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Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A.
Noori 29Dec11
1
Head and Cross Regulators
The supplies passing down the parent canal and off take channel are controlled by cross regulator
and head regulator respectively.
Functions of Cross Regulators
1. Regulation of the canal system.
2. Raising the water level in the main canal in order to feed the off take channels.
3. To facilitate communication by building a road over the cross regulator with little extra
cost.
4. To absorb the fluctuations in the canal system.
Functions of Head Regulators
1. To regulate and control supplies entering the off take channel (distributary) from the
main (parent) canal.
2. To control silt entering into the distributary.
3. To serve for measurement of discharge.
Alignment
The best alignment of the off take channel is when it makes angle zero with the parent canal
initially and then separates out in a transition. See Fig. 13.1. In this case there is a transition
curve for both off take and parent channel to avoid silt accumulation.
Another alternative by making both channels an angle with respect to parent channel upstream.
Fig. 13.2
Cross Regulator
OFF TAKE CHANNEL
Distributary channel
Head Regulator
Abutment
Pier
Gate
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
2
In case of obligatory straight alignment of the parent channel, the usual angle of the off take
channel is 60º to 80º (in most important works needs a model study). For excessive silt entry into
the off take channel. Fig. 13.3.
Design Criteria
1. Waterway
The effective waterway of head regulator should not be less than 60% of bed width of off
taking channel and mean velocity should not exceed 2.5 m/sec.
2. Crest level
Crest level of the distributary head regulator is generally kept 0.3 m to 0.6 m higher than
crest level of cross regulator (C.R.). The crest level of C.R. is provided at bed level of
parent canal.
e
H should be worked out from the formula
3/2
e e
Q C B H = (4.1)
where
C = Coefficient of discharge
e
B = Effective length of crest
( )
2
t p a e
B N K K H = ÷ + (4.2)
t
B =
Net length of the crest
N = Number of piers
p
K =
Pier contraction coefficient
a
K = Abutment contraction coefficient
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
3
Table: Coefficients of contraction for piers and abutments.
Type of pier
p
K
Square nosed pier 0.02
Round nosed pier 0.01
Pointed nosed pier 0.01
Type of abutment
a
K
Square abutment 0.2
Round abutment 0.1
3. Coefficient of discharge (C)
The coefficient of discharge C is 1.84 for crests of width less than or
equal to
2
3 e
H . In case of submerged falls, C should be reduced
depending on the drowning ratio, see Fig. 6.5.
1.840 (H.R. crest)
1.705 (C.R. crest)
C
C
=
=
4. Shape of crest
The u.s face of the crest should be given a slope of 1:1. The d.s. sloping glacis should not
be steeper than 2:1.
5. Crest width should be kept equal to
2
3 e
H .
6. Vertical cutoffs
The cutoff should be provided at the end of u.s. and d.s. floors for safety against scour,
undermining and exit gradient. Due to Lacey’s scour depth
T.E.L.
H
e
>2/3 H
e
Broad Crested Weir
Round nosed pier
Pointed nose pier
Square nosed pier
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
4
Table 6.1 Minimum depth of u.s. and d.s. cutoffs
Canal capacity
cumec
Min. depth of u.s. cutoff
below bed level or G.L.
whichever is lower (m)
Min. depth of d.s. cutoff
below bed level or G.L.
whichever is lower (m)
Up to 3 cumec 1.0 1.0
3.1  30 1.2 1.2
30.1  150 1.5 1.5
Above 150 1.8 1.8
7. Thickness of top coat
Table 6.2 Thickness of top coat.
