GS. TS Nguyễn Thị Hiền (chủ biên). GS.TS. Nguyễn Trọng Đàn; ThS.

Lê Thị Lan Chi

THE LANGUAGE OF CHEMISTRY,FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY IN ENGLISH
(NGÔN NGỮ TIẾNG ANH CHUYÊN NGÀNH CÔNG NGHỆ HÓA HỌC, CÔNG NGHỆ THỰC PHẨM VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ SINH HỌC)

ĐẠI HỌC BÁCH KHOA HÀ NỘI 2009

LỜI NÓI ĐẦU
Cuốn sách Tiếng Anh “The language of Chemistry, Food and Biological Technology in English” (TACN) được biên soạn để cung cấp những kiến thức cơ bản thuộc các chuyên ngành Hóa, Thực phẩm và Công nghệ sinh học. Cuốn sách này có thể dùng làm tài liệu cho sinh viên và các bạn đọc quan tâm đến các chuyên ngành trên. Cuốn sách được chia làm bốn phần chính theo kinh nghiệm các giáo trình tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Hóa, Thực phẩm của các trường Đại học kỹ thuật Hóa Thực phẩm Praha Tiệp Khắc, Ba Lan, Nga, Úc, Anh. Phần 1: Các bài khóa cơ bản - gồm 60 bài khóa giới thiệu bức tranh toàn cảnh của chuyên ngành Hóa, Thực phẩm và Công nghệ sinh học. Từ các ngành Hóa đến các nguyên tố; từ kỹ thuật ngành Hóa nói chung đến việc chưng cất hoặc khái niệm tạo ra một sản phẩm cụ thể nói riêng trong các lĩnh vực khoa học về công nghệ thực phẩm và công nghệ sinh học, với các ngôn từ và kết cấu quan trọng, cách diễn đạt bằng tiếng Anh. Phần 2: Tóm tắt ngữ pháp tiếng Anh áp dụng trong khoa học - đó là thứ ngữ pháp mang đặc thù của ngành với cách viết tắt, cách đọc các công thức hóa học, các nguyên tố hóa học, cách phát âm các từ chuyên ngành có gốc La tinh, Hy lạp. Phần 3: Bài tập - gồm một số bài tập để luyện cách phát âm, cách đọc các từ viết tắt, công thức hóa học, các nguyên tố hóa học, số và phân số, các bài dịch Anh-Việt, Việt-Anh... và một số bài kiểm tra để người đọc tự đánh giá khả năng ngôn ngữ của mình, tăng khả năng dịch và đọc tiếng Anh chuyên ngành. Phần 4: Từ vựng - bao gồm các từ và các cụm từ đã dùng trong các bài khóa được liệt kê theo thứ tự A, B, C. Nghĩa của từ và cụm từ là nghĩa văn cảnh của ngành khoa học có liên quan đến các bài khóa. Hệ thống phiên âm quốc tế cũng được dùng để giúp cho việc tự học và tra cứu của người đọc và độc giả có thể hiểu và đọc chính xác các từ tiếng Anh chuyên môn này. Mỗi bài ở phần 1 có kết cấu như sau: (i) Bài khóa giới thiệu chủ đề (ii) Bài tập: A- Đọc và dịch từ tiếng Anh sang tiếng Việt B- Trả lời câu hỏi theo nội dung bài khóa C- Dịch từ tiếng Việt sang tiếng Anh Khi biên soạn cuốn TACN, các tác giả chú ý cung cấp ngữ liệu của ngành Hóa, Thực phẩm và Công nghệ sinh học trong những ngôn cảnh của chuyên ngành này giúp người đọc hình thành các kỹ năng đọc hiểu với các cấu trúc cơ bản nhất hay gặp trong các tài liệu khoa học. Các câu hỏi theo nội dung bài học nhằm giúp người học phát triển kỹ năng nghe nói. Các câu dịch bước đầu chuẩn bị cho người học hình thành kỹ năng viết theo văn phong khoa học của ngành. Mặc dầu cuốn sách này đã bắt đầu được biên soạn từ những năm 1980, đưa vào dạy sinh viên ngành Công nghệ lên men từ nhưng năm 1990 và cho đến nay được hoàn chỉnh dần phục vụ chính thức cho sinh viên chính quy từ năm 1997. Cuốn sách được biên soạn gồm 40 bài khóa và 20 bài đọc thêm với các chuyên ngành hẹp với mong muốn dạy cho sinh viên từ học kỳ 5 đến học kỳ 8, mỗi học kỳ 45 tiết. Cùng với mỗi bài khóa có bài luyện và ôn ngữ pháp cơ bản, như vậy sinh viên học đến năm thứ 5 chuyên ngành sẽ có thể đọc sách kỹ thuật tốt hơn nhiều. Việc biên soạn cuốn sách này cũng không tránh khỏi khiếm khuyết,với lần in thứ nhất vào dịp 45 năm ĐHBK Hà nội và lần thứ 2 tại Nhà xuất bản KHKT và dùng giảng dạy cho các trường Đại Học và Cao đẳng có hiệu quả từ Bắc đến Nam và đến nay tác giả đã nhận được sự góp ý xây dựng của độc giả và người học . Chúng tôi đã rút king nghiệm dậy trên 10 năm qua và có bỏ sung, sửa chữa dể cuốn sách này bổ ích nhất cho Sinh viên ngành chuyên môn tương ứng học và bạn học, đọc khác quan tâm.

GS.TS. NGUYỄN THỊ HIỀN Nguyên chủ nhiệm Bộ Môn CNSH-Thực phẩm. Đại Học Bách Khoa Hà Nội Hà Nội 2009

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LỜI CẢM ƠN
Cuốn sách “The language of Chemistry, Food and Biological Technology in English” được biên soạn dành cho sinh viên ngành Hóa học - Thực phẩm – CN Sinh học, các độc giả ở Việt Nam có quan tâm đến ngành học này cùng các ngành khác có liên quan. Tập thể tác giả: GS.TS. Nguyễn Thị Hiền, GS. Nguyễn Trọng Đàn, Ths. Lê Thị Lan Chi (thư ký) xin chân thành cảm ơn sự giúp đỡ của: - Ban giám hiệu trường Đại học bách khoa Hà Nội Ban chủ nhiệm khoa Công nghệ Hóa học - Thực phẩm - Sinh học trường Đại học bách khoa Hà Nội Bộ môn Công nghệ Sinh học thực phẩm trường Đại học bách khoa Hà Nội Đặc biệt cám ơn GS. Nguyễn Trọng Đàn - Trưởng khoa tiếng Anh trường đại học ngoại thương Hà Nội, GS.TS. Lưu Duẩn - ĐHBK Hồ Chí Minh và GS.TS. Nguyễn Trọng Cẩn - ĐH Thủy sản Nha Trang đã tạo điều kiện cho chủ biên biên soạn phần chính cuốn sách. Nhà xuất bản khoa học kỹ thuật.

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Tập thể tác giả cảm ơn các thầy cô, các bạn đồng nghiệp trong và ngoài trường, các bạn sinh viên đã đóng góp nhiều ý kiến và khích lệ chúng tôi trong việc hoàn thiện cuốn sách. Tập thể tác giả mong nhận được sự góp ý xây dựng cho cuốn sách được hoàn chỉnh hơn trong những lần tái bản sau này. Mong rằng cuốn sách sẽ trở thành công cụ hữu ích cho sinh viên và các độc giả khác. Các tác giả

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.. …....CONTENT Page number Introduction PART 1: THE BASIC UNITS......... Unit 1: Chemistry and Its Branches Unit 2: Hydrogen Unit 3: Water Unit 4: Classification of Matter Unit 5: Solutions Unit 6: Isolation and Purification of Substances Unit 7: The Rate of Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Hydrocarbons Unit 9: Equipments of Chemical Laboratory Unit 10: Chemical Nomenclature Unit 11: Water treatment Unit 12: Types of Reactors Unit 13: Relationship of Chemical Industry to Other Industries Unit 14: Inventories Unit 15: The Laboratory Notebook Unit 16: Study Outline of Chemistry Unit 17: Sewage Treatment Unit 18: Safety in the Laboratory Unit 19: Chemical Engineering Unit 20: Gas Manufacture Unit 21: Sulfuric Acid Unit 22: Glass Unit 23: Rapid method of Determination of Potassium in Minerals Unit 24: The use of Radioactive Elements as Tracers Unit 25: Acetone Unit 26: Acetic acid Unit 27: M........ Jams..... Marmalades and Fruit butters Unit 35: The Importance of Biotechnology Unit 36: The Development Strategy of a Microbial Process Unit 37: Bioreactor Unit 38: Ethyl Alcohol Unit 39: Distillation Unit 40: Beer and Ale Unit 41: Post-harvest System 4 2 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 27 29 32 34 36 37 40 44 47 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 75 80 83 85 88 92 95 97 99 101 .......... Preserves......Bromonitrobenzene Unit 28: Synthetic Rubber Unit 29: Classification of Fuels Unit 30: Petroleum Unit 31: Main Biological Molecules Unit 32: Study Outline of Microorganisms Unit 33: Food Manufacture and Nutrition Unit 34: Jellies................

..... Các tiếp đầu ngữ cơ bản XXIII......Secondary Processing ............cách chia XIX. no” VIII. Sự biến đổi của một số loại từ XXII... Coffee and Cocoa Meat and Fish Products Traditional Fermented Milk Products General Principles for Industrial Production of Microbial Extracellular Enzymes Unit 53: Citric Acid (C6H8O7) Unit 54: Plant and Animal Cell Cultures Unit 55: Antibiotics Unit 56: Single-Cell Protein: Production. thể cách của động từ XII.....Cereal Based Foods Processing Techniques and Equipment Introduction to Biscuit . Câu phức hợp có các mệnh đề chỉ XX..... Modification and Utilization Unit 57...... Đại từ không xác định “some...... any........ Đại từ quan hệ VII.... I.......... Các loại câu ....... Phân từ XVI. Danh động từ XVII.... Các thì.. Động từ nguyên mẫu và trợ động từ X... Mức độ so sánh VI.... Thể bị động XVIII.....Isolation and Transfer of Cloned Genes Unit 59 : Biologica Regulation and Process Control Unit 60: Product Recovery in Biotechnology PART 2: GRAMMAR .. Immobilization of Enzyme and Cells Unit 58 : Genetic Manipulation.....thứ tự . Giả định thức XIV.33 5 Unit 42: Unit 43: Unit 44: Unit 45: Unit 46: Unit 47: Unit 48: Unit 49: Unit 50: Unit 51: Unit52: 105 108 111 114 118 121 124 128 132 135 139 143 146 151 156 158 161 163 167 155 156 156 157 160 160 160 161 165 166 170 171 175 175 175 177 179 180 181 181 183 183 184 184 187 188 ........ Abbreviation II. Cách đọc số từ IX.......... Một số qui luật phát âm IV.Making Vegetable Processing Introduction to Food Safety Some Main Operations of Cane Sugar Production Methods of Oil Extraction and Processing Tea. there are XXI. There is...... Reading chemical and mathematical signs and Formulas III... Exercise 1 .. Điều kiện cách XIII..... Các tiếp vị ngữ PART 3: THE EXERCISES... Động từ thể hiện thay đổi trạng thái XI.. Sự tạo thành danh từ số nhiều của một số danh từ đặc biệt V.. Động từ nguyên thể XV..

...................................Table of Elements PART 4: VOCABULARY . Reference 199 201 169 6 ........................

PART 1 THE BASIC UNITS CÁC BÀI KHÓA CƠ BẢN 7 .

còn vật lí nghiên cứu ánh sáng và nhiệt. which studies the quantitative relations among the properties of substances and their reactions. EXERCISES A. 3. closely. giving the methods of accurate determination of the amounts of different substances present in a sample of material. new compounds are synthesized.Structural chemistry. Although chemistry is a very large and complex subject. 5. specialized. atom. their properties. which is an introduction to the entire science. comprise. compound. material. and new principles are formulated.of their structure. and their compounds. 4. Which are the main branches of chemistry? What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative analysis? What is the difference between inorganic and organic chemistry? What does physical chemistry study? What does structural chemistry deal with? What is radiochemistry? Which branches of chemistry are you interested in? Is it necessary for you to have some knowledge of all branches of chemistry? Can chemistry as a science do without physics and mathematics? Hóa học là khoa học về vật chất riêng biệt. biology. . even if he may be specialized in a particular line. The study of chemistry may be divided into the following branches: . synthesized.Physical chemistry. which still continues to grow as new elements are discovered or made. metallurgy.Industrial chemistry. inorganic chemistry is linked closely to geology.Radiochemistry. which is the chemistry of the substances comprising living organisms. engineer. processes. 3. Answer the following questions 1. while organic chemistry is linked to biology in general. 6. Translate into English . 10. e. element. continue. . which deals with the molecular structure and its relation to the properties of substances. inorganic.Quantitative analysis. Chemistry science cannot do without physics and mathematics. . . and metallurgy. Hóa học công nghiệp quan tâm đến gì? 8 C.Qualitative analysis. knowledge. which is the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. which is the chemistry of radioactive elements and of reactions involving the nuclei of atoms. analysis. mineralogy. giving the methods of testing for the presence of chemical substances. 7.General chemistry. Give the definition of chemistry. molecular. Hóa học được chia thành những ngành nào? Toán học là khoa học về số. particular. biochemistry. Read and translate into Vietnamese substances. method. . and is also closely linked to some other sciences. accurate.UNIT 1 : CHEMISTRY AND ITS BRANCHES Chemistry is the science of substances . which is the chemistry of elements other than carbon.Inorganic chemistry. geology. . radioactive. chemistry.g. sample B. 1. nuclei. 4. 8.Organic chemistry. 2. organism. 9. which is concerned with industrial processes. and the reactions that change them into other substances. reaction. mineralogy. . 2. industrial. organic.Biochemistry. determination. . mathematics. concerned. . The chemists or chemical engineers need to have some knowledge of all its branches.

Hydrogen is a good conductor of heat as compared with other gases. density. lead. cobalt. 4. electrolysis. It does not support respiration. nitrogen. Thus sodium and potassium react with cold water. lead. tin. zinc. aluminum. fluorine. less readily with bromine. and is used in large quantities in the manufacture of ammonia. water. and in the production of high temperatures. density being about 1/14 that of air. oxygen. B. chlorine. tasteless gas. Pure hydrogen is a colorless. hydrogenation. petroleum. hydrocarbon. Hydro là chất khí không màu. decompose. Where does hydrogen occur? What are the properties of hydrogen? What elements does hydrogen/ less/ readily combine with? How can hydrogen be prepared? What are its uses? Say a few sentences about hydrogen. combustible. It is the lightest of all gases. sodium. bromine. 3. with a metal such as zinc: H2SO4 + Zn = H2 + ZnSO4 Hydrogen may be set free also by the action of certain metals on water. phosphorus. 5. Hydrogen also readily combines with fluorine and chlorine. while steam is decomposed by heated magnesium. potassium. fats. Translate into English 9 . dilute. nitrogen. readily. aluminate. quá trình hydrogen hóa dầu thành mỡ. magnesium. là thành phần chủ yếu cấu tạo nên nước. constitute. zincate. Hydro là một chất rất quan trọng cho công nghiệp hóa học. sulfuric acid. soluble. iodine. in the hydrogenation of liquid fats to form solid fats. nhưng tồn tại rất nhiều hợp chất hydro. evolution. dissolve. 2. nó được sử dụng rất nhiều trong quá trình sản xuất như: sản xuất muối amôn. and proteins. proteins. sulfur. and other hydrocarbon mixtures. Hydrogen is a combustible gas. 3.08987 gm. burning in air or oxygen with a nearly colorless flame to form water vapor. production. concentrated. Trong tự nhiên hydro không tồn tại ở trạng thái tự do. Its most important compound is water. Hydrogen is found in most of substances. alkalis. vapor. 2. H2O. 1. A solution of caustic soda or potash readily dissolves zinc or aluminum on warming. hydrochloric acid. caustic. cobalt. distributed. Its specific heat is also higher than most other gases. but is not poisonous. which constitute living matter: sugar. petrol. odorless.per liter. The element is made commercially by the electrolysis of water. with evolution of hydrogen and formation of a soluble zincate or aluminate. producing sodium hydroxide and hydrogen. and nickel. Answer the following questions 1. laboratory. zinc. starch. magnesium and iron on dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid on aluminum and tin. 0. the first element in the periodic table. combine.UNIT 2 : HYDROGEN Hydrogen. It occurs in petroleum. In the laboratory hydrogen may be easily prepared by the reaction of an acid as sulfuric acid. nickel. copper. solution. There are more compounds of hydrogen known than of any other element. iodine. petrol. is a very widely distributed element. periodic. Boiling water may be readily decomposed by ordinary magnesium powder. but not by silver or copper. Read and translate into Vietnamese hydrogen. iron. sulfur. Hydrogen is evolved by the action of zinc. It is also contained in all acids and alkalis. iron. liquid. C. gases. tin. hydroxide. ammonia. EXERCISES A. viz. and carbon. potash.

Water is a clear. Ft. vì vậy nó được tinh chế bằng chưng cất. pressure. the same temperature as the ice. pipe. distillation.000 ounces. it solidifies at 00C to ice. Pure tin vessels and pipes are often used for storing and transporting distilled water. provided the pressure is less than the usual atmospheric pressure of 15 pounds per square inch. properties. equal. 8. These temperatures are means of identifying water. và được sử dụng để xác định nó. which is hardest to keep out of water. distilled. 3. 3. Why is water important to a human beings? What are the characteristic properties of water? Are glass vessels satisfactory for storing and transporting distilled water? Where does carbon dioxide readily dissolve from? What is the color of water? How is the unit of mass in the metric system chosen? What is steam? What is the difference between steam and vapor? What is ice? Nước bình thường là một chất không tinh khiết.UNIT 3 : WATER Water is one of the most important of all chemical substances. ordinary. and sometimes organic matter. impurity. The physical properties of water are used to define many physical constants and units. and boils at 100oC. nó biến thành hơi. Steam and ice Steam is water in the gaseous state. apparatus. it usually contains dissolved salts and dissolved gases. pure. alkaline. Glass vessels are not satisfactory. 1. B. square. steam. The unit of mass in the metric system is chosen so that 1 cm3 of water at 4oC/ the temperature of its maximum density/ weighs 1. bluish-green. EXERCISES A. because the alkaline constituents of glass slowly dissolve in water. which dissolves readily from the air. volume. of water weighs approximately 1. Translate into English .00000 gram. For chemical work water is purified by distillation. we speak of it as water vapor. purified. Nước đóng băng được gọi là nước đá. for no other substance has these freezing and boiling points. we call it steam. identify. Thick layers of water have a bluish-green color. 9. air. transparent liquid. When gaseous water is mixed with other gases. 4. Answer the following questions 1. temperature. If we apply heat to ice. define. If water is cooled sufficiently. transparent. impure. silica. Ordinary water is impure. Điểm sôi và điểm đóng băng là những tính chất đặc trưng của nước. 10 C. Nếu chúng ta đem đun sôi nứơc lên trên 1000C. Pure water freezes at 0oC. The water that runs off the melting ice is at a temperature of 00C. Read and translate into Vietnamese constituent. approximately. colorless in thin layers. when unmixed. 7. weigh. cubic. 2. A similar relation holds in the English system: 1 cu. Distilling apparatus and vessels made of fused silica are used in making very pure water. atmospheric. There is considerable expansion during the solidification. Its physical properties are strikingly different from those of other substances. A cubic inch of water gives about a cubic foot of steam. vessel. The physical properties of water. unit. fused. bao gồm các hợp chất khác nhau. 2. 4. The impurity. is carbon dioxide. sufficiently. 5. ice. contain. 6. It is the chief constituent of living matter. carbon dioxide. Water may exist as steam at temperature lower than 100oC. it melts. as in the air. inch. and consequently ice is lighter than an equal volume of water. gaseous. strikingly. ounce.

All nuclei have positive electrical charges which are equal to or integral multiples of the charges of the electron/ with an opposite sign. Sometimes a mixture consisting mainly of one component. The ingredients of a mixture are called its component. amount. C. The components present in the smaller amounts are called impurities. Read and translate into Vietnamese distinguished. refer./To avoid confusion. All substances can be divided into two classes: elementary substances and compounds. but does not have a definite shape. Thus an elementary substance is composed of two or more elements. integral. homogeneous. the word material should be used instead. it is necessary for us to state exactly what a particular kind or atom in the above definition of an element means. 1. consist. atomic. container. characteristic. changed. 4. 3. 4. a compound is a substance which consists of atoms of two or more different kinds. but move about freely. actually. essentially. numerical. By this expression we mean an atom whose nucleus has a given electrical charge. expression. a liquid. with much smaller amounts of others. sign. What is a substance in chemistry? What is the difference between an element and a compound? What is the mixture? Say a few sentences about the classification of matter. Translate into English 11 . An elementary substance is a substance. The word mixture is used to refer to a homogeneous material/ exhibiting a uniform structure/. molecule. or state of aggregation. 3. B. Các chất khí không có hình dạng và kích thước nhất định. The characteristic feature of gas is that its molecules are not held together. chất lỏng và chất khí được phân biệt dựa trên cơ sở trạng thái vật lí của nó. electron. ratio. Because of this freedom of molecular motion a gas does not possess either definite shape or definite size. 5. compose. EXERCISES A. elementary. uniform. component. Các chất rắn. is called an impure substance. which consists of atoms of only one kind. and gases. Only a solid is characterized both by a definite shape and definite size. definite. composition. aggregation. the most obvious of which is the physical state. which is not a pure substance. basis. possess. mixture. and a solid. confusion. on the other hand. solutions. equal. on the basis of which all materials are classified as solids. Which are the three physical states? Give the characteristic features of a gas. electrical charge. and mixtures. or to a heterogeneous aggregate of two or more substances. all substances are more or less impure/ When referring to very impure substances. By the word substance a chemist means an essentially pure substance/ Actually. relation. 2. liquids./The integer which expresses this relation is called the atomic number. integer. invariant. aggregate. has a definite volume. Chúng ta hiểu cấu tạo vật chất từ nguyên tử như thế nào? Các thành phần riêng biệt của hỗn hợp có thể được tách ra bằng các phương pháp khác nhau. heterogeneous. These atoms of two or more different kinds must be present in a definite numerical ratio since substances are defined as having a definite invariant composition.UNIT 4 : CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER Different materials may be distinguished by their properties. ingredient. nucleus. Answer the following questions 1. it shapes itself to its container. motion. characterized. 2. exhibit. trong khi đó chất rắn được đặc trưng bằng hình dáng và kích thước nhất định. A liquid.

and plotting temperature against time.50C. 8. it gives. However. As the evaporation proceeds one may observe that a. restricted. volatility. observation. thus being a solid solution. Answer the following questions 1. All gases are completely miscible with each other. The other constituent. separated. a solution result. EXERCISES A. occur. is found to be slightly lighter than air. 10.The densities of both liquid and gas change. proceed. Alloys of silver and gold. evaporation. reacting with but few other substances. it is very inert chemically. determine. which appears to be perfectly homogeneous under the microscope. What is a solution? Is it distinguishable from a pure substance in appearance? When is the experimental distinction between a pure substance and a solution simple? What is the difference between a solute and a solvent? How can you determine whether air is a pure substance or a solution? Is the term solution restricted only to liquid solutions? What does it mean when a substance is volatile? Give the constituents of air and compare them with each other. B. causing the observed changes in properties due to differences between the components in color. relative. appearance. We could determine whether it is a solution or a pure substance by melting it. condensed inert. It is not distinguishable from a pure substance in appearance. solvent. no matter what the relative amounts of the two metals. volatility. alloy. The term solution is not restricted to liquid solutions. observe.The light blue color gradually becomes deeper b. One of these constituents. suppose we have a solid metal. so that every mixture of gases is a solution. interval. changes. completely. react. gradually. matter.The temperature of the liquid slowly rises c. 12 . illustration. solid. density. distinction. Read and translate into Vietnamese result. Suppose we wish to determine whether air is a pure substance or a solution. 2. 4. forming but one phase. in which the sugar can neither be seen with a microscope nor filtered out. continuously. 9. is slightly heavier than air. scientifically. when condensed at low temperatures. If liquid air is distilled in a scientifically constructed still. behavior. Still other properties might have been used. microscope. are mixed together. One method would be to liquefy a certain amount and then observe what happens to it as it slowly evaporates. and it reacts readily with many substances. Give some liquids that are miscible. evaporated. when both are volatile the matter is not quite so simple and it is necessary to find out whether any change in composition and hence in properties occurs during a change in state. As another illustration. suppose. Give some examples of solids soluble in liquids. 6. uniform throughout in its properties./the properties of which change continuously with the composition/. liquefy. miscible. it is possible to separate it into two nearly pure constituents. constructed. metal. taking temperature readings at regular intervals. 7. Any one of these as well as other possible observations show that air must contain two or more components whose relative amounts change during the evaporation. cause. contain but one kind of crystal. The experimental distinction between a pure substance and solution is quite simple when the solute /the dissolved substance/ is not volatile so that it is left behind when the solvent is evaporated. suitable. 3. appear. volatile. oxygen. phase. dipping into the melt a suitable thermometer and letting it cool slowly. experimental. nitrogen.UNIT 5 : SOLUTIONS If sugar and water. perfectly. thermometer. it can be condensed to a colorless liquid boiling at -1940C. throughout. 5. chemical behavior. two pure substances. a blue liquid boiling at -182. solute.

An impure substance may often be purified by fractional freezing. Ví dụ: dung dịch Na2CO3 trong chất lỏng có được là do CO2 hoà tan trong nước dưới áp suất và nhiệt độ. Particles of a solid phase mixed with a liquid phase may be separated from the liquid by filtration. The liquid/ called the filtrate/ runs through. Tất cả những sự thay đổi xảy ra là do những tính chất khác biệt của dung môi và chất hoà tan. 2. Which methods can be used for purifying substances? What is decantation? How can the process of settling be accelerated? What is a separatory funnel used for? What does a still consist of? Say a few sentences about the isolation and purification of substances. influence. supernatant. and the remaining liquid. use. and smaller particles pass through. centrifuge. receiver. condenser. Ordinary filter paper contains pores about 0. effective B. 2. in a centrifuge. residue. require. EXERCISES A. which usually contains most of the impurities. but most materials are mixtures. decantation. The precipitate is removed by pouring the mixture on a folded filter paper in a funnel. pour. accelerated. Read and translate into Vietnamese isolation. 3. the separatory funnel. distillation.000 times as great as that of gravity. Ordinary centrifuges produce forces of the order of 100 or 1. UNIT 6 : ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF SUBSTANCE Practical chemistry includes many special techniques for the isolation and purification of substances. purification. and most manufactured materials also require purification.000 times that of gravity. conveniently. crystallized. The separation of two different phases is often rather easy. The liquid is boiled in a flask or some other container. Often the solid is present because it has been produced from solution in the liquid by a chemical reaction or by change in conditions/such as by cooling/ the solid is then called the precipitate. device. separatory. Two liquid phases may be conveniently separated by use of a special device. suspension. The first portions/fractions/ of the distillate tend to contain the more volatile impurities. leaving the purified crystals. A liquid can be purified by distillation in a still. funnel. 13 . gravity. pore. chúng ta có thể quan sát thấy những thay đổi khác nhau của chúng. The supernatant liquid can then be poured off. and the vapor is condenser. 4. technique. Stills so special design have been invented. fractional. design. Answer the following questions 1. Translate into English 1.C. The process of settling can be accelerated by the use of centrifugal force.001cm in diameter. used. desire. separation. Chất dễ bay hơi là chất dễ dàng biến thành hơi ở nhiệt độ thường. collected. diameter. which must be separated or purified if pure substances are desired. The impure liquid substance is cooled until part of it has crystallized. A dropper may also be used for this purpose. unless they are too small. purpose. manufacture. include. This process of pouring off is called decantation. 3. centrifugal. crystal. particle. retained. filtration. 6. forming a liquid distillate. produce. Some substances occur very nearly pure in nature. Supercentrifuges have been built which give forces over 100. which are very effective in separating liquid mixtures into their components. Nếu chúng ta đun nóng một dung dịch. and the grains of precipitate/ the residue/ are retained. distillate. 5. removed. precipitate. A precipitate may also be removed by letting the suspension stand quietly until the precipitate has settled to the bottom of the container under the influence of gravity. is then poured off. and the residue in the flask tends to retain the less volatile ones. filtrate. which is collected in a receiver.

which determine the rate of a reaction. What is meant by the rate of a chemical reaction? Name some factors affecting the rate of a chemical reaction. formation. and finally the rate may become so great as to decolorize a steady steam of permanganate solution as rapidly as it is poured into the reducing solution. As reaction proceeds the reacting substances are used up and new ones are formed. 5. stannous. detectable. crystalline. oxidation. Translate into English 1. the concentrations of the reactants. Reactions between ions in solution without change in oxidation state are usually extremely fast. and the analysis of their rate is very difficult. irradiation. An example is the oxidation of stannous ion by ferric ion. the collision must be of such a nature that electrons can be transferred from one ion to another. 6. evolved. 14 . completion. phần lớn các chất tự nhiên phải được tinh chế bằng phương pháp nào đó. oxidation. An example is the neutralization of an acid by a base.C. B. The rate depends not only upon the composition of the reacting substances. may require a few seconds. UNIT 7 : THE RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Every chemical reaction requires some time for its completion. transfer. Answer the following questions 1. such as that of silver chloride when a solution containing silver ion is mixed with a solution containing chloride ion. 4. intimacy. special physical circumstances such as irradiation with visible light. absorbed. This effect of the speeding up of the reaction is due to the vigorous catalytic action of the products of permanganate ion reduction: the reaction is rapidly accelerated as soon as they are formed. affect. which proceeds as fast as the solutions can be mixed. X-rays. EXERCISES A. Most actual chemical processes are very complicated. depend. the intimacy of their mixture. permit. so that there is little delay in the reaction. Chúng ta hiểu quá trình lắng gạn là quá trình chất lỏng tự lắng chất kết lắng xuống đáy bình chứa. concentration. reduce. permanganate. catalyst. but also upon their physical form. Presumable nearly every time a hydronium ion collides with a hydroxide ion reaction occurs. In order for the reaction to take place. which permit this electron transfer to occur. For example. the temperature and pressure. to permit the ions to diffuse together to form the crystalline grains of the precipitate. and other effects may occur which influence the reaction in a complex way. This reaction does not occur every time a stannous ion collides with one or two ferric ions. decolorize. hydronium ions. effect. when a drop of a solution of potassium permanganate is added to a solution containing hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid no detectable reaction may occur for several minutes. manifold. or other waves or particles. người ta sử dụng phương pháp lọc hay lắng gạn. 2. neutrons. presumably. extremely. Có rất nhiều phương pháp khác nhau để tinh chế vật chất và tách nó ra khỏi hỗn hợp. ultraviolet light. Trong tự nhiên thường chỉ tồn tại rất ít các chất tinh khiết. the temperature of the system is changed by the heat evolved or absorbed by the reaction. The factors. Read and translate into Vietnamese require. delay. neutron. The formation of a precipitate. diffuse. and collisions. 3. product. may be rare. 2. neutralization. collide. and the number of collisions is very great. base. but some reactions are very fast and others very slow. chloride. ultraviolet. are manifold. ionic oxidation-reduction reactions are sometimes very slow. and the presence of other substances which affect the reaction but are not changed by it/catalysts/. 3. vigorous. Để tách chất rắn khỏi chất lỏng. circumstances. What is the effect of temperature and pressure on reaction rate? What is the function of catalysts? What is the rate of complicated chemical processes? Say a few sentences about the rate of chemical reactions. 4. On the other hand. collision. reactant. nearly. reduction. The reaction speeds up.

Translate into English 1. Kekule suggested that. The lighter members of the paraffin series are gases. which occurs in natural gas. the molecules of which contain a ring of carbon atoms. 800C/. and this has been verified: diffraction studies have shown that the six atoms form a regular planar hexagon in space. Chất xúc tác là chất làm tăng nhanh phản ứng hóa học nhưng nó không tham gia trực tiếp vào phản ứng. photographic developers. The simplest hydrocarbon is methane. and kerosene the decane-hexadecane mixture. the ring contains three single bonds and three double bonds in alternate positions. and the heavier members are solid or semi-solid substances. Heavy fuel oil is a mixture of paraffins containing twenty or more atoms per molecule. UNIT 8 : HYDROCARBONS Hydrocarbons are compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. except for the manufacture of other chemicals. are called cyclic hydrocarbons. the six hydrogen atoms being bonded to the carbon atoms. and is used as a fuel. and connected with the carbon atom with single bonds. Gasoline is the heptane-nonane mixture. closely similar to normal hexane in its properties. consists of molecules in which there is a double bond between the two carbon atoms. The compounds of this series are not very reactive chemically. Other hydrocarbons. and many other substances. Cyclohexane. is representative of this class of substances. and forming a larger hexagon. 2. Acetylene is the first member of a series of hydrocarbons containing triple bonds. For many years there was discussion about the structure of the benzene molecule. ethylene and related hydrocarbons are said to be unsaturated. and the carbon is deposited as very finely divided carbon. The hydrocarbons. synthetic dyes. 15 . Benzene and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of drugs. explosives. Methane is the first member of a series of hydrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n+2. C2H4. Nhiệt độ cũng như áp suất có thể ảnh hưởng đáng kể đến quá trình xảy ra phản ứng. these substances have not found wide use. The lubricating oils and solid paraffin are mixtures of still larger paraffin molecules. The hydrogen burn to water. which has an aromatic odor. plastics. which finds extensive use as filler for rubber for automobile tires. They occur in complex mixtures called petroleum. Aside from acetylene. Tốc độ của phản ứng hóa học là thời gian cần thiết để kết thúc phản ứng đó. It is also used in large quantities for the manufacture of carbon black.p. It is a volatile liquid. the four hydrogen atoms lying at the corners of a regular tetrahedron around the carbon atom. by combustion with a limited supply of air. Because of this property of readily combining with other substances. in order for a carbon atom to show its normal quadrivalence. the intermediate members are liquids. can be obtained by replacing the hydrogen atoms by methyl groups or similar groups. The molecules heavier than ethane are characterized by containing carbon atoms attached to one another by single bonds. called the methane series or paraffin series. derivatives of benzene. 3. 4. The substance ethylene. It is a volatile liquid/ b. Để dễ dàng thực hiện phản ứng hóa học. hỗn hợp phản ứng phải được đun nóng lên đến một nhiệt độ nhất định. This double bond confers upon the molecule the property of much greater chemical reactivity than is possessed by the paraffins. Tốc độ của phản ứng hóa học phụ thuộc vào thành phần của chất tham gia phản ứng và rất nhiều yếu tố khác. Methane is a gas.C. CH4. August Kekule suggested that the six carbon atoms are in the form of a ring. having the formula C6H6. Its molecules are tetrahedral. C6H12. Another important hydrocarbon is benzene.

5. aromatic. When one needs water one turns the tap on and stops it flowing by turning the tap off. cyclic. intermediate. or demonstrate on a small scale. Similarly a system of pipes is attached to the gas main from where gas reaches the various kinds of burners. ethylene. 3. position. It may be intended for the student to put to the test his theoretical knowledge/ school laboratory. discussion. explosives. for the technician/ technologist to verify and check processes to be employed in the factory/ works laboratory or to help the scientist and research worker to discover or confirm scientific facts/ research laboratory. developer. dye. được tồn tại trong tự nhiên. paraffin. Để thu được các dẫn xuất của benzen. tetrahedral. 4. nguyên tử carbon có thể được thay thế bằng các nhóm chất khác. petroleum. replace. fuel. Methan là loại khí có trong khí đốt tự nhiên được sử dụng chủ yếu làm nhiên liệu. gas and electricity. the piping terminating in taps under. double. Nếu phân tử carbon hóa trị 4. synthetic. plastics. formula. Translate into English UNIT 9 : CHEMICAL LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS Laboratories have now become indispensable in schools. ring. 2. C. The equipment of a chemical laboratory varies according to the nature of the work. Apart from a gas supply there is electricity which serves for lighting and as a driving power. reactivity. confer. 9. Read and translate into Vietnamese methane. They serve for producing flames of different intensity. hexagon. For operating electricity. tetrahedron. which is to be carried out. gasoline. 16 . supply. derivative. kerosene. 3. B. 7. switches or switch buttons are employed. deposited. planar. representative. series. ethane. What kinds of substances are hydrocarbons? What is methane and what are its uses? What is the difference between petroleum and petrol? What is ethylene? What is acetylene? Which hydrocarbons are called cyclic hydrocarbons? What is the representative of cyclic hydrocarbon class of substances? What is benzene? What did August Kekule suggest? What are the uses of benzene? Hydrat carbon là một hợp chất phổ biến rộng rãi nhất của hydro và carbon.EXERCISES A. combustion. confirm. suggest. Every chemical laboratory should be provided with running water. 10. phân tử benzen được sắp xếp trong vòng có ba liên kết đôi và ba liên kết đơn. triple. unsaturated. odor. benzene. the Bunsen burner being the most common type used. Phân tử benzen và các hợp chất carbon mạch vòng khác được đặc trưng bằng cấu tạo vòng các nguyên tử carbon. alternate. 1. which there are sinks to take away waste water and other non-objectionable liquids. 6. diffraction. structure. nature. That is why we talk about switching on the light or switching it off. lubricating. extensive. acetylene. phenomena and processes which occur in nature or which may find application in industry or be of importance to science. hexane. methyl. 8. verify. natural. factories and research institutes to test. 2. Answer the following questions 1. The water supply is conducted from the mains by means of pipes. quadrivalence. bond. 5. 4.

industry. equipment. employ. beakers. which is used for accurate weighing of samples. theoretical. burner. and be affected by a few substances as possible. confirm. What are containers made of plastic materials especially suitable for? 9. variety. Các thiết bị sử dụng điện được đóng mở nhờ công tắc điện. 5. technician. pestle.The laboratory is also equipped with a large variety of apparatus and devices. Porcelain articles consist of various kinds of dishes. cylinder. scientific. What does the necessary assortment of laboratory glassware include? 6. unbreakable. phenomena. institute. 2. refractory. Containers made of them are especially suitable for storing stock solutions. What do burners serve for? 10. furnaces. increase. research. also plastic materials are finding increasing use in laboratories. balance. 2. Where harmful vapors and undesirable odorous develop during the operation. What do porcelain articles usually consist of? 7. B. EXERCISES A. application. basins and crucibles of various diameters. demonstrate. scientist. A grinding mortar with a pestle. Of primary importance are glass and porcelain vessels. power. resistant. analytical. many of them being chemically resistant. is used for drying materials. intensity. is usually kept in a separate room. At present. What is the analytical balance used for? C. porcelain. Which properties should the glass be used for making chemical vessels possess? 5. Read and translate into Vietnamese indispensable. technologist. Answer the following questions 1. What are the advantages of polyethylene bottles? 8. Glass vessels for chemical processes are made of special materials. stirrer. a hood with suitable ventilation has to be provided for their escape. bottles. 4. The analytical balance. verify. watch glasses. What is the task of laboratory work? Why is it important and necessary for you as students of chemistry to make experiments in your school laboratories? 3. equipped. One of them. The necessary assortment of laboratory glassware includes test tubes. Translate into English 1. electricity. Trang bị phòng thí nghiệm hóa học phụ thuộc vào loại công việc được tiến hành trong đó. 4. attached. and unbreakable. Để các loại thiết bị khác nhau phù hợp với các loại mục đích hóa học thì chúng phải được sản xuất từ các vật liệu đặc biệt. desiccator. assortment. 17 . and cylinders. desiccating dishes and stirrers are also generally made of porcelain. crucible. Ovens. Mỗi một viện nghiên cứu. a desiccator. unattacked by alkalis or acids/ acid-or alkali-proof/. Thủy tinh được sử dụng để sản xuất các loại dụng cụ hóa học phải bền khi nhiệt độ. to withstand very high temperature: refractory glass. vary. furnaces or kilns serve for generating high temperatures. polyethylene. science. various flasks. powder. funnels. They have to resist sudden changes in temperature. Describe the general equipment of chemical laboratories. nhà máy và trường học phải có một phòng thí nghiệm hóa học tốt. oven. basin. acid hay kiềm thay đổi đột ngột. 3. generate. terminate.

sodium. and the compounds Fe(OH)2 and Fe2O3. signifying the lower and higher oxidation states respectively. sodium chloride /NaCl/. -ic used for and what is the difference between them? When are the Greek prefixes mono-. called hydroxides. and sesqui-. 3. of phosphoric acid. Another way of distinguishing between different compounds of the same element is by the use of the Greek prefixes to the names of the elements. ferric oxide /Fe2O3/. 2. When was the systematic chemical Nomenclature devised and what is the difference between the names of elements already known at that time and the names of newly discovered elements? How are the names of compounds formed? What are the endings -ous. they are.g. NaClO2/. the latter being designated by the name perchloric acid. are known as basic oxides. In the names of binary compounds /i. hexa-. etc. 2. hepta-. tin. basic oxides form bases.. which form salts with acids.g. lead hemioxide /Pb2O/. mà axit có tiếp đuôi -ic nhiều oxy hơn axit có tiếp đuôi -ous. basic. cuprous oxide /Cu2O/. If the name of the acid ends in -ic. and ferrous oxide /FeO/. The names of compounds are formed from those of their components so as to indicate their composition. chromium sesquioxide /Cr2O3/ and chromium trioxide /CrO3/. meaning one and a half. Salts of phosphorous acid are phosphites. sodium chlorite. -ic are also applied to acids. In addition to HClO2 and HClO3. Salts are named in relation to the acids from which they are derived according to the following rules: 1. cupric oxide /CuO/. 4. the acids having the formulas HClO and HClO4 are also known. zinc oxide /ZnO/. 3. hydroxyl.or hypo-. compounds of two elements/ the name of the metal comes first. e. The salts corresponding to cuprous oxide are called cuprous salts. argon /. the -ous acid containing less oxygen than the -ic acid. the prefix is retained on the name of the salt/ sodium hypochlorite. the former having the name hypochlorous acid. Read and translate into Vietnamese nomenclature. Nếu như chỉ tồn tại một loại acid. especially when more than two compounds exist. 5. binary. 2. used and what is their advantage? What are the rules for forming the names of salts? C. sodium chlorate.. potassium.g.. the name of the salt ends in -ite/ sodium chlorite. corresponding. Oxides. devised. chlorous acid /HClO2/.H2O are ferrous hydroxide and ferric hydroxide. meaning one half. thì tên gọi của nó có tiếp đuôi -ic. octo-. sulphurous acid /H2SO3/ and sulfuric acid /H2SO4/. If the name of the acid ends in -ous. those of sulfuric acid. involve. penta-. tri-. These prefixes are as follows: mono-. These contain the metal united with the group of atoms -OH/ the hydroxyl group/. e. Translate into English 1. but newly discovered elements generally have their names ending in -um if they are metals. respectively. di-. and per-. etc. sodium chloride. hydrogen peroxide /H2O2/. formulas. Answer the following questions 1. EXERCISES A. sulfates. designate. e. cuprous oxide. tri-. di-. salt. cupric oxide. e. Các nguyên tố được cấu tạo nên bằng số lượng các liên kết với oxy. Thus NaOH is sodium hydroxide.UNIT 10 : CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE A systematic nomenclature was devised towards the end of the 18th century. When a metal forms two compounds with oxygen.g. the corresponding salt ends in -ate/ sodium chlorate. and sodium perchlorate.e. If the name of the acid involves also a prefix such as per. phosphorus trichloride /PCl3/ and phosphorus pentachloride /PCl5/. tetra-. To these we may add the Latin hemi-. cuprous chloride and cupric chloride. Elements already known retained their old names. Các muối của acid nitric được gọi là nitrat. As examples of the use of these prefixes we may mention carbon monoxide /CO/ and carbon dioxide /CO2/. silver. mercury. 4. NaClO. Cấu tạo các nguyên tố thể hiện ở hóa trị của các nguyên tố liên kết nó. NaClO3/ 3. etc. bases. by combination with water. followed by that of the other element ended in -ide.g. 18 . B. Accordingly. NaClO4/. e. and-on if they are non-metals/e. The endings -ous. gold. therefore. the two oxides are distinguished by adding -ous and -ic to the Latin name of the metal. aluminum oxide /Al2O3/.g. phosphates. Cu(OH)2 is copper hydroxide. salts of sulfurous acid are called sulfites. By the use of these prefixes we can designate the compounds more precisely than by means of the prefixes -ous and -ic. respectively.

shorter periods of settling are adequate. The amount of sediment may vary a great deal from one river to another. storage. sedimentation. and at this time the turbidity will. Charcoal has the advantage of removing not only particulate matter but also some dissolved organic chemical pollutants. as a result. As we mentioned previously. the bulk of it is probably removed in a few days. sewage. a high degree of clarification is not needed and. The time required for satisfactory sedimentation differs for different waters. but this may not bring about a corresponding change in the appearance of the water. the number will be highest during periods of low flow when there is less dilution. Use of ultraviolet light is also a possible alternative to chemical disinfection. Arrays of ultraviolet tube lamps are arranged in quartz tubes so that water flows close to the lamps. and chlorination. depending upon the conditions of the raw water. In this water there will also be varying numbers of bacteria. or other accepted forms of disinfection. The microorganisms are trapped mostly by surface adsorption in the sand beds. which can be accomplished either by plain sedimentation or sedimentation following the addition of coagulating chemicals. and upon the prevailing temperature. the bacterial count from this source may be relatively high. the sediment is principally inorganic. Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive form of oxygen that is formed by electrical spark discharges and ultraviolet light. during a season of high turbidity when there is a large amount of eroded soil in the water. sedimentation. aeration. (The fresh odor of air following an electrical storm or around an ultraviolet light bulb is from ozone). activated carbon. since the smaller particles may have greater influence than the large ones upon the apparent color and turbidity. If the organisms are derived from sewage pollution. coagulation. drainage. depending upon the geological character of the various parts of the drainage system. some protozoan cysts. Ozone for water treatment is generated electrically at the site of treatment.lamblia. consisting of particles of sand and clay and small amount of organic matter. Before entering the municipal distribution system. influence. they may be smaller than bacteria. Water systems of cities that have an exceptional concern for toxic chemicals supplement sand filtration with filters of activated charcoal (carbon). the filtered water is chlorinated. Some waters can be clarified satisfactorily in a few days. in general. Certainly. while others may require weeks or months. appear to be removed from water only by such filtration treatment. Read and translate into Vietnamese treatment. nutrients. Many of the bacteria may have come from the soil and. as a result. Because organic matter neutralized chlorine. diatomaceous earth. 19 . After flocculation treatment. As far as total weight of sediment is concerned. pollution. When surface waters serve as a municipal water supply. be low. aeration. and generally must be established by actual experiments. even through the openings might be larger than the organisms that are filtered out. When plain sedimentation is used primarily as a preliminary treatment. bacterium. The type and extent of treatment will vary from city to city. In the water from most streams that are suitable as a source of supply. This is necessary because of the low penetrating power of ultraviolet radiation. One substitute for chlorination is ozone treatment. turbidity. chlorination. beds of sand. depending upon the amount of bacteria nutrients. combination. These sand filters are periodically backflushed to clear them of accumulations. There has been some concern that chlorine itself might be a health hazard. the plant operators must pay constant attention to maintaining effective levels of chlorine. such as those of G. in fact. that it might react with organic contaminants of the water to form carcinogenic compounds. such as storage.UNIT 11 : WATER TREATMENT Most municipalities must use a source of water in which the probability of pollution is rather high. it is generally necessary to remove suspended solid. In some waters the clay particles may be extremely fine. disinfection. At present. The size of the suspended particles can also vary greatly. coming from sewage or other sources of organic matter. all our natural rivers and lakes and even the water stored in most reservoirs may be subjected to pollution. They do not penetrate the tortuous routing of the sand beds. EXERCISES A. accumulation. water is passed through beds of sand with diatomaceous earth to accomplish sand filtration. Treatment may comprise various processes used separately or in combinations. rapid or slow sand filtration. this possibility is considered minor when compared with the proven usefulness of chlorination of water. and generally cannot be considered safe for drinking purposes without some forms of treatment. coagulation.

