation. ± With better ways of working and a broader focus, the Police Security Service cou ld have become aware of the perpetrator prior to 22 July. Notwithstanding, the C ommission has no grounds for contending that the Police Security Service could a nd should have averted the attacks. Any failures were primarily due to: ± The ability to acknowledge risk and learn from exercises has not been sufficient . ± The ability to implement decisions that have been made, and to use the plans tha t have been developed, has been ineffectual. ± The ability to coordinate and interact has been deficient. ± The potential inherent in information and communications technology has not been exploited well enough. ± Leadership's willingness and ability to clarify responsibility, set goals and ad opt measures to achieve results have been insufficient.