Canal capacity (cumec) Thickness of top coat (mm)
1.5 Q s
100
1.5 30 Q s s
150
30 150 Q s s
200
150 Q >
300
8. Freeboard
Table: Minimum Freeboard
Canal capacity (cumec) Freeboard (m)
1.0 Q s
0.3
1 10 Q < s
0.4
10 30 Q < s
0.6
30 150 Q < s
0.8
150 Q >
1.0
9. Protection works
Downstream of floor, properly designed filter loaded by concrete blocks should be
provided. The length of inverted filter is kept equal to 2D (D is the depth of d.s. cutoff
below d.s. bed). Details of minimum thickness of the filter are given in Table 6.3. The
width of gabs between the blocks shall not be more than 50 mm which should be packed
with biggest size of pebbles available. Beyond the filter, an apron of 1.5D length shall be
provided. Similar protection is also provided in the u.s. in a length equal to D. the cubic
content of material in launching apron should be equal to
3
2.25D m m m · length.
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
5
Design Example
Design a cross regulator and a suitable head for a distributary which takes off at an angle
of 60º from a canal which discharges 120 cumec.
Discharge of distributary = 10 cumec
Bed width of distributary = 10 m
Water depth of distributary = 1.2 m
Full supply level of distributary = El. 310.2 m
Full supply level of parent channel (F.S.L.)
u.s. 311.00
d.s. 310.85
m
m
= =
Bed width of parent channel
u.s. 60
d.s. 56
m
m
= =
Depth of water in parent channel
u.s. 2
d.s. 2
m
m
= =
Safe exit gradient (G.E.)
1
5
=
Solution
A. Design of Cross Regulator
1. Fixation of crest level and waterway of cross regulator
Crest level of C.R. F.S.L. of parent channel  water depth
311 2 309m
=
= =
u.s. d.s.
T.E.L. T.E.L.
311 310.85 0.15
d
h
m
= ÷
= ÷ =
u.s.
F.S.L. crest level
=311 309 2
e
H
m
= ÷
÷ =
Degree of submergence
0.15
0.075
2
d
e
h
H
= =
From Fig. 6.5
0.56, where 1.705
1.705 0.56 0.95
s
s
C
C
C
C
= =
= × =
( )
3/ 2
3/ 2
120 0.95 2
e
e
Q CB H
B
=
= ×
44.66 say 45
e
B m m =
Assume 6 bays of 8 m each = 48 m
( )
2( )
45 2 5 0.01 0.2 2
46 48 O.K.
t e p a e
B B N K K H
m m
= + +
= + × + ×
= <
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
6
Provide 5 piers with rounded nose of width 1.6 m each.
Total waterway 6 8 5 1.6 56 O.K. m = × + × =
2. Level and length of downstream floor
3
120
120
2.5 / /
48
e
Q cumec
Q
q m sec m
B
=
= = =
2
u.s. d.s. u.s. d.s.
T.E.L. T.E.L. F.S.L. F.S.L. ( 2 is negligible)
311 310.85 0.15
L
H v g
m
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ =
From Blench Curves, Fig. 3.5
2
1.435 Ef m =
d.s. floor level
d.s. 2
F.S.L.
310.85 1.435 309.415
Ef
m m
= ÷
= ÷ =
Actual cistern level 310.85 2 308.85m = ÷ = lower than 309.415 m O.K.
Cistern length ( )
2 1
2 1
5 firm soil
6( ) weak soil
c
L D D
D D
= ÷
= ÷
1 2
1.435 0.15 1.585
L
Ef Ef H m = + = + =
From energy of flow curves (Fig. 2.7)
( )
1 1
2 2
1.575 gives 0.534
1.435 gives 1.3
5 1.3 0.534 3.83
c
Ef m D m
Ef m D m
L m
= =
= =
= ÷ =
3. Vertical cutoffs
120 Q cumec =
Referring to table 6.1, the minimum depth of u.s. and d.s. cutoff = 1.5 m.
u.s. cutoff is at El. 309 1.5 307.5m = ÷ =
4. Total floor length and exit gradient
1
E
H
G
d t ì
=
u.s. d.s.
F.S.L. G.L.