First of all it generally must be closed. vô cơ hòa tan và cả các vi sinh vật nữa. velocity 20 . the jacket may be augmented by heating or cooling coils immersed in the reaction mixture. agitate. 3. 2. It is usually necessary to agitate the reaction mixture in batch systems.The batch reactor is. 4. with provision for continuously adding reactants and withdraw product. Flow reactors. At medium pressures a satisfactory closure can be assembled. coils. a kettle or tank. For reactions carried out under pressure the vent is replaced by a safety valve. roof. mixture. in essence. 8. This can be done mechanically with stirrers operated by a shaft extending through the reactor wall. This may be accomplished by circulating a fluid through a jacket surrounding the reactor. stirrers. temperature and pressure are uniform through the vessel. 2. Translate into English 1. UNIT 12 : TYPES OF REACTORS Batch Reactors . It should have a number of accessories in order to operate satisfactorily. What are the various processes for water treatment? What is the method for removing the suspended solids from surface waters? What are the principal sediments from water of streams? What are the methods for trapping the microorganisms from various kinds of water? What is the purpose of chlorination of water? What is the substitute for chlorination of water? What is the kind of physical agent for water treatment of microorganisms in Vietnam? Say a few words about the water treatment in Vietnam. 7. Hầu hết các thành phố đều sử dụng nguồn nước bị ô nhiễm khá cao. much like a batch reactor. it is possible to obtain essentially complete mixing by mechanical agitation. jacket. 6. C. Under these conditions the composition. autoclave. Heat is transferred by convection and radiation to the tube surface in order to raise the temperature of the gas oil to the reaction level/ 600 to 10000F/ and to supply the endothermic heat of reaction. đông tụ. On the other hand. petroleum. ozon hóa. hoặc dùng đèn tử ngoại. where the length is generally large with respect to the tube diameter. Để khử trùng nước có thể dùng nhiều ương pháp: clo hóa. On the other hand. lắng. accessories. Flow reactors may be constructed in a number of ways. khử trùng. furnace. batch reactor. Quá trình xử lý nước bao gồm các quá trình khác nhau như: lọc. the forced velocity in the direction of flow is sufficient to retard mixing in the axial direction. EXERCISES A. The conventional thermalcracking units in the petroleum industry are examples of a noncatalytic type. 5. For example. endothermic. In the tubular type. 4. tubular. Provision for heating or cooling the reaction contents is often required. 3. Read and translate into Vietnamese kettle. except for a vent. Các cặn lắng trong nước bao gồm các hạt đất sét hoặc các chất hữu cơ. Answer the following questions 1. circulating. in tank reactors. the top closure must be able to withstand the same maximum pressure as the rest of the autoclave. in order to prevent loss of material and danger to the operating personnel. tank. The gas oil or other petroleum fraction is passed through a number of alloy-steel tubes placed in a series on the walls and roof of the furnace. Where heat effects are large enough to require the most rapid heat transfer.B. flow reactors may consist of a tank or kettle. From a design viewpoint the essential difference between tubular and tank reactors lies in the degree of mixing obtained. High-pressure conditions frequently introduce complications in the design and greatly increase the initial cost.

Ống ruột gà lắp trong thiết bị phản ứng hoặc áo ngoài là phương tiện đun nóng hay làm lạnh thiết bị phản ứng hóa học khi cần nâng hay giảm nhiệt độ. simple product structure. 2. to regard it as consisting of two parts: 1. Strictly speaking. Chemicals of this type are chiefly used in the manufacture of other products and do not ordinarily take the form of familiar household products or articles of commerce. paint and many other products officially classified within the chemical industry. 3. The exclusion of the companies engaged in these industries does not mean. 4. It is common practice. According to the most widely accepted definition. paint. the chemical-process industry The chemical-product industry is perhaps the less difficult of the two to define. Their exclusion has probably been due primarily to the combination of their origin. fertilizers. which makes it impossible to compose any precise definition of what constitutes the chemical industry. Các thiết bị phản ứng dưới áp suất cao phải có van an toàn và chịu được áp suất cực đại. Translate into English 1. it has long been the custom of economists and statisticians to regard them as independent industries. the chemical industry has been steadily expanding. Read and translate into Vietnamese 21 . Contrary to more technically based definitions. however. It may be said to consist of companies. A recent and conspicuous example of this latter type of chemical expansion has been the development of the so-called "petrochemical industry".B. which can be described only by technical names. and well-defined markets. much larger in size than the chemical industry as officially defined. soap. and hence its scope is correspondingly more open to differences of opinion. this classification excludes companies engaged in the production of iron and steel. and a number of various related products. Hence. the chemical-process industry consist of the companies which manufacture such products as drug. of course. The already existing chemical companies have entered new industries. 3. in which chemical products are manufactured from petroleum raw materials. And industries not recognized as chemical in nature have begun the manufacture of chemical products by new methods from new materials. Regardless of the arbitrary limitations of its official definition. in petroleum refining. which manufacture “chemical”. until comparatively recently. and drugs. As matter of fact. but the word may be limited for the purpose of definition to products. Thus. Các thiết bị phản ứng gián đoạn được lắp các phụ kiện khác nhau phù hợp với quá trình vận hành nó. all compositions of matter are “chemicals”. Answer the following questions 1. building materials. vegetable and animal oils. such as textiles. however. and in the manufacture of pulp and paper. of course. soda ash and sulfuric acid are universally recognized as “chemical”. large size. UNIT 13 : RELATIONSHIP OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY TO OTHER INDUSTRIES There is not any sharply defined frontier between chemical industry and many other industries. 5. rubber products. however. leather products and glass. 2. but soap and paint are not commonly so regarded. that their operations are any less “chemical” in nature than those used in the manufacture of soap. EXERCISES A. the chemical-product industry. and 2. both the oil industry and the steel industry were. It has ignored industrial boundaries in the application of new manufacturing processes and in the development of new products. What are the various kind of batch reactors? Why must the batch reactors be closed? Why does the top closure of batch reactors have to be installed with the vent or the safety valve? What is the purpose of a jacket surrounding the reactor? Tell something about the flow reactor? C. The chemical-process industry is even more dependent upon classifications of an arbitrary nature.

and one or the other must be selected. selected. 2. if more is sold. Sometimes the raw material is completely altered or “consumed” in processing. 5. 3. Read and translate into Vietnamese inventory. This illustrates the fact that a raw materials referred to here are those which become a part of the finished product itself or are used directly in manufacturing operations. statisticians. arbitrary. semifinished product. or vice versa. semifinished. Công nghiệp hóa học đã và đang phát triển không ngừng và đặc biệt là ngành công nghiệp hóa dầu. since many chemical products are not only sold as such but are also consumed in the manufacture of other end products. petrochemical industry. a material cannot be classified in two categories within a company. Không có một ranh giới chính xác giữa công nghiệp hóa học và các ngành công nghiệp khác. If more is consumed. the material is classified as finished product. However. perform. which is all material fully manufactured and in salable form. Answer the following questions 1. Ta có thể xem Công nghiệp hóa học gồm 2 bộ phận chính. which is material upon which manufacturing operations have been performed but which require further processing. Is there any sharply defined frontier between the chemical industry and many other industries? Can you give some concepts about the chemical-product industry? Can you tell something about the chemical-process industry? Has the chemical industry been steadily expanding and how? Can you give some concepts of "petro-chemical industry"? C. 5. and 2. “processed materials” Raw materials cover all kinds of materials that are purchased by the manufacturer and on which further work must be done before the product can be sold units final form. segregation. influenced. EXERCISES A. soap. 3. công nghiệp hóa chất và b. sharply. materials. classification. B. raw materials. drugs. although some prefer to combine semifinished and finished products into a single classification. UNIT 14 : INVENTORIES Inventories normally represent the largest single element of capital.relationship. 2. fertilizers. chemicals. finished product. decision is influenced by the fact that more of the material is sold than consumed. and then the material becomes a semifinished product. Answer the following questions 1. prefabrication. manufacture. economists. As has been indicated. They are generally classified as raw materials. expansion. 2. công nghiệp các quá trình tạo các sản phẩm hóa học 4. Translate into English 1. What are the inventories? Can you tell something about inventories? What are raw materials? Give an example. products. this classification includes 1. Công nghiệp hóa học có mối quan hệ với các ngành công nghiệp khác. Trong thực tế 2 bộ phận đó là: a. B. 5. 3. 4. 4. manufacture. while in other instances the raw material may remain in its original form in the final product as in the case of an assembly plant using purchased prefabricated parts. vegetables. illustrate. salable. Công nghiệp hóa dầu là một ngành công nghiệp mà các sản phẩm của nó được chế biến từ dầu thô. In the chemical industry the segregation between semifinished and finished product is particularly difficult. boundary. What are processed materials? Can you tell the difference between semifinished and finished products? 22 . consumed. semifinished and finished products. correspondingly. as in the case of iron in the manufacture of steel. category. Usually. conspicuous.

The detail should be sufficient so that a fellow student can use your notebook as a guide. All scientists have the obligation to prepare written reports of the results of experimental work. Experimental (a) Table of materials and reagents (b) List of equipment (c) Flowchart (d) Record of procedure Data and Calculations (a) Record of all raw data (b) Method of calculation with statistical analysis (c) Enter data in tables. Proper statistical analysis must be included in this section.hand pages may be used for your own notes. etc. “What are the goals of this experiment? ” This statement is followed by a brief discussion of the theory behind the experiment. Translate into English 1. 23 . This means that procedural detail. The write-up to this point is to be completed as a Prelab assignment. made during the experiment. graphs or figures when appropriate For the early experiments. Trong công nghiệp hóa học.sentence statement of the objective or purpose of the experiment. Instrumentation is listed with reference to company name and model number. Nguyên liệu thô là các loại nguyên vật liệu dùng phục vụ cho sản xuất hoặc chế biến ra sản phẩm. A flowchart to describe the stepwise procedure for the experiment should be included after the list of equipment. This provides a durable. The experimental procedure followed is then recorded in your notebook as you proceed through the experiment. The left . Experimental Begin this section with a list of all reagents and materials used in the experiment. not on separate sheets of paper. it must be completed in a clear. permanent record and the potential for construction of graphs. observations and results must be recorded in a laboratory notebook while the experiment is being performed. sự phân biệt giữa bán sản phẩm và sản phẩm cuối cùng khá khó khăn. concise and accurate manner.or four. 2. Calculations involving the data must be included for at least one series of measurements. charts. You should include observations. ask yourself.C. reminders and calculations. DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTAL WRITE . Data and Calculations All raw data from the experiment are to be recorded directly in your notebook. UNIT 15 : THE LABORATORY NOTEBOOK The laboratory experience is not finished when you complete the experimental procedure and leave the laboratory. give a brief description of the method.UP Introduction This section begins with a three. Since this record may be studied by many individuals. The sources of all chemical and the concentrations of solutions should be listed. Nguyên liệu chế biến là nguyên liệu phải được chế biến tiếp để tạo ra sản phẩm 3. the most readable notebooks are those in which only the right . If a new technique or instrumental method is introduced. Flowcharts for later experiments should be designed by the student. such as color changes or gas evolution. The notebook should be hardbound with quadrille-ruled (gridded) pages and used only for the biochemistry laboratory. Although your instructor may have his or her own rules for preparation of the notebook. For preparing this statement.hand pages are used for record keeping. a flowchart is provided. Include chemical or biochemical reactions when appropriate. It is recommended that the first one or two pages of the notebook be used for a constantly updated table of contents.

3. 4. Các phần chính của một bài báo cáo thí nghiệm bao gồm: phần mở đầu. 2. presentation. discussion. Results and Discussion This is the most important section of your write-up. Structure of Atoms 1. biochemistry. 3. statement. measurement. Tài liệu tham khảo (sách. the clearest presentation of data is in a tabular or graphical form. Read and translate into Vietnamese experience. obligation. The standard format to follow for a book or journal listing is shown at the end of this chapter in the reference section. cuối cùng là phần thảo luận kết quả thu được. flowchart. There are about 26 elements commonly found in living cells. 3. 5. stepwise. 5. instrumentation. When your instructor reviews your write-up. The interaction of atoms and molecules is called chemistry. It is often possible to compare your data with known values and results from the literature. 24 . Atoms with the same atomic number and same chemical behavior are classified as the same chemical element. calculate percentage error and explain any differences. 2. tạp chí) được ghi lại ở phần cuối bản báo cáo. Atoms consist of a nucleus. goals. Atoms are the smallest units of chemical elements that enter into chemical reactions. 2. because it answers the questions:.For many experiments. “Did you achieve your proposed goals and objectives? ” and ” What is the significance of the data?”. observation. Chemical Elements 1. Các số liệu thí nghiệm phải được ghi trực tiếp vào sổ ghi chép. Everyone has his or her own writing style. không ghi vào tờ rời. Answer the following questions 1. Chemical elements are designated by letter abbreviations called chemical symbols. The Analysis of Results section following each experimental procedure in this book describes the preparation of graphs and tables. 2. Note if any problems were encountered in the experiments. Nutrients are broken down by microbes to obtain energy and to make new cells. UNIT 16 : STUDY OUTLINE OF CHEMISTRY Introduction 1. phần mô tả thực nghiệm trình bày các số liệu và tính toán kết quả. Translate into English 1. some better than others. The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus: the total number of protons and neutrons is the atomic weight. 3. he or she should include helpful writing tips in the grading. Any conclusion that you make must be supported by experimental results. notebook. It is imperative that you continually try to improve your writing skills. If this is feasible. significance B. What is the laboratory notebook? How many steps are there in experimental write-up? What is the first section of experimental write-up? Tell something about it? Say a few words about calculations of experimental works? Why should we need discussion of experimental results? C. material. These must all be included in your notebook. Thí nghiệm chưa kết thúc khi các bạn chỉ mới làm xong phần thực nghiệm. 2. All library references (books and journal articles) that were used to write up the experiment should be listed at the end. The metabolic activities of microorganisms involve complex chemical reactions. which contains protons and neutrons and electrons that move around the nucleus. Tất cả các cán bộ khoa học bắt buộc phải viết bản báo cáo về công việc thực nghiệm của mình. 4. description. EXERCISES A. 3.

or molecules are combined to form a large molecule. Covalent Bonds 1. A chemical attraction between ions of opposite charge is called an ionic bond. The combining capacity of an atom . 4. To form an ionic bond. 3. and ions. or molecule is equal to its atomic or molecular weight expressed in grams. Molecules are made up of two or more atoms. 25 . In a decomposition reaction. atoms share pairs of electrons. For a chemical reaction to take place. In an atom. ions. Each shell can hold a characteristic maximum number of electrons. Molecular Weight and Moles 1. 2. In an exchange reaction. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS 1. Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are the making or breaking of chemical bonds between atoms. ion. 2. 3. Energy of Chemical Reactions 1. 6. the reactants must collide with each other. 5. The number of moles of a substance equals its mass in grams divided by its molecular weight. a large molecule is broken down into its component molecules. Atoms that have the same atomic number (are of the same element) but different atomic weights are called isotopes.the number of chemical bonds the atom can form with other atoms . In a covalent bond. The chemical properties of an atom are largely due to the number of electrons in its outermost shell. two molecules are decomposed. Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds and are far more common in organisms. How Chemical Reactions Occur 1. Attractive forces that bind the atomic nuclei of two atoms together are called chemical bonds. A change of energy occurs during chemical reactions. In a synthesis reaction. Atoms form molecules in order to fill their outermost electron shells. 2. The products of reversible reactions can readily revert back to form the original reactants. 2. A hydrogen bond exists when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom.4. Endergonic reactions require energy. 2. atoms. one ion is an electron donor. and their subunits are used to synthesize two new molecules. 3. 2. 4. The minimum energy of collision that can produce a chemical reaction is called its activation energy. The molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule. Hydrogen Bonds 1. molecules consisting of at least two different kinds of atoms are called compounds. 2. 3. exergonic reactions release energy. electrons are arranged around the nucleus in electron shells. 3.is its valence. 2. A mole of an atom. atoms. HOW ATOMS FORM MOLECULES Chemical Bonds 1. A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms is called an ion. Ionic Bonds 1. the other ion is an electron acceptor. Hydrogen bonds form weak links between different molecules or between parts of the same large molecule.

incoming sewage receives preliminary treatment . well-aerated stream is capable of considerable selfpurification. After this step. microorganisms. Raw sewage. skimmers remove floating oil and grease. (The design of these primaries settling . activation energy. properties. sludge at this stage is called primary sludge. Specialized proteins called enzymes accelerate chemical reactions in living systems by lowering the activation energy. attraction. a surprising number of large cities in which had only rudimentary sewage treatment systems or no system at all. collision. untreated or nearly so. Answer the following questions 1. Even so. enzymes B. Rainwater flowing into street drains and some industrial wastes enter the sewage systems in some cities. 5. until increases in populations and their wastes exceeded this capability. Read and translate into Vietnamese interaction. Các phản ứng hóa học là các phản ứng hình thành phá vỡ các liên kết hóa học giữa các nguyên tử. From 40% to 60% of suspended solids are removed from sewage by this settling treatment. EXERCISES A. express. 26 . this solid portion of sewage can total more than 1000 tons of solid material per day. Hóa học nghiên cứu sự tương tác giữa các nguyên tử và các phân tử. 2. nutrients.03%. Say something about chemical bonds. and flocculating chemicals that increase the removal of solids are sometimes added at this stage. 5. it becomes sewage. Primary Treatment The usual first step in sewage treatment is called primary treatment. and floating debris are shredded and ground. metabolic. attractive. in large cities. behavior.3. covalent. the sewage passes through sedimentation tanks. the sewage is allowed to flow through settling chambers so that sand and similarly gritty material can be removed. where solid matter settles out. Biological activity is not particularly important in primary treatment. Sewage solids collecting on the bottom are called sludge. Các liên kết hydro hình thành những liên kết yếu giữa các phân tử khác nhau hoặc giữa các phần của cùng một phân tử của một đại phân tử. UNIT 17 : SEWAGE TREATMENT After water has been used. In this process. 4. 3. and the effluent (the liquid flowing out) then undergoes secondary treatment. most methods of simple discharge have been improved. collide. The sludge is removed on either a continuous or an intermittent basis. protein. cells. microbes. Sewage is mostly water and contains little particulate matter perhaps only about 0. casual treatment of municipal wastes caused little complaint. Translate into English 1. What is the atom? Say some words about chemical elements. although some digestion of sludge and dissolved organic matter can occur during long holding times. How do the chemical reactions occur? How many kinds of chemical reactions do you know? What are they? C. subunits. sự liên kết trong một đại phân tử bị phá vỡ để tạo thành các cấu tử nguyên tử tương ứng. Trong một nguyên tử các điện tử được sắp xếp xung quanh hạt nhân nguyên tử trên mạng điện tử. 3. Trong các phản ứng phân hủy. Sewage includes all the water from a household that is used for washing as well as toilet wastes. In the United States.large floating materials are screened out. A flowing. Therefore.tanks varies). 2. symbol. was simply discharged into rivers or oceans. 4. valence. complex. Until environmental awareness intensified.

discharge. this organic matter is removed with the floc and is subsequently treated in an anaerobic sludge digester. If this waste water enters a lake. Secondary Treatment After primary treatment. is designed to remove most of this organic matter and reduce the BOD. When the aeration phase is completed. awareness. ecology. The water is initially aerated to provide a relatively high level of dissolved oxygen and is seeded with bacteria if necessary. Typical BOD values of waste water may be twenty times this amount. grease. self-purification. The sludge in the effluent contains large numbers of metabolizing bacteria. rudimentary. 5. debris. molds. It is apparently caused by the growth of filamentous bacteria of various types. when aeration is stopped. Why does the sewage have to be treated? Tell something of primary treatment of sewage? What is BOD? Why does the sewage have to carry out secondary treatment after primary treatment? 27 . and the decrease in dissolved oxygen is determined by a chemical or electronic testing method. the greater the BOD . the floc (secondary sludge) is allowed to settle to the bottom. skimmer. Answer the following questions 1. Secondary treatment. bacteria in the lake begin to consume the organic matter responsible for the high BOD. An important concept in sewage treatment and in the general ecology of waste treatment. this phenomenon is called bulking. bacteria. for example. the great part of the BOD remaining in the sewage is in the form of dissolved organic matter. The more oxygen that is used up as the bacteria degrade the organic matter in the sample. which form flocculent masses (flocs) in the aeration tanks. More organic matter is probably removed by this process than by the relatively short-term aerobic oxidation. 4. rapidly depleting the oxygen in the lake water. BOD is a measure of the biologically degradable organic matter in water. incubation B. the sludge will float rather than settle out. The classic method of measurement is to use special bottles with airtight stoppers. the sheathed bacteria Sphaerotilus natans is often mentioned as the primary offender. the organic matter in the floc flows out with the discharged effluent and often causes serious problems of local pollution. Give the definition of sewage. settling chambers. The amount of oxygen that normally can be dissolved in water is only about 10 mg/liter. the sewage undergoes strong aeration to encourage the growth of aerobic bacteria and other microorganisms that oxidize the dissolved organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. flocculation. Activated sludge systems are quite efficient: they remove from 75% to 95% of the BOD from sewage. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). 2. and protozoans. 3. Read and translate into Vietnamese sewage. air or pure oxygen is added to the effluent from primary treatment. metabolize. Two commonly used methods of secondary treatment are activated sludge systems and trickling filters. In this process. treatment. together with yeasts. As the floc settles out. The effluent water is sent on for final treatment. When this happens. Occasionally. just as the primary sludge settles in primary treatment. gritty. BOD is determined by the amount of oxygen required by bacteria to metabolize the organic matter. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to the causes of bulking and its possible prevention. EXERCISES A. The activity of these aerobic microorganisms oxidizes much of the effluent's organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. some of the sludge is recycled to the activated sludge tanks as a starter culture for the next sewage batch. Each bottle is first filled with the test water or dilutions of the test water. sludge. which is primarily biological.which is usually expressed in milligrams of oxygen per liter of water. shred. An especially important ingredient of the sludge are species of Zoogloans and bacteria. Soluble organic matter in the sewage is adsorbed onto the floc and is incorporated into microorganisms in the floc. Most of the settled sludge is removed from the digester. environment. The filled bottles are then incubated in the dark for five days at 20oC. In the aeration tanks of the activated sludge system.Biochemical Oxygen Demand Primary treatment removes approximately 25% to 35% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the sewage.

drying. What is the chemical engineering concerned? What is the most important contribution of the chemical engineer? Can you tell some main operations involved in the industrial process? What is the commercial success of scientific research of chemical reaction? How can you get the industrial efficiency? C. BOD là số đo khả năng oxy hóa sinh học của các chất hữu cơ có trong nước thải. nước mưa và nước thải công nghiệp. chemical reagents. có khả năng giãn nỡ ở nhiệt độ cao. evaporation. 28 . creep. distillation. such as filtration. with consequent improvement in the life of the apparatus and general economy in working. Bước xử lý đầu tiên là cho lắng các hạt lơ lửng lớn trong các bể lắng. commercial success in translating a laboratory method of a preparation into a full-scale manufacturing process depends as much upon the careful plant design as upon consideration of the precise chemical reactions to be employed. and the indicating appliances used to control them are usually based on physical rather than on chemical principles. One of the most important contributions of the chemical engineer is to guide industry in the choice of materials for the construction of plant. UNIT 18 : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Chemical engineering. drying. evaporation. etc. fluid flow. Read and translate into Vietnamese engineering. 2. heat transfer. The chemical engineer can select materials suitable for each particular part of the plant. New processes call for new technique in plant design. Nhiều thành phố trong nước ta chỉ có những hệ thống xử lý nước thải đơn giản hoặc thậm chí chưa có. such as the transport of solids. like other branches of engineering. Nước thải bao gồm các loại nước thải sinh hoạt. 2. Today there is much talk of the production of motor spirit and other oils by high-pressure reactions. in fact. are also physical operations. heat transfer. These. is concerned essentially with applied physics. To obtain the product of a chemical reaction in a marketable form further operations may be involved. branches.v. Translate into English 1.C. in short. industrial efficiency and the profits expected to accompany this can only be realized by sound chemical engineering. mixing and agitation. 3. motospirit. EXERCISES A. Công nghệ hóa học cần chọn các nguyên vật liệu thích hợp cho xây dựng nhà máy tương ứng. construction. Trong thực tế hiện nay. 4. and grinding. 3. sound chemical engineering B. agitation.v. 5. crystallization. Translate into English 1. reagents. Such developments would still be at the laboratory stage had it not been for the work of the chemical engineer in taking advantage of the development of high-tensile steel and then applying his special knowledge to the design of new kinds of plant in which hydrogen and other gases and vapors are handled at high pressure and temperatures. Bùn hoạt tính chứa các vi sinh vật phân hủy có hiệu quả từ 75 . 3. Thus. 5. grinding. Answer the following questions 1. In actual practice the chemical engineer is principally concerned either with physical operations entirely or with the purely physical effects of chemical reactions. 4. crystallization. các quá trình hóa học liên quan chủ yếu đến các quá trình vật lý hay tác động vật lý lên các phản ứng hóa học. physical operations. Chúng ta cần phải tìm các loại kim loại có khả năng chống được ăn mòn. 2. Examples may be found in the development of metals capable of resisting corrosion. heat and creep at high temperatures. full-scale. marketable form.95% chất hữu cơ có trong nước thải.

5%. flexibility. It is then subjected to purification and passed to the gas holder where it is stored. ngưng tụ. It leaves the main at a temperature of about 600C. exhaustion of the uncondensed gas from the retorts. In the case of the former coal is fed continuously into the top of a retort by means of gravity. 3. The series of operations involved in gas manufacture includes the processes of distillation. distribution. ash. their main concern is with the manufacture of hard. Horizontal retorts 2. 3. From the retort the gas passes to the hydraulic main. Từ lò. sulfur.UNIT 19: GAS MANUFACTURE Gas is made by the destructive distillation of that variety of coal. 1. 3. 4. known as bituminous coal. Steam is introduced at the base of the retort for the primary purpose of cooling the coke before it is discharge. but in so doing it produces water gas. 29 . moisture. condensation. tách hết phần khí không ngưng. wet purification. Most of the town gas supplied by the gas industry is made in horizontal or vertical retorts. or both. cross-section. 7%. by washing with water.7%. EXERCISES A. and in consequence the retorts are wider in both dimensions at the bottoms than at the top. thường giữ ở nhiệt độ là 600C. coke oven. Translate into English 1.Carbonization in vertical retorts may be continuous or intermittent. extractor. Vertical Retorts . calorific value B. 2. rectangular or oval form. 5%. hydrogen. The distillation of coal is carried out by the following systems: 1. vertical retorts. wet purification. 5. Intermittent vertical retorts of chambers 4. 3. The retorts in cross-section are either rectangular or oval and are of various sizes to carbonize from 3 to 12 tons per day. dense coke for use in the steel industry. Coke ovens: although large amounts of gas are produced as a by-product in coke ovens. and is carbonized in its passage through the retort. 2. and is reduced to the temperature of the air by condensers which are air-cooled or water-cooled. condensation of the products of distillation which are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature. retorts. dry purification. Continuously operated vertical retorts 3. Answer the following questions 1. thus increasing the gaseous yield. As the coal is carbonized it swells considerably. nitrogen. atmospheric temperature. 77%.v. Bộ phận ngưng tụ làm lạnh có thể làm lạnh bằng không khí hoặc bằng nước. horizontal retorts. estimation of the volume of the purified gas. rich in hydrogen. The actual amount of coal passing through the retort depends upon the class of coal being carbonized and the calorific value of the gas produced. and distribution to the mains from which the customer draws his supply. oxygen. carbonize. estimation. A typical bituminous coal has the following composition: carbon. khí được chuyển qua bộ phận làm khô.v. Steam is generated in waste-heat boilers in which the heat of the waste gases in utilized.4%. hydraulic main.7%. What are the main composition of a typical bituminous coal? Can you tell the systems for the distillation of coal in the gas manufacture? What is the vertical retort? What is the difference between the vertical retort and continuous vertical one? What is concept of air-cooled or water-cooled apparatus? C. Read and translate into Vietnamese gas manufacture. coke being extracted by a slowly moving extractor at the base. Có nhiều công đoạn khác nhau trong quá trình sản xuất khí đốt như: chưng cất. exhaustion. 1. With continuous vertical retorts there is great possibility of flexibility in output and calorific value through variations in the rate at which coal is carbonized and in the amount of steaming.

Khi pha dung dịch axit sunfuric luôn rót axit vào nước từng dòng nhỏ. is one of the most important of all chemicals. Water is added at the proper rate. pure sulfuric acid yields a vapor rich in sulfur trioxide. sputter. When steam is sent into the flask by boiling the water in the small flask. because it is apt to sputter and throw drops of acid out of the container. and the fourth from a flask in which water may be boiled. Read and translate into Vietnamese sulfuric acid. catalytic oxidation. Axit sunfuric là một trong những hợp chất hóa học quan trọng nhất. called chamber acid. 2. In practice the reactions take place in large lead-lined chambers. The acid produced. and a small amount of water vapor are introduced into the large flask. It is also used as the electrolyte in ordinary storage cells. apt to. liberating oxides of nitrogen. 3. What is the sulfuric acid? 2. A large flask is fitted with four inlet tubes and a small outlet tube. pour. The Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is made by two processes. yield. Axit sunfuric là một chất lỏng nặng hơn nước và linh động có tỷ trọng bằng 1. drug B. Concentrated sulfuric acid is very corrosive. Three of the tubes come from wash bottles. which serve to catalyze the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by oxygen. What is the b. What is the main principle of the lead-chamber process? 5. 4. bubble. When heated. water should never be poured into the acid. The principle of the lead-chamber process is shown by the following experiment. and hot concentrated sulfuric acid is an effective oxidizing agent. and then boils. nitric oxide. electrolyte. at 3380C. which are now about equally important. density. droplet. and 98% acid is drawn off. The Uses of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is used for the manufacture of soluble phosphate fertilizers and in the manufacture of many chemicals and drugs. Can you describe the method for the manufacture of sulfuric acid? 4. is 65% to 70% H2SO4. density 1. When oxygen. which absorbs the sulfur trioxide. Translate into English 1. 30 . C.UNIT 20 : SULFURIC ACID Sulfuric acid. as the result of the liberation of traces of sulfur trioxide which then combine with water vapor to form droplets of sulfuric acid. It may be concentrated to 78% by the evaporation of water by the hot gases from the sulfur burner or pyrite burner. hydronium ion. This is the ordinary concentrated sulfuric acid of commerce. In the contact process sulfur trioxide is made by the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide/ the name of the process refers to the fact that reaction occurs on contact of the gases with the solid catalyst/. It is a heavy. as the result of the formation of hydronium ion: H2SO4 + 2H2O = 2H3O+ + SO4-2 In diluting it. of sulfuric acid? and tell the constant composition of ordinary concentrated sulfuric acid of commerce? 3. sulfur trioxide. and a large amount of heat is liberated when it is mixed with water. finding use throughout the chemical industry and related industries. affinity. EXERCISES A. the crystals react to form drops of sulfuric acid. the contact process and the lead-chamber process.p. which fumes slightly in air. fertilizer. Axit sunfuric đậm đặc là một chất ăn mòn mạnh.838 g/cm3.838 g/cm3. Give examples of some usages of sulfuric acid. It has a strong affinity for water. sulfur dioxide. H2SO4. Answer the following questions 1. are formed. không bao giờ rót nước vào axit vì nó làm bắn axit ra. oily liquid. crystals of nitrososulfuric acid/ sulfuric acid in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by the nitrous group/. with the constant composition 98% H2SO4. 2% water. the concentrated acid should be poured into water in a thin stream. container. with stirring. The gas containing sulfur trioxide is bubbled through sulfuric acid.

Answer the following questions 1. is cheaper. Pyrex glass is a low-expansion borosilicate containing no metals of the magnesia-lime-zinc group and no heavy metals. C. feasibility. CaCl2 is added. The addition of borates and phosphates improves glass for various optical and chemical purposes. shattering. etc. fireproof. and more brittle the glass. optical purposes. Read and translate into Vietnamese glass. more resistive and less fusible than lead glass. 2. The method is based on the use of a high-frequency generator which offers the possibility of heating the reactants to high temps.2g of the mineral is placed in a crucible of high-quality graphite. Độ nóng chảy của thủy tinh tăng lên khi tăng lượng canxi và độ cứng cũng vậy. silica. The crucible is heated in a furnace at 2000 for 20 min. was always blown. It is fairly inexpensive. wire glass. of 31 . Window glass is generally a soda-lime glass and. formerly. There are two general kinds of glass: lime glass and lead glass. The quartz tube is placed in a cooling jacket of running H2O. German optical glass contains both zinc and barium. Fusibility is decreased and hardness increased by increasing the lime. lime-glass. In colored glass a part of the lime and lead is replaced by oxides of iron.25 . the higher the percentage of silica the harder. glass pipe lines for chemical plants. Thủy tinh quang học của Đức có cả kẽm và bari. of K based on decompn. Owing to the low coefficient of expansion Pyrex glass withstands sudden changes of temperature without breaking. After this the crucible is lowered into a dry quartz tube which is closed with a rubber stopper. 3. Translate into English UNIT 22 : THE RAPID METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM IN MINERALS Report of the development of a rapid method for detn. adhesive. resistive. attached to the glass by a suitable adhesive. 4. cut-ware. The temp. and when sufficiently thick is practically bulletproof. an alkali and lime or lead. EXERCISES A. embed. 1. silicate. The former is the more common. etc. It is used for flooring. What is the glass? How many kinds of glass do you know? And what are they? What are the difference of lime glass and lead glass? Can you tell something about the safety glass? Say few words about the production of glass? Thủy tinh nói chung là một hỗn hợp của các hợp chất silicat khi làm nóng chảy cát. Ground plate glass is extensively used for flooring. etc. sight glasses for chemical apparatus. Safety glass consist of two layers of plate glass firmly held by an intermediate layer of celluloid. Then 1.2g of anhyd. 2. It offers about 11/2 times the resistance to bending that plain glass does. It can be struck by a sharp hammer blow without shattering. 4. Then 0. baking ware. soda-lime. brittle. produced by melting together silica. Practically all glass is decolorized in manufacture by the addition of manganese dioxide. as do also zinc and barium. brilliance. In general. lead-glass. fusible. To remove H2O absorbed during weighing. The latter has greater luster and brilliancy and is used chiefly for cut-ware and optical purposes. fireproof doors. harder. The mineral sample is ground to particle sizes of 0. of minerals in molten CaCl2. bulletproof B. 3. manganese. less fusible. cobalt. Trong thực tế các loại thủy tinh bị mất màu khi bổ sung oxit mangan vào. and very thin sheets may be walked on.15 mm.0. Plate glass is usually soda-lime glass cast on large iron plates and subsequently ground and polished. Pressed glass is made by forming heat-softened glass to shape in dies under pressure. under exceptionally pure conditions. Principal uses are chemical ware. luster. high-tension insulators.UNIT 21: GLASS Glass is generally a mixture of several silicates. Wire glass is glass having an iron wire screen thoroughly embedded in it. resistance. cast. insulator. 5.

decompn.= solution. crucible. It was found that complete extn. and the radioactivity present in each section can be measured. and can be precipitated as barium carbonate by adding 32 . temps. An expt.= extracted. however. quartz tube. alk. The presence of radioactivity in layers other than the original surface layer shows that lead atoms from the surface layer have diffused through the metal. extraction. generator. C. obtained is analysed photometrically. It undergoes slow decomposition with emission of beta rays. This reaction is completed after several min. 4. it can then be cut up into thin sections parallel to the original surface layer. An organic compound containing a radioactive isotope. etc. Answer the following questions 1. 2. This phenomenon is called self-diffusion. 4.= decomposition. Large quantities of C14 can be readily made in a uranium pile. elements are converted to chlorides. excess.15 mm. masking. is shown. K in minerals. The process can be carried out by running a solution of ammonium nitrate into the uranium pile. A study of reproducibility of results was made by using Microcline. 3. What is the rapid method for determination of potassium? What are the particle size of mineral sample after grinding? Tell some steps of preliminary studies on using a new method in rock analysis? Write and read all words in abbreviations in the lesson. emission. and the amount of the isotope in a sample can be followed by measuring the beta activity. The human body contains such large amounts of the elements carbon. nitrogen. 3. One difficulty encountered was the masking of the emission from K by an excess of Ca. of K extd.= anhydride.17000C. The carbon which is made in this way is in the form of bicarbonate ion. by the action of slow neutrons on nitrogen. app. where it is exposed to neutrons. In comparing the rapid new method with the usual methods for detg. extn. Later complete dissolving of the salts from the crucible requires about 3 hrs.= apparatus B. that it is difficult to determine the state of the organic material in the body. soln. An especially useful radioactive isotope for these purposes is carbon 14. detg. av. photometrically. expt.= determining. Microcline was used as the mineral. Translate into English UNIT 23 : THE USE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS AS TRACERS An extremely valuable technique for research that has been developed in recent years is the use of both radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes as tracers.= average. By the use of these isotopes an element can be observed in the presence of large quantities of the same element. fusion. of K could be attained by a 3 . furnace. dissolve.= experiment.= amount. can be traced through the body.4 min.= determination. and requires no control. convert. anhyd. Preliminary studies on using the new method in rock analysis have given entirely satisfactory results. This isotope of carbon has a half-life of about 5000 years. hydrogen. extd. 1. sulfur. Để xác định Kali có một phương pháp nhanh dựa trên sự phân hủy quặng trong CaCl2 nóng chảy. and sample is allowed to stand for a while. It was found that the K content obtained was higher with the new method.97 relative %. If some radioactive lead is placed as a surface layer on a sheet of lead. Read and translate into Vietnamese detn.= temperature. and time of fusion.0. error did not exceed 0. 2.the crucible is brought to 1500 . As a result all the alk. The soln. and some data are given in tables.25 . Một thí nghiệm được tiến hành để biết mối quan hệ giữa lượng K tách ra được và thời gian nóng chảy của nó. one of the earliest uses of tracers was the experimental determination of the rate at which lead atoms move around through a crystalline sample of the metal lead. was made in order to learn the relation between amt. EXERCISES A.= alkaline. Phản ứng này kết thúc sau ít phút. A sketch of the app. For example. Perhaps the greatest use for isotopes as tracers will be in the field of biology and medicine. oxygen. graphite. Mẫu quặng được nghiền nhỏ thành các hạt có kích thước từ 0. Av. muscovite and biotite. amt.

biology. methanol. the ketene on reaction with glacial acetic acid forms acetic anhydride. surface layer. is difficult to control. By far the largest production of acetone is from petroleum-derived propylene by way of isopropyl alcohol. break it down to acetic and formic acid. brass. and esters. UNIT 24 : ACETONE Acetone is the simplest and most important of the ketones. determination. 33 .80% of acetone at room temperature. cements. and the latter decomposes further to carbon dioxide and water. pile. It is also formed by thermal decomposition of coal peat. being exothermic. EXERCISES A. flammable liquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odor. C. and citric acid. Acetone does not reduce ammoniacal silver or Fehling's solution. parallel. copper alloys. What is an extremely valuable technique for research in recent years? What is the phenomenon called self-diffusion? Can you cite some usage of isotopes as tracers in the body? How many elements are there in the body? Is it difficult to determine the state of the organic material in the body. 3. The production of acetone from isopropyl alcohol may be conducted either by catalytic dehydrogenation or by catalytic oxidation. traces. mobile. When acetone is passed through a heated tube at about 7000C/ preferably of a non-ferrous metal. It is miscible in all proportions with water and with organic solvents such as ether. Acetone is not easily oxidized. Translate into English 1. Read and translate into Vietnamese radioactive. silver. The oxidation. bicarbonate B. containing as much as 5% of the radioactive isotope. 3. expose to. Catalysts for the dehydrogenation include metals. It is a colorless. sheet. The explosive 1/mits of acetoneair mixtures appear to lie between 2. acetic acid salts. Quá trình này có thể được tiến hành bằng cách cho dung dịch nitrat amon vào lò phản ứng uran. it is converted into ketene and methane. and metal oxides. it is unaffected by nitric acid at room temperature and is stable to neutral permanganate. Acetone occurs in small quantities in human blood and urine. and by the dry distillation of sugars with lime. typical catalysts are copper. medicine. and other similar products. radioactivity. 5. The largest use of acetone is in the production of acetic anhydride. and recommended temperatures are of the order of 3000C and higher. and various metal oxides and salts or oxide-salt combinations. 4. and plastics. Bằng sử dụng các chất đồng vị phóng xạ một nguyên tố người ta có thể quan sát được khi có mặt một lượng lớn ở các nguyên tố cùng loại. photographic film. self-diffusion. phenomenon. The flash point of acetone is -200C. Acetone is used chiefly as a solvent and as a raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds. since iron increases carbon formation and reduces yields/. The samples of radioactive carbon are very strongly radioactive. Acetone is also an excellent solvent for nitrocellulose and is used in making films. 2. ở đấy dung dịch này được chuyển thành các neutron. and temperatures are in the range 200 to 8000C. Khả năng phóng xạ trên các lớp cắt mỏng song song lớn hơn ở lớp bề mặt ban đầu. non-radioactive. such as copper. ethyl alcohol. artificial leather.barium hydroxide solution. Answer the following questions 1. isotope. which in turn is chiefly consumed in making cellulose acetate for acetate rayon. formates. 2. such as alkaline permanganate and chromic acid. The availability of high-quality acetone in large quantities from the petroleum chemical industry has been a major factor in the expansion of rayon production and other acetone-consuming industries in recent years./ sometimes with promoters/. The more powerful oxidizing agents.55% and 12. and lead.

acetone is produced. If a condenser is available. axit xitric và bằng quá trình chưng cất khan của đường với nước vôi. as the compound will decompose and char. Axêton còn được hình thành do quá trình phân hủy bởi nhiệt độ cao của than bùn. pure acetic acid forms colorless crystals.EXERCISES A. until the water of crystallization is driven off and a dry powder remains. With organic alcohols. vinegar. synthesis. chat. What is acetone? What is acetone chiefly used for? Does acetone occur in human body? and where does it exist? What is the largest usage of acetone? Describe some methods of production of acetone. Answer the following questions 1. linh động. acetic acid forms esters. Acetaldehyde is formed by this reaction and is then oxidized to acetic acid. substitute a one-hole stopper and glass tubing leading to another vessel immersed in ice water. các muối của axit axêtic. Seven gallons of acid were extracted from one ton of wood. C. For example. calcium acetate is obtained. permanganate. fermentation. container. it must be distilled again and that potion boiling at about 116 degrees should be collected. Place 10 grams of sodium acetate in an evaporating dish. fit it quickly to the flask. When cooled to below 16 degrees. ammonia will produce ammonium acetate and from this compound acetamide is prepared. Acetic acid is also produced by synthetic methods. juice. coal peat. Apply gentle heat and continue heating. It is best known as the chief acid constituent of vinegar. constituent. Be very careful not to heat too strongly. acetylene. 2. petroleum B. decompose. The most convenient way to prepare glacial acetic acid in the Lab is by the distillation of sodium acetate with sulfuric acid. photographic film. Transfer the powder to a flask and add 7 cc. immerse. One such method employs acetylene as the starting point which itself is obtained as a by-product in the production of hydrogen during the refining of petroleum. There are many ways to prepare acetic acid. Translate into English 1. with stirring. 5. Axêton là một chất lỏng không màu. If you care to purify the acid. neutralization B. For a long time acetic acid was produced by the distillation of wood. 4. receiving. These crystals resemble ice in appearance. in appearance. Similarly. ketone. The acetylene is passed through a dilute solution of sulfuric acid containing a catalyst. ethyl alcohol. cellulose acetate. refining. Read and translate into Vietnamese familiar. Or. Acetic acid distils over and collects in the receiving container. it can be obtained from cider vinegar which is prepared from the juice of apples. có thể cháy cho mùi hơi cay và có thể xem như mùi hơi thơm. Read and translate into Vietnamese acetone. To demonstrate how easily acetic acid freezes. of concentrated sulfuric acid. of apples. 2. flash point. aromatic odor. lime. ether. neutralization with sodium carbonate will produce sodium acetate. immerse a partially filled test tube of the pure acid forms salts. Heat gently. What is the acetic acid? 34 . vessel. promoters. EXERCISES A. collect. If not. unaffect. UNIT 25: ACETIC ACID Certainly acetic acid is the most familiar of all the organic acids. plastics. dehydrogenation. glacial acetic acid. It can be obtained by the oxidation of ethyl alcohol which in turn is prepared by fermentation. organic solvents. using calcium carbonate. pungent. hence the pure acid is usually called "glacial" acetic acid. And. cider. gentle. Answer the following questions 1. exothermic. methanol. ester. acetaldehyde. By heating dry calcium acetate. 3.

5 moles/ of dry bromine are added in the following manner: Eight grams of iron powder is added through the side neck to the stirred nitrobenzene. crude product.2 moles/ of freshly distilled dry nitrobenzene. asbestos paper.p for pure m-bromonitrobenzene? 35 .1450C. and 26g of iron powder and 562g /180 cc/ 3.p and m. and the mixture is stirred and heated for another hour before the addition of a second portion of iron and bromine. The evolution of hydrogen bromide slackens considerably toward the last of the heating. The reaction product. separatory funnel. 3. a 100 cc. UNIT 26 : M-BROMONITROBENZENE PROCEDURE In a 3 . mechanical stirrer. 4. recovery B. bromine.1. The yellow crystalline solid is filtered with suction and pressed well on the funnel to remove water and traces of nitrobenzene. three-necked. slacken. and there is practically no more bromine vapor in the condenser. 3. It melts at 51.1180C/ 9 mm. saturated solution.? Say a few words about acetic acid in your own way. From the separatory funnel 60 cc of bromine is added at such a rate that the bromine vapors do not traverse the condenser. This addition requires about one hour. the crude M-Bromonitrobenzene may be distilled under reduced pressure. The joints in the apparatus are made of asbestos paper covered with water glass. 2.5 l of water to which 50 cc of a saturated solution of sodium bisulfite has been added. If a purer material is desired. Answer the following questions 1. The recovery on purification is about 85 per cent. efficient reflux. reduced pressure. What is the reaction product in the flask? 4. suction. as 1380/18 mm and the m. siphon. Quá trình oxy hóa rượu êtylic thành axit axêtic gọi là quá trình lên men.75 per cent of the theoretical amount/. Where can you see acetic acid every day? Can you describe one of the methods for preparing acetic acid? What is the most convenient way for preparing glacial acetic acid in the lab. round-bottomed flask. C.520C and boils at 117 .5 . provided with an efficient reflux condenser bearing an outlet hole above a surface of water? 3. EXERCISES A. and the heating continued for one hour longer. A final addition of 2g of iron powder is made. The mixture is distilled with steam and the first portion of the distillate is collected separately to remove a small amount of unchanged nitrobenzene. and a mercury-sealed mechanical stirrer. It is necessary to collect about 12 l of distillate in order to obtain all the mBromonitrobenzene. provided with an efficient reflux condenser bearing an outlet tube hole above a surface of water. What is the b. Read and translate into Vietnamese three-necked flask. 5. side neck.2. and the mixture is stirred and heated for one hour between the completion of one addition and the beginning of another. Two portion. each of 8g of iron powder and 60 cc of bromine. Khi làm lạnh đến nhiệt độ 160C axit axêtic tinh khiết tạo thành các tinh thể không màu. This product is satisfactory for most purposes. Cần chú ý cẩn thận không cấp nhiệt quá mạnh làm cho hợp chất này phân hủy và cháy thành than.p. What is the method of producing purer Bromonitrobenzin from m-Bromonitrobenzen? 5. are added under the same conditions as the first addition. which is a dark reddish-brown liquid. Can you draw a three-necked. outlet tube hole. as 560C for pure m-bromonitrobenzene. round-bottomed flask? 2. Bruhl recorded the b. oil bath.p. dark reddishbrown liquid. The yield of crude product varies from 270 to 340g/ 60 . is poured or siphoned into 1. separatory funnel. Translate into English 1. is placed 270g /2. The flask is heated in an oil bath maintained at 135 . nitrobenzene. round-bottomed flask. Can you explain the flask.

Add 5cc of concentrated ammonium hydroxide and stir well. EXERCISES A. milky-white in color. To the boiling liquid. ethylene dichloride. Work the chemicals into the rubber by kneading with the pestle.rather press the chemicals in. stirring constantly. Remove the lump and wash is thoroughly with water. Dùng giấy amiăng để nối các phần thiết bị. Carefully pour off the clear liquid from the top. The Thiokol that you have prepared is actually a "substitute" rubber. and if necessary. polymer. which involves intermolecular combinations. vulcanize B. Dissolve 3 grams of sodium hydroxide in 60 cc of water. The latex emulsion will gradually settle to the bottom of the container. It is important that you keep the temperature at 70 degrees. Then. This is the crude synthetic rubber. we will use a soap solution. Translate into English 1. filter off. stir. yellow and ivory. The polymers resulting from this reaction are of the elastic type. This can be done with dilute acetic acid/ about a 20% solution/. such as synthetic plastics. Thiokol. Add about one-half gram of zinc oxide and small pinch of carbon black. and in many respects superior to the natural product. cool the beaker externally. The resultant filtrate should be a clear red liquid /sodium polysulfide/. which will act as stabilizer. polymerization. Actually.1450C. Cuối cùng bổ sung thêm 2g bột sắt và tiếp tục đun nóng thêm 1 giờ nữa. 2. Add the acetic acid in small quantities with continual stirring until the Thiokol separates out of solution as a lump in the bottom of the container. Note the elasticity after you have treated the rubber for about 15 minutes. Note that it is moderately elastic. UNIT 27 : SYNTHETIC RUBBER Synthetic rubber is produced through a process known as polymerization. remove the heat. What is synthetic rubber? 2. add 10 cc of ethylene dichloride in small portions. and the non-elastic types. The elasticity can be increased by treatment with zinc oxide and carbon black. Bình này được đun nóng trong bể dầu để duy trì nhiệt độ 135 . inter-molecular combinations. sodium polysulfide. moderately elastic. For an emulsifying agent. latex. Our final step is to coagulate the rubber. Dissolve about one-half gram of soap flakes in 10 cc of hot water. The solution will pass through various shades of orange.C. synthetic plastics. remove the heat immediately. Place the lump of rubber in a mortar. Natural rubber is a complex polymerized form of isoprene. coagulate. Cool the solution and add 5 cc of concentrated ammonium hydroxide. It is produced essentially from the reaction of sodium tetrasulfide with ethylene dichloride. After all has been added. Next. This rubber is then vulcanized and further treated with carbon black or zinc oxide which help to increase its resiliency. Can you tell something about latex? 36 . Stir again and allow the mixture to stand for a day or two. The natural latex is also stabilized and then coagulated with acetic acid. It is unaffected by hydrocarbons and most solvents. Heat the sodium polysulfide solution prepared above in a large beaker to a temperature of 70 degrees. elastic. The difference. But do not be satisfied until you obtain an entirely white color. duplicate. while stirring. Place the solution in a large beaker and heat to boiling. Answer the following questions 1. add about 50 cc of water. such as synthetic rubbers. Read and translate into Vietnamese synthetic rubber. of course. If it should rise. 3. The process you have just completed is similar to that of processing natural rubber. continue stirring and heating for a few minutes. pinch. the elastomers do not duplicate natural rubber. Then add the white emulsion to 150 cc of water in a beaker. Thus it is used in making hoses used to handle such liquids. emulsifying. Continue stirring at the 70 degrees temperature until the liquid becomes milky-white in color. and add the soap solution into it. add 6 grams of finely powdered sulfur. What is Thiokol? 3. and filter off any unreacted sulfur. sodium tetrasulfide. Among the many types of rubber like compounds. Do not grind . stabilizer. Thiokol is perhaps the most easily adapted for school laboratory preparation. elastomer. The rubber-type of compounds are known as elastomers. Add small portions at a time. is that the milky latex is obtained from the rubber tree instead of from chemical reactions. strength. elasticity. This white emulsion is the "latex". and toughness.

and some NH3. Anthracite has been subjected to the greatest temperatures and pressures for the longest period of time. wood. 4. it disintegrates and changes to a powdery substance. C. Than thường chia ra hai loại: loại cứng và loại mềm. petroleum oils. or a combination of air and steam /semi-water gas/. Chúng ta có thể dùng dung dịch xà phòng như là một tác nhân gây nhũ tương hóa. disintegrate. principally wood. 2. 5. It is generally used as household and industrial fuel. volatile compound. and coal. Translate into English 37 . Could you compare the difference of natural rubber and synthetic rubber? C. shiny substance. The solid fuels are essentially naturally occurring materials. incomplete combustion B. Bituminous coal is often called soft coal. and what is it used for? Can you tell the difference of gaseous fuels and solid ones? Các loại nhiên liệu rắn thường là các vật liệu tồn tại trong tự nhiên như: gỗ. bituminous coal. It is a grey solid that looks somewhat like coal. liquid. Lignite is softer that bituminous coal. Coke is made by the destructive distillation of bituminous coal. powdery substance. Answer the following questions 1. coal. dense. leaving the metal. What is the method for increasing the elasticity of rubber? 5. Hard coal. such as coal. which is called anthracite coal. charcoal coke. or liquid fuels /oil gas/. 4. fractional distillation. such as the petroleum oils. Read and translate into Vietnamese fuels. steam /water gas/. It readily takes oxygen away from the oxide of a metal. usually in large holding capacities. có loại đàn hồi như cao su tổng hợp. which is a mixture like petroleum. 3. UNIT 28 : CLASSIFICATION OF FUELS Fuels are employed in the solid. 2. peat. is about 90 per cent carbon. It is a valuable fuel and excellent reducing agent. but considerable quantities are obtained as the result of destructive distillation of solid fuels. Than bitum là loại than mềm thường dùng làm nhiên liệu trong công nghiệp và trong gia đình. and still contains some compounds of C and H. có loại không đàn hồi như chất dẻo tổng hợp. 4. Liquid fuels are mostly direct natural products.4. although for special purposes they are carbonized for the production of charcoal and coke. 3. 2. or the result of the incomplete combustion of solid fuels in gas producers either by an air blast /producer gas/. EXERCISES A. and gaseous condition. Gaseous fuels occur naturally locally as natural gas. Can you name some kinds of fuels? What is charcoal and coke? What is anthracite coal? What is coal tar. Charcoal is made by heating wood without contact with air. if this is done on an industrial scale. than đen. Dịch mủ cao su sẽ từ từ lắng xuống đáy thiết bị. shiny substance that burns with practically no flame or soot. coal tar. Translate into English 1. When stored. soot. Các nhiên liệu lỏng thường là sản phẩm lấy trực tiếp từ tự nhiên ví dụ dầu mỏ.. Các hợp chất cao phân tử do quá trình trùng hợp tạo thành. It is a hard. coke oven gas/. and most of the volatile compound have been removed. and can be separated into its several ingredients by fractional distillation. Giai đoạn cuối cùng của chúng ta là làm đông đặc cao su. One of the arising by-products is coal tar. This form has not been subjected to as great pressures as has hard coal. but are also the result of destructive distillation of solid fuels /coal gas. lignite. Coal is usually classified as hard and soft. 1. 3. anthracite coal. peat.. than bùn.

lubricating oils. roofing and all kinds of industrial purposes. petroleum bitumen. kerosene. EXERCISES A. Lubricating oils come up the range of boiling points and are separated by special vacuum distillation and other processes. gasoline.UNIT 29 : PETROLEUM Petroleum. and temperatures of 400 . Free carbon is formed during the cracking processes. usually based on aluminum silicates. Translate into English 1. 2. and the molecules of the less volatile hydrocarbons are decomposed to form molecules of lower molecular weight. In other processes. 5. chemical and bacteriological action. Probably it had its origin millions of years ago at the bottoms of ancient seas. in the presence of a catalyst. During hundreds of years they were subjected to pressure and to chemical and bacteriological action. or crude oil. waxed paper and polishes. such as petrol/ gasoline/. A cracking process means the decomposition by heat with catalysis of petroleum or heavy petroleum fractions. propane and butane are gases. The process is subject to operating control so as to increase greatly the yield of the product for which the industrial demand is the greatest. as also are the solid paraffin waxes used for candles. In all of them the oil is heated to a fairly high temperature. which eventually transformed them into oil. paraffin. diesel fuel. ethane. petroleum bitumen which is used for road paving. Answer the following questions 1. the cracking takes place in the liquid phase. diesel fuel and heavier fuel and heavier fuel oils. waxes. hydrogenation B. aluminum silicates. Read and translate into Vietnamese petroleum. next come liquids boiling in a range suitable for motor fuel. 4. 3. waxed paper. In this family of compounds the boiling point increases with increasing molecular size. In some of the processes. deposit. cracking process. are used. Further improvements have been made by developing processes with involve hydrogenation at the same time as cracking. and a number of cracking processes have come into use since that time. petrol. with the production of lower-boiling materials. Các xác động thực vật trải qua hàng trăm năm dưới đáy biển bị phân hủy do tác nhân hóa học và vi sinh vật học biến thành dầu mỏ. which have boiling points within the gasoline range. crude oils. It was discovered by Burton in 1913. the cracking occurs in the gas phase at ordinary pressures. at pressure from a few hundred pounds to a thousand pounds per square inch. and temperatures up to approximately 6000C. What is petroleum? What are the main compounds in crude oil of petroleum? Can you describe a cracking process? What are the main temperatures in the cracking process in petroleum industry? What is the catalysts used in the cracking process? C. hydrogen and carbon. and thus avoid the great loss due to the formation of uncombined carbon. 2. Methane. but the yield of gasoline is greatly increased. finally. 38 . methane. Quá trình chưng cất dầu mỏ được phát minh từ năm 1913 do nhà bác học Burton để tinh chế dầu mỏ. where the remains of countless animal and vegetable organisms settled. then kerosene/ or paraffin/. Crude oil is composed very largely of compounds of two elements. These processes are carried out by heating the petroleum to be cracked with hydrogen at high pressure. and. candles. is a dark oily liquid found in underground deposits in various parts of the earth.5000C. overlaid. Then they were overlaid by sediment. waxed polishes. ethane. In many of these processes catalysts.

hydrogen. with hydrogen and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio. and salts are examples of inorganic compounds 3. and many common acids. which stabilizes the pH inside a cell. Acids. Frequently encountered classes of molecules are R-OH (alcohols). and salts 1. 3. Organic Compounds 1. a reaction involving the splitting of water molecules. 39 . 2. 3. . Because water is a polar molecule of the decomposition reactions of digestion. Monomers usually bond together by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions that form water and a polymer. .Lipids are a diverse group of compounds distinguished by their insolubility in water.UNIT 30 : MAIN BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Inorganic Compounds 1. and polysaccharides. a pH below 7 indicates acidity. 3. 4. and oxygen. 3. neither of which is H+ or OHAcid-base balance 1. Organic Compounds are mostly or entirely covalently bonded. a pH above 7 indicates alkalinity. Isomers are two molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures and properties for example. Functional groups 1. . 2. Small organic molecules may combine into very large molecules called macromolecules. and many of them are large molecules. disaccharides. The term pH refers to the concentration of H+ in a solution 2. Water 4. H2N-RCOOH (amino acids) Macromolecules 1.Carbohydrates are compounds consisting of atoms of carbon. Inorganic compounds are usually small. Water. . 6.Monosaccharides may form disaccharides and polysaccharides by dehydration synthesis. A pH buffer. Water is the most abundant substance in cells. Carbon atoms form up to four bonds with other atoms.Carbohydrates can be divided into three types. . R-COOH (organic acids). Organic Compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen. . monosaccharides. ionically bonded molecules. bases. glucose (C6H12O6) and fructose (C6H12O6). 2. 5. 2. A chain of carbon atoms forms a carbon skeleton.Simple lipids (fats) consist of a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids.Monosaccharides contain from three to seven carbon atoms. The letter R may be used to denote a particular functional group of atoms are responsible for most of the properties of organic molecules. bases. A base dissociates into OH.ions and cations 3. A salt dissociates negative and positive ions. can be used in culture media. A solution with a pH of 7 is neutral. An acid dissociates into H+ ions and anions 2. Lipids .Polysaccharides and disaccharides may be broken down by hydrolysis. 5. Water is an excellent temperature buffer. Carbohydrates .Carbohydrates include sugars and starches.

Nucleic Acids . tertiary (overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide). anions. adenine.DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides wound in a double helix. nhiều loại axit. . functional groups. acids. Proteins . muối là những ví dụ về các hợp chất vô cơ. .A DNA nucleotide consists of deoxyribose (a pentose) and one of these nitrogenous bases: thymine or cytosine (pyrimidines) or adenine or guanine (purines). carbohydrates. . 2. and a nitrogenous base.Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. neutral. an unsaturated fat has one or more double bonds. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) . bazơ.Phospholipids are complex lipids consisting of glycerol. The strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine nucleotides: A-T and G-C. monomers.Twenty amino acids.A nucleotide is composed of a pentose. or uracil. Read and translate into Vietnamese digestion.Steroids have carbon ring systems with functional hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. Dùng pH dung dịch đệm để ổn định pH trong tế bào và điều chỉnh môt trường nuôi cấy vi sinh vật.primary (sequence of amino acids). 5. 4. 3. . buffer. . double helix. . . adenosine. isomers. Từ pH dùng để chỉ nồng độ ion H+ trong dung dịch. nucleic acids. secondary (regular coils or pleats). .. EXERCISES A.The energy from decomposition reactions is used to regenerate ATP from ADP and phosphate. two fatty acids. guanine. .An RNA nucleotide consists of ribose (a pentose) and one of these nitrogenous bases: cytosine. fatty.When the bond to ATP's terminal phosphate group is broken. 4. 8. regenerate B. . and quaternary (two or more polypeptide chains). a phosphate group. What are organic compounds? What are functional groups? What are carbohydrates? Can you give the definition of lipids and proteins? What is DNA. 7.ATP stores chemical energy for various cellular activities. strands. nitrogen. and phosphate. macromolecules. C. dehydration synthesis.A saturated fat has no double bonds between carbon atoms in the fatty acids. and some time sulfur. Translate into English 40 . peptide bonds (formed by dehydration synthesis) allow the formation of polypeptide chains. protein. release. ATP? Nước. hydrogen.Amino acids consist of carbon. . cations.DNA and RNA . 2. insolubility.Nucleic acids . 6. Answer the following questions 1. Các polysacarit và disacarit có thể bị cắt mạch bằng axit hoặc enzim. triphosphat. conjugated. 1. . oxygen. dissociates.Protein have four levels of structure . 3. phospholipids.are macromolecules consisting of repeating nucleotides. energy is released. ions.Conjugated proteins consist of amino acids combined with other organic or inorganic compounds.

Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall. Microorganisms degrade dead plants and animals and recycle chemical elements to be used by living plants and animals. and spiral. Fungi. 2. 3. 2. 3. Algae are unicellular or multicellular eucaryotes that obtain nourishment by photosynthesis. 3. 2. Bacteria are used to decompose organic matter in sewage. 2. 2. Bacteria can use a wide range of chemical substances for their nutrition. Microbes and Human Welfare 1. Fungi 1. Because they have no nucleus. analysis of interferon action. Protozoans obtain nourishment by absorption or ingestion through specialized structures. New techniques in molecular biology and electron microscopy have provided tools for advancement of our knowledge of virology. An envelope may surround the coating. coccus. Fungi (mushrooms. Algae produce oxygen and carbohydrates that are used by other organisms. collectively called helminths. The study of AIDS. all organisms are classified into Procaryotae (or Monera). Fungi obtain nutrients by absorbing organic material from their environment. yeasts) have eucaryotic cells (with a true nucleus). Naming and Classifying Microorganisms 1. Protozoans 1. Multicellular Animal Parasites 1. each living organism is assigned two names. 2. 3. Viruses are noncellular entities that are parasites of cells. Bioremediation processes use bacteria to clean up toxic wastes. The three major basic shapes of bacteria are bacillus. The two names consist of a genus and specific epithet.UNIT 32: STUDY OUTLINE IN MICROORGANISMS Bacteria 1. and the development of new vaccines are among the current research interests in immunology. The microscopic stages in the life cycle of helminths are identified by traditional microbiologic procedures Modern Developments in Microbiology 1. Algae 1. Most fungi are multicellular. Viruses consist of a nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) surrounded by aprotein coating. and they may possess flagella. they divide by binary fission. Plantae and Animalia. Viruses 1. 2. 4. Bacteria are one-celled organisms. the cells are described as procaryotic cells. both of which must be underlined or italicized. In a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus (1735). In the five-kingdom system. 2. 2. The development of recombinant DNA technology has helped advance all areas of microbiology. The principal groups of multicellular animal parasites are flatworms and roundworms. Protozoans are unicellular eucaryotes and are classified according to their means of locomotion. Protista. molds. 41 .

Everyone has microorganisms in and on the body. Read and translate into Vietnamese bacterium. maggot. spiral. EXERCISES A. A heating process called pasteurization is used to kill bacteria in some alcoholic beverages and milk. postulate B. interferon.4. italicize. Biological controls are specific for the pest and do not harm the environment. Vaccination 1. flagella. Fermentation and Pasteurization 1. virology. these make up the normal flora. bacillus. he coined the word vaccine. In a vaccination. Bacteria that cause diseases in insects are being used as biological controls of insect pests. such as insulin. In 1798. which are used today to prove that a particular microorganism causes a particular disease. Robert Koch proved that microorganisms transmit disease. 2. Microorganisms are important in the maintenance or an ecological balance on Earth. Pasteur found that yeast ferments sugars to alcohol and that bacteria can oxidize the alcohol to acetic acid. peptidoglycan. Microbes and Human Disease 1. Using recombinant DNA. Microbes in Our Lives 1. What are fungi? 3. immunity (resistance to a particular disease) is conferred by inoculation with a vaccine. spontaneous generation. Answer the following questions 1. The golden age of microbiology Rapid advances in the science of microbiology were made between 1857 and 1914. Microorganisms can be used to help produce foods. Pasteur discovered that a virulent bacteria could be used as a vaccine for chicken cholera. flatworms. multicellular. What are protozoans? 42 . 4. welfare. 4. photosynthesis. Some microorganisms are used to produce tools and chemicals. bioremediation. procaryotic cells Eucaryotic cells. About 1880. and by recombinant DNA techniques. 2. Edward Jenner demonstrated that inoculation with cowpox material provides humans with immunity from smallpox. Modern vaccines are prepared from living virulent microorganisms or killed pathogens. parasite. Living things too small to be seen with the naked eye are called microorganisms. 6. coccus. viruses. epithet. one-celled organisms. Some microorganisms cause disease. broth. Some microorganisms live in humans and other animals and are needed to maintain the animal’s health. 5. They are also food sources (single-cell protein) themselves. 5. binary fission. 2. roundworms. betaendorphin and hepatitis B vaccine. alga (algae). The disease-producing properties of the species of microbe and the host’s resistance are important factors in determining whether a person will contract a disease. bacteria can produce important human proteins. He used a sequence of procedures called Koch’s postulates (1876). 3. 3. What are bacteria? 2. 3. fungus (fungi). 2. protozoans. helminths.

several brands were found to be low or even devoid of vitamin C. It has been reported that dietary-fiber-like substances are formed by starch-protein interaction. this product could have led to nutritional problems. the novel foods must contain these nutrients in specified quantity and so far as the protein is concerned. A manufacturer justifiably may claim that his product makes so small a contribution to the diet that it is unimportant whether it contains nutrients. 6. Since then most.4. 2.having been originally marketed during the 1940's. Changes in such thinking are already taking place and responsibility is coming to rest on the manufacturer. together with alcohol. The latter is illustrated by interest in extrusion-cooking processes. The partial destruction of thiamin in potatoes (and 15 percent of the average intake of thiamin in Britain comes from potatoes) white with sulfite also appears to have slipped by unnoticed. When this product was re-introduced onto the British market during the 1960's . trong nước. the average individual in the Western world is obtaining 60 to 70 percent of his energy intake from these three sources of nutritionally "empty calories". These are applicable to a wide range of foods and not only result in novel preparations but can be used in the production of conventional and even staple foods such as biscuits and bread. if not all. Extrusion cooking differs from conventional baking or any simple heat process and includes shearing effects on the foodstuffs as well as high temperatures and high pressures involving depolymerization of starches. trong không khí. 5. On the other hand. The responsibility is usually placed on the public health authorities that are given the responsibility of educating the consumers. It is difficult to place full responsibility for the nutritional content of food products upon the manufacturer . Quan sát của nhà bác học Hook là những nghiên cứu cơ bản cho sự phát triển lý thuyết về tế bào. What are algae? What are microorganisms? Can you name and classify microorganisms? What are useful microbes in our lives? C. Translate into English 1.even American nutritional labeling is enforced only when the manufacturer makes nutritional claims. a large part of our diet consists of processed foods so that between them the manufacturers should provide us with a significant part of our nutrient intake. reformed meat products. A second group is the rapid development of food engineering and processing which results both in new foods and in traditional foods manufactured by unconventional methods. nor of purified sucrose although. the lesson of "instant potato" does not appear to have been learned. It might be argued that it is not possible to ban the purification of oils from their source materials. Since meat is an important source of protein. The responsibility for maintaining the nutritional value of the new form of food is being laid on the manufacturer. iron and vitamins B1 and B12 and since textured vegetable products which may replace meat may contain enough phytate and dietary fiber to render the zinc unavailable. It is surprising that no one in that particular industry predicted the problem. 4. such products contain added vitamin C-sufficient to make the manufactured product superior to the "natural" potato. 43 . Since the average person in Europe obtains about one third of his vitamin C from potatoes. with a minimum quality. 3. the advent of nutritional labeling and the growing interest of governmental and legislative bodies. Các phát minh của Pasteur đưa đến sử dụng kỹ thuật vô trùng trong phòng thí nghiệm và trong y học để ngăn chặn sự nhiễm tạp vi sinh vật. cellulose and proteins with little-known effects on conventional value. 7. UNIT 32 : FOOD MANUFACTURE AND NUTRITION Many social and economic changes have aroused great interest in the role of manufactured foods in nutrition. distrust of manufactured products. The British Department of Health published recommendations in 1980. rising to one-half in winter. It is essential for nutritionists to keep abreast of such developments. Robert Koch đã chứng minh rằng vi sinh vật gây nên quá trình truyền bệnh. and since there are many people above the average consumption. texturization and large-scale use of enzymatic methods. Louis Pasteur đã chỉ ra rằng vi sinh vật có ở khắp nơi trong đất. The first group of these changes includes growing interest by the consumer in the nutritional value of foods.

Answer the following questions 1.. MARMALADES AND FRUIT BUTTER Partly as a result of the manner in which the preserving industry developed. enforce. Giá trị dinh dưỡng bị mất đi một phần do quá trình chế biến. 4. nutritional deficiencies appear to have been eliminated. they are usually in place of losses that occur in domestic cooking. 2. a clear differentiation between these products cannot always be made. blanch B. texturization. legislature. 3. depolymerization. EXERCISES A. Commercial preparation of frozen peas involves three minutes of blanching when 11 percent of the vitamin C was lost. predict. diet. the extraction of oil from their nuts or seeds. When cooked for eventual consumption the product require only three minutes cooking in place of the normal six minutes and a further 30 percent loss resulted. deficiency.S.Some nutritional losses are a result of food processing. advent. Read and translate into Vietnamese nutrition. xenlulôza và protein. Marmalade was originally an English product prepared from bitter varieties of oranges. Thực tế cho thấy đậu tươi đun sôi trong 6 phút làm mất khoảng 40% vitamin C. all frozen and dried foods have been blenched and are partially cooked. What are the kinds of fruits containing sufficient vitamin C in Vietnam? What are reasons for some nutritional losses in food processing? Could you say few words about food manufacture and nutritious foods? Nhiệt độ và áp suất cao gây nên sự phân hủy (cắt mạch polyme) của tinh bột. American marmalades have been variously defined as fruit preserves of pulpy or semisolid consistency. slip. The term "preserve" and "jam" are generally used synonymously. Major losses occur when wheat or rice is milled but this is in response to consumer demand. preserves have sometimes been differentiated from jams on the basis of the size of the fruit pieces present. this subject of nutritional changes in food processing is becoming a matter of greater importance. labeling. and extraction of sugar and the preparation of fish filets involve discarding of protective nutrients. as preserves consisting of slices of a fruit suspended in a jelly.but there is still no evidence of any resultant nutritional harm to those consuming such foods.. Jelly is distinct from the others since it contains little or no insoluble solids. Translate into English UNIT 33 : JELLIES. and most other developed areas. staple foods. JAMS. PRESERVES. With the growing concern and processed foods in Europe. 5. 1. fresh peas cooked for six minutes (plus 1. C. not additional such losses. the U. What are nutritional foods? Name some kinds of new foods and traditional foods in Vietnam. In comparison. nutrients.. Instead our main problem is over consumption of calories. 2. When losses occur. apart from isolated instances. All canned and bottled foods are already cooked. Many losses are intentional or inevitable. The inevitable losses take place in any wet process. which leaches out water-soluble nutrients. discarding. phytate.1 minutes required to bring the temperature to boiling point) resulted in the loss of 40 percent of the vitamin C. render. the preserve containing whole fruit or large pieces whereas jams contain the crushed or disintegrated fruit. bảo quản và phân phối không tốt. Confusion in the use of the term "marmalade" could be avoided if it were restricted to preserves made 44 . Similarly. dietaryfiber-like substances. storage and distribution. devoid. distrust. but all evidence indicates that the development of food processing over the last generation has led to cheaper and more abundant food supplies and. and as a preserve made only from citrus fruits. although we can never be certain that the majority of individuals are completely satisfying their nutritional requirements. Đồ ăn nấu tại nhà cũng bị mất nhiều chất dinh dưỡng. It is clear those domestic preparation results in enormous losses in many homes . justifiably. It follows that domestic cooking must be included with the term processing. 3. 4. however.the evidence from institutional cooking verifies this . abreast.

synonymously. a screened fruit. The third method involves the use of continuous jelly machines. Các loại quả rắn như mận. The fruit may be frozen or canned if it is to be stored for future use. Larger kettles may be employed when evaporation is conducted under vacuum and the mixture is usually heated to a temperature of 180 to 1900F either before or after concentration to obtain the desired degree of sugar inversion. semisolid products obtained by cooking a screened fruit with either sugar or a fruit juice. The fruit is passed through a fine screen to give the desired consistency. the boiling period should be as short as possible. Fruits may be crushed. firm fruits. in particular. To reduce the loss of aroma and flavor and pectin decomposition. chuyển hóa và bổ sung nước để chiết tách hết nước.. UNIT 34 : THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Biological processes have had central importance in the foodstuffs industry. and water is added to aid in extracting the juice. thịt quả. Fruit intended for preserve manufacture should be selected and prepared by methods similar to those used in preparing fruit juices. Quá trình xử lý nhiệt (nấu) làm mất một phần hương vị tự nhiên của quả. At the present time. bitter varieties. for thousands of years. crush. Three methods of concentration are used commercially. disintegrate. which may be fresh. Fruit butters are the smooth. sugar. EXERCISES A. Jellies are prepared from fruit-juice ingredients. or dried fruits. inversion. partial hydrolysis. 4. Có ba phương pháp xử lý nhiệt chính: nấu gián đoạn bằng hơi. consistency. Answer the following questions 1. The actual quantity or fruit-juice component present in extracts which contain added water is based on the soluble solids content of the extract. confusion. 2. The field of operation of biotechnology consists of three large areas: 45 . Give the definition of Jellies and Jams.from citrus products since the other definitions apply more nearly to fruit preserves or jams. The size of the kettle is usually limited to 50 gal. Jams. fruit butters. and some loss of aroma and flavor. preserve. sliced. frozen. The fruit. also causes a partial inversion of sucrose. A second method employs evaporation under vacuum at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent flavor changes caused by heat. preserves. Các loại quả có thể nghiền. pectin extracted. evaporation under vacuum. 5. a partial hydrolysis of pectin. The oldest is the batch method using as open steam jacketed kettle. uninterrupted flow B. citrus fruits. 4. Manufacturing methods. 3. táo. batch method. pulpy. 3. is usually heated to aid in removing the juice and to increase the quantity of color and of pectin extracted.. which permit an uninterrupted flow of fruit. semisolid. and marmalade manufacture. Marmalades. slices. Firm fruits such as apples and plums are crushed. and other ingredients into finished preserves. smooth. or canned. so that rapid concentration is obtained. Read and translate into Vietnamese Jellies. phải qua nghiền. The cooking process. modern biotechnology is capable of becoming a part of industry of increasing economic importance. canned. or left whole in preparation for jam. frozen. by which concentration is achieved. cắt miếng hoặc để nguyên khi chế biến thành các sản phẩm quả. bốc hơi trong điều kiện chân không và nấu dòng liên tục. Translate into English 1. What is preserve? What is the difference between marmalades and Jams? What is fruit butter? Can you tell the main steps for the manufacturing of fruits into fruit butter? C. Fruit butters may be prepared from fresh. 2. but it is only in the last hundred years that they have been applied more intensively in chemical technology.

Microbiology. such as monensin. including vaccines. Even special antibiotics. including microbial genetics. Of these the glutamic acid is particularly important with a current production of about nearly 300 000 tons per year. steroids and many estrogenic ovulation inhibitors that are used as "antibaby pills". both living cells and also their enzymes can be used repeatedly. Biochemistry. which could possibly be a decisive factor in human society during the next few decades. It has become likely that by manipulating cells. By being fixed to matrices. with its first attempts at application as genetic engineering. Biotechnology is developing by close interweaving between these areas and can develop further only by means of an interdisciplinary cooperation between them. Molecular biology. Recent developments of biotechnology in close connection with its neighboring areas make up an increasing proportion of environmental protection. complicated natural substances normally very difficult to obtain can be manufactured in controlled fashion. to apply measuring and controlling technology. Many people do not realize that for us the antibiotics practically represent the "philosophers'stone" of the Middle Ages which was sought and pursued with such great labor. If basic science is to understand nature and technology is to apply what is understood. In the technical field. The situation is similar with citric acid. The production of antibiotics is in the order of more than 30 000 tons per year. This applies particularly to most of the secondary metabolic products such as. a broad field is opened up here to biotechnology. and 3. vitamin B12. since biotechnology is usually carried out in highly diluted aqueous solutions. and many other. the biotechnological purification of sewage is the most important means of rendering sewage harmless and clarifying it so that it can be returned to the natural water cycle. At the present time about 90 antibiotics for medical use are manufactured industrially. particularly through investigations in the field of the production of biomass. and at the same time the advantages of smaller dimensions of plants are obtained.1. are already being manufactured on the ton scale. rennet in the USA. Process engineering and apparatus constructions. for example. and technical chemistry. physical chemistry. since many reactions are performed at low temperatures and without substantial overpressure. Many products can be manufactured only biotechnological. a coccidiostat and animal feed supplement. 2. in combination with measuring and controlling techniques and the technical developments of the last few years. Recycling processes with biomass are currently being intensively studied and tested in order to achieve processes for the degradation of environmentally harmful substances with the aid of microorganisms. for example. the manufacture of which has assumed an important place in foodstuffs chemistry. Another highly interesting field is the use of fixed systems. is certainly capable of opening up completely new possibilities for biotechnology. to the vital processes of cells taking place in reactors. and as proteases and amylases in many branches of industry. it has been possible in the last few years. which is used in Japan for the control of phytopathogenic bacteria. including the use of computers. EXERCISES 46 . for the manufacture of cheese. but it also applies to many products that are manufactured by a microbial transformation and which cannot be produced profitably in any other way. Together with many different chemical and physical purification processes. antibiotics. More than 25 enzymes are produced technically. They frequently require less energy. The same applies to other therapeutic agents. It is impossible nowadays to imagine the economy without their use. and validamycin. Millions of people in the world owe their lives to the use of antibiotics. which are likewise largely produced biotechnological. The importance of this application of modern technologies for living systems will certainly increase in the future. for example. More than 20 amino acids are offered by various industries as biotechnological prepared products. such as. Biotechnological industries often use ecologically beneficial processes.

construction. 1.A. identification and initial selection of microbial strains. The latter. transformation. interdisciplinary. foodstuffs. C. Hơn 20 loại axit amin cung cấp cho các ngành công nghiệp khác nhau đều được sản xuất theo phương pháp công nghệ sinh học. together with the recently established MIRCENs (Microbiological Resources Centers). and low or village technology. Microbial process development can therefore be regarded as the ideal example for basic scientific research with an applied goal. the rate of product formation. together taking about half and higher plants the other half. the yield of product per gram of substrate. Translate into English UNIT 35 : THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF A MICROBIAL PROCESS Introduction The development of a microbial process for the formation of biomass or products is aimed at maximizing three factors: 1. is the appropriate microorganism in question and its suitability for a process development. molecular biology B. cell cultivation systems. 2. biotechnology. In terms of total biomass of our planet. microorganisms are equal to the animal kingdom (including human beings). which have provided important potentialities for development in the second half of twentieth century and beyond. engineering. Answer the following questions 1. contain large lists of microbial strains of more or less known 47 . Microorganisms are still most frequently referred to as the cause of disease in human beings. of course. 3. Why the glutamic acid is produced more than other amino acids every year ? Can you say something about biotechnology in the technical field? What is molecular biology? Hiện nay có khoảng 90 loại kháng sinh được sản xuất trong công nghiệp. If one wants to develop a technology of a process. biotechnology has emphasized the development of technologies for organisms preserved in culture collections. Read and translate into Vietnamese biological process. microbiology. intermediate. The reasons for this increasing awareness over the last decade are the realization that biological systems may be utilized for many new purposes in addition to food production. b. 2. animals or plants. biomass. and only slowly do we recognize that many more types are beneficial than harmful to higher forms of life. A great number of culture collections. the concentration of the product. 3. interweaving. The knowledge gained in such process development can then be translated into the microbial process technology. 3. temperatures. The question was thus raised whether mankind has taken or is taking full advantage of this almost untapped natural resource. ovulation. isolation. Ngày nay sự phát triển công nghệ sinh học liên quan mật thiết đến quá trình bảo vệ môi trường. rendering. pH and oxygen supply. c. whereby metabolism means that all of the available carbon is converted into biomass and the endproduct(s) of energy metabolism. genetics. identification and initial selection of microorganisms. 4. matrices. d. which can be classified into high. determination of optimum values of nutritional requirements. Over the pass decade. coccidiostat. estrogen. the following main features of a microbial process development have to be observed: a. modification of the genetic structure of the organism to increase the product formation. 5. It is the biological sciences. one has to know the catalyst first. therapeutic. which have never been investigated along the lines mentioned above. All four aspects are basically concerned with the adjustment of metabolic regulation in the organism. 2. microorganisms. What are the large areas of operation of biotechnology? Name some main care products produced biotechnologically. Isolation. In order to achieve this.

The majority of these available strains. one should not forget that every microbial culture must possess certain general attributes: a. 48 . the World Data Center on microorganisms is available to locate the strain in the particular affiliated culture collection. however. It also must be realized that in batch enrichment the time of sampling is important for the selection of the most desirable organism. the strain must produce readily many vegetative cells. since the growth conditions change as a function of time. the strain should be a pure culture and be free of phages. which possess the properties for producing the desired product in high yield. the strain must be genetically stable. on the expected phenotypic expression. The agar plate techniques are very important for enzyme . that is. which involves a continuous flow enrichment technique. more suitable cultures. the strain should be able to protect itself against contamination. of course.g. which should be easily separable from all others. the strain should grow vigorously and rapidly after inoculation. An attractive alternative has been developed more recently. if possible. Enrichment cultures. Their features may be morphological. that is. and at the same time economically utilize the available substrate.characteristics. d. however. Rapid screening techniques for testing the phenotypic expression normally combines isolation and selection simultaneously. and the sum of all these features of a microorganism is referred to as its phenotype. or reinvestigate the existing strains from culture collections with the same aim. starch. In contrast.producing strains. identification and initial selection of organisms for microbial process development depends therefore on the phenotypic expression of the organism. They also could be indicators for acidic or alkaline product formation. c. The initial features in microbial process development would undoubtedly be related to resource utilization and/ or product formation. the process development oriented search. Any isolated culture should immediately be deposited with a culture collection for maintenance and preservation. organism isolation and initial selection for an industrial process is dependent on a range of criteria that are relevant to the optimization of the particular process. It is of utmost importance. resistance to toxic materials. and h. If one looks for a particular strain. to investigate in details the basic metabolic processes of the organism as part of the selection program. maximum specific growth rate (using a turbidostat). A phenotype therefore represents any measurable characteristic or distinctive trait possessed by an organism. New cultures may be found by chance observations (e. the strain should be amenable to change by certain mutagenic agents. immunological etc. the pure scientific approach. g. b. It should be realized that both could be very restrictive if one aims at certain microbial process developments. it is absolutely necessary to be well acquainted with the microorganisms. A systematic search for new cultures may depend on two major approaches: 1. on the other hand. Traditionally. physiological. The isolation and identification of a new culture on phenotypic expression also gives some indication on the metabolism of the organism. genetically. have neither been isolated nor explored with an aim to process development. It could therefore be possible to miss the particular stage when the particular organism is present in sufficient numbers to guarantee its isolation. In sharp contrast to the usual requirements of academic research. The techniques used for these tests are numerous and depend. one must be able to place them correctly into the system of living entities. f. In most cases it is useful to isolate a culture from a natural resource of decomposing or organic materials. Despite the selective aim. these procedures are very labor-intensive and time-consuming. e. 2. genotype can be explored via the phenotypic expression.g. Whichever direction is chosen. screening procedures are based on agar plate techniques or enrichment cultures. Fleming's culture of Penicillium notatum) or more likely by a systematic search. etc. This technique allows the selection and isolation of organisms on the basis of their substrate affinity (using a chemostat).and antibiotic . cellulose) by exoenzymes or antibiotic production. spores or other reproductive units. Every isolation is connected with an evaluation of various features of microorganisms. the strain should produce the desired product. The isolation. are carried out under substrate excess conditions and thus select organisms on the basis of maximum specific growth rate. the strain should produce the required product within a short period of time. They give excellent results for polymer degradation (e. However. This characteristic may not be the key criterion for the process being developed. phenotypic expression related to products excreted out of the cell. It is therefore necessary to search for new.

The reactor has the task of ensuring the supplying of the cells with the means for growth or for the production of metabolites. cell cultivation. these have the disadvantage that their pH value and the concentration of dissolved oxygen cannot. 5. vitamins. the same laboratory units can be used as for fermentations. aerobic. selection. end-product. nutrient salts. goal. processed further. be controlled. the transformation of raw materials into desired products is carried out by the enzyme systems of living microorganisms or by isolated enzymes. EXERCISES A. of guaranteeing as far as possible the optima of temperature and pH and a sufficient supply of substrate. disease. anaerobic B. identification. identification and initial selection of microbial strains? What is a systematic search for new culture? What are the demands for every microbial culture? Những kiến thức thu được trong quá trình nghiên cứu vi sinh vật từ phòng thí nghiệm có thể áp dụng vào quá trình công nghệ sản xuất. The optimum conditions for the selected strain must be determined experimentally. Answer the following questions 1. isolation. growth rate or product formed. In a bioreactor. Since. physiological. Translate into English UNIT 36: BIOREACTOR In a bioreactor. if possible. plate technique. an increase in the production capacity of a unit lowers both the product-specific investment costs and the variable costs. agar. Consequently. 3. 2. morphological. What are the factors maximizing a microbial process for the formation of biomass? Over the past decade. 3. The unconverted or unconsumed components of the medium and the intermediate products and by-products must be utilized elsewhere or be disposed of without harming the environment. The total manufacturing process must be carried out in such a way that when all the boundary conditions are satisfied. purified. exoenzymes. Aerobic.Different screening techniques select therefore different types of organisms and it is in the experimenter's hand to choose which one of these techniques will lead to the isolation and selection of the microorganism wanted for the envisaged development. genetic structure. nutritional requirements. However. that is the basic metabolic processes. this economic drive leads to large fermenters. what field has biotechnology emphasized on? What is the purpose of isolation. C. This requires knowledge on the design of large 49 . this tendency of the cells is assisted. metabolism. immunological. To find the optimum conditions for the enzyme reactions. 1. In the case of fermentation products. frequently in shake cultures. and oxygen. in general. i. if necessary. is an absolute requirement for a successful and speedy isolation and selection program. 4. indicator. 2. with stirrer speed and gas flow measurement. criteria.e. facultative anaerobic and anaerobic organisms can be isolated separately for their substrate specificity. Read and translate into Vietnamese the yield. only the optimum temperature and composition of the nutrient solution and the supplementation of the substrate in them can be determined.. The product is competitive with respect both to quality and price. yếm khí và yếm khí tùy tiện có thể phân lập và nuôi cấy riêng lẻ. Các loại vi sinh vật hiếu khí. and. thực vật. This is carried out in the laboratory. The optimization of the pH and of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the medium is generally carried out in small laboratory reactors which should be provided with a pH control and. modification. It was mentioned earlier that sound knowledge in microbial biochemistry. the rate of product formation. phenotype. The products of these biochemical reactions must be separated from the medium. attempts are made to erect large single-line units. The cells continuously strive by modifying their environment to achieve and maintain the optimal conditions for their growth. adjustment. as a rule. Vi sinh vật có nhiều ứng dụng có lợi nhưng nó cũng là nguyên nhân gây nên các bệnh tật cho con người và động vật.

Answer the following questions 1. To discuss these questions quantitatively. disadvantage. fluid motion. a single parameter is rate determining. since the fluid dynamics. based on small-scale model experiments. supplementation. Only a few results from industrial demonstration plants have been published. pilot plants have to be constructed which subdivide the large step of this "scaling-up" procedure between laboratory and production units in order to reduce the risk involved in the design of the production unit. large-scale.. mode of operation. If. this theory can be used to only a limited extent in chemical and biochemical reactors. modify. semicontinuous). environment. by an intensification of turbulence) when the size of the unit is increased.reactors. 3. The mode of operation and the type of the reactors for enzymatic transformations are affected by a comparatively small number of properties (molecular mass. type of reactor B. EXERCISES A. In order to reduce the number of variables these quantities are brought together according to definite rules to form dimensionless characteristic numbers (dimensional analysis). the process-determining factors can be comprised within a characteristic number which must remain constant during the enlargement of the reactor if the similarity between the laboratory and the pilot reactors (or between the pilot and production reactors) in relation to this process is to be preserved.g. the results that were obtained on laboratory or pilot reactor scale can be used for the production reactors. pH. Most of the information that is discussed below was obtained on small pilot plants. continuous. 1. also. What is the main process that occurs in a bioreactor? What are the optimum conditions for enzymatic actions in a bioreactor? What is "scaling-up" for designing the bioreactor? Can you apply the information obtained in lab or pilot reactor scale to production reactors? What are the modes of operation in the reactor? Các điều kiện thích hợp cho việc chọn chủng vi sinh vật phải được xác định bằng thực nghiệm. the size. parameter. and even the behavior of the cells may change considerably (e. In process engineering. mass transfer. the laws that operate in the geometric enlargement of a reactor should be known. and the site. a preliminary choice must be made of the mode of operation and of the type of reactor. In general. Because of the absence of this information. For these reasons. the passage from the model to the production unit can often be facilitated with the aid of similarity theory. If this similarity exists. the media. The information obtained in small units is not adequate for large scale design. the transport processes. transformation. some basic concepts must first be defined. since when the unit is enlarged the geometric similarity is not necessarily matched by that of fluid motion and mass transfer of the individual transport processes. and the operating conditions of the reactor are determined. analysis. Translate into English 50 . Các điều kiện thích hợp cho các phản ứng enzim phải được nghiên cứu từ phòng thí nghiệm như một quá trình lên men. the characteristics of the biochemical process. which permit a calculation of the performance of a system on the large scale. which are predetermined by the organisms used. 3. 2. Read and translate into Vietnamese bioreactor. however. C. Similarity theory deals with the criteria. stability) of the enzyme. dimensional. similarity theory can be very helpful in the calculation of reactors. nutrient solution. The results found in the laboratory or pilot reactor are then correlated by a combination of these characteristic numbers. boundary. 2. 4. Before the mode of operation (discontinuous. For each elementary process. 5. the type. nhiệt độ và nồng độ oxy hòa tan thích hợp trong môi trường nuôi cấy phải thu được từ thiết bị phản ứng trong phòng thí nghiệm.