311 308.85 2.15
H
m
= ÷
= ÷ =
Trial and error
d (m) λ α L d o = (m)
1.5 5.20 9.15 14
1.6 4.57 8.08 12.93
1 2.15 1
, =4.57
5 1.6
ì
t ì
=
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
7
( )
( )
1/ 2
2
1/ 2
2
2 1 1
2 457 1 1 8.08
o ì
(
= ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
= × ÷ ÷ =
¸ ¸
Total floor length
8.08 1.6 12.93 say 13
L d
m m
o =
= × =
d.s. cutoff is at El. 308.85 1.6 307.25m = ÷ =
d.s. floor length = 6.5 m
d.s. glacis length with (2H:1V) slope = 2(309308.85) = 0.3 m
u.s. floor length = 6.2 m
Total floor length = 13 m
5. Pressure calculation
a. Upstream cutoff
1
1
1.5 , 13
1 1.5
0.115
13
100 20 80%
100 28 72%
D
C
d m b m
d
b o


= =
= = =
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Correction of
C
 for floor thickness ( )
( )
0.6
80 72 3.2%
1.5
D C
t
d
  = ÷
= ÷ = +
corrected 72 3.2 75.2% of
C
H  = + =
b. Downstream cutoff
1.6 , 13
1 1.6
0.123
13
31%
22%
E
D
d m b m
d
b o


= =
= = =
=
=
Correction of
E
 for floor thickness ( )
0.6
31 22 3.38%
1.6
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
corrected 31 3.38 27.62% of
E
H  = ÷ =
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
8
6. Floor thickness
a. d.s. floor
1. at 2 m from d.s. end
75.2 27.62
%pressure 27.62 1.5
12
33.6%of H
×÷
= + ×
=
Head % pressure
33.6
=2.15 0.722 of water
100
H
m
= ×
× =
Minimum concrete thickness
min
Head 0.722
0.58
2.25 1
c w
t m
¸ ¸
= = =
÷ ÷
Provide 0.6 m thick concrete floor for 1.5 m.
2. at 4.5 m from d.s. end
75.2 27.62
%pressure 27.62 4.0
12
43.48%of H
×÷
= + ×
=
Head % pressure
43.48
=2.15 0.934 of water
100
H
m
= ×
× =
min
Head 0.934
0.75
2.25 1
c w
t m
¸ ¸
= = =
÷ ÷
Provide 0.8 m thick concrete floor for 2.5 m.
3. at 6.5 m from d.s. end
75.2 27.62
%pressure 27.62 6.0
12
54.41%of H
×÷
= + ×
=
min
2.15 0.5141
0.9
2.25 1
t m
×
= =
÷
Provide 1.0 m thick concrete floor for the rest of the glacis.
7. Upstream protection
i. Block protection (inverted filter)
Length of protection = depth of cutoff (D) =1.5 m
Provide 2 rows of 0.8 0.8 0.6 m m m × × C.C. blocks over 0.6 m thick
inverted filter.
ii. Launching apron
Volume per meter length
3 2
2.25D m m m = =
If thickness is 1.0 m, then the required length
2.25 2.25 1.5
3.37
1.0 1
D
m
×
= = =
Provide 3.5 m long launching apron.
8. Downstream protection
i. Block protection
Length of protection 2 2 1.6 3.2 D m = = × =
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
9
Provide 4 rows of 0.8 0.8 0.6 m m m × × blocks over 0.6 m inverted filter.
ii. Launching apron
Volume per meter length
3 2
2.25D m m m = =
If thickness is 1.0 m, then
Required length
2.25 2.25 1.6
3.6
1.0 1
D
m
×
= = =
Provide 4.0 m long launching apron.
Provide 0.4 m thick and 1.2 deep toe wall between filter and launching apron.
B. Design of distributary head regulator
1. Fixation of crest and waterway
The crest level should be provided 0.5 m higher than upstream floor level.