000 cells per ml and depending somewhat on the strain used . enzymatic action. may be added to the mash to supply deficiencies in nitrogen or phosphorus. ammonium sulfate. Rỉ đường phải được pha loãng. during which carbon dioxide is given off rapidly. etc./ 3. alcohol is produced by the fermentation of sugars with yeast. malt. sugar beets. sugar beets. saccharine materials. molasses. When the concentration is too high it reacts adversely on the yeast. starter. fermentable sugars. or by the use of molds or of mineral acids. Water is added to bring the sugar concentration within the desired range. sugar cane. hydrocarbon gases. Chúng ta phải điều chỉnh nhiệt độ và pH của dịch lên men. The cellulosic materials of the third class are converted to fermentable sugars by hydrolysis with mineral acids. multiplication. C. inoculate. The optimum temperature for yeast propagation is 86-880F. cellulosic materials /wood. A vigorous fermentation then sets in. adjust. For the first few hours multiplication of the yeast cells takes place up to a concentration of about 150. and other factors. cellulose materials. the processes used are entirely different. 2. muối amôn và muối phôtphát. Translate into English 51 . hydrocarbon gases.800F. such as starch. cerevisiae. 5. 3. Fermentation . molds. The temperature of the mash when inoculated should be in the range 60 . the alcohol produced may inhibit the action of the yeast. starchy materials. Although molasses generally contains most of the nutrient substances required for fermentation. which must first be converted to fermentable sugars by enzymatic action using malt. starchy materials/ cereal grains. agriculture residues. i. 1. potatoes. 4.5 to 5. such as molasses. 3. With the fourth class of raw materials. such as ammonium sulfate or phosphates.0. hydrolysis. depending on the external temperature. yeast cells. sugar cane/ 2. The time for the whole process depends on the temperature. and no biological organisms are used. Read and translate into Vietnamese ethyl alcohol. 2. saccharine materials/ containing sugar. Fermentation proceeds satisfactorily when the mash has been adjusted to a pH of 4. propagation B. cereal grains. phosphates. xử lý và bổ sung nitơ. Raw materials of the second class consist of the more complex carbohydrates. with the consequence that the fermentation time is prolonged and some of the sugar is not properly utilized. Answer the following questions 1. With the first class of raw materials. The use of too low a concentration of sugar is uneconomical. sugar concentration. ammonium salts. 12%-15% being frequently used. mash. agricultural residues/ and 4. fermentation.000. The starter is then mixed with the mash in the fermentation tank.UNIT 37 : ETHYL ALCOHOL Ethyl alcohol may be derived from four classes of raw materials: 1.The molasses must first be brought to the appropriate conditions. although lactic acid is satisfactory. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to adjust the reaction of the mash. EXERCISES A. How many classes of raw materials are used in producing ethyl alcohol? What is the fermentation of the molasses in producing ethyl alcohol? Why the mash beer adjusted to an optimal pH? What is the optimal temperature for the culture of yeasts in fermentation process? What is the concentration of the yeast cells in the starter for inoculation in fermentor? Rượu êtylic được tạo thành do quá trình lên men các loại đường có khả năng lên men bằng nấm men như S. strain. yeasts.e.

the flask is heated by a water bath or on a steam cone. stopcock B. condensation. individual substance may be distilled readily with an ordinary distillation apparatus consisting of a distillation flask fitted with a thermometer and appropriate condenser. When water appears as the top layer. In either case. all of which are present in appreciable amounts. bulbs. systematic redistillation. a steam cone. The organic product accumulates in the receiver. What is the method of fractional distillation? What is the advantage of a fractionating column for separate distillation? What is the convenience of steam distillation? What is the three-way stopcock? Thiết bị chưng cất đơn giản bao gồm 1 bình cất nối với nhiệt kế và một bộ ngưng tụ tương ứng. partial condensations. a fractionating column. If the substance is low boiling and particularly if it is flammable. Translate into English 52 . but in cases where the components do not have widely separated boiling points it is a very tedious process. some of which are rich in a particular component. 2. the organic layer may be drawn off through the same stopcock at any time. often may be achieved by what is termed fractional distillation. Fractional distillation consists essentially in the systematic redistillation of distillates. either liquid or solid. whereby the vapor is enriched in the more volatile component at the expense of the liquid. a heat interchange. A device known as a fractionating column is essentially an apparatus for performing a large number of successive distillations without the necessity of actually collecting and redistilling the various fractions. vaporization. A fractionating column is so designed that it provides a continuous series of partial condensations of the vapor and partial vaporizations of the condensate and is similar in effect to a number of separate distillations. flammable. separation. In the column the returning liquid is brought into intimate contact with the ascending vapor. Read and translate into Vietnamese distillation. 1. 5. the condensate flows down the column and is returned eventually to the distillation flask. The separation of such a mixture into various fractions.UNIT 38 : DISTILLATION Distillation consists in the vaporization of a substance. components. recycle. A single. 2. it continually over-flows through the upper feedback into the distillation flask for re-use. This column acts as a receiver when the three-way stopcock is closed. and the condensation of the vapors in a vessel other than the one used for the vaporization. fractional distillation. The column consists of a long vertical tube or series of bulb through which the distilling vapor passes upward and is partially condensed. C. substantially immiscible. and a large active surface of contact between liquid and vapor. When water appears as the bottom layer. Give the definition of the distillation. To obtain a good separation it is necessary to have a large amount of liquid continually returning through the column. and a heat interchange occurs. Chưng cất phân đoạn dùng để tách một hỗn hợp gồm các cấu tử có nhiệt độ bay hơi khác nhau trong chất lỏng. a thorough mixing of liquid and vapor. tedious process. EXERCISES A. In both laboratory and technical operations the problem often arises of separating or purifying by distillation a mixture of two or more liquids. 4. The operating of the apparatus for general-purpose steam distillation is based on two principles: direct steam distillation and recycle of the condensed water phase. Answer the following questions 1. The heterogeneous mixture of water and organic substance is heated in the distilling flask to form the twophase vapor. its recycle is affected through the lower feedback via the three-way stopcock. 3. thermometer. Steam distillation offers a convenient means of separating many organic materials that are substantially immiscible with water. Fractionations can be carried out using an ordinary distilling flask. ascending vapor. The condensate from the attached reflux condenser separates in the straight column.

Barley malt is first made by sprouting grain and drying the malt. C. artificially carbonated. is ground. and cans. They must contain not less than s of 1% of alcohol. 2. 4. fermentable sugar. Some brews retain a great deal of carbon dioxide of fermentation but many must be artificially carbonated to some extent so that they may have the full standard effervescence before being put into commercial kegs. EXERCISES A. and up to 1600C-2000C or higher for darker beers. What is beer and ale? Generally. các hạt tinh bột được chuyển hóa thành đường có khả năng lên men. diastase. sprouting. and similar products. effervescence. 3. kegs. maturing vats. now called wort. 2. During this period the ruptured starch grains are converted into fermentable sugar. Then cooled. beverage. barley malt. lượng tro trong bia. brewing.950C. The uses of corn products. hop. Các nguyên liệu thay thế được dùng để giảm lượng malt đại mạch và lượng protein. 4. bacterial action. light-colored beer. and after fermentation is drawn into settling and maturing vats. 860C. aroma. the enzyme. and ale by top fermentation. This liquid obtained after the filtration the mash . each having a characteristic flavor and aroma. cans. is called brewing. mash. The other ground but unmalted cereals are. mixed with warm water. gallon. in rare cases. Their alcoholic content generally ranges between 3 and 6% by volume. substitutes B. bacterial action. 4. Tháp chưng cất được thiết kế gồm hàng loạt các bộ phận ngưng tụ hơi liên tục để tăng nồng độ chất ngưng tụ trong dung dịch. characteristic flavor. when used with Malt and other Enzymes as Termamyl-120L at different Temperratures as 750C. Translate into English 53 . it boiled with 2% or more of hops in a hop jack. enzyme. rice and brewer's sugar as substitutes for malt reduce the content of protein. The filtered and cooled liquid is then yeasted. or run into large copper brewing kettles with malt and other enzymes at about 500C. diastase. 5. Trong quá trình nấu bia. porters. among other things. and phosphoric acid in the finished beer. all influence the characteristics of the brew. Lên men bia theo hai phương pháp: lên men nổi và lên men chìm. and. ales. which develops. what is the percentage of alcohol in beer? What is barley malt? What is the main difference between the light-colored and dark-colored malt? What is hop? Is it necessary for the production of beer? Bia là một loại đồ uống lên men từ dịch malt đại mạch và có mùi vị thơm đặc trưng của malt và hoa huplông. boiled in water in certain duration of times. into a mash. Chưng cất bằng hơi nước dựa trên 2 nguyên tắc: chưng cất hơi bay lên trực tiếp và tuần hoàn hồi lưu lại một phần. darker beer. kettles. 630C and 730C in certain duration of Time. bottom fermentation. ash. The type of yeast used.3. the temperature of fermentation. Read and translate into Vietnamese beer. 1. Answer the following questions 1. wort. produced by fermentation. The general process of producing beer. Beer and ale are similar. unmalted cereals. A gallon of beer or ale weighs 83/4 lbs. UNIT 39: BEER AND ALE Beer and ale are malt beverages. 3. ale. and stouts. The malted barley. maturation. rapture. top fermentation. bottles. but beer is produced by bottom fermentation/ although this procedure is not always used/. the most important ingredient. The malt is dried at about 500C to 1200C for light-colored beer.

The following main components of the post-harvest food system are discussed. Maize is shelled mainly with the bare hands.g. in most cases. Winnowing involves separating the chaff from the grain. In the case of maize the removal of the grain from the cob is referred to as shelling. requiring high labor demand and therefore in many situations providing an important means of work to landless laborers. if there is plenty of wind. baskets. If the grain remains in the field after maturity. but where relevant. This helps prevent germination of seeds. When the plants are piled in large stacks they may suffer from lack of circulation leading to sprouting. Reducing post harvest grain losses during drying is a major objective of an improved technology. Harvesting often begins before the grain is fully ripe and extends until mould and insect damages are prevented. An alternative method is to use winnowing sieves or open weave baskets. regardless of the disadvantages. Other traditional methods of threshing. differences in processing techniques are mentioned. Once threshed the grains much be dried and stored. at 30°C the air is capable of holding twice as much moisture as 16°C). such as use of animals to trample the sheaves on the threshing floor or the modern equivalent using tractor wheels may result in loss of unseparated grain. the threshed material is tossed in the air using forks. Grain not fully ripened contains a higher proportion of moisture. the simplest is stick or hinged flail with which the crop. is beaten. drying and storage primary processing methods Post harvest grain losses are a major concern in the traditional system. by rubbing one cob against another. as it depends on the prevailing environmental conditions. the growth of bacteria and fungi and considerably retards the development of mites and insects. along with drying by the hot sun by day. threshing. In many cases these two functions are performed together so that grain is drying during storage. winnowing. The moisture carrying capacity of air is dependent upon its temperature and increases with the rise in temperature (e.UNIT 40 : POST-HARVEST SYSTEM This section outlines the steps involved in traditional processing of cereals. repeated wetting from rain and dew at night. Harvesting. which may cause subsequent storage problems. Moreover. Some of the following traditional drying methods highlight where losses can occur. The simplest and most common method is to lay the cut stalks on the ground in the fields. It is vital that project planners and managers consider the traditional technologies in their particular socio. discoloration. which have been developed to further reduce losses and increase productivity in cereal processing together with essential relevant technical background. Most of the cereals discussed are processed in much the same way. Cereal crops are traditionally harvested manually. may cause grain to crack . Threshing and Winnowing Threshing is the removal of the grains from the rest of the plant. either in swaths of loose bundles or stacks or heaps. However. which is shaken until any chaff and dust separate at the upper edge. Most manual threshing methods use some implement. Separating impurities from threshed grain can require almost as much labor as the original threshing. until the crop is dry. etc. the small farmer still prefers sun drying because it is cheap and simple. and will deteriorate more quickly than mature grains because the enzyme systems are still active. and microbial damage.economic context when introducing any technical improvements or adaptations. spread on the floor. Such tools are simple and cheap but they are also laborious to use. Final cleaning may be done with a winnowing basket. This section describes some improved technologies. 54 .Advice is therefore frequently necessary on the correct harvesting time. Air is one environmental factor used as the drying medium. This method also allows impurities to become mixed with the grain. Drying During drying the moisture content of the grain is reduced. Harvesting There is an optimum time for harvesting which depends upon the maturity of the crop and climatic conditions and has a significant effect on the subsequent quality of grain during storage. Threshing and shelling will contribute to losses if carried out in a manner that results in cracking of grains. shovels. The lighter chaff and straw blow away while the heavy grains fall more or less vertically. causing water to vaporize and conveying the moisture vapour away from the grain. In traditional method the rate and uniformity of drying is difficult to control. it is essential that food grains be dried quickly and effectively.

Sometimes racks are used for hanging unthreshed sorghum, millet, and paddy. Most racks are designed to permit air movement through the drying material. At the homestead the crop is further dried by spreading on woven mats, hard surfaces including roads, plastic sheets, or on the roof or ground. The drying time depends on the prevailing climatic conditions. Some farmers periodically turn or rake the grain during the drying period in order to obtain uniform drying. During rainy period the crop must be protected until the weather is again favorable. In other cases some farmers dry their produce on raised platforms of various shapes. After drying many farmers store their produce in the home, where the smoke and heat produced during cooking helps complete the drying of the grain and reduces insect infestation. The smoke produced and heat lost in traditional cooking stoves thus serve a useful purpose, which should not be ignored in the development of improved stoves. Storage Traditional storage systems have evolved over long periods within the limits of the local culture. Large amount of grain for human consumption is stored containers constructed of plant material, mud, or stones, often raised off the ground on platforms and protected from the weather by roofing material. The design and materials vary according to local resources and custom. In the humid areas of the Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Kenya, maize is dried from a tree, by hanging it on tacks, or by suspending it from poles. Because of the fear of theft, and because of the problem of rain, rodent, and other predator, these methods are becoming less popular. In the parts of East Africa and Central America wood ashes or rice husk ash is mixed with grain being stored to control infestation. Storage conditions influence the rate of deterioration of grains. High temperatures and humidities encourage mould growth and provide condition for rapid growth of insect, in cool, dry areas, more marked in hot, dry ones, high in cool and damp conditions, and very high in hot, damp climates.

EXERCISES A. Read and translate into Vietnamese
context, harvesting, threshing, winnowing, , ripe, mould, insect, , proportion, deteriorate, dew, likelihood, cob, shelling, hinged flail, bare hands, trample, sheaves, chaff, tossed, forks, shovels, baskets, straw, edge, weavebaskets, germination, mites, conveying, cut stalks, swaths, loose bundles, stacks, heap, sorghum, millet, paddy, woven mats, rodents, predator

B. Answer the following questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the main steps of the post-harvest food system? What does the optimum time for harvesting depend on? What are the purposes of threshing and winnowing? Why is it necessary to dry the grains after harvest? What are the most suitable conditions for storage the dried grains? Các tổn thất của hạt sau khi thu hoạch là mối quan tâm chủ yếu của người sản xuất. Các công cụ đơn giản vẫn được dùng trong tuốt lúa và tách hạt ngô thủ công ra khỏi cọng lúa và lõi ngô. Các phương pháp sàng, sảy, quạt được dùng để tách các tạp chất khác nhau khỏi hạt. Không khí nóng được dùng để tách nước khỏi hạt làm cho hạt được khô nhanh nhất.

C. Translate into English

UNIT 41 : SECONDARY PROCESSING - CEREAL BASED

FOODS

After primary processing, cereal products, flour or whole grain are further processed in the home and by small cottage industries into final products including foods with a porridge or dough consistency, baked products, whole grain goods, past and noodles, fermented drinks, snack foods, and weaning foods. Cereal-based foodstuffs such as these below are important both for home consumption and as a potential source of income.

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Foods with a porridge or dough consistence Flours from indigenous crops (sorghum, maize, millet, rice) can be mixed and stirred with boiling water to a dough consistency and formed into balls either with or without prior fermentation. Foodstuffs such as ‘banku’ and ‘ugali’ made from maize consumed in Western and Eastern Africa respectively and ‘sankati’ and ‘tuivo’ made from sorghum and consumed in South India and Nigeria respectively, are examples of non-fermented foods. Fermented types such as ‘kenkey’ in Ghana and ‘bagone’ in Botswana are prepared by leaving the whole grains to soak in water for a few days to allow fermentation before grinding to flour for mixing with water as before. These dough-like cereal foodstuffs provide the basis for a daily meal in many households in Africa. In India, fermented rice foodstuffs such as ‘dosais’ (rice cakes) and ‘idlies’ (rice pudding) are prepared from a mixture of rice and pulses. Baked products Unleavened breads made with maize, wheat or sorghum is popular worldwide as a daily food item. For example, ‘chapatti’ or ‘roti’ are consumed in India, ‘kisra’ in Sudan and ‘tortillas’ in Latin America. Leavened breads are based on wheat flour and the popularity of these products is in many cases forcing countries to import wheat. The supplementation of part of the wheat with non-wheat flours has produced satisfactory bread formulations. It must not be overlooked, however, that such products are not identical to ordinary wheat flour bread and may therefore cause problems of acceptability. Whole grain foods Rice is consumed in the tropics mainly as a whole grain, cooked by boiling or frying. Pearled sorghum may be eaten in a similar way, while maize can be roasted or boiled on the cob. Pasta and noodles These are popular foodstuffs consumed in large amounts, which form the basis of daily meals in many countries. Pasta products require the use of wheat flours, but many noodle-like products, such as Srilanka string hoppers, are based on rice. Fermented drinks For many women informal beer production is very important source of income, but the competition from the ‘modern’ sector with local production has been observed in many parts of the Third World. It has been shown, for example in Zimbabwe, that as income rises, a larger amount of western or ‘modern’ beer is consumed to the detriment of local traditional activities. Local brewing, however, is not likely to disappear in the near future. Beers can be made from most cereals after they have been ‘malted’ or allowed to germinate. Examples include sorghum beer, rice wine and maize beers. Snack foods A whole range of snack foods can be made by extruding a flour paste into strands, (egg vermicelli) curls or flakes, by popping (as in puffed rice or popped corn) or by drying to thin sheets (e.g. Papads). Flavored mixes such as ‘Bombay mix’ are also popular. Weaning foods Simple weaning foods based on cereals blended with other ingredients can be produced at a small scale. Obviously great attention has to be paid to the composition of the product, the avoidance of any ingredient that might be toxic and unsafety from the point of view of hygiene. Small children require essential nutrients such as protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals in the correct proportions and a blend must satisfy this need.

EXERCISES A. Read and translate into Vietnamese
porridge, dough, baked products, pasta, noodles, snack foods, weaning foods, indigenous, soak, grinding, pulse, pearled sorghum, hopper, extruding, strands, curls, flakes, puffed rice, popped corn

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B. Answer the following questions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. What are the common final products as foods based on cereals? Can you mention some foods with a porridge or dough consistency in Africa, in India and in Vietnam? What are baked products in Latin America or in Sudan? What are the main whole grain foods in Vietnam? What are the purposes for preparing of weaning foods? Mì ăn liền là loại thực phẩm phổ biến dùng hàng ngày ở nhiều nước trên thế giới. Các loại thức ăn dạng ‘snack food’ được sản xuất bằng công nghệ ép đùn và nấu chín từ hỗn hợp các loại bột, trứng, gia vị,... Trẻ con cần khẩu phần ăn đủ các chất dinh dưỡng như protein, chất béo, vitamin, và các muối khóang với tỷ lệ cân đối.

C. Translate into English

UNIT 42 :

PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENTS FOR ROOT CROPS

Traditional processing of root crops has developed to suit local situations. A whole range of processing techniques, equipments and products has been developed which vary not only from country to country but also within individual countries. It would not be feasible to describe all the variations that exist, so in this section we shall look at typical processing systems used in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A description of some traditional equipments is allowed by an account of traditional processing methods covering the more common products in areas of the three regions. The products described are arranged by crop type. In view of the emphasis on cassava so far in this section will start by looking at some of the other important root crops. Prior to recommending methods for improving traditional processing systems, it is essential to understand fully how and why they have been developed, how they fit into local social conditions and the relevant food science principles outlined earlier. The examples of some equipments and commercial products are given as following: Traditional equipments The items described below are very simple, low in cost and available locally. These important factors determine the suitability of equipments to local processors. Most of the items have been designed for cassava processing because of the more elaborate procedures involved making this crop safer to eat. Peelers Peeling of roots is commonly carried out using knives made of bamboo, flint or metal. Graters Examples of the wide range of traditional graters used particularly for cassava include, in South America, rough stone, the prickly trunk of palms and shells. A stone or piece of wood covered with shark skin or sharp stones set in basketwork has been used in the West Indies. Graters made from flat pieces of wood into which splinters of thorn, teeth or fish bone are driven or embedded in a wax coating are used in Venezuela, parts of the Amazon and Brazil. In Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone graters are made from sheets of tin or iron which have been pierced with nails on one side in order to produce a rough surface on the other. Presses The ’Tipiti’ is used in Latin America, particularly in Brazil, for de-watering cassava. It is a complex cylindrical basket press, which is diagonally woven, such that it can be stretched lengthwise to squeeze its contents. It is suspended from a beam or tree while the lower loop is weighted down with a stone or a pole is inserted so that one can exert pressure by pulling. More simply, strips of bark are spirally wrapped around the grated cassava and twisted to squeeze the contents. Such devices are not found in Africa where bags filled with cassava pulp are commonly pressed with heavy stones. 57

beam. Thông thường người ta ăn khoai tây. What is the purpose of peelers? What are the graters made from? What is the purpose of sieves? Is it difficult to cultivate the potato as comparision with cultivation of cassava? What is the name of toxic complex containing in cassava? Kỹ thuật chế biến. pounding. the lower loop. which progressively convert the original ingredients into the finished products. sieve. 2. The products known as 'biscuit' in the UK are called 'cookies and crackers' in the USA. chày. pulling. oil drum cut in half and specially constructed raised clay semi-circles common in Nigeria. 1. Translate into English UNIT 43 : INTRODUCTION TO BISCUIT . twist.. splinters.. 3. grinding. woven basket. pierce.the word 'biscuit' is used as a generic term to include 'Biscuit. diagonally. EXERCISES A. roaster.which is being written by an English man . Pounding/ Grinding equipment In South America and Africa pestles and mortars made of heavy wood are used to pound both fresh roots prior to processing and also to produce flours. 2. Some of these may be large enough to require as many as eight women pounding simultaneously. Dough mixing is still frequently carried out as a batch operation but the remainder of the processing steps is now usually continuous.Sieves Woven baskets or suspended cloth pieces holding the mash are used to allow the liquid to drain away or separate excess fibrous material. 58 . 5. 3. The changes taking place during each of the processing stages and the factors affecting these changes are the subject of this unit. Read and translate into Vietnamese feasible. C. The design of equipment used at each stage can vary quite widely and the operating conditions have been determined by previous experience refined by an on-going process of trial and error. thiết bị và các sản phẩm đã phát triển và thay đổi theo các nước. Throughout this book . squeeze. sắn dạng củ tươi luộc chín hoặc dạng tinh bột hay các loại thức ăn sẵn khác. Thiết bị nghiền các loại củ đơn giản ở các nước Nam phi và Nam mỹ có khi chỉ dùng cối.. Cookies and Crackers'.MAKING What is a biscuit? One of the difficulties in writing about biscuits is that the very word means different things to different people. Examples include pans. woven. và ở những vùng khác nhau trong một nước. strips of bark. graters. prickly trunk. In America the word 'biscuit' is used to describe a chemically leavened bread-type product the nearest equivalent of which in the UK might be a scone. nails. Answer the following questions 1. semi-circle B. Outline of the Basic Processes used in Biscuit . sheets of tin. As the material is roasted it is continuously turned with a wooden spoon or calabash. describe. 4. relevant.Making Commercial biscuit manufacture comprises a series of highly mechanized operations. peelers. Roaster A whole range of systems is used to roast root crop products over a fire.

or laminations. canvas B. The equipment used for this process is known as a rotary moulder. tight.2 m wide. sugar. 2. The products travel through the ovens on continuous baking supports which may be up to 1. Some processing also takes place. . where the conditions are chosen to minimize the formation of a gluten network. Short doughs with a high fat content. flaky. in the final dough sheet. fat.e. particularly during the early stages of mixing. meter. engrave. The required amounts of these ingredients are then metered automatically into the appropriate dough mixer as required. i. One group consists of the hard doughs where the flour protein is converted into a gluten network. sodium bicarbonate. Cracker doughs require extensive processing to build up a series of thin layers. laminate. This cooling in normally achieved by transferring the biscuits in a single layer or in a shallow ‘penny stack’ formation. etc. shallow. which may be oil sprayed immediately after baking. if treated with an appropriate dough-conditioning agent. onto a canvas conveyor and allowing them to travel around the factory for a time which may be typically one-a half to two times the baking time.) are still frequently weighed out and added to the mixers by hand. soft doughs. The hard doughs are very stiff and tight. are usually formed into the required shape by extrusion. Answer the following questions 1. With short and soft doughs the work input to the dough during mixing is small and the temperature of the finished dough depends primarily on the temperatures of the major ingredients at the time they enter the mixer Formation of the dough piece Biscuit-shaped dough pieces for crackers and semi-sweet products are cut from continuous sheets of hard dough. Some short doughs are also cut from a continuous dough sheet but owing to their lack of conhesion such doughs are more difficult to handle in this manner. It is for this reason that such doughs are sometimes known in the USA as 'hot' doughs. However smaller ingredients and 'chemical' (salt. These laminations are necessary in order to obtain the desired flaky structure in the finished biscuit. intermingling. The second group consists of the short and soft doughs. syrups. guillotine. etc. most biscuit must be cooled considerably before they can proceed to secondary processing or packaging. visco-elastic properties of these doughs require them to be formed into sheets of the required thickness by rolling with heavy steel rolls. 3. Baking times vary from about 1 min to about 15 min. Doughs which are to be formed on a rotary moulder require somewhat less water to be added to the doughs during mixing compared with those which are to be sheeted and cut. What is a biscuit? What are the main ingredients in making biscuits? Can you tell some things about dough mixing and formation of the dough pieces? 59 .Ingredient metering Most large biscuit factories now receive and store their main ingredients . aerating agents. merely require rolling in order to obtain a suitable sheet from which dough pieces can be cut.flour. The majority of short doughs are currently formed into the shapes required by compression into dies engraved on a carefully designed roller. Read and translate into Vietnamese scone. Doughs for making semi-sweet biscuits on the other hand. penny stack. according to the product. wine stiff.in bulk. biscuit dough mixing is much more than a mere intermingling of the ingredients. Dough mixing With the possible exception of some yeast-leavened products subject to a long fermentation process. EXERCISES A. oscillating. the extruded dough being subsequently cut to the required size by an oscillating wire (wire-cut cookies) or a guillotine (root-or bar-press products) Baking and cooling Large scale biscuit baking is now universally carried out in tunnel ovens (usually referred to incorrectly as ‘travelling ovens’) varying in length from about 30 to about 150 m. Apart from some cracker products. merely. This work is converted to heat via frictional forces and produces a significant increase in the temperature of the dough. The stiff. and require considerable amounts of work input from the mixer motor. Dough mixing conditions fall into two main groups.

Salted vegetables must be washed in clean water to remove the salt to a level where the vegetable becomes palatable prior to use. b. Equipment costs are high and unless stringent control is maintained there is a real danger of causing food poisoning. The canning of vegetables cannot be recommended for small-scale production. Preservation of vegetables for the market has a different characteristic in composition with fruits.4. which are safe for small-scale operation. What is the purpose of baking and cooling in biscuit making? Can you say some sentences about biscuit making? Quá trình phối trộn bột nhão thường tiến hành gián đoạn nhưng có một số công đoạn được tiến hành liên tục. and experiences using it. especially as a preservative of animal tissues. A higher concentration would improve the keeping qualities of the preserve. This is due to the different structure and chemistry of vegetables from those of meat or fish. . It was found to have many useful properties. 1. as described later. Hiện nay các loại lò kiểu hầm tunel được dùng để nướng bánh bích quy. This unit is concerned with the processing methods for preservation of vegetables. after opening.Salted/ brined and pickled products. Translate into English UNIT 44 : VEGETABLE PROCESSING The demand for preservation of vegetables for home consumption does not seem to be as great as for fruits. The action of solid salt is quite complex. equipments. As is mentioned in this section. There are: . but would also make it very unpalatable without washing.Dried vegetable products. Brined vegetable products This preservation method has much in common with dry salting except that the vegetables are preserved in a solution of salt. more difficult and less to be recommended for the persons without the necessary skills. The essential difference however between fruits and vegetables (high versus low acidity) must always be borne in mind. The 60 .Fermented vegetable products. The use of small amounts of salt with acid fermentation. Again. . can produce foods of better nutritional value. The main disadvantage of brining is that the preserved vegetables can not be kept for long. which give better results than vegetable tissues. it should be stressed that if a vegetable-processing venture is being seriously considered. The salting method does have disadvantages. 3. Dry salted vegetable products In dry salting the food material is covered with salt and left for some time for the salt to penetrate the tissues. The use of solid salt dates back to ancient times. While salt is very important in the preservation of vegetables it is often used with some other preservatives such as vinegar. Salted/ Brined and Pickled Vegetable Products a. Bột nhào xong cần cán mỏng thành lớp mỏng và cắt thành hình tròn như đồng xu. and avoid costly investment. 2. advice should be obtained from a qualified technical source. the low acidity of the majority of vegetables makes some processing methods. 1. 5. Vegetables loose many of their nutrients through salting and should in fact only be salted when there are surplus fresh vegetables available and when other methods of preserving cannot be used. such as canning. Improvements in the preservation of vegetables can be achieved by looking into better storage methods for fresh crops. if palatable levels of salt are used. but essentially involves drawing out the moisture from the fruit or vegetable by osmotic pressure. C.

stress. drawing out. surplus. Brining vegetables. its use is not recommended. After blanching. Vegetable pickles and sauces Whole range vegetable pickles can be made using vinegar and sometimes sugar. disadvantages. and olives can also be fermented in this way. palatable. 4. a short hot water or steam treatment which prevents the action of enzymes and reduces the initial contamination of micro-organisms. lactic acid fermentation. Acid fermentations modify the flavor of the original ingredients and often improve nutritive value. dates back. exclusion. Steam blanching is often preferred to water blanching because there is a small loss of nutrients by leaching. olives. Choices include drying in the shade. What is the purpose of preservation of vegetables at home and in industry? Can you tell some methods for preservation of vegetables? What are the advantages and disadvantages of salted vegetable products? Can you describe the method for preparation of vegetable pickles? 61 . indirect solar drier or artificial/ mechanical drying /. 2. beets. should be blanched. EXERCISES A. which has a direct influence on the preservation of the final product. Common fermented vegetables include German Sauerkraut or Korean Kim chi. in contrasts to fruits. If the salt tastes bitter. Removal of excess salt by washing may be necessary prior to use in the final product. have low energy requirements for both processing and preparing foods for consumption. shade B. Lactic acid fermentation takes place in the absence of air at very carefully controlled conditions of pH and salt content. stringent control. shielding. The market value of the end product will tend to suggest which drying system to choose. are the most suitable for vegetables. Most vegetables. 3. investment. The quality of the salt is also of great importance. c. the dry method being preferred if a crisp final texture is required. beets. Indirect drying methods. in bulk in barrels is a good way of preserving them where they are grown so that they can be transferred to other places for later processing. eggplant. a crisp. Prior to pickling many vegetables are dry salted or brined.exclusion of air is essential to prevent the growth of yeasts on the surface. onions. brine. As in the case of dried fruit suitable packaging materials must be used to keep the final product dry. and yield highly acceptable and diversified flavors. quality improvements to sun drying are to be found in hygiene control and control over the drying speed and temperature. Fermented vegetable products Fermentation of vegetables will take place when lactic acid bacteria ferment the sugars present in the vegetables. Dried vegetable products Drying is a very common method for the preservation of vegetables and the points made for air drying of fruits apply. adventure. brining vegetables. shielding the raw material from the sun. fresh crops. 2. Brining and lactic acid fermentation are useful methods of processing and preserving vegetables because they are low cost. barrels. cucumbers. eggplants. Read and translate into Vietnamese preservation. advice. As mentioned in the fruit section. versus. onions. pickled products. 3. Cucumbers. Answer the following questions 1. sulfiting may be useful prior to drying. Some vegetables require blanching. The production processes after these stages are more or less identical to those seen already for fruit pickles. improve. penetrate.

were discussed. arguably the most important. The value of this approach has been questioned for a number of reasons including: . cleaning. attracting bad publicity. Strategically this approach was designed to ‘inspect out’ foods which might be unsafe.Unsafe food may be condemned unnecessarily . Food hygiene is vital throughout the food chain from primary production via processing and distribution through to serving i. based upon food storage. closure and even bankruptcy. 3. In addition other possible food risks have ensured that food safety has a high media profile. 3. Quá trình lên men rau quả sẽ xảy ra khi các vi khuẩn lactic lên men các loại đường có sẵn trong rau quả. What kinds of microorganisms are used in the formation of fermented vegetable products? Nồng độ muối cao có thể kéo dài thời gian bảo quản rau nhưng cần phải loại bỏ bớt muối trước khi ăn. going out of business. often in a relatively uncoordinated way. . grief and even death. . “Will it increase the risk of contamination? Will it increase the chances of growth/ survival ?/ If the answer to either be yes. 62 . Subsequent microbiological testing of the end product has then been used to determine if the product was safe and of good keeping quality.Cases of foodborne disease have continued to increase.It does not make safe food. was safety. The economic costs of food poisoning in the UK have been estimated to be in excess of ℑ1 billion and in the US between $10 . from farm to fork. suffering. In outbreaks where deaths have occurred managers have been prosecuted for manslaughter. Most food poisoning has a microbial origin and some outbreaks have made headline news. transport. handling or serving of food to ensure that it is safe to eat. Sấy khô là phương pháp thông thường để bảo quản rau quả và thường dùng năng lượng mặt trời hay không khí nóng. Any auditor unsure of whether a particular action is hygienic or not should ask themselves the following.5. Any auditing carried out was of the traditional floors. 2. pest control. C. Social costs include pain. Translate into English UNIT 45 : INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SAFETY 1. Like any other chain the food hygiene is only as strong as its weakest link. One of these components.e. We all have to eat to survive and it is a basic human requirement that the food we eat is safe. both social and financial are substantial. Food hygiene covers all aspects of processing. 1. The costs associated with food poisoning.How to audit Many practices and procedures contribute to preventing microbial food poisoning and make up food hygiene although they all ultimately rely on one of two fundamental principles. Food safety and hygiene Hygiene is to do with health and food hygiene deals with ensuring that food is safe to eat. which collectively contribute to overall food quality.Preventing growth/ survival/ of any contaminants. Any food organization that does not consider food safety to be vital runs the risk of causing illness or death.30 billion.Unsafe food is easily missed . walls. The traditional strategic approach to food safety management has been to implement practices. it tells us if something has gone wrong . Unfortunately notified cases of food poisoning have been increasing world wide including in developed countries. the chances is the action was unhygienic.Preventing contamination of food. Food safety and quality The various components. round responsible for food poisoning. personal hygiene etc. Numerous examples can be given of companies. preparing. 2. ceiling approach.

or at auxiliary weighbridges serving certain important or remote points in the area from which the mill draws its supplies. components.Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP . 3. 5. An additional approach. b. it was not until the mid 1980’s that the wide spread use of HACCP was advocated.Establish documentation concerning procedures and records appropriate to these principles and their application. media profile. 2. grief.4. The cane carrier The cane carrier is the moving apron which conveys the cane into the factory and which assures the feed to the mills by transporting the cane from the yard to the crusher. 63 . 4. either by railway. or more often by lorries or by tractors and trailers. EXERCISES A. Background to HACCP The general food hygiene practices outlined are still very relevant. 2. 1. contamination.Determine the critical control points (CCPs) . This is known as the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approaches. Transport is arranged by the factory. The development of HACCP started in 1959 with requirements for the US space program and the need for food. prosecute. which concentrates on the product and specific threats to food safety throughout its life history has been developed. manslaughter. pain. Phải xây dựng cơ sở HACCP cho từng nhà máy để kiểm tra kịp thời và ngăn chặn nhiễm tạp trong sản xuất thực phẩm. substantial.Establish target values and critical limits . 3. unloading. outbreaks. hygiene. Introduction to HACCP a.Conduct a hazard analysis . advocate B. bankruptcy. Seven HACCP principles identified by Codex . contaminant. What is the concept of food safety? What is the food safety and hygiene? What are the main methods for preventing contamination of food? What is the background of HACCP? Can you tell some things about the development of HACCP? Những năm gần đây ở khắp nơi đều tranh luận và cảnh báo về vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm. suffering. safe. which was pathogen free. Delivery. Read and translate into Vietnamese food safety. However. Answer the following questions 1. Muốn đảm bảo chất lượng vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm thì phải chú ý từ đầu dây chuyền sản xuất đến nhà xưởng và con người sản xuất. condemn. and handling of cane The factory takes delivery of the cane. either directly at the factory weighbridge. Translate into English UNIT 46 : SOME MAIN OPERATIONS OF CANE SUGAR PRODUCTION 1.Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not under control . C.Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively . 2. however it has been increasingly recognized that a different approach and philosophy to food safety were required.

8. Molasses Molasses is by-product of sugar factory. serving to screen the mill juices.2%. which performs two main functions: . The separator is an apparatus placed after the mills. or being extracted from the massecutte by the scrapers. because the layer of mother liquor surrounding the crystals will be rapidly exhausted. . Crystallization. The quality of such fine bagasse is very variable. but this massecutte is very dense and the mother liquor is very viscous. which drops easily into the feed hopper and will absorb in a continuous manner. or dropping between the trashplate and delivery roller. Defecation Hundreds of materials have been tried for purification of juices.5 . MgO 7.Sulphurous acid. which the cane encounters on arriving at the milling plant. and before passing to the centrifugal. and to return to an intermediate carrier the pieces of bagasse recovered. Crystallization will soon cease. Moisture is very detrimental to keeping qualities of the sugar. 5. and the viscosity of mass will prevent the more distant molecules of sugar from circulating and coming in contact with the crystals. but generally amounts to between 1 and 10 gram of dry material per liter of juice. These small pieces settle together into a compact mass. The cane knives then perform two functions and have two advantages: .They assist the extraction of the mills by breaking the rind of the cane and so facilitating its disintegration and the extraction of its juice. generally has a moisture content of 0. Fine . Storage and drying of sugar The commercial sugar leaving the centrifugal. If it is allowed to stand the sugar still contained in the mother liquor will continue to be deposited as crystals. since the beginnings of sugar manufactures has retained the universal basic defecant. It consists of a mill.bagasse separators Many particles of bagasse drop from the mills falling through the space between feed plate and feed roller.Lime (CaO) which. if the massecutte is left undisturbed. 4. when it exceed a certain limit. only four of which are important: .4 – 1. from SO2: “sulfitation” .It assures the feeding of the whole tandem . and which aims at completing the formation of crystals and forcing further exhausting of the mother liquor. from P2O5: “phosphatation” . and particularly when it rises above 1%. Evaporation and crystallization The massecutte after evaporation discharged from the pan is at high supersaturation. is a process which consists of mixing the massecutte for a certain time after dropping from the pan. which is to be dried and packed for sale or export. Cane knives The knives supply the cane in very short and small pieces. There are.5. however.It prepares the cane in such a way as to facilitate the grip of the rollers and the extraction of juice by the mills. It normally contains about 50% of sugar and other ingredients but it normally contains fine air bubbles entrained during the fugalling process and also picked up by friction every time the molasses is discharged in a fine stream into a tank.They favor the capacity of the mills . 9. generally of two rollers. 6.3. Crushers The crusher is the first machine applying pressure.Magnesia.Phosphoric acid. then. the treatment with lime is called “defecation”. EXERCISES 64 . The true density of molasses is generally of the order of 1.

palm kernel nuts.) are still commonly processed using traditional methods. As these differ somewhat from place to place it would not be feasible to record all the minor variations that occur. Tách bã khỏi nước ép mía bằng hệ thống sàng lắp đặt sau máy ép mía. it is important to find out what resources exist and judge what equipments can be made..5 . because they generate high pressure. This section is divided into: . sesame. scraper. Expellers and ghanis are normally used for seeds and nuts because of the greater pressure that is required to extract oil from them.Nuts: groundnuts (peanuts). Screw operated plate presses are used for extracting oil from mesocarps. What is given. etc. the mixture is allowed to cool during which at time the oil gathers at the top and is coped off. and then with boiling water. In some instances sunflower seeds are dehusked. friction B. The mixture is stirred and brought to the boil. In traditional methods of processing oil seeds the extraction efficiency is about 40% (extraction efficiency refers to the percentage of oil extracted based on the total theoretical content). Answer the following questions 1. tend to have a low acceptance rate. mill.Oil seeds (sunflower. In most cases. crusher. shea-nut. As will be seen in the section on case studies. but hydraulic presses. handling. bagasse. breaking the rind. yard. để vận chuyển mía tới..Mesocarp (palm fruit) Oil seed processing Oil seeds (sunflower. 65 . deposit. 2. alone at first. Since skills and resources differ from region to region . 2. After boiling. How many main steps are there in the sugar production? What are the functions in casing of cane knives? How many methods are used for defecation of cane juices? What is the purpose of evaporation and crystallization of massecutte? What is the molasses? What are used for them? Các nhà máy có thể dùng tàu hỏa. fugalling process. pick up. unloading. which are usually time-consuming and strenuous. 3.A. high supersaturation. Read and translate into Vietnamese delivery. This is important because it gives an idea as to the scale of workshop that would be needed to produce equipment. . 3. 1. sesame.2% mới bảo quản được sản phẩm lâu trên thị trường. massecutte. are able to process seeds and nuts. two rollers. are examples of fairly standard processing methods which can serve as a basis for comparison with the system used in any particular area. information is included on the possibility of local manufacture. 4. Translate into English UNIT 47 : METHODS OF OIL EXTRACTION AND PROCESSING Before attempts are made to introduce improved methods of oil extraction an effort should be made to understand the traditional methods employed. therefore. Where appropriate. cease. detrimental. molasses. The paste is heated. ghanis. etc. defecation. seeds are ground to a paste without removing the husk or outer covering. convey. This section seeks to outline the various steps involved in traditional processing. mustard. weighbridge. xe tải. Description of types of improved technologies Improved technologies exist for the small-scale processing of all types of oil-bearing raw materials both at the pre-processing and oil extraction devices fall into three categories: expellers. a compact mass. Seeds are ground manually unless a local mill is both accessible and affordable. C. tandem. grip of the roller. feed hopper. xe kéo.) . sulfitation. technologies. phosphatation. 5. Some materials require a pre-processing stage prior to oil extraction and this section discusses both the pre-processing steps and the various oil extraction devices. coconuts. trashplate. and plate presses. which are not based on a good understanding of traditional processing. Đường phải được sấy khô đến độ ẩm 0. mother liquor.

Some of these processes can be adapted for use at the rural level. However. anything that is not freely available in the village is effectively an import. which is hand-roasted over a fire. Depending on the type of expeller the palm kernels may need to be roasted for example in an oil drum roaster. some shells added. ‘not imported’ into a country. Prior to oil extraction the particle size must first be reduced by chipping or grinding. which can be acquired for nothing and those which have to paid for. Finally oil is extracted from the palm kernel nuts by passing them through an expeller. The process includes the following steps: 66 . Coconuts Various types of manual coconut graters are available which are hand foot operated. If coconuts are to be processed using expellers then the coconut meat needs first to be dried to copra. suitable for small. filtration and deodorization. Refining Oil produced in large commercial mills passes through a refining stage. Essentially each oilbearing materials has to be considered separately as do the steps it has to go through during its processing. Traditionally this heating is carried out over open fires but units known as seed scorchers are now available with a greater degree of temperature control and capable of handling substantially larger quantities of raw material. but verbal communication during the preparation of this document questions of their applicability. Pre-processing methods and devices Some raw materials need to be pre-treated before oil extraction and a range of devices is available for these steps. whether imported from an urban center or from a neighboring country. what is meant by ‘locally available’ is. In some cases presses/ expellers are sold as complete units with pre-treatment equipment included. since the latter implies greater demands on very limited capital resources. For villagers seeking to construct any item. otherwise a paste like peanut butter is produced rather than oil. The shell may be left on.It is important to highlight further the implications of the term ‘local availability’. For the villagers. If sand is used attention should be paid to its quality. are heated before processing. it can be difficult to sell it in the form of balls or fried cakes. Oil seeds and nuts Seeds and nuts. and several manufacturers supply pre-processing equipments. the presence of fiber is needed to maintain a suitable operating temperature. Groundnuts If groundnuts are to be processed using traditional methods then use of a decorticator to remove the shells before processing will reduce some of the labor. can now be used to replace traditional hand cracking. Systems for oil processing From the description of the different traditional oil processing technologies and suggestions for their improvements discussed so far it can be seen that no general solution applies. or some oil cake from a previous batch included to provide fiber for the unit to ‘bite’ on. simply. Complete package systems are readily available for medium to large-scale commercial production for particular kinds of oil-bearing materials. The grating stage is tedious and arduous and the use of small-motorized graters can ease the workload and can increase oil yields in the traditional oil extraction processes. in many cases. Palm kernel nuts Palm kernel nuts need to be cracked and heated before processing. Generally. Packaging in well cleaned and properly closed containers will improved the market value. For example. It is necessary to consult appropriate institutions about the suitability of particular machines. Crackers. Due to the high fiber in the residual cake when using this method. its use is recommended only when larger quantities of nuts are being used. the main distinction is between materials. which depend on centrifugal force. Both manual and power driven crackers are available. although this depends to a large extent on the type of seed or nut and the particular model of expeller being used. which includes neutralization. clarification of oil can be improved by treatment with charcoal or by filtering through cloth or sand. decolourisation. When processing groundnuts in an expeller however. The design of the scraper blade of the grater (the number and size of grooves) is very important and affects oil yield. Palatability may be improved by boiling. however. In order for a roaster to be fuel efficient. rural village situations are far less common. complete packages.

1. plate press. scraper blade. copra. Today. hiệu suất trích ly dầu chỉ đạt khoảng 40% (có nghĩa là hiệu suất chiết tức là phần trăm dầu trích ly được so với hàm lượng dầu có trong hạt tính theo lý thuyết) Quy trình chế biến dầu thường bao gồm các công đoạn sau: tách hạt khỏi vỏ. shea-nuts. Translate into English UNIT 48 : TEA. there is probably no country in the world where the beverages produced from tea. it is true to say that. the tea plant is perhaps the most hardy as it can be grown within the tropics. sesame. refining stage. coffee and cocoa and it is of interest to see that people in quite different geographical locations must have come to the same conclusions about their particular beverage plant. However. groove. ghanis. palm kernel nuts. scoop off. tedious. Read and translate into Vietnamese sunflower. deodorization. chipping.Sterilizing cooking the fruit . Of these. strenuous.Pounding by hand to loosen pulp from nuts . roaster. What are the main oil seeds existing in Vietnam? What is the first step for oil seed processing? Why are the expellers normally used in ghanis for extract of hard seeds and nuts? Why are the pressed plates normally used for extracting oil from mesocarp fruits? What are the main stages for refining of commercial oils? Trước khi hiểu quá trình sản xuất dầu ăn hiện đại.Pressing . 2. pounding. ép tách dầu và tinh chế dầu thô thành dầu tinh khiết. which occur in combination or singly. palm fruit. peanuts. EXERCISES A.Reheating the pounded material with steam . 2. affordable. decolourisation. 4. grating stage. 3. charcoal. cracker. palatability.. but at considerable altitudes. neutralization. with the great sea journeys by the European merchant ventures these commodities were discovered and gradually spread across Europe and to other parts of the world. thus being able to survive the cooler spells which occur in these elevated sites. husk. coconut graters. 5. 3. mesocarps. accessible. be roasted. bearing material. nghiền và hấp chín bằng hơi. C. coffee and cocoa plants are not available. namely theobromine and caffeine. expeller. This is due mainly to the presence of two related compounds. chúng ta cần hiểu rõ một số phương pháp cổ điển đã áp dụng vào sản xuất.Clarifying the oil. arduous. COFFEE AND COCOA Introduction It is interesting to note that all three of these beverage plants grow approximately between the same latitudes and can be regarded as plants of the rainy tropics and sub-tropics. mustard. decorticator. with the huge areas of plantations devoted to the cultivation of these crops. gap. coconuts. During the early part of their very long usage these beverages were confirmed to those zones in which they could be grown. grinding. fiber. Although these are natives of three different continents they have one thing in common: when they are made into an infusion with hot water and drunk they produce in the consumer a ‘lift’. Answer the following questions 1. Tea 67 . This stimulatory effect must have been noted early in the use of tea. groundnuts. be cracked. loosen pulp B. Trong phương pháp cổ điển.

both in the Gulf of Guinea. Indo-China and Asean. where several species can be used to produce different kinds of raw materials for these respective beverages. since by themselves their flavor is somewhat unpleasant. According to Chittenden . Once cocoa had been discovered. Green Tea: The process described here is for the production of black tea. About this time coffee spread all over Europe and in 1650 the first coffee house was established in London. which means strength. It is thought that the plant originated near the Irrawaddy river and was dispersed from there to southeast China. Later. however. The naming of tea has passed through many phases and these are described by Eden . However. In the early 19th century it reached the islands of São Tome and Fernando Poo. however. being bitter and astringent. Three all hybridize freely. but this now seems to have been abandoned in favor of the present name.Name and origins: The name is Camellia sinensis. The plant has borne the generic name Thea. who invaded Central America in 1519. The Spaniards exported from Venezuela. probably indicating that it is a native of that continent. namely the Stock Exchange and Lioyds. From that time onwards its consumption has steadily mounted and it can truly be said to be the most popular non-alcoholic beverage right up to the present day. which gives the usual brown liquid when infused with hot water. There is. These became the meeting places for commercial and cultural exchanges. the family to which the genus Theobroma belongs. contains some 22 species.the generic name means food of the gods. They also made a thick drink from the pounded beans mixed with maize. It would appear to a black tea drinker to be insipid in flavor. About 1600 it appeared in Venice and Vienna. and in London two famous financial institutions arose from them. America first saw tea in Virginia and a similar pattern of coffee houses arose in what were then the colonies. that this was the original distribution center and the true one may have been further north. From then onwards the popularity of coffee increased and that of tea declined. it was not long before the plants were spread around the world. a practice that has continued until the present day. The plant is found growing wild in various well-separated countries in the Africa. It belongs to the family Theaceae.The Spaniards. so commercial plantations were established in countries where tea had not been growth previously. Coffee Name and origins: The names are Coffea arabica and C. tea remained a favorite with the Americans until 1773. did not find this beverage much to their liking and they added sugar. cacao is the only one yielding seed suitable for chocolate making. theobromine. Tea was first introduced into Europe by the Dutch East India Company towards the end of the 16th century and reached Britain in the early part of the 17th century. of which T. This gives rise to a pale yellow liquid when infused with hot water. Coffee was known in the Middle East at least by AD900 and gradually increased in popularity until by the 15th century it was a very popular drink with the Arabs. This is in contrast to tea and coffee. An alternative explanation is that it was derived from the Arabic word ‘kaweh’. Nigeria. The plant is a native of Central America where the Mayas and Aztecs used the seeds as an article of diet. Extension of the Cocoa industry: Cocoa as an item of diet was not established in Europe until the 16th century and the two countries mainly responsible for its spread were Spain and Holland. a small quantity of green tea produced. Sterculiaceae. As the demand increased plants were grown in the Philippines. Cocoa Name and origins: The name is Theobroma cacao L. the Ivory Coast and the 68 . the year of the Boston Tea Party. which is the name of an Ethiopian province. The Spaniards introduced it into Trinidad and from there it was dispersed round the Caribbean. It has been cultivated in southeast China for some two to three thousand years. This is achieved by heating the leaves and inactivating the enzymes. and it is this which has given the trivial name. to one of the two stimulants found in the beverages discussed. which was called by the Aztec name chocolate . Because of increasing demand in the last century traditional supplies from China were not enough to meet it. From these offshore islands cocoa reached the African mainland and by the end of the 19th century Ghana. the East Indies and Sri Lanka. cocoa was cultivated in the Brazil where it grows wild. The plant is a native of Ethiopia and it is thought that the name derives from the world ‘Kaffa’. These are the two main species used in the production of coffee which belong to the family Rubiaceae. There is some doubt.robusta (sometimes called canephora). The later became acquainted with it when an invading Turkish army was repelled leaving behind some 500 sacks. Capsicums and other spices were added to make the beans more attractive.

elevate. lift. and cocoa. Give the definitions of tea.e. This would give a salt intake of 12 . 4. where a small but growing trade has been established. However. this literally means fish sauce. Nước-mắm In translation from Vietnamese.13g per day. seasoning and other features. However. EXERCISES A. It is. Hungary and the Balkan countries air-dried. The sauce is a clear brown liquid with a distinctive meaty/ sharp aroma/. while in the Mediterranean countries. Such products include spreadable. Chè đã trở thành một loại nước uống không có rượu phổ biến từ thế kỷ 17 đến nay trên khắp thế giới. sugar and spices turns into a palatable product with a long shelf life if prepared and ripened properly. Since then Asian countries have started to grow cocoa. as opposed to that for drinking. infusion. The taste is predominantly salty but the contribution of many other compounds. 3. altitude. France. disperse. dates back to the invention of the cocoa press by Van Houten in 1828. What are the things in common of tea. Sau khi coca được phát hiện. therefore. degree of communication of the ingredients. not surprising that such research commenced in the United States in the 1930s. Probably the normal winter climate in the Mediterranean countries with its moderate temperatures and frequent rainfall is favorable for sausage ripening. The Romans knew that ground meat with added salt. In contrast. coffee and cocoa? What is the difference between Green tea and Black tea? When was the coffee known? Where was cocoa cultivated easily and are a lot of products from cocoa used? Chè. low-cost industrial production. chỉ sau 1 thời gian ngắn loại cây này đã phổ biến trên toàn thế giới. short ripening times and highly standardized products. huge area.Cameroons were being established as major producers. Other types of fermented sausages emerged later as a consequence of advanced meat processing techniques and the availability of refrigeration. This made possible the removal of cocoa butter. 5. The term ‘sausage ripening’ is used to describe changes occurring between case filling and the time when the product is ready for sale. mount B. while the term ‘sausage fermentation’ is restricted to the lactic acid formation and concomitant processes. undried sausages common in Germany. mostly it is used to give rice a good flavor and aroma and 40 . Eating chocolate. Translate into English UNIT 49 : MEAT AND FISH PRODUCTS Meat products Mediterranean. 2. salting and drying of ungrounded meat was the traditional way of meat preservation in Germany and other European countries. coffee. 2. Answer the following questions 1. spicy sausages predominate. native. whereas in Europe the first systematic studies on the microbiology and chemistry of sausage ripening were published in the 1950s. In Germany. cà phê. the manufacture of fermented sausages commenced only some 150 years ago.50 cm3 may be consumed over two meals. ca cao khi pha với nước nóng thành một loại đồ uống kích thích người sử dụng vì trong đó có chứa 2 thành phần chính là bromin và cafein. spell. thus producing a less fatty cocoa powder suitable for drinking. Read and translate into Vietnamese latitude. merchant ventures. animal species. and most of the fermented sausages are smoked. including the 69 . the sauce is eaten by large proportion of the population and early reports suggested intakes up to 400 cm3 per day. among them Malaysia. As with many other fermented foods. and at the same time a residue of cocoa butter. C. 3. i. and semi-dry sausages common in Northern America. Other criteria include the casing diameter. intensive research on the microbiology and chemistry of sausage ripening was triggered when traditional empirical methods of manufacture no longer met the requirements of large-scale. 1.

During the fermentation. the jars are tightly sealed and left for several months. although the ammonia concentration continued to increase. Although nước-mắm can be prepared from shrimp. amino acids and ammonia. the free amino acid content increased steadily as did the formol nitrogen (this indicates that some polypeptide is being formed in addition to amino acids).volatiles. What is the difference between the term “sausage ripening” and sausage fermentation? Can you describe some product types of fermented sausage? What is ‘nước-mắm’ in Vietnam? What kinds of it are usually consumed in Vietnam? How long has the fermentation times of fish been used for production of ‘nước-mắm’ in Vietnam? What are the main constituents of ‘nước-mắm’ in Vietnam? 70 . A common procedure adopted at a factory site is to remove some but not all of the supernatant when it is formed. the fish flesh B. An advantage with these poorer quality sauces is that more may be consumed so that the protein obtained from them may be near to that of first quality sauce. Read and translate into Vietnamese Mediterranean. After filling. Generally. polypeptides. The period of fermentation can be about 6 months for the small fish and up to 18 months for the larger species. In some cases the initial bloody liquid (nuoc-boi) is drained off. At the end of the fermentation. As the free amino acid content was 49% then the polypeptide was probably 14% of the total organic nitrogen and the ammonia was 17%. most of it is in the form of amino acids and small peptides. it is generally manufactured using species of small fish. The total organic nitrogen can be expressed in terms of soluble protein. which do not find such a ready market as whole fish. The nitrogen content varied with the quality of sauce being offered for sale. roasted maize or roasted barley to the fish before the second and subsequent extractions. Answer the following questions 1. Some of this is added back to the vat and some is returned at a later date. EXERCISES A. These extracts may be improved by the addition of higher qualities of ‘nước-mắm’. casing diameter. The decomposition of the fish flesh was complete after 4-5 months.3%w/w nitrogen of which 46% was in the form of titratable amino acids and 17% as ammonia. This is referred to as first quality 'nước-mắm' or ‘nước-cốt’. degree of communication. (1953). 4. and the partly fermented mixtures from a number of village sites are combined and fermented further. disrupt. however. These workers showed that the total nitrogen in the sauce increased over a 120 . Sometimes several vats are extracted with the same brine. is very apparent. undried sausages. a palatable product. the lower quality sauces have poorer keeping properties as they may have a low salt concentration. Nowadays in some areas. trigger. Rosé (1919) analyzed nước-mắm and established that it contained 2. 5. which represents the soluble protein. 3. The formation of various organic compounds during the fermentation period of nước-mắm was examined by Uyenco et al. in earthenware jars that are almost buried in the ground. molasses. sausage ripening. which contains some of the supernatant liquor is then extracted with boiling seawater to lixivate the fish and the liquid is then referred to as second quality. They are then placed in layers with salt in an approximate ratio of 3:1 fish to salt.day period and that the organic nitrogen. concomitant. fermented sausages. They may be improved by the addition of caramel. The fish are caught by seine netting. They are kneaded and pressed by hand. After fermentation the pots are carefully removed and after a few days of setting the supernatant liquor is decanted off carefully. The undissolved residue (xác-mắm) is used for animal foodstuffs. This improves the color and also improves the keeping qualities.38%. larger vats fitted with taps near the bottom are used. The extraction procedure may be repeated to give poorer qualities of nước-mắm. reaches a maximum of approximately 2. semi-dry sausages.0% with a total nitrogen of 2. Generally the cheaper products have far less aroma and often they are more bitter to the Western taste. approximately 86% of the total nitrogen was organic and of this 63% titrated in the presence of formol. spreadable. sausage fermentation. The residual mass. 2.

để sản xuất một số sản phẩm làm tăng hương vị và thời gian bảo quản thịt. The presence of various physiological groups of microorganisms was reported in early investigations on original products but these reports also pointed out that the predominant role in production of yogurt lays with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. 3.a good source of energy. The type of milk. with eyes: Swiss. Streptococcus lactis.tropicalis) were regarded as spoilage microorganisms. Granular Ripened by bacteria. Cheese is a wholesome and interesting foodstuff. gạo rang kỹ làm tăng mùi vị và màu sắc cho nước mắm. Thereafter comes consistency and internal appearance. To keep the temperature constant the pot containing inoculated milk is thoroughly wrapped in furs and placed for 8-10 h in the oven until a smooth. The same source gives the following means of classifying cheese. 2. Neufchatel … More recently the International Dairy Federation (IDF. đường. to consistent high quality international varieties made in the primary dairying countries by highly industrialized modern practices. Parmesan. Translate into English 1. Cream.. influences the flavor of the cheese and is given top priority in the listing. firm and cohesive curd with very little wheying off is formed. Emmentaler and Gruyere.. Other bacterial strains. type of consistency.krusei. Butter. C. Gorgonzola. unless very detailed information is required. Hand and Neufchatel (b) Unripened: Cottage. Romano. which can provide a large part of the human’s requirements of protein.C. C. a. These foods range from simple cheese of variable characteristics and quality. fat . The IDF method of grouping cheese is based on the sequence of characteristics in terms of their recognition by consumer. Pot. d. Người ta có thể bổ sung thêm caramel.Very hard (grating): Ripened by bacteria: Asiago old. Semi-soft: Ripened principally by bacterial: Brick and Munster.Yogurt Original yogurt is prepared in Bulgaria from goats’ or cows’ boiled. Sapsago. made by empirical methods in the home in countries where conditions are generally unsuitable for milk production. 2. than to regulatory or marketing agencies. Hard: Ripened by bacteria. rỉ đường hoặc ngô. c. interior. exterior. Camembert. without eyes: Cheddar. UNIT 50 : SOME TRADITIONAL FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS 1. Cheese Cheese and cheese products derived from the fermentation of milk are of major nutritional and commercial importance throughout the world. 71 . gia vị. relatively highly viscous. Ripened principally by blue mould in the interior: Roquefort. Widely distributed yeasts (Candida mycoderma. There are controversial data concerning the original microflora of yogurt.calcium and minerals. Nhu cầu nước mắm trong dân ta ngày càng tăng. Ripened by bacteria and surface micro-organisms: Limburger. b. which is subjected to a process of fermentation and ripening. 1981) has produced a catalogue of cheese based on the following characteristics: raw material. đặc biệt là loại nước mắm ngon. Soft: (a) Ripened: Brie. The variety of cheese types is seen in the fact that one authoritative book Cheese Varieties and Descriptions gives an index of 800 cheese names and contains descriptions for more then four hundred. high solids milk.. Blue Stlton . Bakers. . Thịt nghiền có bổ sung thêm muối. external features and then fat and moisture contents that are important but less vital to the consumer. inoculated at 40-45°C with a portion of previously soured milk.

acetaldehyde. taette (slime producer). moulds. Streptococcus lactis subsp. investigation.represented by homofermentative lactic acid strains other than in group (a) and by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. availability of format and the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. a wholesome. subsequent storage.lactis subsp. Yogurt bacteria. Its body characteristics are greatly influenced by the careful regulation of production conditions. yogurt lay. Diacetylactis. Yogurt. 72 . and hence a considerable increase occurs in the free amino acids content of finished yogurts. It is highly acid product. Of the individual amino acids glutamic acid and proline are present in the highest amounts. Bifidobacterium bifidum. 4. effervescence. The total count of viable yogurt bacteria ranges between 200 and 1000 million per ml of fresh yogurt. Diacetylactis. The metabolic activity of yogurt bacteria results in a considerable increase in cell numbers.3. Faster growth of streptococci at the beginning of fermentation brings about accumulation of moderate amounts of lactic and acetic acids. recognition. a symbiotic culture. EXERCISES A. Str. be wrapped. 3. Rasic and Kurmann (1978). firm and cohesive. The content of liberated amino acids is considerably higher than that are necessary to meet the nitrogen requirement of Streptococcus thermophilus. Finished yogurt is thus the end product of a symbiotic culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and of Lactobacillus bulgaricus growing at temperatures in the range 40-450C. as a product. were regarded as supplementary microflora. Lactobacillus acidophilus. spoilage. Leuconostoc spp. Yogurt is finished at pH 4. Contaminants: yeasts. What is the semi-soft cheese producing from cow milk? How many types of cheeses are classified in the world? What is yogurt? How many groups of original yogurt microflora are divided into a symbiotic culture? Can you describe some useful effects of yogurt.lactis var. furs. without grittiness or granules and without effervescence. but decreases during subsequent storage.Str. 5. Top quality yogurt is smooth. the complexity. saprophytic organisms B. cohesive curd. point out. Answer the following questions 1. is relatively highly viscous. The quality of strains used in starters is of particular importance. controversial data. coliforms and other undesirable microorganisms. 2. pathogenic.2 . Yogurts exhibit an antagonistic effect against a number of pathogenic and saprophytic organisms but this effect shows many variations depending on the bacterial strains used. particularly Streptococcus thermophilus exhibit a marked sensitivity to antibiotics and other inhibitory substances present in milk. By liberating from milk proteins a number of amino acids. Their destruction may be also caused by bacteriophage. Some of them may be used beneficially for supplementing the original microflora: for example. diacetyl and formic acid. stimulation of growth of Streptococcus thermophilus occurs. Non-essential . But the complexity of flavor is secured by the balanced level of many by-products represented by other carbonyl compounds as well as by the amino acids released into milk. grittiness. an antagonistic effect. The characteristic flavor is contributed mainly by lactobacilli producing lactic acid and acetaldehyde. essential microflora. Lactobacillus bulgaricus demonstrates a much stronger proteolytic activity than does Streptococcus thermophilus.consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Read and translate into Vietnamese empirical methods. Propionibacterium shermanii.. summarizing the findings concerning the original yogurt microflora.4. divided it into three groups: Essential microflora . bacteriophage. and on their particular antagonistic properties.

This is largely due to the extremely competitive state of enzyme production and marketing resulting in very real differences in the way each producer arrives at a cost-effective process for his products. 2. UNIT 51 : GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES Very little specific information has been presented in the public domain that details the particular methods applied to the production of any one enzyme. although the formation of conidial spores is desirable for the ease of inoculation of large-scale fermentations. Submerged ‘deep’ fermentation has been adopted as the most economic route for the preparation of bulk industrial enzymes.450C với giống sữa chua giống của đợt trước. In every case. phosphate and trace elements in soluble forms are used. There are some main steps of enzyme production as follow: 1. If a high level of a single activity is desired. The species listed are generally considered to present the least risk of toxin production during fermentation as well as being non-pathogenic to man. the strain selected for production will have a highly improved enzyme producing capability compared with the wild strains and will have undergone stringent screening to ensure that it does not produce toxins or antibiotics in order to meet increasingly stringent standards for food applications of enzyme product. chất béo và nguồn năng lượng cho con người. Enzymes from solid state cultivation are generally found to be complex mixtures. Bulk medium is generally prepared separately in tanks that allow pH adjustment and 73 . The Aspergilli are similarly placed amongst the fungi. temperature and in some cases dissolved oxygen. Bacillus species are comparatively easy to isolate and despite the problems associated with spore formation. 2. however. Controls to monitor pH. the industrial enzyme fermentation system utilizes basic but large fermentation equipment. The medium selected must support good growth of the microorganism and be as inexpensive as possible. Tổng lượng vi khuẩn sống sót trong sữa chua có từ 200 . In rare cases the organism will dictate the choice by virtue of either non-production or low yields by one method. Fomát là một loại thực phẩm được ưa thích vì nó có thể cung cấp phần lớn nhu cầu protein. Suspended insoluble nutrients and inexpensive additional sources of nitrogen. starch hydrolysates and corn steep liquor dominate the list of typical ingredients. the nature of the final enzyme product and its designated performance objective determine the method. are typical. many have been isolated as non-sporing strains. Fermentation The choice of fermentation method lies between ‘solid state’ (which is also called semi-solid) and submerged or ‘deep’ fermentation. 3. Sữa chua có nguồn gốc sản xuất ở Bungari từ sữa bò. Soybean meal. protease. The specific additional growth the enzyme synthesis stimulating requirements are determined for each organism selected as a production strain. often including amylase. it is commonly produced by submerged fermentation.C. sữa dê. Despite great developments of sophisticated instrument monitoring of research fermentations.1000 triệu/ ml sữa chua tươi nhưng giảm đáng kể trong thời gian bảo quản tiếp theo. lipase and non-starch carbonhydrases in definite proportions that are regulated by the cultivation. được giữ ở nhiệt độ ổn định 40 . Generally. Main vessels can reach 150 m3 in practice and they are an essential feature of the economics of bulk processing. it is often necessary to have efficient foam detection and antifoam treatment as an extra control facility. The Production Strain Some principal microorganisms that have found acceptance for production of industrial enzymes. Translate into English 1. Where the use of suspended medium is encountered.

Low temperature vacuum evaporation is most commonly applied to stable enzymes and ultrafiltration is used for the more sensitive products. Answer the following questions 1. Initially. it is now recognized that the spray drying should include a granulation to minimize the potential hazards of dusty. which is most often performed on rotary vacuum filters. the high-speed disc machine with continuous operation is preferred. exposures. chilled solvents. rotary vacuum filters. dust. hazards of dusty. the solids are removed by filtration or centrifugation aided by the use of flocculents to increase the particle size. In the limited applications where a dry enzyme product is required. antifoam treatment. dry products. The most effective treatments are performed using chilled solvents and adding them to the aqueous broth. Read and translate into Vietnamese conidial spores.g. a granulation. calcium salts. dielectric constant. Polishing and germ filtration steps are able to remove microorganisms and a series of precipitations may be performed to select the desired enzyme. whose pH has been adjusted to the isoelectric value for the enzyme being processed. fermentation. Organic solvents that lower the dielectric constant of the system and so reduce the solubility of proteins are also used to precipitate enzymes. polyalcohols or sugars and any permitted preservatives deemed necessary. Tuyển chọn một chủng vi sinh vật thích hợp là bước quan trọng đầu tiên cho quá trình sản xuất một sản phẩm của công nghệ sinh học. 74 . 2. starch. It is common to load a proportion of diatomaceous earth or other filter aid into the stirred broth before filtration. Purified liquid enzymes are standardized by dilution and the diluents generally include stabilizing salts. spray drying. the soluble medium components and the cells of the fermented microorganism. What are the main steps for the production of enzymes? What is the advantages of microbial extracellular enzymes? What are different methods of fermentation in the production of enzymes? What are the main factors for choosing the Micoorganisms in the production of enzymes? What is the purpose of broth purification? C. precipitant. Granulation will follow standardization with acceptable materials such as sugars. bran extract. Most systems pump the sterile medium into the fermentation vessels that have been previously sterilized with live steam. stringent screen. 3. Broth Purification The bran extract or fermentation broth contain the enzyme. residues of the suspended medium components. The inhalation of any protein dust is likely to increase the risk of allergic response to further exposures to the same protein and it is recommended to take full precautions when handling enzymes in powder form. e. pH adjustment. flour or inorganic salts. diatomaceous earth. 4.direct or heat exchange steam sterilization. Further solution and precipitation stages may be performed with different concentrations of precipitant to achieve a desired purification. The addition of an inorganic salt such as sodium or ammonium sulfate to a specified concentration will precipitate a range of proteins which may include the desired enzyme or leave it in the soluble phase. allergic response. bulk medium. Một loại enzim được sử dụng trong công nghiệp thực phẩm cần có các đặc tính ổn định và không tạo độc tố hoặc các sản phẩm phụ không mong muốn khác. 5. Where centrifugation is adopted. 2. since it can successfully be performed at temperatures around 5 oC. Concentration of enzyme liquids is a compromise between energy efficiency and activity loss. organic solvents. Purification is usually necessary both to eliminate microorganisms and to reduce the preparation to the lowest practical contamination with other enzymes produced by the fermentation. foam detection. standardized. precautions B. 3. polyelectrolytes and aluminum salts typified by modern water treatment methods. EXERCISES A. Translate into English 1. germ filtration steps.

pears. peaches and other fruits and tissues. submerged fermentation should have many advantages: higher yields. nhiệt độ. with maltose and molasses as second best. Wehmer. to produce citric acid. Surface fermentation We refer to the process as practiced at Ladenburg. although it is claimed that very little trouble was experienced from contamination. shorter cycle. The amount of phosphoric acid should be sufficient to bring the P2O5 content of the molasses to at least 0. which have been advanced about the citric acid fermentation process. adjusted to pH 6.aided with sulfuric acid. to point out that strains of Aspergillus niger were in fact best for the fermentative production of citric acid. Before each fermentation cycle. and diluted to 15% sugar for fermentation. Phương pháp nuôi cấy chìm cần kiểm tra và điều chỉnh pH. but in the USA these last two raw materials have been used for a large number of years. minimum contamination. treated with calcium oxide at a pH of 8. sulfur dioxide is blown into the chambers with the air stream. He designated the moulds as Citromyces and later reported that Penicillium and mucor could produce similar reactions. The yield claimed is 70% of the added sugar. Germany. are used as inoculum. the fermentation chambers are sterilized by washing with 1% caustic soda. The fermentation liquor is heated.3 minutes”. then with water.5. In most cases a certain amount of oxalic acid is produced together with the citric acid. 75 . lower labor and maintenance costs. in 1917. The raw material is beet molasses (48-50% sugar) obtained preferably from sugar factories producing raw sugar. Finally.5 m x 15 cm deep. The treated molasses is then run into the fermentation chambers.02 %. then with 6% formaldehyde. Johnson when commenting on this process as practiced at the Benckiser Works at Ladenburg. The air supply to the fermentor chambers is “sterilized” by passing through a 5-cm-thick cotton filter impregnated with salicylic acid. Beet molasses has had more success than blackstrap or invert cane molasses. pineapples. A factory employing submerged fermentation started operation in the USA in 1951 but no precise data has so far been published on its operative procedure. simpler operation. But it was left to Currie. treated with ferrocyanide and phosphoric acid. The plant had a capacity of 6-10 tons per day of calcium citrate. ‘The molasses is diluted to 30% sugar. Submerged fermentation Compared with surface fermentation. indicating that pyruvic acid from glucose yields acetyl ~ SCoA. however. for production of an industrial scale sucrose and technical glucose remain the easier raw material. with spores grown on molasses agar. etc. The mould mats are removed by hand and extracted. which condenses with oxalo acetic acid. 15% of the total yield being obtained from the washing. It is not possible to delve here into many theories. in 1945. presumably as monohydrate citric acid. each containing 80 aluminum trays 2 x 2. inoculated by means of spores blown in with the air supply and incubated for 9-11 days at 300C. They are filled to a depth of 8 cm with the diluted molasses. The Krebs or tricarboxylic acid cycle offers a partially suitable solution. greatly diminished since the development of the fermentation process from sugar solutions.3. The importance of “natural” citric acid has. Improved strains of Aspergillus niger. described the production of citric acid by mould fermentation. drew attention to the inadequate provisions for sterilization and asepsis. in 1893. The air supply is changed at the rate of one volume of air per volume every 4. heated to 1000C for 1h for sterilization. Properties Although sugar solutions of various origins have been used to produce citric acid. then moistened to 40% relative humidity at 300C. already formed in the cycle. and the precipitated crude calcium citrate filtered off. ôxy hòa tan và dùng cả tác nhân khử bọt. UNIT 52 : CITRIC ACID (C6H8O7) History Citric acid is on of the most widely spread plant acids occurring as a natural constituent of citrus fruits.5 .

0 giữ nhiệt độ 30-320C. 3. and ethanol (3. What are the main advantages of submerged fermentation of citric acid? Tell some main operations of simplified flow sheet of citric acid. Molasses diluted to 10% sugar concentration is treated with potassium ferrocyanide and the following nutrients are added: ammonium nitrate (0. C. A reported from Mexico by Sanchez-Marroquin indicates the following medium as optimum for the production of citric acid from cane molasses with A.niger in submerge cultures. 4. mould mats.5-7. japonicus and wentii have been mentioned. khuấy trộn và sục khí vô trùng liên tục khi lên men axit xitric theo phương pháp nuôi cấy chìm.The published data from patents and research laboratories show a tendency to use mould strains different from A. surface fermentation. Read and translate into Vietnamese diminish. Give the definition of citric acid. cane molasses.5%. EXERCISES A. zinc sulfate (0. which was completed in about 8 days. delve.niger: A. The reported yield of citric acid was 60% of total sugar used. The medium was kept under aeration and agitation at 290C during fermentation.15%). and with cane molasses as raw material the addition of methanol seems greatly beneficial.0044%). The medium is adjusted to an initial pH of 6. asepsis B. After sterilization.02%). Môi trường được điều chỉnh đến pH ban đầu là 6. The following description is based on a report from Taiwan by S.0. beet molasses. 2. the medium was adjusted to pH 6.Lin. blackstrap. Translate into English Rỉ đường củ cải được dùng để sản xuất axit xitric tốt hơn rỉ đường mía và dịch nước mía ép ra. Yields of up to 68% are reported.0005%) and ammonium sulfate.5 m x 15 cm bề sâu và dịch rỉ đường pha loãng ngập sâu khoảng 8 cm.57. Clarified molasses from carbonation factories was diluted to 200 Brix to bring the sugar content to 13-14% of total sugars and added with Phosphoric acid (0.5%) or methanol (3%).F.fimaricus.02%). The strain of Aspergillus niger used was ML-516 and 2% of inoculum was added. 76 . kept under aeration and agitation with a fermentative temperature of 30-320C after receiving a suitable vegetative inoculum of 1. molasses. 5. Trong các phòng nuôi cấy bề mặt. designate.0 and 3% of methanol was added 8 hours after inoculation. impregnate. Answer the following questions 1. monopotassium phosphate. inadequate provisions. KH2PO4 (0. corn steep liquor (0. What are the main raw materials for production of citric acid? Describe the fermentation chambers for production of citric acid by surface fermentation method. Aeration and agitation of the medium as essential. mỗi phòng chứa khoảng 80 khay nhôm hoặc inox có kích thước 2 x 2.

the highest commandment in handling plant cell cultures is sterile working. As we will show. Work with plant cell cultures Equipment of a cell culture laboratories: Since plant cell cultures grow much more slowly than many microorganisms. the interest of biotechnology in plant and animal cell cultures has dramatically expanded. However. as a rule. Cultivation may take place in climatized chests. second. since biotechnological . the possibilities. we hope that our choice gives the reader a clear overview of the present state. the product-oriented aspect of plant cell cultures will be emphasized more. or still better. and. different light fields should be available for such experiments. in most cases one has to establish the required cell culture oneself. 940 scientists from 41 countries belonged to the “international association for plant tissue cultures”. plant cultures are maintained both on agar media and in liquid media. in the production of important natural compounds and in the improvement of crop plants. An International congress for plant cell cultures is held by the group every four years. The aim of this section to acquaint the leader with the nature. Plant cell cultures should be maintained under constant conditions. Commercial application of cell cultures is seen. The cells of most plants can be grown on definite synthetic media. These two areas cannot be considered equally here. in climatized rooms. The programs of these congresses best reflect the fact that work with plant cells is being performed for many different purposes. and coconut milk proved to be necessary. In 1972. the field is uncharted territory for many biotechnologists. For two reasons it seems necessary to give an introduction into working with plant cell cultures before describing the biotechnological aspects. and the literature of plant and animal cell cultures. the maintenance. Many aspects must necessary be left out of consideration. plant cell cultures are an excellent tool for answering some basic biological questions. Only a few cases have additives such as yeast extract. First. Suspension cultures must be shaken continuously on shaking machines for continuous operation. In most laboratories. Anyone requiring detailed information on the construction and equipment of a cell culture laboratory may be referred to an article Media for plant cell cultures The choice of medium is a device factor for setting up a culture and for the growth and biosynthetic productivity of a cell culture. at the present time there is no collection of plant cell cultures from which definite lines can be obtained. Plant cell cultures General The number of laboratories dealing with plant cell cultures has increased continuously in the some few years. answers to basic questions are as necessary as applied research for planning a broad biotechnological utilization of plant cell cultures in industry and agriculture.UNIT 53 : PLANT AND ANIMAL CELL CULTURES Introduction In the last few years.at least in the past . For example. The increasing importance of cell cultures can be recognized from the fact that in books on biotechnology space is being made more and more frequently for information on higher cells and that biotechnological symposia now always devote some sections to biological and technological aspects for plant and animal cell cultures. the problems. The biosynthetic productivity of a culture is frequently affected by light. The decision to favor product-oriented cell culture research does not mean that this area will become accessible to a broader commercial application earlier. in particular. In order to test these effects on the cultures. Plant and animal cell cultures in effort so greatly in their characteristics that are two systems are treated separately. at the present time it appears that the improvement of useful plants through cell culture technique may be achieved before the production of natural compounds from cell cultures at economically acceptable cost. An outstanding position has been achieved by the MS medium according to 77 .has dealt to some extent with fermentation and product recovery. Consequently. In 1980. A cell culture laboratory should therefore have available a clean bench with laminar air flow. casein hydrolysate. and the difficulties of using higher cell in biotechnology. an Association already had more than 2000 members in 63 countries. On the contrary.

Cambridge. must be determined in each case according to the question under investigation. physiological. Italy. gymnosperms. in aging research for the mapping of genes. particularly for the production of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines. plant cell cultures of dicotyledons.. cell culture techniques are firmly established in diagnostic virology. Besides diagnosis and basic research. and morphological questions. Because of its tremendous current interest. Animal cell cultures General During the last 20 years. however. It may therefore be assumed that in principle cell cultures of any plant can be established. and of cell cycle related events. in the analysis of oncogenic and cytostatic substances. All media for plant cell cultures contain mineral salts (major and trace nutrient elements). To promote such developments. More advanced processes are already based on fermentors with a capacity of up to 10.Murashige-Skoog. Since most types of animal cells are suitable for in-vitro cultivation. The optimum conditions for a newly set up callus culture and for suspension cultures derived from it. and mosses have been set up. The cultivation of cells on a large technical scale started with BHK (baby hamster kidney) cells which were adapted to growth in suspension in 1962 and have been used industrially since 1967 in the United Kingdom.. the NSF (National Science Foundation of the USA) has founded two cell culture centers in 1975 at the Massachusetts Institute of technology. Up to the present. Girard (1977) has reported the construction of a factory in which every year 500 000 liters of cell suspension are processed in 3000 liter fermentors.. the present annual demand of 280 millions of experimental animals world wild will be reduced as further developments become available. the prerequisites for the maintenance and propagation of animal cells in culture have been worked out systematically. such as hormones. Setting up of cell cultures Seeds Fresh material Surface sterilization Surface sterilization Germination Seeding (grown under sterile conditions) Placing of plant parts on a nutrient agar with the addition of phytohormones Callus formation (proliferation) on the plant part Transfer of the callus to an agar medium containing phytohormones Callus culture Introduction of callus material into a liquid culture medium Suspension culture The numerous publications on the influence of media on growth processes may be regarded as guides for one’s own procedure in establishing a culture. enzymes.. The present state of development is characterized by the fact that the cultivation of animal cell has been established in many laboratories and clinics in order to deal with biochemical. monocotyledons. antibodies and cytokines are on the threshold of industrial manufacture. ferns. Thus. A large range of other substances. vitamins. sucrose.000 liters. the developments relating 78 . Extensive efforts are currently being undertaken to transfer animal cells from the laboratory to the production level. mammalian cells are of increasing importance for the production of a variety of pharmaceutically important macromolecules. in amniocentesis. and growth regulators (phytohormones).

resistances. Cells or tissue taken from an organism forms the primary culture. those mainly serving to increase yields. Without a substantial rise in yield. Continuous cell lines possess the potential for an unlimited subcultivation in vitro. cells with specific stable properties have been obtained (marker chromosomes.. Read and translate into Vietnamese acquaint. not even the amount necessary for evaluation can be prepared. transformation. 4. The starting point for such a culture is an explain. ascribe. a common criterion. Translate into English 1. The term “cell line” is applied to the generations obtained after the first subcultivation and all subsequent ones. In the present state of our knowledge. diagnostic. The largest amounts of secondary microbial metabolites are used today in plant protection and animal nutrition while the market for antibiotics in human meloine is financially by far the most important. as long as this retains its structure and its function one speaks of an organ or tissue culture. 2. by selection or cloning. 2. unambigunously. will be mentioned here.. or enzymatic action. gymnosperms. amniocentesis. If the organization of a tissue is destroyed by mechanical. in many cases. is an at least 70-fold subcultivation (passage) at intervals of about three days? The result of culture alteration was formerly generally called “transformation”: however. đã được sản xuất ở mức độ lớn trong công nghiệp bằng phương pháp nuôi cấy tế bào động vật. this term should now be used only in those cases in which the alteration can ascribed unambiguously to the introduction of foreign genetic material. uncharted territory. oncogenic. Animal cell culture deals with the study of parts of organs. 3. enzim. kháng thể. antibodies. transition to a true cell culture is complete. mosses B. 3. a clear interview. and antigens). Chọn môi trường nuôi cấy thích hợp là yếu tố quyết định cho quá trình phát triển và hiệu quả cao của sinh tổng hợp trong nuôi cấy tế bào. They can be classified in three groups: 79 . ferns. climatized chests.. tissues or individual cells in vitro. i. What are the purposes of plant cell cultures? What are the main commercial applications of plant cell cultures? What kinds of equipments of a cell culture laboratory are necessary installed? Describe some main operations of the establishment of plant cell cultures. A cell line can become a continuous (permanent) cell line by “culture alteration”. công nghệ sinh học ngày càng quan tâm tới việc nuôi cấy tế bào động vật và thực vật. One should speak of a “cell strain” only when. it is impossible to determine the moment when the transition to continuous cell line has taken place. only those of biotechnological relevance. monocotyledons. chemical.. prerequisite. Một loạt các chất khác nhau như: hoocmôn. UNIT 54 : ANTIBIOTICS Of the toughly 8000 microbial metabolites already described. 5. dicotyledons. a clean bench. yields of 5g/l.to interferon have proceeded furthest and will be reported in greatest detail below as they represent an example of the rapid advance that is possible today as the result of directed development in such systems. Of the many investigations in quite different fields that must be carried out before a product can be introduced. However. marker enzymes. What are the purposes of animal cell cultures? C. callus culture. interferon. only a few have come into comparative wide use. plant cell cultures. Often the researcher faces difficulties in explaining to the production manager that enormous effort must be put into increasing yield and concentration for a given product. EXERCISES A. Answer the following questions 1. Raising the yield and the processing of the metabolite to make it suitable for use must take place in parallel if one is not to be delayed by the other. The amounts of secondary metabolites that are formed per liter of culture by the wild strains fluctuate very widely but are generally less than 10 mg/l. and more were necessary for an economically profitable fermentation. cytostatic. However. transition. Trong những năm gần đây.e.

the temperature. This method. On the one hand. .search for mutants in the intermediate metabolism in those areas that are related to the biogenesis of the metabolite with the aim of increasing the availability of constructional units. . pO2.search for mutants that are resistant to high concentration of their own metabolite.random search for mutants with higher yields. a rapid charge is taking place here. in the production of penicillin V). fixed cells. the gap. the highly productive strains used to be frequently represent reduced forms in relative to growth. or carrier bound enzymes can be used. on the one hand. on the other hand. In continuous fermentation. d) A strain is subjected to a program of mutation. preparation of the inoculum. fusion of protoplasm.. for example is still very large. the gap between what can be done today in the case of Escherichia coli and that which can be realize with these methods in the case of Penicillium or Cephalosporium. in parallel. which is known mutasynthesis. applied intensively to the aminoglycosides. a program of mutation. and the recent investigations of Hopwood have made important advantage in the genetics of the Streptomycetes available to a large circle. the pH. Read and translate into Vietnamese fluctuate. for which purpose living cells.search for mutants with other properties favorable for the fermentation process. and the probability that a spontaneously occurring antibiotic-minus mutants would multiply faster and higher. the successes achieved by the classical methods are so significant that in the industry there have so far been relatively few research workers dealing with the genetics of microorganisms.construction of strains by crossing according to classical methods or by the fusion of protoplasts. the greatly increased cost of a multistage continuous fermentation in comparison with the batch process.g. the evaluation of practical experience may lead to modified products. and.a. inhibitor. Study of the biogenesis and biosynthesis of the metabolite in order to achieve appropriate improvements of the nutrient solution of feeding and in order to have a basis for a program of mutation at the same time. as well. however. biosynthesis. and mutants are selected which have a different spectrum of secondary metabolites. search. e.. On the other hand. b) A producing strain is induced by the mention of inhibitors to form a different spectrum of substances. even above yields of 30g/l. osmotolerance. This field is known today as biotransformation. b. raising the yield. Modification of the strain by . biotechnological processes can always be improved further. feeding system. although they have been no lack of attempts to introduction continuous fermentation for the production of antibiotics. etc. biochemical and biotechnological treatment should not be broken off. . On the one hand. Here is brief list of them: a) A substance is transformed enzymatically. the minus mutants would rapidly out grow the reproductive strain and this can be substantially avoided in the bioprocess by the use of special propagation media and production media differing from them. density of inoculation. mutant. the absence of undesired components. with higher osmotolerance. c. EXERCISES A. f) All antibiotics prepared technically today obtained in batch processes. on the other hand. modification of the strain. The methods of “genetic engineering” have so far found no application in raising the yield of secondary metabolites of microorganisms.g. Optimization of the fermentation process through the composition of the nutrient solution. is being.search for permeation damaged mutants. etc. its microbiological. isolated free enzymes.. e) A strain is mutated in such a way that can no longer synthesize certain precursors itself. The reasons are. inoculation. modification. propagation 80 . c) A producing strain is supplied with modified precursors (e. speed of stirring. and then modified precursors supplied so that a modified cud product formed. With the introduction of a product. However. . biogenesis. The “International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Micro-organisms” that are held regularly have created the necessary contacts between scientists. while. .

In comparison with other biological natural materials this products is produced in relatively large amounts (mass product). UNIT 55: PRODUCTION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS Definition and Review The term biomass denotes the organic cell substance plant or animal organisms. of course. 2. K. the main interest is in protein component of the biomass. SCF). although. Ca. Na. and special natural products such as vitamins. 4. steroids.g. 3. they are obtained in a different manner. microbial biomass is also called single-cell protein (SCP) or bioprotein. forestry. 5. Its development received another impulse when it was discovered that fossil materials can be used as substrates for 81 . Một chủng vi sinh vật được gây đột biến để nó có thể tổng hợp nên các tiền chất và sau đó có thể chuyển tiếp thành sản phẩm mong muốn. and fisheries. As an industrial product. citric acid). penicillin. protein. the production of microbial biomass. biomass is composed of carbohydrates. in addition to the desired synthesis of a nature substance (e. Mg.. nucleic acids.B.. the multiplication and growth of the culture of microorganisms itself also takes place. e. As early as the beginning of the twentieth century. are similar in their basis composition and applicability in view of the universality of biochemistry. microbial biomass completes with biomass products from agriculture. by microbial biomass is understood the cell substance of microorganisms that arises during their mass cultivation: The production of microbial biomass is the technical manufacture of the cell mass of microorganisms from suitable organic raw material. or the vitamin component (particularly the vitamin B complex). Consequently. which. and mineral substances. Chemically. S. the production of biomass can be formulated in the following manner: C(H2O) + O2 + NH3 + P. and weather. climate. or microbial biomass. Process engineering uses for this purpose on the large technical scale the cheapest possible raw materials and sources energy that are available in large amounts in simple and low-energy processes. What are the main technical conditions for optimization of the fermentation process? What are the purposes of the study of biogenesis and biosynthesis of the metabolites? What are the different methods for transformation of substances by enzymes? What is the purpose of methods of genetic engineering in the production of antibiotics? What kind of process is used for production of antibiotics today? C. lipid. it was recognized that this cell mass. Answer the following questions 1. In technical fermentation processes. Here. Correspondingly. forms a useful product. also be utilized. so that is production with the substantial exclusion of accompanying processes was made the subject of a new development.g. Translate into English Nhiều quá trình nghiên cứu trong nhiều lĩnh vực khác nhau được thực hiện trong phòng thí nghiệm trước khi đưa ra sản xuất lớn. the lipid fraction (single-cell fat. isoprenoids. however. and it contains structurally bound water. the nucleic acid. Nghiên cứu tạo ra các chủng đột biến với các tính chất phù hợp cho các quá trình lên men ví dụ như: tạo ra các sản phẩmphụ không mong muốn. Fe Carbon substrate Oxygen Ammoniac Mineral substances ⇓ are converted by cell multiplication and biosynthesis into + H2O + (CHNO) + CO2 Biomass Carbon dioxide Water ∆H Heat of reaction As a total substance. The subsidiary components that it contains can. It is used both for the total body substance of an organism and as a group term for a biological raw material produced from plants and animals. có khả năng chịu áp suất thẩm thấu cao hơn. It is precisely in these facts that a challenge to biotechnology is seen – namely the production of biomass industrially in a technically controllable manner independent of soil.

and the legal protection of new processes and strains of microorganisms.microorganisms. Here. Sinh khối vi sinh vật được lựa chọn phù hợp các nhu cầu sử dụng khác nhau và an toàn cho người. and cosmetic products. 82 . or other genetic methods. Here economic aspects (investment. mass cultivation. Through this new raw material basis. to determine the properties and composition of the total product and then to find possibilities for utilizing it or its constituents. In parallel to these biological investigations. molecular biology). or the overall profitability of biomass processes. scale-up) come to the fore. 5. 4. operation costs. The various raw materials carriers must be investigated for the special biological process. it is possible once again to include the fossil carbon compounds into the life cycle from which they have been excluded for millions of years. the production of microbial biomass includes a complex of technical fields and is becoming an interdisciplinary example of new biotechnology. 2. EXERCISES A. impulse. and the energy demands play the most important role. fruit peel) and are subsequently optimized by selection. Read and translate into Vietnamese Biomass. challenge. These range from the fodder sector through foodstuffs to technical. In the meantime. swab. The biomass product proper is regarded as a new industrially accessible raw material and requires its own independent product development the task of which is. process engineering and the development of new bioproducts. The production of microbial biomass takes place in a fermentation process. in which suitable production strains are obtained from samples of soil. fossil. dietetic. 2. gia súc sử dụng. the raw materials. What is the microbial biomass ? What are essential substances for the production of microbial biomass ? What are the raw materials in Vietnam for production of biomass? Can you tell the advantages of the production of microbial biomass? Can you describe some special metabolic pathways to form microbial biomass? C. energy. Translate into English 1. mutation. process engineering and apparatus technology adapt the technical performance of the process and the apparatus in which the production of biomass is to be carried out in order to make them ready for use on the large technical scale. Thus. Sinh khối vi sinh vật được sản xuất từ các nguồn nguyên liệu sẵn có. Safety demands and questions of environmental protection arise in the production of microbial biomass in relation both to the process and to the product. pharmaceutical. their production and preparation. single-cell protein (SCP). Then the technical conditions of cultivation for the optimized strains are worked out and any special metabolic pathways and cell structures are determined (biochemistry. rẻ tiền ở Việt Nam. Answer the following questions 1. fodder sector B. the production of microbial biomass has taken a firm and important place in research. Process development begins with microbial screening. selected strains of microorganisms are multiplied on suitable raw material in a technical cultivation process directed to the growth of the culture. by analyses and biological tests. New applications are opened up by further processing. 3. namely operating licenses. safety and the protection of innovation throw-up legal and patent aspects. product authorizations for particular applications. multiplication. Finally. development and technical production and has led to new groups of tasks for microbiology. water and air or from swabs of inorganic or biological materials (mineral ores. and the cell mass so obtained is isolated by separation processes.