Crest level 309 0.5 309.5m = + =
311 309.5 1.5
e
H m = ÷ =
311 310.2 0.8
d
h m = ÷ =
0.8
0.533
1.5
d
e
h
H
= =
0.98
s
C
C
= (From Fig. 6.5)
1.84 0.98 1.80
s
C = × =
The effective width of waterway is found by
( )
1.5
1.5
10 1.8 1.5
3
e e
e
e
Q C B H
B
B m
=
= ×
=
Provide 60% of distributary width
60
10 6
100
m = × =
Provide 2 bays of 3 m each separated by 1 m thick pier.
Therefore, the overall waterway 2 3 1 7m × + =
2. Level and length of d.s. floor
10 , waterway 6
10
1.67
6
Q cumec m
q m sec
= =
= =
Head loss 311 310.2 0.8
L
H m = ÷ =
Using Blench curves (Fig. 3.5)
2 2
1 2 1
1.37 gives 1.32
1.37 gives 0.32
L
Ef m D m
Ef Ef H m D m
= =
= + = =
Cistern length
( )
( )
2 1
5
5 1.32 0.32 5.0
c
L D D
m
= ÷
= ÷ =
Provide cistern length = 6m
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
10
Floor level required
d.s. 2
T.E.L.
310.2 1.37 308.83
Ef
m
= ÷
= ÷ =
Provide d.s. floor level at El. 308.8 (Ground Level)
3. Vertical cutoffs
a. u.s. cutoff
Provide u.s. cutoff depth 1.5 m
The bottom of cutoff 309 1.5 307.5m = ÷ =
b. The minimum d.s. cutoff depth = 1.2 m
4. Total floor length and exit gradient
Maximum static head
u.s. d.s.
F.S.L. F.L.
311 308.8 2.2m
= ÷
= ÷ =
Exit gradient
1
E
H
G
d t ì
=
( )
1/ 2
2
2 1 1
1 2.2 1
5 1.2
o ì
t ì
(
= ÷ ÷
¸ ¸
=
With trial and error
d (m) λ α L d o = (m)
1.2 8.50 15.99 19.00
1.4 6.26 11.47 16.05
1.6 4.75 8.50 13.62
1.7 4.24 7.42 12.60
Get 13 , 1.7 L m d m = =
d.s. floor length (cistern length) = 6.0 m
d.s glacis length 2H:1V slope
( ) 2 309.5 308.8 = ÷
= 1.4 m
Crest width
( )
2 2
3 3
1.5
e
H = =
= 1.0 m
u.s. glacis length 1H:1V slope
( ) 1 309.5 309.0 = ÷
= 0.5 m
u.s. floor length = 4.1 m
Total floor length = 13 m
5. Pressure calculations
a. Upstream cutoff
1
1
1.5 , 13
1 1.5
0.115
13
100 20 80%
100 28 72%
D
C
d m b m
d
b o


= =
= = =
= ÷ =
= ÷ =
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
11
Assuming the u.s. floor thickness = 0.6 m
Correction of
C
 for floor thickness
( )
0.6
80 72 3.2%
1.5
= ÷ = +
corrected 72 3.2 75.2% of
C
H  = + =
b. Downstream cutoff
1.7 , 13
1 1.7
0.13
13
32%
22%
E
D
d m b m
d
b o


= =
= = =
=
=
Correction of
E
 for floor thickness
( )
0.6
32 22 3.5%
1.7
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
corrected 32 3.5 28.5% of
E
H  = ÷ =
6. Floor thickness
a. d.s. floor
1. at 2 m from d.s. end
75.2 28.5
%pressure 28.5 1.5
12
34.33%of H
×÷
= + ×
=
Minimum concrete floor thickness
min
0.3433 2.2
0.6
2.25 1
t m
×
= =
÷
Provide 0.6 m thick concrete floor for 1.5 m length.
2. At 4 m from d.s. end
Provide 0.8 m thick concrete floor for 2.5 m.