and capital investment for fermentation equipment. What are the advantages of most SCP processes ? 5. A cell can be transformed through a variety of techniques. genetic manipulation can also be employed to alter the amino acid spectrum. in vitro. amenable. The production of SCP is most amenable to manipulation as a biotechnological process. Since most genetic engineering is performed in vitro. depending upon the genera and growth conditions. Competence can be achieved either naturally or by treatment with divalent cations. algae (47 – 63%). and a change in substrate often necessitates a change in the type of SCP microorganism used. rendering the protoplast capable of DNA uptake. Answer the following questions 1. Improvements in SCP yields. it is essential that introduction of the engineered gene into the host be possible. including yeasts. A vector is usually constructed from an extrachromosomal element. The required tools for the genetic engineering of a microorganism are a vector and a transformation system.UNIT 56: SINGLE-CELL PROTEIN: PRODUCTION MODIFICATION AND UTILIZATION Single-cell protein (SCP) refers to any unicellular source of protein. compromise. The chemical composition of yeast. plasmid. bacteria. Recent developments in genetic engineering have made the “construction” of SCP microorganisms possible. Genetic engineering of the ideal SCP microorganism Most SCP processes are designed to take advantage of an available substrate using a microorganism. The gross chemical composition of various microorganisms is presented as protein content of yeast (45 – 55%). replicate. The second tool for the genetic engineering of SCP microorganisms is a transformation system. the cell wall can be removed. uptake. EXERCISES A. and quality can be obtained by optimizing the various stages in the process. highlight. Although the protein content can be varied by growth conditions. fungi and algae vary. a plasmid or an integrative virus. In most SCP processes the selection of the SCP microorganism involves some compromise in each of these areas. What are the factors effecting to the production cost of SCP ? 3. which can readily convert that substrate into microbial biomass. The choice of SCP microorganism is usually limited to that particular process. Alternatively. The production cost of SCP is dependent upon substrate cost. integrative virus. A vector is a DNA sequence. A significant reduction in the cost of SCP would be realized if cheaper substrates could be developed without loss of conversion efficiency. What is the SCP ? 2. Another important factor in SCP production is protein content quality. Other considerations include the potential toxicity. Transformation is the uptake of naked DNA by a cell. which functions to maintain the desired gene in the host. and algae. The value of SCP is in its use as a nutritional supplement where conventional protein sources are not available or are uneconomical. mitosis. fungi (31 – 55%). and organoleptic performance of the SCP. bacteria. Can you describe the protein content of various microorganisms as sources of SCP? 4. The only requirement is that it replicates whenever the host replicates to avoid its segregation and loss during mitosis. This review will highlight some of the recent developments in SCP production and strategies to improve SCP production via genetic engineering. productivity. bacteria (50 – 83%). segregation. fungi. operating expenses. Read and translate into Vietnamese expenses. Recently some authors have reviewed SCP production and described methods for producing SCP from various substrates using both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic microorganisms. It would be ideal if the best attributes of each SCP microorganism could be combined. The production of SCP can be simply defined as the process of converting raw materials into cellular biomass. which make its competent (capable of DNA uptake). functionality. What is a transformation system in the genetic engineering of SCP microorganisms? 83 . B. for example. nake.

density. pharmaceutical. flow rate. health safety for process workers and end-product users. Selection of support material and method of immobilization is made by weighing the various characteristics and required features of the enzyme / cell application against the properties / limitations / characteristics of the combined immobilization / support. shape/form Physical (beads/sheets/fibers). Economic technical skill required. degree of porosity. pore volume. soluble enzyme molecules behave as any other solute in that they are readily dispersed in the solution and have complete freedom of movement. Much of the expansion may be attributed to developments to provide specific improvements for a given application. enzyme/cell loading and catalytic productivity. specification of immobilized preparation for food. Translate into English 1. space for increased biomass. permeability. reagents. substrate. but in recent years it has reached a plateau. maintenance of cell viability. and mechanical stability of support material Bacteria/ fugal attack. cell productivity.C. temperature. and pressure drop Hydrophilicity (water binding by the support). chemicals. organic Resistance solvents. multiple enzyme and/or cell systems. năng suất và chất lượng của sản phẩm protein đơn bào ta phải tiến hành tối ưu hóa các giai đoạn khác nhau của quá trình tạo sinh khối vi sinh vật lựa chọn phù hợp cho SCP. and products 84 . UNIT 57: IMMOBILIZATION OF ENZYMES AND CELLS Introduction The technology for immobilization of cells and enzymes evolved steadily for the first 25 years of its existence. has revitalized enthusiasms for immobilization of enzymes and cells. proteases. reusable support. continuous processing. Fundamental considerations in selection a support and method of immobilization Points for consideration Property Strength. residual enzyme activity. 2. noncompression of particles. environmental impact. Quá trình sản xuất protein đơn bào có thể định nghĩa đơn giản như là một quá trình biến đổi nguyên liệu thành sinh khối tế bào vi sinh vật. diffusion limitations on mass transfer of cofactor. no ideal support material or method of immobilization has emerged to provide a standard for each type of immobilization. A number of practical aspects should be considered before embarking on experimental work to ensure that the final immobilized enzyme and / or cell preparation/ is fit for the planned purpose or application and will operate at optimum effectiveness. Reaction side reactions. regeneration of enzyme Stability activity. Choice of support and principal method In solution. toxicity of component Safety reagents. the expansion of biotechnology. reaction kinetics. and so on. Therefore. industrial-scale . and medical applications Available and cost of support. and cell defense mechanisms (protein/cell) Biocompatibility (invokes and immune response). and the expected developments that will accrue from advances in genetic technology. inertness toward enzyme/cell. However. pH. Surprisingly. special equipment. chemical preparation. if not a slight decline. and regeneration/reuse of support Storage. disruption by chemicals. effective working life. feasibility for scale-up. available surface area. Chemical available functional groups for modification. Research and developments work has provided a bewildering array of support materials and methods for immobilization. there have been few detailed and comprehensive comparative studies on immobilization methods and supports. batch. Muốn tăng hiệu suất. and CRL or zero contamination (enzyme/cell-free product) Flow rate.

feed. The first consideration is to decide on the support material. and cosmis. and production of enzymes. support. embarking. the main method of immobilization. metabolite synthesis. and fermentation are categorized under either the prokaryotes. In these cases. isolation of new cloned genes occurred through the insertion of foreign DNA into transposons. and other food ingredients used by industry is carried out by microorganisms. Transposons. cofactors. Read and translate into Vietnamese plateau. As such. rẻ tiền. not only these processes but also those of protoplasm fusion and hybridization are observed. UNIT 58: GENETIC MANIPULATION . The history of the transposon is interesting. What are physical properties for selecting a support and method of immobilization of cells or enzymes ? 3. so immobilization provides a physical support for cells. 85 . Answer the following question 1. invoke. There are five principle methods for immobilization of enzymes/cells: adsorption. and crosslingking. disruption. Can you describe the principal methods for immobilization of enzymes/cells ? C. taking into account the intended use and application. Selection and construction of mutants for the purpose of genetic and biochemical analysis has been a fundamental tool of genetic research. encapsulation.ISOLATION AND TRANSFER OF CLONED GENES Organisms used in the production of food. and transduction. Trong dung dịch. plant. aside from genetic exchange. but in terms of controlling elements that could get in and out of genes and generate new phenotypes. yeasts. or eukaryotic organisms such as yeast. What are the purposes of immobilization of enzymes and cells ? 2. thiết bị phù hợp. The procedures led to cloning genes that contained material from various gene libraries and vectors that were used for the isolation of specific eukaryotic cloned DNA. Can you tell the ability of resistance of supports in immobilization of microbial cells ? 5. transformation. quá trình liên tục. bacteria. EXERCISES A. feasibility B. and several plants. kỹ năng cố định. Về phương diện kinh tế phải xét đến các vấn đề như: chất mang có sẵn. attribute. This was followed by more sophisticated radioisotopic and immunological screening of such genes and their expression in microbial organisms. emerge. cloned DNAs could be found within any number of transformed microbial colonies using appropriate molecular manipulation. biocompatibility. 2. The bulk of fermentation. can create new features and mutations in many organisms. các phân tử enzim hoặc các tế bào cố định dễ dàng phân tán vào dung dịch và hoàn toàn chuyển động tự do. accrue. immune.Enzyme immobilization is a technique specifically designed to greatly restrict the freedom of movement of an enzyme. Theses phages and transposons contain an easily assayable marker whose expression indicates the presence of cloned gene. What are the main points for evaluation of stability of selected immobilization method ? 4. She observed that the control of the dormant genes in corn were often unstable. a bewildering array. phages. and animal cells. revitalize. mixing of the cytoplasmic material of the two cells can occur. through a process of conjugation or mating. entrapment. Most cells are naturally immobilized one way or another. disperse. In bacteria an additional aspect of the transposable element is that it is often found in conjunction with conjugal plasmids responsible for the transfer of such genetic elements to appropriate recipient bacteria. covalent binding. mật độ enzim và tế bào khi dùng kỹ thuật cố định. Translate into English 1. In eukaryotic cells such as in yeasts and plants. as this phenomenon was first observed in the early 1950s by Barbara McKlintosk. through their insertion and excision across the DNA. In most cases of genetic engineering. Thus. vitamins. tác động đến môi trường. sử dụng lại các chất mang. hydrophilicity. The instability could not be explained in terms of mutation. such as bacteria. we find that some genetic information can be transmitted to another cell to generate a new character(s). Such movable genetic elements have been found in fruit flies.

B. In procaryotes. thực vật. DNAs (+ plasmid). It is interesting that the regulation of enzyme activity takes place according to principles similar to those applied in technology (closed action cycle). recombinant DNA. The organization and treatment of the material is adapted to the special use. sophisticate. This can be done by alterations in the material used for obtaining substances from plants and animals or the production of chemicals or pharmacological ingredients. Process control must start from the biological facts and utilize them for technical application. protoplasm fusion. insertion. mucopeptides. four deoxyribonucleotides. phage. This procedure takes place into accounts the fact that measurement technique primarily follows independent tasks and aims precisely within the 86 . fruit flies or several plants ? 4. the coordination of the activities of the catalytic elements ensuring that undesired overproductions do not occur. and the total complex is constructed on the basis of the methods of measurement. Can you describe some genetic application to biotechnology? C. mating. yeasts. mutation. ngoài kỹ thuật di truyền chung. UNIT 59: BIOLOGICAL REGULATION AND PROCESS CONTROL The basis of any biotechnological process is the growing or resting cell and its constituents (organelles. four ribonucleotides. the practical man is therefore employing a complex system he is quite incapable or viewing in its totality. What are the hybridization and fusion of yeasts ? It is important in genetic engineering ? 5. about ten vitamins. transduction. The metabolic processes that are to be utilized for economic purposes in biotechnology are catalyzed by specific catalysts (= biocatalysts = enzymes) the activities of which are subject to certain control mechanisms. Can you tell some main methods using in genetic engineering of bacteria. Translate into English 1. cosmid. In using them. three types of RNA. polysaccharides. Such items can also be changed to provide higher-value material or more readily utilizable materials for the food and chemical industry. A simple bacteria cell such as Escherichia coli has available more than 1000 – 2000 enzymes (actual or potential) which may make up as much as 70% of the total cell weight. from which more than 1000 protein. Tuyển chọn và tạo nên các chủng đột biến có lợi là mục đích chính của kỹ thuật di truyền hiện nay. Read and translate into Vietnamese genetic manipulation. 2. cytoplasmic material. excision. in process development he is usually forced to carry out empirical procedures and with his technical measures (design and performance of the process) acts on biological regulations of which he knows only an overall result. mutants. these processes may take place in 15 to 20 min (= one generation time). What is the purpose of genetic manipulation ? 2. Can you describe briefly the method of isolation and transfer of cloned genes in genetic engineering ? 3. cloned genes. người ta thường dùng kỹ thuật lai tạo các chủng và dung hợp tế bào trần. conjunction. and several fatty acids. transposons. EXERCISES A. enzymes).Protoplast formation is generally simple in that it requires digestion of the cell wall and liberation of membranous structures called protoplasts. Consequently. transformation. Genetic applications to biotechnology: food production as a system The wide variety of genetic principles described above can be applied to the production of food and beverages. recipient. Trong các tế bào thuộc Eukaryote như nấm men. Answer the following questions 1. The metabolism of added substrates takes place via about 20 steps and yields about 20 amino acids. and lipids must be synthesized. Genetics can be used to enhance and change the quantity and quality of ingredients that are used in human and animal food and feed systems.

g. Magnitudes of state (measurements) c. so that the complex system of a fermentation cannot be calculated or described totally even in an approximation. . Physical chemical. the possibility of the mathematical formulation of individual biological andchemicalengineering process steps is also of particular importance. on-line calculations. control. methods can be taken over from other sciences and applied to fermentation technique. Magnitudes of quality (optimization magnitudes. In the first place. the process computer can finally make a contribution to the utilization of increasing knowledge concerning regulation phenomena within the cell for an improved performance of the process. Limits are still set to the determination of measurements in biotechnology by technical factors. or. to a large extent. and process-engineering magnitudes are involved in still greater number. in the present state of the art. The number of process quantities and parameters in fermentation is very large. On the various levels of process study and directed action on the occurrence of the process. magnitude. broadening. In this way.. the process computer is an effective aid. biologists use about 100 different magnitudes. Characterization magnitudes (parameters) . can also be used. An optimization can be carried out on the basis of earlier knowledge (off-line) but. is still a very young field. it can readily be seen that these tasks are not trivial. Thus. In association with process analysis this can bring into prominence the particular possibilities of a rapid concentration of information. and computering must be studied. . made possible by the availability of modern digital computers. the possibilities of the controlled performance of the process must be made use of by establishing and maintaining the optimum environmental conditions for the growth of the organisms and for the formation of products by them. and in technical processes with microorganisms. control mechanism. When improved instrumentation is taken into account. Consequently.not at all. Again. Within the framework of process analysis. apparatus. output magnitudes) d. In addition to these tasks from the field of data processing and analysis. experience and. e. four types of process magnitudes can be distinguished: a. as a scientific technology. this analysis follows the aim of broadening our knowledge on the interaction of the organisms with their environment. Here. Read and translate into Vietnamese measurement technique. have been taken over from chemical process engineering. from medicine. this application is limited to the search for the functional relationships between the variables of state and understand the principles of the biological system better. This applies particularly to control technique. On the basis of this knowledge. For the description of microorganisms. biological model) . adaptations have already been made to the particular features of biotechnology but other methods have been very incompletely used in biotechnology.biotechnological process. organelles. the information obtained by measurement concerning the instantaneous state of operation of the process leaves open the question of whether and what useful application is made of the information obtained. In measurement and control techniques. From the point of view of control techniques. Biotechnology. EXERCISES A.not on-line (and therefore not frequently enough).not sufficiently accurately. so that many process magnitudes can be measured . In a bioprocess. and the desired information is often available only after the various process magnitudes have been combined.theoretical parameters (physical. 87 . In some measuring processes. development has the aim of an increasing use of the computer in process control and regulation. chemical. in many cases.experimental parameters (experimental process identification). Control magnitudes (manipulated variables. imput magnitudes) b. therefore. In this connection it must be expected that even complex control strategies will be capable of being realized to an increased degree. the interrelationship of the techniques of measurement. it is then possible to affect features of the process in a desired manner by control or regulation. instantaneous state.

recently special methods have been developed to an increasing degree. What is the purpose of process control in biological process ? 3. While the methods for the recovery of bioproducts were originally taken over from the repertoire of chemical process engineering. surface forces. compounds such as protein. ionic environment. The separation of bacteria therefore.2 to 5 µm in its largest dimension. Answer the following questions 1. 2. and nucleic acids which bring about an agglomeration of individual cells may also be liberated by partial autolysis.e. requires a pretreatment of the suspension to be separated. Mỗi một quá trình lên men bởi các chủng vi sinh vật khác nhau phải hình thành các bước kiểm tra. i. UNIT 60: PRODUCT RECOVERY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Introduction Bioproducts are produced by living cells or are localized in cells from which they must be isolated. the recovery of enzymes its frequently restricted to the use of aqueous solutions.B. which explains the good effect of negatively charged polyelectrolytes. Flocculating agents that can be considered include inorganic salts. since in most cases organic solvents bring about a denaturation of proteins. On the other hand. The flocculation of cells depends on various factors. physiological age of the cells. which makes separation extraordinarily difficult.. Vấn đề điều chỉnh và kiểm tra thường xuyên các quá trình sinh học xảy ra là rất quan trọng. How many steps are taken place in the metabolism of added substrates ? 4. and organic polyelectrolytes. Polyelectrolytes have been used extensively for the treatment of sewage. or pH. In addition. which can be concentrated by the use of separators up to a very high solid-matter content in the separated deposit. yeast cells with sizes in the order of 15 to 20 µm. What are the number of process quantities and parameters in fermentation ? C.03. the separation of cells from culture solutions can be facilitated by agglomeration of individual cells to larger flocs.e. Their activity as flocculants depends substantially on the state of the cell surface and of the flow situation during the flocculation process. điều chỉnh phù hợp. the use of polymeric compounds leads to an irreversible agglomeration into flocs because of the formation of bridges between individual cells. as a rule. Separation The size of an individual bacterial cell range about 0. Flocculation and flotation It can be deduced from the Stokes law for the setting velocity can be achieved by increasing the diameter of the particle. polysaccharides. the difference in density between the particles to be separated and suspending medium is very small. Is it important to use possibility of the mathematical formulation and computer for individual biological or chemical-engineering process steps ? 5. particularly in the pharmaceutical industry. mineral hydrocolloids. such as temperature. the cells then coming into close contact with their neighbors. recovery methods that can be carried out under sterile conditions are gaining importance. This situation is more favorable in the separation of. Accordingly. 88 . The specific gravity of bacterial cells is in the order of 1. and the nature of the organisms. This means that the majority of substances are sensitive compounds the structure and biological activity of which can be maintained only within sharply defined conditions of the medium. However. for example.. The most effective agents are mineral colloids and polyelectrolytes. Reversible flocculation can be achieved by the neutralization of the charges present on the cell surface by polyvalent ions of opposite charge. as has been shown by investigations with various organisms. salt concentration. The cell surface is normally negatively charged out but can on balance exhibit positive total charge through the absorption of ions from the fermenter liquor. i. methods for their recovery and processing must be used that are adapted to their labile structures and range within narrow limits in relation to temperature. The operations may be considered both for the mechanical separation of cells and for the concentration of products for the subsequent purification steps. Translate into English 1. Furthermore. Is it necessary to control and regulate the biological process ? 2.

very small (ca. flotation can be used for the enrichment of microorganisms. lọc. gạn. In flotation. Answer the following questions 1. The separated particles collect in a foam layer and can be taken off. Some other methods as: surface (cake) filtration. EXERCISES A. centrifugation. repertoire. Can you tell something about sedimenting centrifuges or decantion in the product recovery of biotechnology ? C. 89 . lắng. flotation. flocculation. What are differences between filtration and ultrafiltration in the product recovery of biotechnology ? 5. cô đặc và tinh chế sản phẩm thu được theo các phương pháp hoá lý. plant tissue or microorganisms before recovery of final products ? 6. Read and translate into Vietnamese labile structure. pretreatment. ultrafiltration. What are differences between flocculation and flotation in the recovery of products of a biological process? 4. disintegration of animal and plant tissue or of microorganisms. particles are adsorbed on gas bubbles. By electroflotation from a preflocculated suspension of bacteria with a cell concentration of 16 g/l. while in normal flotation processes sufficiently small gas bubbles (ca. Để thu hồi sản phẩm từ môi trường nuôi cấy vi sinh vật. depth filtration. filter centrifuges and sieve – type centrifuges. decanter and sedimenting centrifuges. such as longchain fatty acids or amines. The separation effect in flotation is highly dependent on the size of the gas bubbles. cơ học khác nhau. Microflotation processes have been developed in experiments with bacteria and algae. Drying etc. Translate into English 1. sieving filtration. ta phải dùng nhiều phương pháp khác nhau tuỳ thuộc loại vi sinh vật và loại sản phẩm. siêu lọc. phá vỡ tế bào. 30 µm) gas bubbles can be produced in the suspension to be separated. investigation B. flocs. The formation of a stable foam layer is supported by the use of insoluble “collector substances”. 2. Các phương pháp thu hồi sản phẩm như: tách tế bào vi sinh vật bằng ly tâm. which are either blown into the suspension or are generated in the suspension. 5 bar. Why do you have to disintegration of animal. 40 µm) can be obtained only at pressures of at least ca. deduce. What are differences between separation and centrifugation in the product recovery 0f biotechnology ? 3.In those cases where flocculation reactions lead only to the formation of unstable agglomerates of cells. deposit. agglomeration. With electrolytically produced nascent hydrogen / oxygen.

PART 2 : GRAMMAR NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH TRONG KHOA HỌC 90 .

parentheses k' k prime // square brackets.dilute f.for example et. .pound = 0. m. Abbreviations . and so on i. zero degrees Fahrenheit 0F negative univalent chlorine 1000C one /a/ hundred degrees ion 0 100 F H2O one /a/ hundred degrees / eit∫ 'tu: 'ou/ 2.second .p.3048 m F. together with 2MnO2 'em 'en 'ou 'tu:/ _ minus = give. sq.litre . the ratio of () round brackets. lb. =0.C A.gallon 3.S.gramme gal.see 2. foot-pound ft-lb-sec second/system/ g. approximately post meridiem = afternoon ante meridiem = morning before Christ Anno Domini .hour .cubic cc.sitting . .foot = 12 in. form Cl give. Chemical . Một số qui tắc phát âm 1. . oz psi.Âm mở: là những âm mà từ của nó được bắt đầu hoặc kết thúc bằng nguyên âm. Units . . giữa các từ viết có nguyên âm đóng và mở: .concentrate dil. .centimeter c. . sec. . gr .melting point soln. . cu. .C -Cl / 'si: 'si: 'el 'fɔ:/ → forms and is formed from.g .M B. in.D hr.I. . Sự khác biệt thể hiện cụ thể nhất là phụ âm và nguyên âm. .p.ounce = 28.note 91 III. General . .inch . Một số qui tắc cơ bản . l.al . .pounds per square inch .confer e.Đơn vị cm . lead to Cl.volume II.square m. namely circa = about. .cubic centimeter cps.Chữ chung cf.Chữ viết tắt 1. is.et cetera. .that is v..freezing point viz. Reading chemical and mathematical signs and formulas (Cách đọc các kí hiệu hóa học và toán học) 1.form ↔ Cl and are formed from H+ univalent hydrogen ion 00C zero degrees centigrade 0 Cl negative chlorine ion.solution vol.35 g . .and other etc.P.p. Ví dụ: no . and.metre . is equal to.Hóa học b. .Âm đóng là những âm mà từ của nó được bắt đầu và kết thúc bằng phụ âm. brackets s1 s sub one = equals. ca P.boiling point conc. times _ minus : divided by. are Đối với phát âm tiếng Anh có một số qui luật cơ bản.M A.453 kg .cycles per second ft.e.Toán học + plus x multiplied by. Mathematical . Ví dụ: sit . Chemical .Hóa học / 'tu: 'molikju:lz v + plus. pass over to.

Tuy nhiên một số từ không đúng theo qui luật đã nêu. go. try .bare / :/ .Từ các âm tiết /a:. e.change (trước o. girl th /ð/ . lot . i.village.chemistry (trong các âm tiết có nguồn gốc la tinh) /t∫/ .. Nhìn chung các âm thường ở dạng âm đóng ngắn: / æ. body. ia.certain. gin.gen /ei/ . a. very. Sau các phụ âm vô thanh aTừ âm tiết (e. car.plane /i:/ . Các nguyên âm a. u. i. ju .hop /u:/ sau /r.husband /k/ . u.target. o:. b.2. y) c /k/ . a và phụ âm) /dz/ .donkey b. s/ . l. u/ hoặc âm mở dài:/ ei.machine (trước i. 2. e. e.l. dz/ .ore Kiểu phát âm này rất thông dụng đối với cả âm ngắn và âm dài giúp người học khi chưa biết phiên âm gặp từ có những âm dạng như trên có thể đọc được một cách tương đối chính xác. gun. y) Chú ý: get. spirit. i.preference. ju:/ a /æ/ . Ví dụ: get . give. i:. tor . Các nguyên âm a. Ví dụ: car . plus .coal. e. o.gas. clean (trước o.1. . o/ phần lớn chuyển sang / / trong âm vô thanh. o. study.country. ou. i) phần lớn chuyển sang /i/ trong âm vô thanh. y) g /g/ . u.pill u /u/ giữa /p. cup.genus /a/ . o.jo:/ a+r /a:/ . u khi trước phụ âm r thường đọc * ở dạng âm mở: /e. u. a và phụ âm) 3. i.vicar.tube o /o/ .pile /ju:/ . city.form a + rr e + rr i + rr o + rr u + rr /ju. f.surplus. i.. Cách phát âm một số phụ âm đặc biệt ch /∫/ . prefer . green (trước o. ei.liquid 4. Ví dụ: have. biology (trước e. key.1.bull /ai/ . cycle (trước e. age .here / :/ .pilot. ai.sulphur qu /kw/ .fir /ai / .fire / ɔ:/ .doctor.her /i / .brute /ou/ .plan e /e/ .bar u+r / :/ -burn e+r i+r o+r /e / . band .tub i /i/ .ether (trong các âm tiết có nguồn gốc La tinh) ph /f/ . u. ai.general. a và phụ âm) /s/ . Cách phát âm một số tiếp đầu ngữ và tiếp vị ngữ a) biditrire/bai-/ /dai-/ /trai-/ /ri:-/ binary diatomic trivalent re-distil /bain ri/ /dai 'tɔmic/ /trai'veil nt/ /'ri:dis'til/ 92 . live.hope 1. (jo:)/ sau /-u (ɔ:)/ /æ + r/ carry /e + r/ berry /i + r/ mirror / + r/ borrow /a + r/ current / ɔ:/ .

beta π .nju:tralai'zeis n/ /di'lju:s n/ /kalt∫ / /p 'sentidz/ /.epsilon /epsailon/ γ . Anh: travel . tiếng Anh hay gấp đôi phụ âm.bl/ /-ibl/ /-aiz/ /-fai/ /-iti/ de-oxide hypophosphate hydrocarbon neutralization dilution culture percentage manganese chloride chlorite chlorate chlorine benzene oxime nitrile catechol lactic ferrous fermentable combustible neutralize classify density /di:'ɔksaiz/ /. metre -er center. meter -mme Gramme -m gram b. Sự khác nhau giữa tiếng Anh và tiếng Mỹ Anh: -our colour. tiếng Mỹ để nguyên. Sự tạo thành danh từ số nhiều của một số danh từ đặc biệt 93 .alpha δ .dehypohydrob) -ation -tion -ture -age -ese -ide -ite -ate -ine -ene -ime -ile -ol -ic -ous -able -ible -ize -fy -ity a.s/ /. Cuối từ là phụ âm L. liter.gamma /gæm / ω . vapour Mỹ: -or color. khi chuyển sang bị động phân từ hay động từ quá khứ.-eit/ /klɔ:ri:n/ /benzi:n/ /oksaim/ /naitrail/ /kæt koul/ /læktik/ /fer s/ /f :ment bl/ /k m'bastibl/ /nju:tr laiz/ /klæsifai/ /densiti/ 5.pi z /zed/ 7.omega /oumig / /bi:t / /pai/ λ . Chữ ph trong tiếng Anh thì trong tiếng Mỹ thường viết f. litre.mæng 'ni:z/ /klɔ:raid/ /klɔ:rait/ /klɔ:rit.lambda /læmd / IV. sulphur sulfur 6.travelled Mỹ: traveled /træv ld/ distil .distilled distilled /dis'tild/ c.haipou'fɔsfeit/ /haidrou'ka:b n/ /. Cách phát âm một số chữ viết nguồn gốc Hy lạp ε . vapor -re centre. eit/ /-i:n/ /-i:n/ /-aim/ /-ail/ /-oul/ /-ik/ /.delta f /ef/ g /dzi:/ h /eit∫/ i /ai/ j /dzei/ /ælf / /delt / k /kei/ l /el/ m /em/ n /en/ o /ou/ p /pi:/ q /kju/ r /a:/ s /es/ t /ti:/ u /ju/ v /vi:/ w /dablju:/ x /eks/ y /wai/ β . /di:-/ /haipou-/ /haidrou-/ /-eis n/ /-s n/ /-t∫ / /-idz/ /-i:z/ /-aid/ /-ait/ /-it. Viết và phát âm trong tiếng Anh a b c d e /ei/ /bi:/ /si:/ /di:/ /i:/ α .

data .. Đại từ không xác định "some.. no" 1. if any.. nếu như bất kì một chất nào đó.. Đại từ quan hệ 1.. The catalyst.. Trạng thái vật lý mà trên cơ sở của nó toàn bộ vật chất được phân loại hoặc toàn bộ vật chất được phân loại trên cơ sở trạng thái vật lý của nó.means nucleus datum spectrum a series . Whose An atom whose nucleus has a given electrical charge (Một nguyên tử mà hạt nhân của nó có điện tích đã cho) * Chú ý: Đại từ quan hệ "whose" dùng cho cả người và vật 2. any....... is added... the harder the glass.. một số.) c. 3. (Chất xúc tác.1. b. Không thay đổi ở số ít và số nhiều a means .nuclei .) * "some" được liên kết với danh từ của vật chất thì chúng ta dịch ra là: một ít. Điều đó không có thể tạo nên định nghĩa chính xác nào của công nghiệp hóa học). Mức độ so sánh 1. (Không hề tồn tại một giới hạn chính xác nào) 94 . There is not any sharp frontier. the. Any of these observations shows that. Some If some radioactive lead is placed on a sheet of lead... 2.... What It is necessary to state exactly what is meant by a particular kind of atom.. Any a. Which There is not any sharp frontier between the chemical industry and many other industries... (Không tồn tại giới hạn rõ ràng giữa công nghiệp hóa học và nhiều ngành công nghiệp khác.phenomena 2.. một mẩu.analyses phenomenon . Các danh từ nguồn gốc La tinh và Hy lạp . Of which The physical state. on the basis of which all materials are classified.series basis .. VII.. (Nếu như một ít chì hoạt động phóng xạ được sắp xếp trên mạng lưới của chì... một chất nào đó..bases analysis .spectra V... một phần. The. The lighter the percentage of silica..... "Any" dịch là mỗi một hoặc bất kỳ một chất. được thêm vào.. (Phần trăm oxit silic càng thấp thì thủy tinh càng rắn) VI. Mức độ nhỏ hơn của tính từ dài volatile less volatile the least volatile (bay hơi) (khó bay hơi hơn) (khó bay hơi nhất) (thêm vào trước tính từ less và the least để chỉ hai mức độ so sánh) 2.. which makes it impossible to compose any precise definition of chemical industry. * Đại từ quan hệ "of which" chỉ dùng để chỉ đồ vật và thường đứng sau danh từ và phụ thuộc vào nó. Đại từ quan hệ "which" ở đây quan hệ thay cho cả câu ở trên 4.

. Other .. A liquid does not have a definite shape either (Chất lỏng cũng không có hình dạng nhất định) * "either" ở cuối câu phủ định có nghĩa là cũng.*"any" đứng sau động từ phủ định..... one another: với nhau hoặc chất này với chất khác.cái khác. Either . được dùng trước giới từ "of" như một danh từ độc lập 5. (Không hề có chất nào của các chất này tồn tại tinh khiết trong tự nhiên) * "none" nghĩa là không hề có. (Một vật chất hoặc là có hình dạng xác định hoặc là có kích thước xác định) *"Either.All gases are completely miscible with each other (Tất cả các chất khí hoàn toàn có thể trộn lẫn với nhau) .. . Neither .or" nối với động từ phủ định dịch là không hề có. one another .nor a. (Một chất không hề có hình dạng và kích thước xác định) 95 .A substance possesses either definite shape or definite size....nor . dịch là: không tý nào. or" nối với câu động từ khẳng định dịch ra: hoặc. không..or .. Either .The carbon atoms are attached to one another by single bones.. Each other. neither . hoặc.. (Những nguyên tử cacbon được liên kết với nhau bằng các mối liên kết đơn giản) * ở đây có thế dịch each other.. In either case Trong trường hợp này hoặc trong một của các trường hợp đưa ra *"Either" một trong hai trường hợp b. nối với động từ khẳng định 4. (Một chất không hề có hình dáng xác định và không hề có kích thước xác định) * "Either.. None None of these substances occurs pure in nature.nào.. cũng như câu phủ định 8. No No other substance has these freezing and boiling points (Không có bất kì một hợp chất nào khác có điểm đông đặc và điểm sôi như vậy) * "no" nghĩa là không hề có. 3.A substance possesses neither definite shape nor definite size.or.. Either a..the other Số ít Số nhiều Trước danh từ Trước danh từ Trước danh từ Đứng độc lập đếm được không đếm được Another other glass other substances others substance (loại thủy tinh (những loại (chất khác) khác) (những chất khác) khác) The other the other glass the other the others Substance substances (chất thứ hai này) (loại thủy tinh thứ hai) (nhữngchấtthứhaicònlại) (các 'thứ' còn lại) 7.hay là có cái này. hoặc....A substance does not possess either definite shape or definite size. b. 6...

c. The former /= lime glass/ is the more common. dòn và độ bóng cao hơn). The latter /= lead glass/ has greater. Both . that".* "Neither. 9. Both .. Hydrogen is the lightest of all gases.. Loại thứ hai (thủy tinh chì) thì có tính á kim. không có cái khác). one may observe that. Water is one of the most important of all chemical substances. That a. luster and brilliancy. * Loại biểu đạt này hay gặp trong tài liệu khoa học. nào đó b. The reactions that change them into other substances (Những phản ứng làm thay đổi chúng thành những chất khác) * "that" làm chức năng thay cho danh từ số ít trước nó. Loại đầu (thủy tinh canxi) thì thông dụng hơn.. Thường đi sau danh từ ở trước nó hoặc sau "this... trọng lượng riêng của nó vào khoảng 1:14 trọng lượng riêng của không khí) /that = density/ .. That portion boiling at 116 degrees should be collected.nor" không hề có cả. its density being about 1/14 that of air... chúng ta có thể quan sát thấy rằng. rẻ hơn và cứng hơn. 12... One a.. The characteristic feature of a gas is that its molecules aren't attached (Nét đặc trưng của chất khí là ở chỗ những phân tử của nó không được liên kết với nhau) * "that" có thể dịch là: là.... 10.. 96 . As the evaporation proceeds. (Nước là một chất quan trọng nhất trong tất cả các chất hóa học) * "one" dịch là "một" b.A solid is characterized both by a definite shape and definite size (Chất rắn được đặc trưng bởi cả hai tính chất là hình dạng xác định và kích thước xác định * "both . để nối với động từ trong câu khẳng định (không có cái này. The first portions contains the more volatile impurities and the residue in the flask retains the less volatile ones.. (Những tính chất vật lý của nước khác với những tính chất vật lý của các chất khác) * /those = properties/ "those" dùng thay cho danh từ số nhiều trước nó để tránh nhắc lại. cheaper and harder. (Phần sôi ở 1160 sẽ được chọn và quan tâm) * "that": này. 11.The physical properties of water are different from those of other substances..) * "one" chỉ người hay chúng ta. c. /ones = impurities / * "one" (số ít) và "ones" (số nhiều) dùng thay cho danh từ trước nó để tránh lặp lại.... (Tồn tại hai loại thủy tinh: thủy tinh canxi và thủy tinh chì.Both substances are volatile (Cả hai chất này đều dễ bay hơi) * "both" dịch "cả hai" khi trong câu có 2 danh từ ở trước nó b..and" bởi cả hai như là hoặc cả hai là. (Phần thứ nhất chứa những chất không tinh khiết dễ bay hơi hơn và phần còn lại trong bình chứa những chất (không tinh khiết) khó bay hơi hơn. "The former" có thể dịch: loại thứ nhất này.and .. loại 1. loại sau. (hydro là chất khí nhẹ nhất trong tất cả các chất khí.. Both . (Khi quá trình bốc hơi xảy ra. để tránh nhắc lại phần danh từ câu trên. "The latter" có thể dịch: loại thứ hai này.And a.. ở chỗ là.và.the latter There are two kinds of glass: lime glass and lead glass.. d. The former ..

1 triệu được tách nhau bằng dấu phảy. Dấu chấm giữa 2 số chỉ số lẻ và giữa hàng trăm và đơn vị đọc thêm chữ "and".521. To have I had that device repaired.502 one thousand five hundred and two 3. thousand. thì nó cũng không biến đổi ra danh từ số nhiều và các danh từ đi sau nó không kèm theo giới từ "of". Cách đọc số mũ Ngoài biểu thị bình phương "squared". Dấu chỉ số nhỏ hơn 10 . To be He is to do it tomorrow. 1/14 one-fourteenth .Thường đọc phân số bằng đọc số đếm cho tử số và số thứ tự cho số ở mẫu số. Phân số . Số lượng a.Trong tiếng Anh chỗ dấu phẩy trong tiếng Việt thay bằng dấu chấm và đọc "point". 1/5 one-fifth. 97 . Ví dụ: 3. Ví dụ: 210 two hundred and ten 1.025 three thousand and twenty five c.Thường đọc: 1/2 one-half. 102 ten squared. Ví dụ: 1/3 one-third. 5/2 five-halves . Cách đọc số thứ tự first/ly/. gạch ngang với số thứ tự kèm theo.Số 0 đọc là "nought" hoặc là "zero".Với các số lớn hơn hàng trăm thì sẽ đọc tử số + over + số đếm ở mẫu số.nought (zero) point nought (zero) eight nine eight seven 3.one hundred and eighty-two point five three . Động từ nguyên mẫu và trợ động từ 1. 105 ten to the fifth. 103 ten cubed. Các số đếm trên 1000.Nếu như tử số lớn hơn 1 thì đọc số đếm. 3/5 three-fifths.VIII.53 . 2. mong làm được. second/ly/.703. He had his students study systematically.08987 . 10-n ten to the minus n-th 5. million" có thêm các số đếm lớn hơn 1. (Tôi đã đưa thiết bị đó đi sửa) * Liên kết "have + something + past participle" có ý nghĩa "đưa cái gì đi để làm gì". Nếu như trước "hundred. Cách đọc số từ 1. (Anh ấy phải làm việc đó ngày mai) * Thể hiện sự cần thiết hay bắt buộc phải làm 2. lập phương "cubed" còn các số khác kèm theo giới từ "to" với số thứ tự. Ví dụ: 0. Ví dụ: 182. 1/4 one-quarter (fourth) . third/ly. (Anh ta đã yêu cầu (bắt buộc) các sinh viên của anh ta học một cách có hệ thống) * Kết cấu "have + somebody + infinitive (without to)" có ý nghĩa bắt buộc. 147 one hundred and forty-seven over two hundred and ninety-three 293 a+b /ei/ plus /bi:/ over /eks/ x 4. fourth/ly/ IX. Cách đọc số căn 2 10 square root of ten 3 10 the cube root of ten 5 10 the fifth root of ten n 10 the n-th root of ten 6. b.

98 .. * "would + infinitive" biểu thị một hành động lặp lại.Do turn the tap on (Hãy nhớ mở vòi nước đã) * Trong câu khẳng định thêm 'do 'trước động từ để thể hiện sự nhấn mạnh hay mong muốn khẳng định hành động đó.He will be able to speak English better after another year of study. Shall . (Anh không nên đổ thêm nước) * Nếu dùng "should"(phải) thể hiện sự bắt buộc. theo chủ quan của người nói. * "will" thể hiện một hành động lặp đi lặp lại mà dịch ra hiện tại b. c. gợi ý lịch sự hơn.He was able to do it in time. như một lời khuyên." . (Thí nghiệm này phải lặp lại một số lần nữa) .. 6.. dịch sang thì quá khứ. (Thỉnh thoảng thiết bị này đã bị hỏng mà không rõ nguyên nhân nào). người nói "bảo lãnh" cho hành động xảy ra b. .You should not add more water.He could speak English well.3.Should a.. Will .She loved him as much as he did her.làm. "could" dùng cho hành động quá khứ b.. . .You can make your experiments in our laboratory.He can speak English well. (Anh có thể thi được đúng lúc) .Why study as you do? (Vì sao lại học giống anh học vậy?)(rập khuôn). dịch ra thì quá khứ. (Anh ta sẽ nói tiếng anh giỏi) .He will have finished his studies. .She does study very hard (Quả thật cô ta học rất chăm chỉ) .You should pass your examinations in time.Sometimes the apparatus would go wrong without any apparent cause.Sometimes the apparatus will go wrong without any apparent cause.He could make his experiments in their laboratory. * "can" dùng cho hành động tương lai.You can start tomorrow. (Thỉnh thoảng các thiết bị vẫn bị hỏng mà không rõ nguyên nhân nào). (Những thí nghiệm này phải được tiến hành một số lần) * "shall" ở đây thể hiện sự bắt buộc phải làm.You shall not add more water. Có thể dịch là: "anh có thể. (Anh không được thêm quá nhiều nước) .Could a. (Anh có thể được phép bắt đầu vào ngày mai) . (Anh ta đã được phép làm các thí nghiệm của anh ta trong phòng thí nghiệm của họ). (Anh sẽ thi đậu đúng lúc (sắp đặt để thi đậu) . Can . To do .Would a.. (Cô ta yêu anh ta say đắm như anh ta yêu cô ta vậy) . (hình như anh ta đã kết thúc việc học tập) * "will" đi với thì hiện tại hoàn thành biểu thị một giả thuyết.These experiments shall be carried out several times.You should have done it more carefully (Anh nên tiến hành một cách cẩn thận hơn) * "should": (phải) thể hiện sự bắt buộc nhưng lịch sự hơn và có thể làm ngay hay có thể không làm. (Anh có thể được phép làm các thí nghiệm của anh trong phòng thí nghiệm của chúng tôi). 5.You shall pass your examination in time. 4.These experiments should be carried out several times.

Muốn biểu thị ở quá khứ dùng "may + infinitive" c. Nếu chỉ một khả năng dùng "could" cho hành động quá khứ.He was allowed to do it? .He might do it. cho phép trong tương lai. 9.Migh a. b..He could study with honours. He may have done it. Muốn nhấn mạnh hơn dùng: "shall have to do sth" mạnh hơn "must do sth" Thì quá khứ dùng "had to do sth".Will he be allowed to do it? .I must do it tomorrow.Ought . e. .. d. * "may. ở thì quá khứ dùng "must + động từ ở thì hiện tại hoàn thành.You may not smoke there. *"must" biểu thị sự cần thiết phải làm trong tương lai. Đi với hiện tại hoàn thành của động từ chỉ sự có thể ở quá khứ. "can" dùng cho hành động tương lai. c. nhưng ở mức độ cao hơn "may". 7. nhất định.. Must a..She could have finished her studies in time. .May he do it tomorrow? . May . I shall have to do it tomorrow. could" với nghĩa: biết..You ought to have done it in time. *"might" thể hiện một sự có thể. 99 .He can not have passed all his examinations with honours.I must not smoke. He may not do it tomorrow.He must be a good student.You ought to do it in time. phủ định "need not". He must have been a good student.. * "can not + động từ ở thì hiện tại hoàn thành" thể hiện một sự nghi ngờ. I had to do it yesterday. dẫn đến một khả năng nào đó. Thể phủ định là "must not". nghi ngờ. I need not do it in time. *"may" ở đây thể hiện một khả năng "có thể". * "could + hiện tại hoàn thành" thể hiện hành động có thể xảy ra trong quá khứ nhưng nó đã không xảy ra.It may be easily prepared by oxidation. He may do it tomorrow. 8.* "can.He might have done it. ngạc nhiên một hành động trong quá khứ. Dịch là: chắc chắn. . *"must + infinitive" thể hiện sự khẳng định. *"ought to + infinitive" biểu thị một bắt buộc làm ở thì hiện tại. * "could + infinitive" biểu thị một điều kiện cho phép ở hiện tại. might" thể hiện cách hỏi hay sự xin phép. "to be able" dùng cho hành động quá khứ thường sử dụng cho một hành động kết thúc hoặc bắt đầu.May he carry out his experiments in your laboratory? . Dịch là: không thể nào. b. Dịch là: đáng lẽ.

* Các thí dụ trên biểu thị thì hiện tại đơn giản nhưng nó có giá trị cả thì quá khứ và tương lai.Compounds are substances which consist of atoms of two or more different kinds. c. Các thì. sự xác định nhất định của ngữ cảnh. * Thí dụ này thể hiện hành động trong tương lai nhưng đã được quyết định theo kế hoạch. Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn To be + verb + ing a. 100 . to become. thể cách của động từ Thời gian Quá khứ Thì của động từ Thì của động từ dịch sang tiếng việt quá khứ hiện tại tương lai I had written I wrote I had been writing I was writing Hiện tại I have written I write I have been writing I am writing Tương lai I shall have written I shall write I shall have been I shall be writing writing 1. tính chất đặc trưng hay dẫn xuất của một đối tượng. * Thể hiện các hành động thông thường lặp đi lặp lại. she. * Biểu thị hành động đang xảy ra. . Thì hiện tại hoàn thành đơn giản to have + past participle * Thể hiện một hành động quá khứ. chưa kết thúc. thường thêm: đang tiếp tục học. hiện nay. thường thêm: bây giờ. * Các động từ "to get. 2.I am studying chemistry. có thể dịch sang hiện tại hoặc tương lai. 3. X. to turn" đi với các tính từ biểu thị sự thay đổi trạng thái. làm. quả vậy.“ought to + infinitive” của hiện tại hoàn thành" biểu thị một việc làm không thực hiện được trong quá khứ (gần như should ).. to grow. đang xảy ra.. She speaks English well. Dịch sang thì hiện tại hay tương lai.He is making an experiment /now/.What experiment are you making tomorrow? When are you making your experiment? * Biểu thị hành động ở tương lai gần.Subscription expires next month. * Biểu thị hành động đã bắt đầu.He studies very hard.The litmus paper turn red. Thì hiện tại đơn giản He. they + verb infinitive a. c. b.The light blue colour gradually becomes deeper. b. it + verb + s. XI. es You. we. Dịch ra thì hiện tại. nhưng không nói đến thời gian. Dịch ra thì hiện tại.. Động từ thể hiện thay đổi trạng thái ..

a- John has passed his examinations. b- Jonh has always passed his examinations with honours. - I have never been in America. * Trong các câu xác định ngữ cảnh, tần suất thường thêm các từ: ever, never, often, always, not yet, lately, recently, today, this week, this year, etc. Khi dịch thì thêm các trạng từ: cho đến nay, từ trước đến nay... c- We have finished our practice. Professor Brown has just come. * Biểu đạt một hành động vừa kết thúc. Dịch là: xong, vừa mới... d- I have known Mr. Brown these five years/ for five years/ for the last five years/ since 1965/ since I was in England/. - I haven't seen him for five years. * Hành động bắt đầu từ quá khứ nhưng hiện nay vẫn đang xảy ra, có khoảng thời gian kèm theo dùng "for", còn đối với mốc thời gian ta dùng "since". Dịch sang thì hiện tại: đã, từ khi, từ...

4. Thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn
To have + been + verb + ing - He has been learning English for three years/ since 1969, atd./. * Dùng biểu thị hành động đã và đang xảy ra, và còn kéo dài trong tương lai. Dịch là "đã". Trong câu kèm giới từ chỉ thời gian for, since.

5. Thì quá khứ đơn giản
Verb + ed (regular verb) - Yesterday he got up at six. He went to school. He opened the door of the laboratory and came in. After a few minutes he was prepared for his experimentation. Professor Brown finished his lecture an hour ago. When did he come? He came just now. * Biểu thị một hành động hay một trạng thái trong quá khứ không còn ở hiện tại. Thường kèm theo trạng từ chỉ thời gian cụ thể: at five, on Sunday, in May, yesterday, in the morning, last year, in 1970, from 7 to 10, ago, just now, when?

6. Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn
to be (in the past) + verb + ing a- Peter broke a few flasks and test-tubes when he was carrying out his last experiment. When he entered the room, his fellow workers were discussing his latest paper. * Thì này thường ở câu phụ, tạo hành động tiếp theo của câu chính ở thì quá khứ đơn giản, dịch thường y thêm "ngay khi... vừa làm... thì.... Đã...ngay khi..." b- While I was making some experiments, Jonh was doing his homework and Mary was learning some new English words. * Thể hiện hành động tiến hành trong quá khứ (xẩy ra đồng thời)

7. Thì quá khứ hoàn thành đơn giản
had + past participle a- He had finished his studies by June. * Biểu thị hành động đã xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ. b- He came to England when he had learned enough English. He posted the letter he had written himself. 101

* Sử dụng để diễn đạt một hành động hay một trạng thái được kết thúc trước một hành động trong quá khứ. Dịch thêm từ "khi mà, đã..."

8. Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
had + been + verb + ing - When he came to the university in 1970, professor Brown had already been teaching there for three years. * Dùng biểu đạt một hành động quá khứ còn tiếp diễn trong hiện tại mà đồng thời có một hành động quá khứ đơn giản trước nó. Dịch sang thì quá khứ thêm "đã làm được bao lâu"

9. Thì tương lai đơn giản
he, she, it, you, they + will + infinitive we, I + shall - How long will the work take? - Mr. Brown will be fifty next year. * Biểu thị một hành động hay một trạng thái trong tương lai.

10. Thì tương lai tiếp diễn
shall, will + be + verb + ing - This time tomorrow I shall be passing the final examination. - Jonh will be studying chemistry for two more years. * Biểu thị một hành động trong tương lai sẽ xảy ra trong một khoảng thời gian xác định hay sau một thời điểm nhất định ở tương lai.

11. Thì tương lai hoàn thành
shall, will + have + past participle

- He will have finished his studies by June/ by the time when you come back. * Biểu thị một hành động sẽ kết thúc trong tương lai trước một thời gian xác định "by" hoặc trước một hành động khác.

12. Thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn
will, shall + have + been + verb + ing

- When he comes to the university. Professor Brown will have been teaching there for three years. * Biểu thị hành động tương lai và còn tiếp diễn khi có một hành động khác xảy ra trong tương lai.

XII. Điều kiện cách
a- You would go to the school and I should study at home. * Điều kiện hiện tại: should, would + present infinitive. Dịch ra điều kiện hiện tại: "nếu...thì..." b- You would have gone to school and I should have studied at home. * Điều kiện quá khứ: should, would + động từ nguyên thể thì hoàn thành của động từ. Dịch ra câu điều kiện quá khứ.

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XIII. Giả định thức
a- Dạng đơn giản: giống như thì hiện tại ở nguyên mẫu he, she, have, he speak. Thì quá khứ: như động từ thì quá khứ trừ động từ "to be" dùng cho tất cả các ngôi "were", I were, she had, she spoke. * Thì hiện tại hoàn thành: dùng "have" cho tất cả các ngôi she have had, he have spoken. * Thì quá khứ hoàn thành như các cách biểu thị khác: she had had, he had spoken. b- Dạng viết được tạo thành chủ yếu nhờ trợ động từ "may, might, should, would" đi với động từ nguyên mẫu hiện tại hay nguyên mẫu của hiện tại hoàn thành ở câu phụ. Thể hiện ở tất cả các thì. Biểu thị chủ yếu cho sự mong muốn, có thể dịch là "nếu...thì..."

XIV. Động từ nguyên thể
Thể chủ động: to call, not to call to have called, not to have called Thể bị động: to be called, not to be called to have been called, not to have been called * Động từ nguyên mẫu một mặt tồn tại như một bộ phận động từ, một mặt tạo nên một số liên kết đặc biệt câu tiếng Anh thường có thể nó được dịch sang câu Việt như một câu phụ. 1. Chỉ mục đích: Động từ nguyên thể có "to" thường dùng trong câu chỉ mục đích. Nó có thể dùng ngay bản thân nó hay đi với liên từ "in order to, so as". Dịch là: để a- Câu chỉ mục đích cùng chủ ngữ. Hydrogen burns in the air to form water vapour. To avoid confusion, it is necessary for us to state... It is necessary to collect about 12 l of distillate in order to obtain all the M-bromonitrobenzene. * Đại bộ phận các động từ nguyên thể chỉ mục đích cho câu có cùng chủ ngữ. Tuy nhiên vẫn dùng cho câu khác chủ ngữ nhưng phải thêm giới từ "for" b- Câu chỉ mục đích khác chủ ngữ: In order for the reaction to take place, the collisions must be frequent. 2. Động từ nguyên thể như danh động từ, đi sau danh từ, dịch là "để" a- ở dạng chủ động: sinks to take away waste water. b- ở dạng bị động: processes to be employed in the factory Động từ ở dạng bị động có thể dịch theo nghĩa mà danh từ có thể được làm gì đó hay dùng các câu quan hệ thể hiện ở thì tương lai 3. Liên kết của tân ngữ với động từ nguyên thể The collisions permit the electron transfer to occur. * Liên kết này thường đi với một số động từ sau: to ask, to find, to know, prove, require, to allow, to permit... * Liên kết này cho phép dịch ra câu phụ hay kèm theo một số từ như: để mà, cho phép... 4. Liên kết động từ nguyên thể với chủ ngữ Nitrogen is found to be slightly lighter than air. * Liên kết được với một số động từ "to see, to appear, to prove" và một số động từ hay dùng thể bị động. Khi dịch ra có thể dùng câu phụ vô chủ, vô nhân xưng cho động từ chính. Có thể dịch câu trên: Người ta tìm thấy nitrogen là một loại tương đối nhẹ hơn không khí. 5. Giới từ liên kết for + tân ngữ + infinitive... - It is necessary for us to state exactly... * Liên kết này thường được dùng sau tính từ theo các liên kết: It is /im/possible, necessary, important...Khi dịch sang tiếng việt thêm "để mà, là..." ở câu phụ

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(Vì Tôm đang lái xe vào gara nên chúng ta không thể đi qua được) * Liên kết này thay câu chính chỉ nguyên nhân. (Tôi đang chạy về nhà) * Tính động từ chủ động (hiện tại) cấu tạo nên thì tiếp diễn của động từ. 6.. I met Tom. Dịch thì thêm "và làm gì" 7. 3. Dịch thêm "khi.để mà). etc. to feel..He sat on the desk running water into a flask. (Anh ta đã ngồi trên bàn và mở nước chảy vào một cái bình) * Làm ngắn câu để thể hiện nguồn gốc ban đầu của chủ ngữ.I met Tom running home. Phân từ quá khứ đóng vai trò tính động từ với ý nghĩa bị động.. Dịch thêm: có thể..đang làm gì. "too" (vậy để mà.I saw Tom running home. không thuộc tân ngữ (danh từ liền nó) 5. 4.thì. could not pass through.. Sau các động từ quan sát "to see.... (Khi Tôm mở nước nóng vào bình thì thiết bị vẫn hoạt động tốt) * Phân từ có chủ ngữ khác với động từ ở câu chính được dịch ra theo hai vế của câu.I am running home.Running very quickly. phân từ cấu tạo từ động từ chính gọi là tính động từ hay danh động từ.).Tom running his car into the garage. I saw Tom run home.. (Tôi gặp Tôm đã chạy về nhà) ở đây danh từ + infinitive (không có "to") biểu thị một hành động đã kết thúc.as to. (Trong nhà đó có nước đang chảy) * Tính động từ (phân từ hiện tại) đóng vai trò tính từ chủ động. Động từ "to be + infinitive " The work which is to be carried out (công việc mà nó được tiến hành) * Mẫu câu này biểu thị một hành động bắt buộc hay đã có kế hoạch. 8. 1. XV. to hear.. (Tốc độ có thể được tăng lên như vậy để làm mất màu dòng dung dịch permanganat) * Động từ nguyên mẫu loại này thường đi sau cụm từ "so. we shall be in time.Tom running some hot water into the flask.6. 7. (Bởi chúng ta chạy rất nhanh nên chúng ta sẽ đến đúng giờ) * Danh động từ ở đây làm ngắn câu nhưng khi dịch giống câu phụ và chỉ nguyên nhân cho chủ ngữ câu chính. Dịch hành động cho danh từ kế trước nó." * Biểu thị một hành động đang xảy ra.Running home. (Tôi đã gặp Tôm trong khi tôi chạy về nhà) * Dùng trong trường hợp để rút ngắn câu.." 9.. có là có thể. (Tôi đã gặp Tôm đang chạy về nhà) * Dùng tính từ chủ động hay đại từ quan hệ phục vụ cho danh từ ngay trước nó (chủ động) làm ngắn câu. chú ý dấu phẩy ở giữa khi dịch nó thuộc chủ ngữ. chẳng hạn." (như vậy. Động từ nguyên thể chỉ tác dụng The rate may become so great as to decolorize a stream of permanganate solution... là để.Phân từ Chủ động Bị động Hiện tại calling being called Quá khứ called Hoàn thành having called having been called * Trong tiếng Anh. Phân từ hiện tại để biểu thị một hành động xảy ra đồng thời với hành động chính. running home. (Khi đang chạy về nhà. 104 . Participle ... Thường dịch trong câu phụ có thêm liên từ: để mà. (Tôi đã gặp Tôm đang chạy về nhà). 2. tôi đã gặp Tôm) I met Tom. the apparatus was in good order. "enough" (đủ để mà).There is running water in that house.... dịch như một câu phụ. Phân từ hoàn thành thể hiện hành động hoàn thành trước hành động chính...

.10.It is no use running so quickly.They talked about the function of the new device. . c.. instead of. without" .Running a car very quickly may be dangerous. . b. he had to be taken to the hospital. (Nếu Tôm chạy thật nhanh thì người này sẽ được cứu) * Liên kết này thay cho câu chỉ điều kiện. danh động từ hiện tại có cùng ý nghĩa hay cùng thể hiện hành động với câu chính. Nó được dùng để rút ngắn và làm đơn giản câu. 105 .Besides running very quickly he is a good jumper.Sau các giới từ. . đồng thời. Khi dịch thêm từ nối "trong khi.. Danh động từ hoàn thành biểu thị hành động xảy ra trước hành động của câu chính.He lagged behind for the purpose of running very quickly * Rút gọn câu sau các giới từ liên kết "for. . to mind. was made.Give me your reasons for running so quickly.He must apologize for running very quickly. The experiment is made.Sau một số động từ như: to admit. một hành động lặp đi lặp lại.I am looking forward to its /it/ running very quickly. . . * Để động danh từ cạnh danh từ làm chủ ngữ cho câu sau để rút ngắn câu. to need.After running home I took a bath.I am looking forward to the car running very quickly. Dịch có câu phụ.I like running very quickly. . with" . Tom running the water off the tank.The only other thing is running. it is worth. Ví dụ: . . Thể bị động 1.Run over. .Sau một số liên kết như: it is no use. Danh động từ có tính chất của danh từ. và.I am looking forward to John /him/ running.He is clever at running quickly.. to excuse.Tom running very quickly. (Tôi thích chạy nhanh) . . to finish.I am proud of running so quickly.I cannot admit running quickly. . ." 12. the man will be saved. . (Họ đã trao đổi về chức năng của thiết bị mới trong lúc Tôm mở nước ra từ bể chứa) * Liên kết này thay cho câu chỉ ngữ cảnh ban đầu. * Dùng biểu hiện ngữ cảnh "besides. Sử dụng chủ yếu trong các trường hợp sau: a. .I looking forward to John's /his/ running.I should like to run very quickly. đôi khi dùng "being" và "having been".You wish miss the train without running. XVII. of. Danh động từ Dạng chủ động Dạng bị động Hiện tại calling being called Hoàn thành having called having been called * Cũng như phân từ. Trong tiếng Anh danh động từ được sử dụng rất đa dạng.You can win by running very quickly. . (Tôi mong muốn chạy thật nhanh) * Danh động từ biểu thị một thói quen. XVI. Còn động từ nguyên thể xảy ra một trường hợp. 11.

. now it is headed by Professor Smith. . Thì tiếp diễn chỉ có ở hiện tại và quá khứ.I would do it even if took me a lot of time. Mục đích . dùng động từ nguyên thể có "to". might .Thứ tự . after. would be made. as soon as. 4. / He was given a new device. as long as.The material reacts as though it were pure.The experiment was made with this apparatus.I will do it even though it take me a lot of time. Câu phức hợp có các mệnh đề chỉ 1. A new device was given to him. that he would have studied very well.I will not do it however he prepares it / he may prepare it/. * Cách diễn đạt các thì của động từ giữa câu chính và câu phụ phải tương ứng như các ví dụ ở câu trên. I had always believed that he had studied very well. * Thể bị động được cấu tạo từ "to be" với phân từ quá khứ của động từ.Hệ quả . XVIII.He speaks as if nothing had happened. . will be made. The laboratory was originally directed by Doctor Brown. until. 2. Các loại câu . nhất là trong văn phong khoa học. 2. 106 . .I believed that he studied very well. shall go for a walk. 3. had been made. Nguyên nhân . till.We shall go on making experiments when he comes. 6. The experiment was made by Jonh. * Trong tiếng Anh hay dùng thể bị động. .has been made.I believe I have always believed I shall believe XIX. would have been made.I came earlier to have more time for my experimentation. Thời gian . . was being made. 5. 3. He was disappointed when /he was/ told that he had not been successful. * Cùng chủ ngữ. Chủ ngữ chính chuyển ra sau bởi "by" . Thường có các giới từ: when. chủ ngữ chuyển thành tân ngữ và ngược lại. is being made. will have been made. I should believe that he would study very well.The experiment was finished last week.Cách chia that he studies very well that he studied/ has studied/ well that he will study very well that he would study very well. They gave him a new device.When we have finished our experiments. . before. etc. Hydrogen found in most of the substances which constitute living matter.

sự xảy ra tương tự. "There are" dùng cho danh từ số nhiều.You should use that new apparatus for the experiment to be successful.The compound must be heated so that it may decompose.It is necessary that you should add more sulphuric acid. một sự việc có thể xảy ra tương tự. . sự có thể. it would decompose.I hope that he may pass his examinations. * "should" trong câu điều kiện chỉ một sự nghi ngờ.It is possible that he may /might/ be late. . b.I have come earlier so that his experimentation .I came earlier in order that he might have more time for . may.If you had heated the compound.She fears /feared/ less he should fail. Trong câu loại này biểu thị sự cần thiết. in case". it would decompose.I should come earlier that . 5.There are ./There is a book on the table. .If you heat the compound. "there" còn được dùng với một số động từ: to exist. thường đi với "should. it would have decomposed. There is . 4. . Chỉ điều kiện ở thì hiện tại hay tương lai có thể thực hiện được. * Chỉ điều kiện ở thì quá khứ đã không thể thực hiện được. Điều kiện a. XXI. một thời gian nhất định. * Liên kết này thường dùng để nhấn mạnh chủ ngữ.There are many ways to prepare acetic acid. * Câu điều kiện thường đi với "if. . . so that. ..What is on the table? .I had come earlier so that his experimentation.On the table there is a book.The book is on the table.I shall come earlier that .They suggested that John should be the head of their department. provided that.If you should come in time. we should make our experiment. * Bên cạnh "to be".. . "There is" dùng cho danh từ số ít.If you heated the compound. .Where is the book? . . it would have decomposed.I come earlier in order that he may have more time for .In order to obtain the product in a marketable form we must involve further operations /further operations must be involved/. XX. to live. . Sự biến đổi một số loại từ Trong tiếng Anh có thể sử dụng các từ không biến đổi nhưng chức năng ngữ pháp thì khác nhau. . might". unless. Thường có các loại sau: 107 . in order that + câu phụ hiện tại + may(might)" . 6. .There is a new apparatus in our laboratory. Câu giả thiết .Khác chủ ngữ dùng "that. "should" dùng cho thì hiện tại và quá khứ. * Từ nối "less" để nhấn mạnh ý ngược lại.Did you heat the compound. Câu chỉ mong muốn a. b. Dùng để chỉ có hoặc không có cái gì trong một vị trí.Had you heated the compound. to come. it will decompose.Professor Brown wishes we started our experiments today. There exist many ways how to prepare it.

ible: dịch như dạng tính từ bị động .er tạo thành các danh từ tương ứng từ các động từ work .ity tạo thành danh từ tính từ dense . Tiếp đầu ngữ deThường nối với động từ và danh từ để biểu thị một hành động hay một quá trình ngược lại.passage 2.ance: appear .full: biểu thị một tính chất tồn tại thực từ danh từ . Tiếp vị ngữ của danh từ . Danh từ và động từ a shape (hình dạng. xuất hiện) 2. y đọc thành -ai . Tiếp vị ngữ tạo thành tính từ .non-metal .i.ate: to separate * Chú ý: . Tiếp vị ngữ tạo ra động từ . Danh từ và tính từ glass (thủy tinh) vessel (thùng. loại).inorganic .discussion . Tạo nghĩa ngược lại unimdisusual purity appear .distinguishable . Dùng cho cả động từ và danh từ. to colorize .harmful .recrystallization (sự kết tinh lại) 3.difference . bình.ify: solid . a result (kết quả).ment: measure .disappear inorganic non.to redistill (chưng cất lại) crystallization . a pure tin vessel (thiết bị từ thiếc tinh khiết) a clean tin vessel (thùng thiếc sạch) XXII.impurity .ing tạo thành tên của hành động tương ứng test .appearance .metal mis.density * Các tiếp vị ngữ tạo thành các danh từ tương ứng: .distillation .miscalculate 2. to compose .less: biểu thị một tính chất ngược nghĩa của danh từ .unusual .harmless . có nghĩa làm cẩn thận hơn.ize: special . Các tiếp đầu ngữ cơ bản 1.measurement .ation: distil . stir . to shape (tạo thành dạng) to result (có kết quả. Tiếp đầu ngữ reTạo nghĩa lặp lại.reproducible 3.able: tính chất của tính từ có thể thực hiện được .specialize 108 . nồi.testing .worker (người công nhân). Các tiếp vị ngữ 1.ence : differ .ion : discuss .age : pass .to decompose (phân hủy) XXIII. thiết bị) a glass vessel (bình thủy tinh) * Nếu trước hai loại danh từ gần nhau thì tính từ đứng trước có thể thuộc danh từ gần nó và chú ý khi dịch.to decolorize (tẩymàu).calculate . to distil .ate đọc thành -it .stirrer (máy khuấy) .1.solidify .

PART 3 THE EXERCISES BÀI TẬP 109 .

CaCl2. cc. Mn2O3 Ex 3: Hãy đọc bằng tiếng Anh kí hiệu các nguyên tố sau Br. 7. lb. S.p. PbO. Mg.. th. gal. F. ph. al. Ex 2: Hãy đọc các công thức hóa học sau H2O. II.. viz. ft. c. sq. etc. H.1. l. Sn. Cl. The last factor is the least important of all.egal term sit .chú ý cấp so sánh I. 2. Au. C2H4. g. Ra. g.e.1. et.palate nest .. NaCl.London late .rebus don ...reference Ex 6: Hãy tập đọc chú ý các từ ch... sec.g.. this spectrum. The sooner you start studying for your English examination. in. H2S. 3. 4. a nucleus of an atom. CaCO3.Ex 1: Hãy đọc các từ viết tắt i.fate hard leg . the better for you. m. They have not the least idea about it. 5.. ca. cu. N2O5. oz... H2SO4.site bird not . I study less than my friend does. . C. HIO3. N. an important datum.. Fig. Cr..grammar sure . Tab. W. K. Co. O. qu mechanic chamber chromium circulate cubic cream generate gigantic grind gymnasium method richest courage Scotland foreign carpet husband cupboard sportsman compound cylinder gallon synthesis cast char cell gold quartz quality phosphorus phase Ex 7: Hãy tập đọc chú ý các tiếp đầu ngữ và các tiếp vị ngữ Bicarbonate dibasic Triangle regenerate hypothetic nature manganese phosphate phosphite percentage iodine benzene cuprous oxime oxidize phosphate combustible affinity decolourize hydrogenation indispensable liquefy Ex 8: Hãy chuyển sang số nhiều A mean of transport.. f.. that series. 110 . psi.preface mar .human refer . vol. We have less time than you have.p. CnH2n+2. cf. Hg. FeCl3. Fe.flute turn - hare zero spire pore sure - harry error squirrel porridge hurry rate rat cock wire cord genus wine square herring turret win coke hurt tarry germ lorry Ex 5: Hãy tập đọc chú ý các phần không có trọng âm rest .p.. hr. the basic.. Ex 4: Tập đọc: âm đóng và âm mở fat .forest face . 6. v. CO2. Pb.note pock push . I. Na. Ex 9: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Việt . b.measure bus .. a detailed analysis. The weight of some synthetic materials is less than that of metals. Zn. This is a less complicated case.cleanest man .. e. Si.. He speaks German less correctly.

They did not collect any new material.000 30.68 2. The more efficient machines we have. 3.295 182.003 8. Any metal may be used as a substitute. They used some synthetic material the volume ___ weighs much less than the same volume of aluminium. on the basis ___ all materials are classified. The separation of this kind of mixture may be achieved by ___ is termed fractional distillation. . 9. has been our teacher for two years. . ___ boys were in the cinema. We shall study the physical state. . ___ did. 5. 9. ___ study German or French. None of these properties is characteristic for ideal gases. I shall send you the catalogues ___ you are interested in. ___ lectures are very interesting. any. We shall observe if any change in colour will occur. 7. ___ helped me very much. 10.08987 0. I shall study ___ language next year. 8.321 1. 5. In the laboratory you will find the apparatus ___ you need. 4. .001 0. Only John was at home. 2. another. The higher the temperature. Are there any further questions? 6. He translated an English summary for me.6093 3. 10. 6. the more easily you learn. 6. ___ is used in most countries. Automatic devices have photographed ___ side of the moon. the less I understand it. 9.359 0. He has some knowledge of English. 2. Who is the young engineer ___ we met at the conference? 4. The metric system. the fewer workers are required. 7. Ex 14: Hãy điền other. 8. Professor Brown. Is there any ___ difference. 5.240 0. 3. Pour some water into the test-tube.050 45. 8. The longer I think of it. 2 2 4 5 6 11 14 397 35 b x-1 c Ex 12: Hãy điền các liên từ vào chỗ trống và dịch ra tiếng Việt 1. 3. I have ___ work for today. . 3. 5. The younger you start learning languages. There are no such substances in nature.5 Ex 11: Hãy đọc các phân số sau 1 3 3 2 1 9 1 258 86 a a+b y-1 . There are limits to ___ we can do for him. 7. . ___ examples are given in Table I. Some chemists are specialized in physical chemistry. 111 . . . the other. Some students study English. no. Only I did not pass the examination. 4. 2. Will you have ___ cup of tea. none 1. . others vào chỗ trống và dịch ra tiếng Việt 1. No other material can be used instead. Ex 10: Hãy đọc các số từ sau 100 203 194 589 1. the more readily the substance will decompose. Ex 13: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Việt và chú ý các từ some.2.479 1. . 4. has not been introduced to England.

2. Karel phải thi lại kỳ thi này 3 lần. the later is the more widely used. 9. the later I. 112 . Of the two procedures.1. Ông Brown đã cho phép Jana được dự kỳ thi này vào mùa đông tới. 3. This time next week they /sit/ for an examination inorganic chemistry. 4. It would be interesting to compare our results with those obtained in your laboratory. 4.1. I think that your plan is a very good one. 8. The properties of this substance resemble those of glass. that. Anh có thể học nhiều hơn được không? Ex 17: Điền thì thích hợp của động từ và dịch ra tiếng Việt 1. Smith and later by Mrs. even the earliest ones. 13. he /study/ there for two years. He /study/ chemistry for two years and then /give/ it up. is there a more recent one? 3.Ex 15: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Việt và chú ý các từ one. This method is too old. Chúng ta có thể tăng nhanh phản ứng này bằng cách cho thêm loại xúc tác mới này. We /go for a walk/ tomorrow after he /finish/ his work.1. He published more than one hundred papers including those published abroad. 10. Smaller units are preferable to large ones. 2. 2. 4. Cô ta quả thật học tốt như anh ta. When she /come/ to the university in 1971. III. 2. 6. 11. Ex 16: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Anh (chú ý trợ động từ) 1. Green. Điều chắc chắn là họ sẽ đến nghe giảng. 15. 5. 4. He usually /pass/ his examinations with honours. A few days ago he /buy/ a new text-book as his old one /be lost/. 7. Black. Có lẽ nó không đổ đủ nước vào bình kia. 5. Anh cần phải loại trừ kết tủa này. 3. 7. the latter was easier. The book was translated by Mr. Giáo sư Smith phải làm lại 10 thí nghiệm trong một số lần. In a chemical reaction the reacting substances are used up and new ones are formed. The former was difficult. 12. Dung dịch này phải được đun nóng lên 800C. She /cross/ the street when I /meet/ her yesterday. the former. 8. John /lose/ his text-book and cannot remember where he last /see/ it. Không được hút thuốc trong phòng thí nghiệm. He had to study all the records. 6. 10. 5. 5. 3. She /study/ English for five years and chemistry since 1970. The later translation is much better than the former. In all these cases the value of x determines that of y. Điều có thể là anh phải kết thúc thí nghiệm này. I passed examinations in physics and in mathematics. 14. 9. This procedure is much more simple than that developed by Dr. Dung dịch này có thể được tinh chế bằng quá trình chưng cất. 2. Chắc chắn là cô ta là sinh viên. I /finish/ my experiments before my next examination. II. 3. Điều đó chứng tỏ rằng nó chuẩn bị thi trong một thời gian rất ngắn.

3.1. samples must be taken daily. Ex 19: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Việt (chú ý động từ nguyên thể) I. The student is expected to possess at least this minimum knowledge of the subject. In order for the reaction to occur. 2. 3. 4. More water was added so as to achieve lower concentration. Our laboratory will be equipped with a large variety of new apparatus and devices. Ex 21: Hãy dịch (chú ý chủ ngữ. We know the value to depend on many different factors. The engineer asked the worker to control the amount of heat.1. He wants to finish his experiment by the end of the term. Such forces are known to be due to electrical charges. She wanted to see better. More water must be added in order for the salt to dissolve completely. Is there any water to drink? 113 . She wants to be come an engineer. The teacher spoke slowly. vị ngữ + infinitive) I.1. the temperature must not decrease below 1500C. 5. II. 4. → He had to sit down for her to see better. it cools. 1. Ex 20: Hãy nối hai câu Ví dụ: He stood up. The liquid was observed to change its colour. place a piece of sodium in a flask of chlorine. 3. All of us will see the film together. 4. I left the letter on the table. 8. 5. The compound will decompose. He will buy the tickets. 7. She studies at a technical university. 5. → He stood up to see better. II. The device appears to be widely used in industry. To prepare synthetic acid salt. The teacher brought twenty copies for each student to have one. They took a taxi. 3. The liquid will be purified by distillation in a still. dịch sang tiếng Việt 1. He had to sit down. In order to obtain best results. If we allow a gas to expand under pressure. 2. An experiment was made in order to learn the relation between the rate of decomposition and the time of heating. 2. Be careful not to heat too strongly as the compound will decompose. 5. You can read it. 5.Ex 18: Hãy chuyển sang câu điều kiện hiện tại và quá khứ. We wanted to get good seats. I must not forget it. he must use a computer.1. We shall carry out our experiments. They did not want to be late. 3. 2. 4. I shall write the number down. 6. We expect the computers to be widely used in the future. 2.1. 2. All workers were supposed to know the instructions. 4. Everybody understood him. He wanted to see better. We found the measurements to be incorrect. Ex 22: Hãy dịch ra tiếng Việt (chú ý động từ nguyên thể bổ trợ) I. 3. I shall study biology. We went to the lecture early.

8. 3. 6. He is sorry that he will be late for his lectures. The explanation is to be found in the following fact. I have still much work to do. Ex 26: Hãy chuyển các câu trực tiếp sau sang câu gián tiếp và dịch I. It was announced: "The meeting will take place on Monday. As she spoke two languages. 2. The samples to be analyzed were brought to the laboratory. Several students were criticized because they did not attend the lectures. 6. What foreign language will they teach at your school? 7. Ex 24: Hãy rút ngắn câu bằng cách dùng phân từ hay danh động từ và dịch 1. Ex 23: Dịch ra tiếng Việt (chú ý "to be + infinitive") 1. Mr. The lecturer gave the students good information on chemical literature. everything was in good order. he will pass his examinations. 8. 3." 2. As he is studying hard. The problem to be discussed in the present paper has not been studied so far. Where am I to sign my name? 3. 10. John answered: "Mary is ill. The machine was to be controlled by means of an automatic device. What shall I understand by this expression? 10.1. There are several ways to prepare chlorine from sodium chloride." 5. Have you dealt with that experiment? 9. The lecturer replied: "I have made that experiment ten times. Smith the chair of chemistry. 3. She was afraid that he /her friend/ would fail. 2. she got a well-paid job.1. 5." 4. 4. The teacher said: "Hydrogen is an element. All suggestions are to be carefully studied. 4. They may conveniently separate two liquid phases by use of the separatory funnel. They would offer Dr. I remember that professor Brown has mentioned that problem. its correction will be done next time. They are equipping the laboratory with a large variety of new devices. 5. 5. Ex 25: Chuyển sang thể bị động và dịch 1. 3. When Charles was making the experiment.2. We had discussed the results of our work before we referred them to the Scientific Council of the university. The results obtained were compared with those to be expected. My friend remarked: "I passed my examination with honours. he applied for a visa." 114 . Professor Hall Heads the Department of Foreign languages. 2. 9. 2. 4. II. You can purify a liquid by distillation in a still. 7. We shall write a dictation in this lesson. Brown stood at the blackboard and wrote some chemical equations on it. As he had been invited to England." 3. The chief engineer is to come at 6.

2.. 7. 10. Ice. Các loại ống nghiệm đã để trên bàn làm việc.1.. 3.II. Hãy cẩn thận không để các bình trên bàn rơi xuống đất. Where have you finished your studies? 5. Có rất nhiều phương pháp để tinh chế chất như vậy. 9.. 5.. 9. there are. 115 . acetic acid forms salts.. 7. snow and steam are different forms of water. Did he attend that lecture? 4. 3. 5. Thiết bị này làm việc có vẻ như là thiết bị mới. Ex 29: Dịch ra tiếng Việt I. 8. Nhiệm vụ bắt buộc là không để cặn bẩn rơi xuống đất.. Chemical factories manufacture chiefly chemicals. Ex 28: Dịch ra tiếng Anh (chú ý các cụm từ there is. Nếu anh thi đạt kỳ thi cuối cùng thì anh bảo vệ được luận án tốt nghiệp của anh. Cooling may cause only partial condensation. giáo sư Hillar sẽ tiếp các đại biểu một mình thay ông ta. It is necessary to find the primary cause. What was the result of your experiment? Many new useful products result from distillation of petroleum. Bài giảng này của anh sẽ rất quan trọng. 7. The new method yields excellent results. 3. Separation takes in a large column.. 4. Place the solution in a beaker and heat to boiling. Nếu sau một vài phút mà phản ứng không xảy ra. Trong phòng thí nghiệm có rất nhiều loại hóa chất. Có nhiều sách mới loại này trong thư viện của chúng tôi. Lần tới. Học hành chăm chỉ để thi đạt kết quả cao nhất. Chlorine combines with metals to form chlorides. Chemical changes generally result in changes in properties.. 5. 2. giáo sư Black sẽ giảng về sản xuất axit sunfuric. 6. Synthetic rubber is an ideal substitute for the natural product. 6. 4. Lên lớp nói từ từ để sinh viên có thể ghi tóm tắt được. Would the question require a through re-examination? Ex 27: Dịch ra tiếng Anh (chú ý các mệnh đề phụ) 1. Phản ứng này không thể xảy ra ngay cả khi cho thêm chất xúc tác vào đó. Quả thật tôi rất ngạc nhiên khi biết anh ta đã học tập ở nước ngoài. 2.1. Samples should be stored in a dark and cool place. Đã có điện thoại trên bàn làm việc của anh. The addition of iron reduces yields. Plastics can substitute metals for many purposes.) 1. With inorganic compounds.thức bị động. Amonia is used for the manufacture of nitric acid. 8. anh phải cho thêm chất xúc tác. When will your experiments be completed? 3. Giáo sư Milla đã điều khiển cuộc họp về các chất nhân tạo. Tôi chúc anh đạt kết quả trong công việc. 4. Nếu ông chủ nhiệm khóa đến muộn. 6. They asked: 2. When will the conference take place? Plastics have taken the place of many conventional materials.

3. When cool. Switch on the light. To manufacture marmalade . desulphurizer. possible. remeasure. to supply fresh air . filter. Large-scale production. Filtration is used to separate solids from liquids.. water glass . . zero. heat conductivity. react. it melts. a complex hydrocarbon mixture. dependent. -able. 33: Dịch ra tiếng Việt (chú ý các tiếp đầu ngữ) reorganize. solid. discuss. 116 . Continue heating until a dry powder is obtained. II. compare. laboratory research . breakable. to change temperature .fresh air supply. 10. Fractional distillation is similar in effect to a number of separate distillations. control.1. science. research.form. When heated close to its boiling point. Do not heat too strongly. the compressed ammonia liquefies. solid state physics.plant design. a concentrated sulphuric acid solution. steam engine. -tion. deoxidation. heat radiation . to design a plant .works laboratory. probable. decarbonize. market. dechlorinate. re-enter. renumber. 5. redistillation. .manufacture. Shake before use. to transfer heat . 2. stir. pilot-plant scale. sample analysis. oxidation-reduction reaction. ible. sugar beet beet sugar. measure. conductor.1. break. 2.marmalade manufacture. reproduce. ferrous. produce. a clean glass test-tube. dehydrated. contain. combine. order. laboratory assistant. Use fresh samples only. complete.. change. chemistry. cool. 4.gas fuel.heat transfer.radiation heat. Close text-book for a moment. please.transport. A glass plate . convert. The light blue colour is characteristic for the liquid.. re-examine. 4. distill. certain. active. Ex. reform. pure. mix. If we apply heat to ice. water vapour formation. fuel gas . -ation. Aluminium is a white light metal used for making air-planes. reformulate. separate. Ex 31: Thêm tiếp vị ngữ vào các từ sau để chuyển chúng sang danh từ: -er. re-use. University library. physics.research laboratory. aromatic. react. water solution. Dilute sulphuric acid is not so corrosive as the concentrated acid. 6. elastic. rebuild. concentrate. milk and fat technology. Copper is an excellent conductor of heat. demineralize. 9. laboratory work . soluble. direct.a glass of water. observe. the liquid will evaporate.temperature change. burn. de-activation. cool the beaker externally. carbon compound.8. What is the subject of your thesis? The process was subjected to careful control. compute. as the compound will decompose. high-pressure reaction.plate glass. If necessary. Dilute the acid with water. crystal. condense. stable. produce. pure. rely. 32: Tìm từ trái nghĩa natural. evaporate. Dry the test-tube over the flame. research worker. Ex 30: Hãy ghi các danh từ tương ứng differ. appear. Ex. engine. Could you light me a cigarette? III. hydrogen atom. 3. advantage. temperature range. .

TABLE OF ELEMENTS AC Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Rd Re Rh Rb Ru Sm Sc Se Si Ag Na Sr S actinium aluminium americium antimony argon arsenic astatine barium berkelium beryllium bismuth boron bromine cadmium calcium californium carbon cerium caesium chlorine chromium cobalt copper curium dysprosium einsteinium erbium europium fermium fluorine francium gadolinium gallium germanium gold hafnium radon shenium rhodium rubidium ruthenium samarium scandium selenium silicon silver sodium strotum sulphur /æk'tini m/ /æljuminj m/ /æm 'risi m/ /æntim ni/ /a:gon/ /a:snik/ /æst∂ti:n/ /be ri m/ /b :kli m/ /be'rilj m/ /bizm ð/ /bo:r n/ /broumi:n/ /kædmi n/ /kæsi m/ /kæli'fo:nj m/ /ka:b n/ /si ri m/ /si:zj m/ /klo:ri:n/ /kroumj m/ /k 'bo:lt/ / 'kop / /kju ri m/ /dis'prousi m/ /ains'taini m/ / :bi m/ /ju 'roupi m/ /f :mi m/ /flu ri:n/ /frænsi m/ /.proutæk'tini m/ radium /reidj m/ tellurium telju ri m/ terbium /t∂:bi m/ thallium /ðæli m/ thorium /ðɔ:ri m/ thulium /ðju:li m/ tin /tin/ titanium /tai'teinj m/ tungsten /taηst n/ wolfram /wulfr m/ uranium /jue'reinjem/ vanadium /ve'neidj m/ xenon /zenɔn/ ytterbium /i't :bj m/ yttrium /i’t bj m/ .gæd 'lini m/ /gæli m/ /dz :meini m/ /gould/ /hæfni m/ /reid n/ /ri:ni m/ /roudj m/ /ru:bidi m/ /ru:'ði:nj m/ /se'me ri m/ /skændi m/ /si'li:nj m/ /silik n/ /silv / /soudj m/ /stronsi m/ /salf / 117 He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Pb Li Lu Mg Mn Md Hg Mo Nd Ne Np Ni Nb N No Os O Pd P Pt Pu Po K Pr Pm Pa Ra Te Tb Tl Th Tm Sn Ti W U V Xe Yb Y helium holmium hydrogen indium iodine iridium iron krypton lanthanum lead lithium lutetium magnesium maganese mendelevium /hi:lj m/ /houlmi m/ /haidridz n/ /indi m/ /ai di:n/ /ai'ridi m/ /ai n/ /kript n/ /lænð nm/ /led/ /liði m/ /lju:'ti:si m/ /mæg'nizj: m/ /.ni:ou'dimi m/ neon /ni: n/ neptunium /nep'tju:nj m/ nickel /nikl/ niobium /nai'oubi m/ nitrogen /naitridz n/ nobelium /nou'beli m/ osmium /ozmi m/ oxygen /oksidz n/ palladium /pe'leidj m/ phosphorous /fosf r s/ platinum /plætin m/ plutonium /plu:'tounj m/ polonium /pe'lounj m/ potassium /pe'tæsi m/ praseodymium /preziou'dimi m/ promethium /pre'mi:ðjem/ protactinium /.mæηg ni:z/ /.mend 'leivi m / mercury /m :kjuri/ molybdenum /mo'libdin m/ neodymium /.

Ta Tc tantalum technetium /tænt l m/ /tekni:si m/ Zn Zr zinc zirconium /zink/ /z :'kounj m/ PART 4 : VOCABULARY TỪ VỰNG TỪ ĐIỂN 118 .

độ chống mài mòn hấp thụ thiết bị hấp thụ. of advent adventure adverse advice advocate aeration affect / 'bænd n/ / . tích lũy lại. hiện thời thích nghi. quá trình hoạt hóa hoạt động thực sự. phù hợp thích hợp được. tác động tích cực ưu điểm. tìm ra phiêu lưu. sinh ra từ tính axit. bổ sung sự bổ sung dính. chỉ rõ do đó. không phù hợp. may rủi. sự thích ứng. tập hợp lại quá trình tích tụ xác định chính xác axetamit. tình cờ có hại.A abandon abbreviation abrasion a. sự xâm nhập tăng tốc. sự ăn mòn độ bền mài mòn. đầy đủ. độ axit sự điều tiết. bất lợi lời khuyên. sự hiệu chỉnh tiến độ.ækom'dei∫n/ / 'kompli∫/ / 'kɔ:dili/ / 'kju:mjuleit/ / 'kju:mju'lei∫ n/ /ækjurit/ /'æsit'æmaid/ /æsitit/ / 'si:tik/ /æsitoun/ / 'setili:n/ /∂'t∫i:v/ /æsid/ / 'kwai / /æk∫∂n/ /. ảnh hưởng đến 119 . tiến hành. bám chặt điều chỉnh. chỗ ở hoàn thiện. nạp gaz tác động đến. phù hợp dính chặt. biện hộ quá trình thông khí. gia tốc có thể đạt được. cho phù hợp tích tụ. nhựa dính tương xứng. thuận lợi tận dụng.bri:vi'ei∫n/ / breiz n/ / b's:b/ / b'sɔ:b / / b'sɔ:p∫ n/ / k'sept (r)/ /ækses/ /æk'sel reit/ /æk'ses bl/ /æk'ses ri /i'kwipm nt/ / 'kru:/ /' siditi/ /. đối lập. có thể phù hợp cộng.ækti'vei∫n/ /æktiv/ /æktju ∂l/ / 'dæpt/ / 'æpt bl/ /æd/ / 'di∫n/ / d'hi:siv/ /ædikwit/ / d'hi / / 'dzast/ / 'dzastm nt/ / d'va:ns/ / d'va:ntidz/ /ædv nt/ /∂d'vent∫ / /ædv :s/ / d'vais/ /ædv keit/ /ei 'rei∫n/ / 'fekt/ bỏ. acid acetone acetylene achieve acid acquire action activation active actual adapt for adaptable add addition adhesive adequate adhere to adjust adjustment advance advantage to take a. cố kết. vì vậy. theo đó. cách viết tắt sự mài mòn. tin tức bào chữa. chất hấp thụ quá trình hấp thụ chất nhận cửa vào. resistance absorb absorber absorption acceptor access accelerate accessible accessory equipment accrue (+from) acidity accommodation accomplish accordingly accumulate accumulation accurate acetamide acetate acetic a. tiến độ. đường vào. dễ bị ảnh hưởng thiết bị phụ trợ đồn đại. amit của axit axetic muối axetat axetic axit axetic axeton axetylen đạt được axit dành được tác động. sử dụng quy trình. hiệu chỉnh sự điều chỉnh. từ bỏ sự làm tắt. hoạt động sự hoạt hóa.

mou'nai kl/ /æmnj sentesis/ / 'maunt/ /æn lais/ / 'nælisis. tổng số kể cả. tập hợp khuấy trộn. NH4+ (thuộc) amoniắc.ælk 'liniti/ / 'lao/ / 'lou ns/ /æloi/ /ɔ:lt / /ɔ:l't :nit/ /æltitju:d/ /'æl m/ / 'lju'mineit. chất đống làm cho trầm trọng thêm. thạch chất kiềm (thuộc) kiềm tính kiềm. tôi luyện. chứa NH4+ sự chọc ối lượng. slants agent cleansing a. tổ hợp sự kết tụ. tính lưỡng nghĩa không rõ ràng.æmbig'juti/ /'æmbigju sli/ / 'mi:n bl/ / mend/ / 'mounj / / 'mounj m/ / . đỉnh cao. pl. muối nhôm nhôm.gl m 'rei∫n/ /ægr veit/ /ægrigit/ /. chất gây phản ứng tác nhân tẩy rửa tác nhân khử vô sinh sự kết tụ. quần tụ.ægri'gei∫n/ /ædziteit/ /. Al sự mơ hồ.æljuminj m/ /. kể đến phân tích sự phân tích. kể cả sự cho phép. phép phân tích cổ. luyện ở một nhiệt độ anhidrit tác động tương phản antraxit 120 . -i:z/ /ein∫ nt/ / n'haidr s/ /ænilain/ /'ænim li/ / 'ni:l/ /æn'haidraid/ /æntæg 'nistik i'fekt/ /ænðr sait/ ái lực cấp cho. a. mơ hồ. chọc tức cụm. /'ældgai/ /'ælg / /ælk lai. slopes. luồng không khí rượu. sự liên kết. cồn etylic anđêhit một loại bia vàng của Anh tảo. /sla:nts/ /eidz nt/ /klensiη/ / 'dzen s/ / . pl. quá trình lắc (thuộc) nông nghiệp sự thổi khí. luân phiên độ cao. -es alkaline alkalinity allow for allowance alloy alloy steel alter alternate altitude alum aluminate aluminium ambiguity ambigously amenable amend ammonia a. tập hợp. bao gồm. tuân theo sửa đổi. cổ kính khan anilin (thuộc) động vật cổ ủ. lắc quá trình khuấy trộn. thạch môi trường thạch nghiêng tác nhân. reducing a. alga alkali.affinity affordable agar a. -nit/ /. water ammonium ammoniacal amniocentesis amount amount to analyse analysis.ædzi'tei∫ n/ /. nơi cao ráo muối mỏ trắng. analyses ancient anhydrous aniline animalia anneal anhydride antagonistic effect anthracite / 'finiti/ /∂fɔ:d bl/ /eig :/ /sloups/. tối nghĩa Chịu trách nhiệm.ægri'kalt∫ur l/ /e bla:st/ /ælk hol/ /ældihaid/ /eil/ /'ældzi:/. biến đổi xen kẽ. agenus agglomeration (n) agglomerate (v) aggravate aggregate aggregation agitate agitation agricultural air blast alcohol aldehyde ale algae sing. độ kiềm tính đến cái gì. ban cho. phèn aluminat. -z/ /ælk lain/ /. bổ sung amoniắc hydroxyt amôn amonium. kể cả hợp kim thép hợp kim thay đổi. đủ điều kiện aga.

khuynh hướng. trục lên quy cho. có mặt. application apply a. ăn mòn đạt tới. sự đi kèm tăng lên. tập hợp lại/ trưng bày. kèm vào ứng dụng vào. thiết bị rõ ràng. hết sức mình. đạt được dự. miệng. sản phẩm. mặt hàng. number attach to attack attaind attend attendance augment autoclave automatic automation /æp tju / /æp 'reit s/ / / / / 'pær nt/ 'pi / 'pi r ns/ 'plai ns/ lỗ. phụ tùng dụng cụ đo thiết bị ghi chép thiết bị điều chỉnh sự ứng dụng.a:ti'fi∫ l/ /æ'zbestos/ / 'send/ / s'kraib/ /ei'septik ( l)/ / 'said/ /æ∫/ / ∂'sembli/ / 'sist nt/ / 'so:tm nt/ /. heat appreciable apron appropriation approximately approximation apt to aqueous argon aroma aromatic arbitrary arduous arguably arrange arsenic article articles of commerce artificial asbestos ascend ascribe aseptic (al) aside from ash assembly assistant assortment atmospheric atom atomic a. tấm che. băng tải thích hợp. tác dụng vào sự tấn công.proupri'ei∫n/ / 'proksimitli/ / . liên quan đến cung cấp nhiệt có thể đánh giá được. phần tử hàng thương phẩm nhân tạo. gán cho (thuộc) khử trùng. xấp xỉ phép tính gần đúng phù hợp. vô trùng ngoài ra tro sự lắp ráp. recording a. regulating a. dụng cụ. đang tranh cãi sắp xếp. ngẫu nhiên sự tự động hóa /. phù hợp. sự áp dụng áp dụng. As vật phẩm. áp lực tự động.ætm s'ferik/ /æt m/ / 'tomik/ / 'tæt∫/ / 'tæk/ / 'teind/ / 'tend/ / 'tendns/ /ɔ:gm nt/ / ɔ:g'ment/ / ɔ:tokleiv/ / ɔ:t 'mætik/ /. hương thơm thơm. sử dụng. sự lựa chọn (thuộc) khí quyển nguyên tử (thuộc) nguyên tử số nguyên tử gắn vào. bố trí asen.ær 'mætik/ /a:bitr ri/ / :dju s/ /a':ju ble/ /∂'reindz/ /a:snik/ /a:tikl/ /. cộng tác viên sự phân loại. sự ăn mòn/ phá hỏng. chiều hướng ngậm nước agon.æpli'kei∫ n/ / 'plai/ / 'pri: ∫ bl/ /'eipr n/ / . thay thế được sợi amiăng nâng lên. sinh ra nồi hấp. biểu kiến xuất hiện vẻ bề ngoài. gắng gỏi không chắc chắn. (thuộc) hương liệu tùy ý khó khăn. phụ tá.proksi'mei∫ n/ /æpt/ /eikw is/ /a:gon/ / 'roum / /. đi kèm sự có mặt. to a. đánh giá tấm chắn. trong suốt. sự xuất hiện thiết bị. kẽ hở. dành riêng gần đúng. apparatuses apparent appear appearance appliance indicating a. tổ hợp người giúp việc.aperture apparatus n. dự trữ trước. ɔ:t 'mei∫ n/ 121 . tham gia vào. Ar mùi thơm. khe hở máy.

thành hai phần hóa sinh học nguồn gốc sinh hóa. hướng trục B bacillus. tính cách.veil 'biliti/ /æv( )ridz/ /eivi'rjul nt/ / 'void/ / 'wɔ:d/ /æksi l/ ngành ô tô phụ. mạng phức tạp bicacbonat. mẻ. sự khô sự cân bằng bờ. quyết định cấp cho (thuộc) trục. võng bari. giầm ổ trục. bệ đỡ. hạt đại mạch malt đại mạch thùng đựng bia. sự quyết định/ tặng. có thể sử dụng. pl. pl. nước uống mạng chằng chịt. viên. bổ trợ sự có hiêu lực. bacteria bacteriological bagasse baking balance bank bankruptcy bare barium bark barley malted barley barrel base be based on basic basin basis. từng đợt. thuyết phát sinh sinh vật sinh học sinh khối 122 . beaten) b. thùng giọt. gián đoạn bể. trực khuẩn Các vi khuẩn ( số nhiều ) (thuộc) vi khuẩn vi khuẩn ngành vi khuẩn học bã mía sự nướng. HCO3đôi. nền tảng dựa trên nền tảng. nền tảng định lượng. tính chất độ uốn cong lợi ích. cơ sở (thuộc) cơ sở bồn rửa. -cilli bacteria bacterial bacterium. bóc vỏ đại mạch. pl. vòi ấm xà. Ba vỏ. ngân hàng phá sản. -i/ /bæk. hiệu quả β-endophin nước giải khát. tính không độc tránh phần thưởng. mất giá trị trống. cái bát cơ sở. bases batch bath bead beaker beaking beam bearing beat (beat. đập. /-silai/ /bæk'ti ri / /bæk'tiril/ /bæk'tiri m. cơ sở. gõ. ɔ:t 'moubi:l/ / ɔ:g'zilj ri/ / . trần. giá tựa va chạm.automobile auxiliary availability average avirulent avoid award axial /. mép cốc có mỏ vật hình mỏ. nhào bột va đập bia cây củ cải đường thái độ. -i:z/ /bæt∫/ /ba:ð/ /bi:d/ /'bi:k / /bi:kiη/ /bim/ /be riη/ /bi:t/ /bi / /bi:t/ /bi'heivj / /bendiη/ /’benifit/ /’bit / /’bev ridz/ /bi'wild riη 'rei/ /bai'ka:b nit/ /'bain ri/ /'baiou'kemistri/ /baio'dzenisis/ /bai'ɔl ddzi/ /'bai mæs/ vi khuẩn hình que. bom bia.tiri'lodzikl/ /b gæs/ /beikiη/ /bæl ns/ /bæηk/ /'bæηkr ptsi/ /b'e / /’be ri m/ /ba:k/ /ba:li/ /bær l/ /beis/ /beisik/ /beisn/ /beisis. thùng trụ tròn bazơ. out beer beet behaviour bending benefit beta-endorphin beverage bewildering array bicarbonate binary biochemistry biogenesis biology biomass /b 'sil s/. có sẵn số trung bình chất không độc.

bọt chồi. chống đạn bong bóng. quá trình sản xuất bia nhà máy sản xuất bia. quạt thông khí đun sôi điểm sôi bulông mối liên kết/ liên kết lại borat chai chai đậy nút cao su đáy biên. phiến.. dấu ấn tẩy trắng. thổi. Br bromonitrobenzen đồng thau nước thịt. bisunfit vị đắng. mica đen hydrosunfat. phối trộn (thuộc) máu sự va đập. coal blade blaze bleach blend blood blow boil (at) boiling point bolt bond borate bottle rubber-stopped b. (broke. cánh (quạt. giới hạn. dễ vỡ. sự nảy mầm khối. phạm vi giá treo. butter /bai’ɔrem diei∫n/ /'bai tait/ /bai'salfait/ /bit / /bitjum n/ /bi'tju:min s/ /bleid/ /bleiz/ /bli:t∫/ /blend/ /blad/ /blou/ /bɔil/ /boult/ /bɔnd/ /bɔreit/ /bɔtl/ /bɔt m/ /baud ri/ /brækit/ /bra:nt∫/ /bra:s/ /breik/ /bri:d / /bru:/ /bru ri/ /brik/ /brilj nsi/ /brilj nt/ /brain/ /britl/ /broumaid/ /broumin/ /'broum 'naitr ' benzi:n/ /brɔnz/ /br ð/ /bʌbl/ /bʌd/ /bʌdiη/ /bʌlk/ /bulit-pru:f/ /bʌlb/ /bʌndl/ /b :n/ /b :n / /bansn/ /bʌt / chữa trị được bằng phương pháp sinh học biotit. giá đỡ. bó không xuyên qua được. trộn lẫn.). sủi bọt. broken) breeder brew brewing brewery brick brilliancy brilliant brine brittle bromide bromine bromonitrobenzene bronze broth bubble bud budding bulk bullet-proof bulb bundle burn burner Bunsen b. làm sạch hỗn hợp. gạch bromua brom. xưởng bia gạch độ chói. độ sáng bóng sáng chói ngâm nước muối. lá. bọt. bottom boundary bracket branch b. dấu ngoặc nhánh. ngành ngành học đồng thau đập vỡ lò phản ứng tái sinh. cánh khuấy ngọn lửa. bầu (nhiệt kế) bó cháy đèn xì đèn xì kiểu Bunsen bơ. chất đắng bitum (thuộc) bitum than bitum tấm bản. mỡ thực vật 123 . đống. nụ.bioremediation biotite bisulfite bitter bitumen bituminous b. nước mặn giòn. canh trường.. bóng điện. dịch dinh dưỡng nuôi cấy vi sinh vật bọt khí. mốc. búp sự nảy chồi. of study brass break (up). làm bia quá trình nấu bia. người nhân giống nấu bia. bình cầu. cháy sáng.