3. At the toe of glacis (beginning of the hydraulic jump)
( )
5.5
%pressure 28.5 75.2 28.5
12
49.9%of H
= + ÷
=
Unbalanced head 0.499 2.2 1.095m = × =
Unbalanced head due to dynamic condition ( )
( )
2 1
50%
1 49.9
1.32 0.32 0.8
2 100
0.898
toe L
D D H
m
 = ÷ +
= + + ×
=
min
1.095
0.88
2.25 1
t m = =
÷
Provide floor thickness 1.0 m.
b. d.s Floor thickness
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
12
Same as provided in u.s. floor for the cross regulator (minimum thickness of 0.6
m in the u.s. which should be thickened under the crest).
7. u.s Protection
Same as provided in the u.s. of cross regulator.
8. d.s. protection
i. Block protection (inverted filter)
Length of filter 2
2 1.7 3.4
D
m
=
= × =
Provide 6 rows of 0.6 0.6 0.4 m m m × × C.C. blocks over 0.4 m thick graded
filter.
ii. Launching apron
Volume per meter length
3
2.25 2.25 1.7 3.825 D m m = = × =
Assume thickness of launching apron = 0.8 m, then
Required length
3.8
4.75
0.8
m = =
Provide 5.0 m long launching apron.
Masonry toe wall 0.4 m thick and 1.2 deep shall be provided between filter
and launching apron.
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
13
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.A. Noori 29Dec11
14
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.). is provided at bed level of parent canal. Bahzad M.3 m to 0.6 m higher than crest level of cross regulator (C. Fig. H e should be worked out from the formula Q C B e H e3/2 (4. Noori 29Dec11 In case of obligatory straight alignment of the parent channel. Waterway The effective waterway of head regulator should not be less than 60% of bed width of off taking channel and mean velocity should not exceed 2.3.5 m/sec. For excessive silt entry into the off take channel. Design Criteria 1.A. Crest level Crest level of the distributary head regulator is generally kept 0.1) where C Be Bt Coefficient of discharge Effective length of crest B t 2 N K p K a H e Net length of the crest Number of piers Pier contraction coefficient Abutment contraction coefficient (4. The crest level of C.2) N Kp Ka 2 .R. 13. 2.R. the usual angle of the off take channel is 60º to 80º (in most important works needs a model study).
s. and d.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. 5.A. He >2/3 He Broad Crested Weir 4. crest) (C. Bahzad M.5.R. Vertical cutoffs The cutoff should be provided at the end of u.s face of the crest should be given a slope of 1:1. see Fig.2 0.s. Coefficient of discharge (C) The coefficient of discharge C is 1.s. The d. 6.01 0. 3 6.02 0.R.84 for crests of width less than or equal to 2 H e . Due to Lacey’s scour depth 3 . Shape of crest The u.840 C 1.01 Ka 0. undermining and exit gradient. sloping glacis should not be steeper than 2:1. Noori 29Dec11 Table: Coefficients of contraction for piers and abutments. floors for safety against scour.705 (H.1 Square nosed pier Round nosed pier 3.L. C should be reduced 3 depending on the drowning ratio. crest) Pointed nose pier T. In case of submerged falls. Crest width should be kept equal to 2 H e . Type of pier Square nosed pier Round nosed pier Pointed nosed pier Type of abutment Square abutment Round abutment Kp 0.E. C 1.
Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.s. Bahzad M. cutoff below d. Freeboard Thickness of top coat (mm) 100 150 200 300 Table: Minimum Freeboard Canal capacity (cumec) Q 1.s. Beyond the filter. properly designed filter loaded by concrete blocks should be provided. whichever is lower (m) 1.s.2 1. 4 . Protection works Downstream of floor.1 . cutoff below bed level or G.30 30.1 Minimum depth of u.5 1.1 . cutoff below bed level or G.0 9.6 0.5D length shall be provided.s. depth of d. Details of minimum thickness of the filter are given in Table 6.25D m 3 m m length. Noori 29Dec11 Table 6.8 1.150 Above 150 Min.s. The width of gabs between the blocks shall not be more than 50 mm which should be packed with biggest size of pebbles available.2 Thickness of top coat. cutoffs Canal capacity cumec Up to 3 cumec 3.5 1. whichever is lower (m) 1. Canal capacity (cumec) Q 1. depth of u. and d.s.3 0. Similar protection is also provided in the u.0 1.s.A. Thickness of top coat Table 6.L. in a length equal to D.4 0.8 7. an apron of 1.0 1.L. The length of inverted filter is kept equal to 2D (D is the depth of d. bed).3.5 1.0 1 Q 10 10 Q 30 30 Q 150 Q 150 Freeboard (m) 0.8 Min.2 1. the cubic content of material in launching apron should be equal to 2.5 Q 30 30 Q 150 Q 150 8.
where C 1.2 m = El. 2 m 1 5 Solution A. Noori 29Dec11 Design Example Design a cross regulator and a suitable head for a distributary which takes off at an angle of 60º from a canal which discharges 120 cumec.5 Cs 0.s.u.66 m say 45 m Assume 6 bays of 8 m each = 48 m B t B e 2(N K p K a )H e 45 2 5 0.u. 310. 311 310.075 He 2 From Fig.s.s.15 0.S. 2 m d.85 m u.00 m d.s. Design of Cross Regulator 1.2 2 46 m 48 m O.A. Fixation of crest level and waterway of cross regulator Crest level of C. T.L.L.s.2 m u.K. Bahzad M. 5 .95 Q CB e H 3/2 120 0.s.d.S.L. 56 m u. 310.) Bed width of parent channel Depth of water in parent channel Safe exit gradient (G.705 0.E. crest level =311 309 2 m Degree of submergence hd 0. 60 m d. of parent channel . 311.S.56 0. Discharge of distributary Bed width of distributary Water depth of distributary Full supply level of distributary Full supply level of parent channel (F.L. F.E.15 m H e F.R.L.01 0.85 0.E.s.) = 10 cumec = 10 m = 1.s.56.705 C C s 1.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.water depth 311.s.95 B e 2 3/2 Be 44.2 309 m hd T. 6.
575 m gives D1 0.S. F.5 307. F.6 6 .s.s.57 α 9.K.85 2.L.E.s.s.d.6 λ 5.20 4. floor level F.15 1 .415 m O.S.435 0.1.6 56 m O.S.85 1. G.5 1.d.435m 309. Ef 2 (v 2 2 g is negligible) 310. 311 310.85 0. Level and length of downstream floor Q 120 cumec Q 120 q 2.435 m d.5m 4.15 m Trial and error d (m) 1.s.s.15 1.6 m each.93 1 2. cutoff = 1. 311 308.s. cutoff is at El. Total floor length and exit gradient H 1 GE d H F. u.S.u.s. Fig.L. Total waterway 6 8 5 1.3 m 3.u. Cistern length Lc 5 D 2 D1 firm soil 6(D 2 D1 ) weak soil Ef 1 Ef 2 H L 1.d. =4.534 3.E.u.L. the minimum depth of u.L.15 m From Blench Curves.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.L. 3.83 m D 2 1. Vertical cutoffs Q 120cumec Referring to table 6. and d.5 m.5 m 3 / sec / m Be 48 H L T. T.s.A. 309 1.5 Ef 2 1.L.15 8. Bahzad M. 2.08 L d (m) 14 12. 2.s.534 m Ef 2 1.415 m Actual cistern level 310.7) Ef 1 1.K.L.3 0.57 5 1.85 2 308.85m lower than 309.s.d.585 m From energy of flow curves (Fig.435 m gives Lc 5 1. Noori 29Dec11 Provide 5 piers with rounded nose of width 1.
6 m .s.5 m .6 E corrected 31 3. Pressure calculation a.s.62% of H 7 . glacis length with (2H:1V) slope u.38% 1. floor length Total floor length 5.3 m = 6. floor length d.5 m = 2(309308.5 C corrected 72 3.25m d. Noori 29Dec11 2 1 1 2 1/2 1/2 2 2 457 1 1 8.08 Total floor length L d 8.93 m say 13m d.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.6 12.123 b 13 E 31% D 22% Correction of E for floor thickness 0.s.6 307. Bahzad M.38 27.6 80 72 3. b 13 m 1 d 1.2% 1.6 0.2% of H b.08 1. 308.A. b 13 m 1 d 1. Downstream cutoff d 1.85 1. Upstream cutoff d 1.5 0.2 m = 13 m C 100 28 72% 1 Correction of C for floor thickness t D C d 0.s.2 75. cutoff is at El.85) = 0.115 b 13 D1 100 20 80% = 6.6 31 22 3.
3. Launching apron Volume per meter length 2. blocks over 0.15 0.s.62 1.A.25 1 Provide 0.5 m.62 75.15 0. then the required length 2. 8.0 m. Block protection Length of protection 2D 2 1.5 m long launching apron.0 12 43. at 4. ii. 2.722 Minimum concrete thickness t min 0.41% of H 2.934 m of water 100 Head 0. end 75.25 1 Provide 1.2 27.62 6.6 =2. end 75. Bahzad M.25 1 Provide 0.0 m thick concrete floor for the rest of the glacis. end % pressure 27.722 m of water 100 Head 0.75 m c w 2.6 3.0 1 Provide 3. Downstream protection i.s.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.s.58 m c w 2.6% of H Head H % pressure 33.48% of H Head H % pressure 43.62 % pressure 27.C.8 m thick concrete floor for 2.62 4.8 m 0.2 27. 7.8 m 0.62 % pressure 27.5141 0.5 m Provide 2 rows of 0. floor 1.6 m thick t min inverted filter.5 m from d.6 m thick concrete floor for 1.48 =2.37 m 1. Block protection (inverted filter) Length of protection = depth of cutoff (D) =1. Floor thickness a.0 12 54.2 27.2 m 8 . Upstream protection i.25D 2.5 m.25D m 3 m m 2 If thickness is 1.5 12 33. at 2 m from d.25 1.15 0.9 m 2.934 t min 0.s. at 6.5 m from d. d. Noori 29Dec11 6.6 m C.5 3.
8 m hd 0. Bahzad M.6 m inverted filter.5 m higher than upstream floor level. ii.98 (From Fig.5 Provide 60% of distributary width 2.0 m Provide cistern length = 6m 9 . 6. waterway 6 m 10 q 1.32 0.A.5 309.4 m thick and 1.8 B e 1.5) Ef 2 1.5 m hd 311 310. Required length B.0 1 Provide 4. then 2.8 m 0.6 m 1. the overall waterway 2 3 1 7 m 1.8 0. Design of distributary head regulator 1.5 Cs 0.2 0. floor Q 10 cumec .32 m gives D1 0. Provide 0.98 1. 3. Therefore.5m H e 311 309.84 0.67 m sec 6 Head loss H L 311 310.25D m 3 m m 2 If thickness is 1. Level and length of d.2 deep toe wall between filter and launching apron.5 10 1.25 1. Crest level 309 0. Launching apron Volume per meter length 2.6 m blocks over 0.80 The effective width of waterway is found by Q C B e H e1.37 m gives D 2 1.5 1.8 m Using Blench curves (Fig.5 Be 3 m 60 10 6 m 100 Provide 2 bays of 3 m each separated by 1 m thick pier. Noori 29Dec11 Provide 4 rows of 0.37 m Cistern length Lc 5 D 2 D1 5 1.8 m 0.32 m Ef 1 Ef 2 H L 1. Fixation of crest and waterway The crest level should be provided 0.533 H e 1.5) C C s 1.s.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.0 m long launching apron.6 3.2 0.0 m.25D 2.32 5.
83 m Provide d.d.s.26 4.115 b 13 D1 100 20 80% = 6.62 12.0 m 2 309.0 m = 0.2 With trial and error d (m) 1.s.50 6.2 1.0 2 H e 2 1. u.s.5 m .8 (Ground Level) 3.2 m Exit gradient GE H 1 d 2 1/2 2 1 1 1 2.75 4. 311 308. Total floor length and exit gradient Maximum static head F.6 1.5 309.5 307. b 13 m 1 d 1.L.1 m = 13 m C 100 28 72% 1 10 .47 8.5m b.s.4 1.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. F.60 Get L 13 m .8 2.s glacis length 2H:1V slope Crest width u. cutoff Provide u. cutoff depth 1.7 λ 8. floor level at El.00 16. Noori 29Dec11 Floor level required T.5 m = 4.5 3 3 = 1.L.99 11.24 α 15.8 1 309.s. Bahzad M.s. d 1.s. Upstream cutoff d 1.2 m 4.7 m d.S.E. The minimum d.s.5 308.42 L d (m) 19. floor length (cistern length) d.2 1 5 1.A.5 m The bottom of cutoff 309 1. 308.05 13.4 m = 1. cutoff depth = 1. Ef 2 310. Vertical cutoffs a.2 1.5 0.50 7. floor length Total floor length 5.u.L.37 308. glacis length 1H:1V slope u.s.s. Pressure calculations a.d.
2 1.5 28.5 % pressure 28. end Provide 0.32 0.25 1 Provide floor thickness 1.2 28.6 32 22 3. floor thickness = 0. d. At the toe of glacis (beginning of the hydraulic jump) 5. b 13 m 1 d 1.0 m.8 1.7 0. floor 1. at 2 m from d.5 m length.25 1 Provide 0.88 m 2.095 0.7 m .5 1.s.5 12 34. Bahzad M.5 75.32 2 100 0. Downstream cutoff d 1.898 m 1. end % pressure 28.499 2.6 m Correction of C for floor thickness 0.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.5 75. 2. Minimum concrete floor thickness t min 3.2% 1. d.5 C corrected 72 3.5% 1.2 28.33% of H 0.13 b 13 E 32% D 22% Correction of E for floor thickness 0.6 80 72 3.6 m 2.s.5% of H 6.A.8 m thick concrete floor for 2.5 m.3433 2.2% of H b.5 12 49. b.s.s Floor thickness t min 11 .s.9 0.2 75. Noori 29Dec11 Assuming the u.6 m thick concrete floor for 1. Floor thickness a.2 0.7 E corrected 32 3. At 4 m from d.9% of H Unbalanced head 0.095m Unbalanced head due to dynamic condition 50% D 2 D1 toe H L 1 49.
8 Provide 5.C.0 m long launching apron. floor for the cross regulator (minimum thickness of 0. of cross regulator. blocks over 0.6 m 0.8 Required length 4.7 3.8 m.825 m 3 m Assume thickness of launching apron = 0. Masonry toe wall 0.A.s Protection Same as provided in the u.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.25 1.6 m 0.4 m Provide 6 rows of 0.6 m in the u.s.25D 2. 12 . Bahzad M.s.s.4 m thick and 1. Noori 29Dec11 Same as provided in u. then 3.4 m C.7 3. 7. which should be thickened under the crest).4 m thick graded filter. protection i.75 m 0. ii.Launching apron Volume per meter length 2. 8. u.2 deep shall be provided between filter and launching apron. Block protection (inverted filter) Length of filter 2D 2 1. d.s.
Noori 29Dec11 13 .A.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr. Bahzad M.
Noori 29Dec11 14 . Bahzad M.A.Hydraulic Structures – Head and Cross Regulators Dr.