đóng hộp /keisiη/ kích thước vỏ ngoài /ka:st/ khuôn đúc. năng suất. tiến hành. can/ có thể. sự cacbon hóa. bức vẽ. đóng lon /kændl/ nến/ soi trứng /kein/ cây mía. nút bấm công tắc điện sản phẩm phụ C cable calcium c. loại nguyên nhân/ gây ra /kɔ:z/ kiềm ăn da. kết thúc 124 /keibl/ /kælsi m/ . thực hiện /keis/ trường hợp. vỏ.fruit b. lon. đóng hộp. cacbon hóa. chloride c. luyện cốc /ka:'sin 'dzenik/ chất gây ung thư bìa cứng. Ca(OH)2 sulfat canxi. dioxide c.kæt 'litik/ (thuộc) chất xúc tác /kæt g ri/ phạm trù.prod kt/ bơ hoa quả. vỏ. chú ý /’kɔ:∫ n/ /keiv/ hang. mồ hóng /ka:bou'haidreit/ hydrat cacbon có chứa các hợp chất cacbon /.ka:b nai'zei∫n/ /ka:b naiz/ hóa than. mứt quả mịn nút. hydroxide c. động. NaOH thận trọng. quán ăn tập thể /'kænv s/ vải bạt. tấm bọc. chú ý đến. xút ăn da /kɔ:stik/ potat ăn da. duy trì tiến hành. hốc /si:s/ dừng. Ca clorua canxi. băng dán /ka:dbɔ:d/ cẩn thận. sự rót /ka:stiη/ /kæt laiz/ xúc tác /k 'tælisis/ sự xúc tác /kæt list/ chất xúc tác /. có khả năng /k 'pæsiti/ thể tích. dung lượng. KOH xút ăn da. sulphate calorific value can candle cane canteen canvas capable capacity capture carbide carbon c. Ca3(PO4)2 /. sản lượng sự thu dẫn nước /kæpt∫ / /ka:baid/ cacbua. button switch b. soda caution cave cease cáp. gậy /kæn'ti:n/ căng tin. sự bảo dưỡng /ke / /kæri/ tiếp tục. vật đúc sự đúc. monoxide c.kæl 'rifik væælju:/ giá trị calo. than hóa /. cactông.ka:b 'nei∫ s/ /ka:b nit/ cacbonat /ka:b neit/ cacbon kiềm tính quá trình cốc hóa. carbonization carbonize carcinogenic cardboard care carry on carry out case casein casing casing diameter cast casting catalyze catalysis catalyst catalytic category cause caustic c. ngăn. dây dẫn điện canxi. bao/ đóng hộp /keisiin/ cazein áo. by-product /bʌtn/ /'bai. lều /keip bl/ có thể được. CaCl2 hydroxit canxi. năng suất tỏa nhiệt /cæn/ hộp sắt tây. cacbit /ka:b n/ cacbon CO CO2 muội. black carbohydrate carbonaceous carbonate basic c. hộp. potash c.

gạn sự phân loại. phòng. phân hạng phân loại. bằng chứng nhận. mactit. luân chuyển môi trường lưu thông. cấp chứng chỉ. đòi hỏi. tải trọng. ắc quy xeluloit xeluloza xi măng. mạch dài phản ứng dây chuyền thách thức. hòm.kærikt'ristik/ /t∫a:koul/ /t∫at/ /t∫ek/ /t∫i:z/ /'kemikl/ /'kemist/ /'kemistri/ /t∫est/ /t∫ip/ /'klɔ:raid/ /klɔ:'ri:n/ /. phân hạng 125 /'t∫ælindz/ /'t∫eimb / /t∫a:ns l / /t∫eindz/ /t∫a:dz/ /t∫a:/ /. xét lại phomat (thuộc) hóa học tính chất hóa học nhà hóa học môn hóa học ngực. lọc. khuấy vang quả.hộp. chuỗi. không phải trả tiền được giao nhiệm vụ than. rương. phụ tải. nhà kính thái lát mỏng. đập vỡ clorua clo xử lí bằng clo. buồng nhỏ.s :tifi'kei∫n/ /s :tifai/ /t∫ein/ tế bào. thẩm tra. sự lọc làm sạch. làm sạch. reaction challence chamber chancellor change charge free of charge be in charge of char charring temperature characteristic charcoal chatf check cheese chemical chemical behaviour chemist chemistry chest chip(ing) chloride chlorine chlorination chloroform chlorophyll cholera chromic acid chromium churn cider circulate circumstance citric acid citrus clarification clarify classification classify /sel/ /seljuloid/ /seljulous/ /si'ment/ /sen'trifjugl/ /sentrifju:dz/ /si'ræmik/ /si ri l/ /s 'tifikit/ /. không thừa nhận ngăn. thủ tướng. cấp chứng chỉ. điện tích không tải. bằng giấy chứng nhận.klæsifi'kei∫n/ /k'læsifai/ . hợp xích. xung quanh axit xitric các quả thuộc họ chanh cam sự làm trong. bào. hiệu trưởng. clo hoá clorofom. đặc tính than củi vỏ trấu kiểm tra. yêu cầu. đánh.klɔ:ri'nei∫n/ /klɔ:r fɔ:m/ /'klɔr fil/ /'kɔl r / /kroumik/ /kroumi m/ /t∫ :n/ /said / /s ':kjuleit/ /'s :k mst ns/ /sitrik/ /sitr s/ /. bệnh tả axit cromic crom. máy ép dầu. hóa than nhiệt độ hóa than đặc điểm. biến đổi nhiệm vụ. khoang tể tướng. quy cách thay đổi.klærifi'kei∫n/ /k’lærifai/ /. nước quả lên men độ rượu thấp tuần hoàn. mạch hợp chất cao phân tử. chất gắn sự li tâm máy li tâm bằng gốm ngũ cốc.cell celluloid cellulose cement centrifugal centrifuge ceramic cereal certificate certification certify chain long-chain molecule ch. nạp liệu. clorophin căn bệnh truyền nhiễm thường gây tử vong. hạt ngũ cốc giấy chứng nhận. Cr thùng khuấy bơ. CHCl3 chất diệp lục.

độ phức tạp 126 . ống hình quả bí đặc kho bảo quản lạnh vi khuẩn đường ruột E. viện trường đại học công nghệ cao va chạm. côli (Eschrichia coli) cộng tác viên đồng nghiệp tập hợp. tuyển chọn trường đại học. chất keo dấu hai chấm. có mù (hơi. tinh chế. oven c. kết rắn chắc công ty so sánh với cạnh tranh. có thể cháy được sự cháy. solution commerce commodities compact company compare with compete (for) complete completion complex complexity /klei/ /klenz/ /klousli/ /klouz / /klaudi/ /klast / /kou'gjuleit/ /kou. than cốc khí than.læb 'rei∫n/ /kɔli:g/ k 'lekt/ /kɔlidz/ /k laid/ /k ∂'lizn/ /kɔloid l/ /’koul n/ /kɔl ni/ /kal / /kal lis/ /. ban. lớp tráng lõi. sự va chạm. bế mạc đục. bó. sương) chùm. Co cầu khuẩn cùi dừa hệ số đồng tiền xu. sát gần lại sự đóng. sự khép kín. sự hoàn chỉnh phức tạp sự phức tạp.gju'lei∫n/ /koul/ /kout/ /k b/ /k 'bɔ:lt/ /'kɔk s/ /'kɔkɔnʌts/ /. va đập sự xung đột. sự lắng xuống than đá. khuẩn lạc màu sắc không màu hỗn hợp. sưu tập. kết thúc sự hoàn thiện. lắng xuống sự đông tụ.clay cleanse closely closure cloudy cluster coagulate coagulation coal c. lớp mạ. khí đốt vỏ. lớp phủ. oven gas colabash cold storage room coliform collaboration colleague collect college c. mặt hàng bánh ép. tạo ra hình tròn than cốc/ cốc hóa lò luyện cốc khí lò cốc quả bầu. sự kết hợp kết hợp với. ruột kết tập đoàn. tấm ngăn. sự đốt cháy dấu phảy (thuộc) thương mại dung dịch pha chế theo kỹ thuật thương mại loại hàng. tráng lại khít. sự đâm vào nhau (thuộc) keo. of advanced technology collide collision colloidal colon colony colo(u)r colo(u)rless combination combine (with) combustible combustion comma commercial c. kín. tuyển chọn hoàn thiện. sơn. gas coat cob cobalt coccus coconuts coefficient coin cock c.koui'fi∫ nt/ /kɔin/ /kouk/ /'kɔl bæ∫/ /kould/ /k lifɔ:m/ /k .kɔmbi'nei∫n/ /k m'bain/ /k m'bast bl/ /k m'bas∫n/ /komʌ/ /k 'm :∫l/ /kɔm( :)s/ /k 'm ditiz/ /k m'pækt/ /kamp ni/ /k m'pe / /k m'pi:t/ /k m'pli:t/ /k m'pli:∫n/ /kɔmpleks/ /k m'pleksiti/ đất sét làm sạch. trộn với dễ cháy. đám làm đông tụ. bắp coban.

vật dẫn. hợp phần tạo thành. rõ ràng. sự đông tụ thiết bị ngưng tụ sự điều khiển/ dẫn đến tính dẫn. độ dẫn (điện. nhiệt) ống dẫn.kɔnsen'trei∫n/ /k n's nd/ /k n'sais/ /k n'kɔmit nt prou’sesiz/ /kɔnkri:t/ /k∂n'kar∂nt/ /k n'dem/ /k n'dens/ /. rối loạn. bao hàm 127 . nổi tiếng.kɔndak'tiviti/ /k n'dakt / /koun/ /k n'f :/ / k n'fain/ /k n'f :m/ /k n'fju:zn/ /'kɔndzugeit/ /k n'dzʌηk∫n/ /k 'nekt/ /k n'sekjutivli/ /k n'sid r bl/ /k nsid 'rei∫n/ /k n'sist/ /k n'sist nsi/ /k n'sist nt/ /k n'spikju s/ /’kɔnst nt/ /k n'tinju l/ /k n'stitu nt/ /kɔnstitju:t/ /k n'strakt/ /k n'strak∫n/ /k n'sju:m/ /k n'samp∫n/ /kɔntækt/ /k n'tein/ bị phức tạp hóa quá trình phức tạp. hỗn hợp nén ép bao gồm. cấu tạo. so sánh. sự cô đặc chú ý. côn trao đổi. nghĩa vụ tập trung. kết án ngưng tụ. khẳng định sự hỗn loạn.kɔnden'sei∫n/ /k n'dens / /k n'dakt/ /. độ đặc. cô đặc sự tập trung. bền vững. dần dần đáng kể. không thay đổi tiếp tục. gắn vào nối tiếp. đốt cháy hết sự tiêu thụ. liên tiếp. dây dẫn hình nón. liên tục. đồng thời xảy ra bê tông đồng quy.kɔmp 'zi∫n/ /kɔmpaund/ /k m'pres/ /k m'praiz/ /'k mpr maiz/ /k m'pals ri/ /kɔnsen'treit/ /. mất mát. liên miên thành phần. chóp. va chạm chứa đựng. đánh giá xuất phát từ bao gồm. giới hạn xác định. thành phần có. ghép lại bố cục. hòa lẫn. thoả hiệp. nhất quán dễ thấy. pha trộn tiếp hợp Sự tiếp hợp nối vào. bao gồm hợp lại. phù hợp xử phạt. công nhận. liên kết vào. thiệt hại sự tiếp xúc. đông tụ sự ngưng tụ. trùng nhau/ xảy ra đồng thời. ép buộc. đáng chú ý hằng số. cấu trúc tiêu thụ. chứa đựng dàn xếp. cấu thành hợp chất. gồm có. quan tâm đến. hỗn loạn cấu tử. liên quan đến súc tích. quánh. sắp xếp độ sệt. kết cấu. quan trọng sự lưu tâm. lập nên xây dựng. đối chiếu tặng thưởng danh hiệu hạn chế. thành phần. ngắn gọn các quá trình đồng phát.complicated complication component compose of composite composition compound compress comprise compromise compulsory concentrate concentration be concerned with concise concominant processes concrete concurrent condemn condense condensation condenser conduct conductivity conductor cone confer confer a degree confine confirm confusion conjugate conjunction connect consecutively considerable consideration consist in consist of consistency consistent conspicuous constant continual constituent constitute construct construction consume consumption contact contain /kɔmplikeitid/ /. làm hại bắt buộc. độ kiên cố đặc sệt.kɔmpli'kei∫n/ /k m'poun nt/ /k m'pouz/ /'k mp zit/ /. thiết kế sự xây dựng.

mát/ làm nguội. làm nứt ra máy dát mỏng. công hiến kiểm tra. khe nứt/ rạn. bị phá hỏng cosmit giá. phù hợp sự ăn mòn.. làm lạnh sự làm nguội. chi phí. gây ra trườn ra. crises crisp crop off cross . không tinh./kraisi:z/ /krisp/ /krɔ:p of/ /krɔs'liηk/ /krɔs'sek∫n/ /kru:sibl/ /kru:d/ /krʌ∫/ thùng chứa. tương phản với sự đóng góp. bình có ống nhánh để lắp ghép lại bệnh truyền nhiễm nhẹ của gia súc do vi rút vết nứt.kaunt 'rækt/ /kaunti/ /kʌv / /kau/ /kaupoks/ /kræk/ /krækiη/ /kri:m/ /kri'eit/ /kri:p/ /kraisis/. nguyên liệu thô. có tạp chất sự nghiền. ngoại ô. dụng cụ chứa. ép 128 . chuyển hóa thành chuyên chở. trung hòa tỉnh. vận chuyển. bình. bao gồm. tiết diện ngang chậu.kɔntri'bju:∫n/ /k n'troul/ /k n'troul bl/ /k n'tr v ∫l date/ /kou'væl nt/ /k n'vek∫n/ /k n'vi:nj nt/ /k n'v :t/ /k n'vei/ /k n'vei / /ku:l/ /ku:liη/ /kou. giám sát có thể điều khiển được. phí tổn tính. rán giòn tách ra. điều khiển. làm mất tác dụng.koris’pondiηli/ /k 'rouz n/ /k 'rousiv/ /'k smid/ /kost/ /kaunt/ /. vắt. quá trình chưng cất dầu mỏ kem. máy rán dòn sự rạn nứt. nội dung khung cảnh.. váng bọt/ đông tụ sáng tạo. chén nung. văn cảnh sự việc xảy ra ngẫu nhiên liên tục. bắp. chứa đựng. bị gỉ ra. váng sữa. sự nóng chảy. gỉ. đồng thau/ bọc đồng cùi dừa khô ngô. sần góc phù hợp với một cách tương ứng. hiểu sâu sắc. có thể kiểm soát được thời kỳ tranh cãi đồng giá trị. chất gây nhiễm. che đậy.koris'pond/ /. đồng hóa trị liên kết đồng hóa trị sự thỏa thuận. chai.section crucible crude crush /k n'tein / /k n't min nt/ /’kɔntent/ /'k ntekst/ /k n'tindz nsi/ /k n'tinju s/ /. dòng chảy khủng hoảng. góp phần. vật gây bệnh hàm lượng. dung lượng. băng tải nguội. bao bọc. pl. chén sứ thô. phù hợp biến đổi. có giá trị. quận phủ. đếm. quá trình làm lạnh sự hợp tác đồng. mạch lạc. phá hỏng bị ăn mòn. quyết định nhanh giòn. nát. kể đến phản tác dụng. trôi chảy sự đối lập. nắp đậy bò cái.kɔntr 'dik∫n/ /kɔntr ri/ /.ɔp 'rei∫n/ /kop / /'kɔpr / /kɔ:n/ /ko:n / /. chuyển dời băng chuyền.link cross . thu được liên kết ngang mặt cắt ngang. tạo thành. tương phản trái với.container contaminant content context contingency continuous contradiction contrary contribution control controllable controversial date covalent covalent bond convection convenient convert to convey conveyer cool cooling cooperation copper copra corn corner correspond to correspondingly corrosion corrosive cosmid cost count counteract county cover cow cowpox crack cracker cracking cream create creep crisis. nhân dân tỉnh. quy ước thuận tiện.

krist lai'zei∫ n/ /krist laiz/ /kju:bik/ /kʌlt∫ / /kju:prik/ /kju:pr s/ /k :d/ /kju / /kʌst m / /kʌt/ /kʌtiη tu:l/ /saikl/ /siklik. /dikri:s/ / de'fikeit/ /de'fikei∫n/ /di'fens/ /di'fi∫ nsi/ /di'fain/ /di'gri:/ /sentigreid/ /. hoãn lại. sắp đặt khách hàng cắt. ống đong cơ quan rỗng. đóng hộp. trưởng đoàn mảnh vỡ. gạn. nuôi cấy vi sinh vật môi trường nuôi cấy ống giống. kết tinh sự kết tinh kết tinh khối. con mẹ/ ngăn. biến thành. medium c.di:hai'drei∫n/ con cái. điều trị. Cu2+ có đồng. (thuộc) thể tích. chói chủ nhiệm. hình khối trồng. máy chà vỏ cứng. làm nhỏ đi. mảnh vụn sự lắng cặn. pl. dữ liệu lóa mắt. sự khử nước làm trì hoãn. theo chu kì xi lanh. túi.di:k m'pouz/ /. giảm bớt làm sạch. protit vón/ đông tụ lại bảo dưỡng. Cu3+ sữa đông. centigrade d. lập phương. mức độ. nang phân chia tế bào xitôzan chất sinh tế bào D dam damage date back datum.di:kɔmp 'zi∫n/ /di'kɔ:tikeit/ /di'kɔ:tikeit / /di'kri:s/. làm chậm lại 129 . bao quanh sự thiệt hại/ làm hư hỏng. tube cupric cuprous curd cure customer cut cut ware cutting tool cycle cyclic cylinder cyst cytokin cytosine cytostatic substance /krʌst/ /kristl/ /krist lain/ /. làm trong. phân hủy. sự lọc sự bảo vệ. saiklik/ /si’lind / /sist/ /sitɔkin/ /sitɔzin/ /saitɔst tik/ máy ép. dãy. danh hiệu độ C . chứa đồng 3. mùa tuần hoàn. mức giao tiếp sự mất nước hoặc hơi ẩm. làm mủn quyết định làm mất màu. xát máy bóc vỏ. dao cắt vòng. tách biệt dụng cụ cắt. sự làm trong. deit / /dæzliη/ /di:n/ /deibri:/ /'di:kæn'tei∫n/ /di'kei/ /di'siz n/ /di:'kal raiz/ /. xác định ngày tháng trị số cho trước. da tinh thể. communication dehydration /dæm/ /’dæmidz/ /deit back/ /deit m. hàng. lắng gạn sự phân rã. data dazzling dean debris decantation decay decision decolo(u)rize decompose decomposition decorticate decorticator decrease defecate defecation defense deficiency define degree d. lật lên. xử lí. oC mức truyền tin. băm nhỏ hàng rời. bọng chứa chất lỏng. phân ly sự phân hủy. chất đông tụ. lọc sự làm sạch. bao. không hoàn thiện định nghĩa độ.crusher crust crystal crystalline crystallization crystallize cubic culture c. gây thiệt hại đẩy lùi ngày tháng. khử màu phân hủy. máy xát làm giảm. ống môi trường chứa đồng hóa trị 2. pha lê (thuộc) tinh thể. sự phân li bóc vỏ. giai đoạn. cặn kết. sự phòng vệ sự thiếu hụt. sự gạn. chu kỳ.

độ đậm đặc khử mùi quá trình khử mùi ban. biểu thị rậm rạp.pri:∫i'ei∫n/ /di'riv tiv/ /di'raiv/ /dis'kraib/ /desi’keit/ /. xác định. nhúng. upon) dependent deplete deposit depreciation derivative derive describe desiccate desiccation desiccator design designate desirable desire detectable deteriorate determine determination detract detriment develop developer development device devise dew diameter diastase diacide diagonal diatomaceous dicotyledon die differentiate differentiation diffraction diffuse diffusion digestion dimension dip direct dirt disagreeable /di'lei/ /di'liv ri tju:b/ /delv/ /di'ma:nd/ /’dem nstreit/ /dens/ /’densiti/ /di:oud raiz/ /di:oud rai'zei∫n/ /di'pa:tm nt/ /di'pend/ /di'pend nt/ /di'pli:t/ /di'pɔzit/ /di. làm giảm giá trị xác định. khuôn ép/ chết phân biệt sự sai khác. thu được từ mô tả. trình bày làm khô. đoạt. xác định kích thước. định rõ. định rõ lấy. đậm đặc mật độ.delay delivery tube delve demand demonstrate dense density deodorize deodorization department depend (on. tìm tòi. tìm ra được làm hư hỏng. giảm giá chất dẫn xuất dẫn xuất từ. khử ẩm. dò được. đánh giá tốt. sơ đồ bố trí. tỉ trọng. chìm. chỗ trũng sự yêu cầu. ống dẫn đào bới. nghiêng (thuộc) chất trợ lọc diatomit cây hai lá mầm khuôn đúc. bịa ra sương. hiện tượng khuyếch tán sự tiêu hóa. bình hút ẩm bản thiết kế. nhu cầu chứng minh. thiết bị nghĩ ra. phương án ấn định. nhuộm màu trực tiếp. sấy khô tủ sấy. phù hợp yêu cầu yêu cầu. sự phân biệt sự nhiễu xạ khuyếch tán (ánh sáng) sự khuyếch tán. đá không quặng không đạt hiệu quả 130 . quy định. thẳng bùn.dai-/ /di'men∫ n/ /dip/ /di'rekt/ /d :t/ /. mong muốn phát hiện ra. trầm tích. khả năng tiêu hóa thức ăn kích thước. tạo nên chất hiện hình. lắng xuống sự sụt giá. ẩm đường kính hoạt lực diastaza (thuộc) diaxit chéo. ống phân phối. đặt tên tốt.t :mi'nei∫n/ /di'trækt/ /'detrim nt/ /di'vel p/ /di'vel p / /di'vel pm nt/ /di'vais/ /di'vaiz/ /du/ /dai'mit / /dai steis/ /dai cid/ /dai'æg nl/ /'dai t mæsi s/ /'daikɔti'lid n/ /dai/ /dif 'ren∫ieit/ /dif . sấy khô sự làm khô.dis 'gri: bl/ ống thóat ra. khoa phụ thuộc tính phụ thuộc làm hết. phát sinh. tưởng tượng ra. xiên.desi'kei∫n/ /desikeit / /di'zain/ /dezigneit/ /di'zai r bl/ /di'zai / /di'tekt bl/ /di'ti ri reit/ /di't :min/ /di. dành được sự xác định. hiện hình. làm kiệt chất lắng/ kết tủa. máy sấy. thu hồi sự tổn hai. cỡ sự ngâm.ren∫i'ei∫n/ /di'fræk∫n/ /di'fju:z/ /di'fju:zn/ /di'dzest∫ n. chất giữ màu sự phát triển dụng cụ. thiệt hại phát triển.

gây nhiễu nhiều loại khác nhau. sự khám phá đĩa. phá vỡ. dru:. thích đáng. hệ thống tiêu nước. điều khiển. phân tách hòa tan chưng cất chưng cất sản phẩm chưng cất chưng cất phân đoạn rõ. hút hút ra. giảm/ nhỏ giọt nhỏ giọt ống nhỏ giọt. khác biệt sự phân biệt. phân biệt phân phối. driven) driving power drop droplet dropper drug dry ductile ductility due due to duly duplicate durability dust dye /. phân chia. phân bố sự phân phối rối loạn. distinct distinction distinguish distribute distribution disturb diverse diversify divide donor double dough drain drainage draw (drew. bình nhỏ giọt thuốc sấy khô. rèn được tính dẻo. giọt. làm khô dẻo. tương ứng gây nên do đúng. khám phá sự phát hiện. đa dạng đa dạng hóa chia. rãnh. -leit/ /disti'lei∫n/ /dis'tiηkt/ /dis'tiηk∫ n/ /dis'tiηgwi∫/ /distribju:t/ /. xả. khử trùng phân rã.sou∫i'ei n/ /di'zolv/ /di'stil/ /distilit. đập gãy sự phân ly. tán sắc dời chỗ. drivn/ /drɔp/ /drɔplit/ /drɔp / /drʌg/ /drai/ /dʌktail/ /dʌk'tiliti/ /dju:/ /dju:li/ /dju:plikeit/ /. tháo nước sự tiêu nước.disappear discharge discover discovery dish disinfectant disinfection disintegrate disperse displace disposal dispose of sth disrupt dissociation dissolve distill distillate distillation fractional d. phân biệt. kéo ra sự ăn mặc.disin'fektn/ . loại trừ sắp xếp. bố trí. băng bó. tính dễ rèn hướng chính xác.djur 'biliti/ /dʌst/ /dai/ biến mất sự tháo.dis 'pi / /dis't∫a:dz/ /dis'kav / /dis'kav ri/ /di:∫/ /. drawn) d. thích hợp bản sao/ nhân đôi tính bền lâu. kéo. drouv. hình đĩa chất sát trùng sự tẩy uế.distri'bju:∫n/ /di'st :b/ /daiv :s/ /dai':v :sifai/ /di'vaid/ /'doun / /d^bl/ /d u/ /drein/ /dreinidz/ /drɔ:. khác biệt nhận biết. tuổi bền bụi thuốc nhuộm/ nhuộm màu 131 . tiêu nước. người tặng. tán xạ. thóat nước kéo. tháo nước. phân độ người cho. chất cho gấp đôi bột nhào máng. sự đẽo gọt dẫn động. dịch chuyển sự vứt bỏ. lưu lượng phát hiện. dễ kéo sợi. lái xe công suất kéo làm rơi. off dressing drive (drove. drɔ:n/ /dresiη/ /draiv. khử đập vỡ.disin'fek∫n/ /dis'intigreit/ /dis'p :s/ /dis'pleis/ /di'spouzl/ /dis'pouz/ /dis'rʌpt/ /di. phân hủy phân tán.

kết lại.i:k 'nomiks/ /i'k n mist/ /i'k n mi/ /edg/ /i'fekt/ /i'fektiv/ /. hoàn toàn bắt được. xạ khí đại sứ. điện học quá trình điện phân chất điện phân. mạ (kim loại) sự nhấn mạnh sự phát xạ. bị kéo vào động cơ. phát sáng. tính biến dạng đàn hồi kế (thuộc) điện điện. ủng hộ. bỏ kèm theo. ảnh hưởng để có hiệu quả. đầy đủ. nhánh quả cà. tổng thể. ngành kỹ thuật khắc. điều chỉnh biến đổi tốt hơn. tạo nên tính chất đàn hồi. bong bóng. ngành kinh tế nhà kinh tế học tính kinh tế. sông. gờ. đọ sức. sự đặt xung quanh sự va chạm.ef 'ves ns/ /i'fi∫nsi/ /i'fi∫nt/ /'eflu nt/ /egpl nt/ /i'læb r t/ /i'læstik/ / læs'tisiti/ / 'læst m / /i'lektrik(l)/ /ilek'trisiti/ /ilek'trɔlisis/ /i'lektroulait/ /i'lektrɔn/ /ilek'trɔniks/ /elim nt/ /. dung dịch điện phân điện tử. bao gồm sự vây quanh. tính toán lưỡi dao.endzi'ni / /endzi 'niriη/ /in'greiv/ /in'rit∫/ /in'rit∫m nt/ /in'∫u / /'ent / /ent praiz/ /in'tai / /in'træp/ (thuộc) sinh thái học môn kinh tế học. quá trình kéo dãn ra sự tỏa ra. làm giàu thêm bảo đảm. đông lại giúp đỡ. dựng lên.ilɔη'gei∫n/ /. sự bức xạ làm việc. bẫy được 132 . gắn vào. kỹ thuật viên kỹ thuật. thành phần quá trình kéo dài. hỗ trợ sự kết thúc. mép.E ecological economics economist economy edge effect to the effect effective effervescence efficiency efficient effluent eggplant elaborate elastic elasticity elastomer electric(al) electricity electrolysis electrolyte electron electronics element elongation emanation embassy embed emphasis emission employ emulsify emulsion enclose enclosure encounter encourage ending energy be engaged (in) engine engineer engineering engrave enrich with enrichment ensure enter enterprise entire entrap /. chắc chắn nhập vào. viền kết quả.em 'nei∫n/ /emb si/ /im'bed/ /'emf sis/ /i'mi∫ n/ /im'plɔi/ /i'malsifai/ /i'mal∫n/ /in'klouz/ /in'klouz / /in'kaut / /in'k^ridz/ /endiη/ /’en dzi/ /in'geidzd/ /endzin/ /.ek 'lodzik( )l/ /. hiêu lực/ tác dụng. sử dụng được nhũ tương hóa chất nhũ tương xung quanh. động viên. hiệu ứng sự sủi bọt. đầu máy kỹ sư. đưa vào xí nghiệp. cây cà thiết lập. có hiệu suất chất lỏng thừa. giữ được. sứ mệnh đưa vào. sự thóat khí hiệu lực. electron điện tử học nguyên tố. chạm trổ làm giàu thêm. tính đến. hiệu quả sử dụng có hiệu quả. cơ quan toàn bộ. với hiệu lực (thuộc) hiệu quả. tính biến dạng tính đàn hồi. suối. sự chấm dứt. phần cuối năng lượng được dẫn vào. nước cống.

tiêu phí. kéo dài. máy móc sự tương đương. để thiệt hại cho ai thí nghiệm (thuộc) về thí nghiệm chuyên gia. chỗ rò rỉ. tính tương đương xói mòn. phơi bày biểu thị. cố vấn. có sẵn tỏa nhiệt. sự tiêu dùng tiêu hao. tống ra cuộc tham quan tỏa nhiệt. có giới hạn một cách hiển nhiên. trao đổi. trương lên. of experiment experimental expert exploitation explosive expose to express extend /'entri/ /'enviloup/ /is'kwai / /in'vai r nm nt/ /en’zaim/ /'epiðet/ /ik'wei∫n/ /. đầu ra tinh dầu nước hoa/ thực chất cần thiết. vượt cao hơn phần dư ra. lượng dư lấy hết. xả khí. xung quanh enzim tính ngữ phương trình. tách ra quá trình tách chiết. sai lệch sự thóat. thiết yếu este đánh giá. tiêu thụ hết triển lãm. màng bao. tỏa năng lượng tăng cường. sự lợi dụng nổ. quá trình triển lãm tồn tại. (uire) environment enzyme epithet equation equilibrium equip equipment equivalence erode error escape essence essential ester estimate ethane ether ethyl alcohol ethylene e. phong bì. với giá là. giải phóng ra làm dư. dễ nổ trình bày. sự giãn nở chí phí. chỉ dẫn ra sự trưng bày.eksplɔi'tei∫n/ /iks'plousiv/ /iks'pouz/ /iks'pres/ /iks'tend/ sự đi vào. sự cân bằng trạng thái cân bằng. lắp đặt thiết bị. dãn ra 133 .eksi'bi∫n/ /ig'zist/ /egz ':ð mik/ /iks'pænd/ /iks'pæn∫n/ /iks'pendit∫ / /iks'pens/ /iks'periment/ /eks. thóat ra. vỏ bao Thưa các ông.i:kwi'libri m/ /i'kwip/ /i'kwipm nt/ /i'kwiv l ns/ /i'roud/ /er / /is'keip/ /es ns/ /i'sen∫l/ /’est / /’estimit/ /eðein/ /ið / /eðil/ /’eðili:n/ /i'væp reit/ /i.entry envelope Esq. cố gắng. phần thừa ra đổi. lấy kiệt. vượt quá mức. dự trù êtan ête rượu êtylic êtylen diclorit êtylen bay hơi. phí tổn. giải thóat phát sinh. các bà (văn viết) môi trường. sự ghi vào. bốc hơi quá trình bay hơi. thay thế thóat ra. chi phí trả giá bằng. một cách rõ rệt quá trình phát triển. triệt để dùng hết. cửa vào bao. chất gây nổ. căng lên sự mở rộng. sai số. dichloride evaporate evaporation eventually evidently evolution evolve exceed excess exchange exclude exclusion excursion exergonic exert exhaust exhaustion exhibit exhibition exist exothermic expand expansion expenditure expense at the e. quá trình bốc hơi cuối cùng. trưng bày. ăn mòn sai sót. nhà thông thái sự khai thác.væp 'rei∫ n/ /i'ventju li/ /'evid ntli/ /i:v 'lu: ∫ n/ /i'volv/ /ik'si:d/ /ik'ses/ /iks't∫eindz/ /iks'klu:d/ /iks'klu:zn/ /iks'k :∫n/ /'eks gonik/ /igz t/ /ig'zɔ:st/ /ig'zɔ:st∫n/ /ig'zibit/ /. giải thích mở rộng. tiết ra. phát triển. sinh ra. giải phóng năng lượng mở rộng. vị trí cân bằng trang bị.peri'ment l/ /eksp :t/ /.

extensive extent external extract extraction extractor

/iks'tensiv/ /iks'tent/ /eks't :nl/ /’ekstrækt/ /iks'trækn/ /iks'trækt /

rộng, bao quát, đáng kể kích thước, mức độ, phạm vi bên ngoài, phần xung quanh chiết ra, phần chiết, trích ly ra quá trình chiết, quá trình trích ly thiết bị trích ly, bộ trích ly

F
facilitate facility factory fail fail in an exam fairly familiar family fashion fat fatty feasible feature feed feedback fellowship ferment fermentable fermentation bottom f. top f. fern ferric ferrous fertilizer fiber figure filament file fill filler filter filtrate filtration final fine fireproof firm fission fit f. to f. with fix flagella flail flake /f 'siliteit/ /f 'siliti/ /fækt ri/ /feil/ /fe li/ /f 'milj / /’fæmili/ /’fæ∫n/ /fæt/ /fæti/ /'fi:z bl/ /fi:t∫ / /fi:d/ /fi:dbæk/ /'felou∫ip/ /f :ment/; /f 'ment/ /f 'ment bl/ /,f :men'tei∫n/ /f :nz/ /'ferik/ /'fermentation s/ /f :tilaiz / /faib / /'fig / /fil m nt/ /fail/ /fil/ /fil / /filt / /filtrit, -eit/ /fil'trei∫ n/ /’fainl/ /fain/ /’fai pru:f/ /f :m/ /fi∫ n/ /fit/ /fiks/ /'flædz l / /fleil/ /fleik/ làm cho dễ dàng hơn, làm đơn giản hơn, thuận tiện hơn trang thiết bị, có thể có, điều kiện dễ dàng, điều kiện thuận tiện nhà máy, xưởng sản xuất làm hỏng, làm sai lệch thi trượt, thi rớt rõ ràng, rõ rệt, ngay thẳng giống, tương tự gia đình, họ, lớp, nhóm mẫu, mốt, loại béo, chất béo, mỡ (thuộc) mỡ, bị béo khả thi, có khả năng thực hiện đặc điểm, đặc tính, dấu hiệu đặc trưng cung cấp, cho ăn, bổ sung, tiếp liệu cơ cấu ngược, cho quay lại tình bạn, giao hữu lên men, chất men (enzim) cho lên men có thể lên men được quá trình lên men quá trình lên men chìm quá trình lên men nổi cây dương xỉ (thuộc) sắt (thuộc) muối sắt phân bón, máy chế phân bón sợi, dạng sợi con số, hình vẽ, đồ thị, biểu đồ sợi, que nhỏ, mảnh gọt dũa, sắp đặt, hàng, dãy đổ đầy, chiết dịch vào chai chất chiết, máy chiết (chai, lon) bộ lọc/ lọc chất lọc, dịch lọc quá trình lọc cuối cùng, phần cuối tinh khiết, sạch, tốt, mịn gạch chịu lửa, không cháy hãng, vững chắc, khẳng định phân chia, phân rã phù hợp, vừa, ăn khớp, thích hợp làm thích ứng, làm cho phù hợp trang bị, sắm, tạo ra, cho thêm cố định, định vị/ hãm, cô đặc, ngưng kết tiên mao đập, cái đập lúa bông, hạt bỏng, vảy gỉ 134

flaker flakes flaky flame flammable flange flash flash point flask flat-bottomed f. round-bottomed f flatworm flavo(u)r flexibility flint float floccular flocculation flocculent flooring floral fork flow f. from fluctuate fluid fluorine foam food force forge form formaldehyde format formation formic acid formula pl. formulae forward fountain fraction fractional fractionation frank free f. from set f. freeze (froze-frozen) freezing point frequency fresh

/fleik / /fleiks/ /’fleiki/ /fleim/ /flæm bl/ /flændz/ /flæ∫/ /fla:sk/ /flætwɔ:m/ /f’leiv / /,fleksi'biliti/ /flint/ /flout/ /f’lɔkjul / /flɔkju’lei∫n/ /’flɔkjul nt/ /flɔ:riη/ /flɔ:r l/ /fɔ:k/ /flou/ /’flʌktjueit/ /fluid/ /flu ri:n/ /foum/ /fud/ /fɔ:s/ /fɔ:dz/ /fɔ:m/ /fɔ:'mældihaid/ /fɔmeit/ /fɔ:’mei∫ n/ /fɔ:mik/ /fɔ:mjul / /fɔ:mjuli:/ /’fɔ:w d/ /’fauntin/ /’fræk∫ n/ /fræk∫ nl/ /,fræk'∫ nei∫n/ /fræηk/ /fri:/ /fri:z/ /fri:kw nsi/ /fre∫/

máy nổ, máy cán tão cốm mì thanh, cán mỏng có bông, dễ bong ra từng mảng ngọn lửa, cháy, bốc cháy, bùng cháy, hơ lửa cháy được, dễ cháy, dễ bắt lửa (mặt) bích, vai, gờ, vành gờ/ tạo bích, bắt bích tia sáng, sự bốc cháy/ lóe sáng, bắn tia sáng điểm sáng, điểm lóe sáng bình tam giác, bình, chai bình đáy bằng bình đáy tròn giun móc mùi, hương thơm, chất thơm tính dễ uốn, tính mềm dẻo đá màu cái phao, làm nổi bộ kết bông, bộ lông cuối sự kết bông, sự kết bợn, sự kết khóm phủ bông, chất kết bông ván lát, gạch lát, sự lát nền (thuộc) cây cỏ, hệ thực vật chĩa, cái nĩa ăn, cái xêu sự chảy, sự loang ra, sự tràn ra, dòng chảy/ chảy dòng chảy ra từ, tràn ra từ dao động, thay đổi bất thường, bấp bênh chất lỏng, (thuộc) chất lỏng Fluor, F bọt/ tạo bọt thực phẩm, thức ăn, sự nuôi dưỡng lực, sức đẩy, lực tác dụng đường rèn, lò rèn hình dạng, loại, hạng/ tạo hình, tạo dạng, tạo thành formaldehyt, HCHO format, 1- HCOOM; 2- HCOOR sự hình thành, sự tạo thành, sự tạo hình axit formic, HCOOH công thức ở trước, đưa đến, tiến bộ, bổ sung vòi nước, máy nước, vòi phun, suối phân đoạn, tách đoạn từng phân đoạn cắt phân đoạn, tách chiết miễn cước, thẳng thắn, chân thành tự do, không liên kết, sạch, tinh khiết tách khỏi, tự do từ giải phóng ra, tự do tách ra đóng băng, đông đặc điểm đóng băng tần số, tần suất, độ lặp lại tươi, còn ướt, mới 135

friction frontier fruit fruit butter fuel f. oil diesel f. motor f. fugal (ling) fume fungus, pl. fungi funnel separatory f. fur fural aldehyde furnace furnish fuse fusibility fusible fusion f. of protoplasm

/frik∫n/ /’fr^nti / /fru:t/ /fju l/

ma sát, cọ sát biên giới, ranh giới hoa quả, quả mứt quả, mứt nhừ nhiên liệu dầu đốt dầu diesel dầu máy băng, vận chuyển khói, xông khói, hút thuốc nấm, nấm mốc phễu phễu chiết cặn, cáu, loài thú có lông mao, bộ da thú fural alhydrit lò nung, lò đốt cung cấp, trang bị cầu chìm cái tự ngắt mạch, ngòi nổ/ nấu chảy, làm nóng khả năng nóng chảy có thể nóng chảy được sự nóng chảy dung hợp tế bào trần

/gju:g l/ /fju:m/ /fʌηg s, -ai/ /’fʌnl/ /sep ‘reit ri/ /f :/ /f :r lældihaid/ /f :nis/ /f :ni∫/ /fju:z/ /fju:zi'biliti/ /fju:zibl/ /fju:z n/

G
gallon gap gas become a gas gaseous gasket gasoline gelatin gelatinous general generate generation generator gentle genus, pl. genera geology germicide give off glacial glass watch g. glassware glassy glucose glycerol glycogen goat gold đơn vị đo chất lỏng 1 gallon Mỹ = 3,787 lít 1 gallon Anh = 4,546 lít /gæp/ khe hở, lỗ hổng, chỗ trống /gæs/ khí, chất khí chuyển thành trạng thái khí /geizi s/ (thuộc) thể khí /gæskit/ miếng đệm, dây thừng nhỏ /gæs li:n/ xăng, dầu hoả /,dzel 'ti:n/ gelatin, keo gelatin /dz 'lætins/ (thuộc) chất gelatin, keo động vật /’dzen r l/ chung /’dzen reit/ sản xuất ra, tạo ra (khí, nhiệt, điện) sự tạo ra, sản sinh ra /,dzen 'rei∫n/ /dzen reit/ lò hơi, máy phát điện, máy phát nhiệt /dzentl/ vừa phải, trung bình, từ từ /’dzi:n s/ /dzen r / giống vi sinh vật /dzi'ol dzi/ ngành địa chất học /dz :misaid/ chất sát trùng, chất diệt khuẩn tách ra, tiết ra, phân tách, chọn ra /givɔf/ /gleisi l/ (thuộc) đá, băng, kem /gla:s/ thủy tinh, cốc thủy tinh kính đồng hồ /wɔt∫/ /gla:swe / dụng cụ thủy tinh /gla:si/ (thuộc) thủy tinh /glu:kous/ đường glucoza, C6H12O6 /glis rol/ glyxerin, C3H3O8 /g’likodzen/ glycogen, hạt tinh bột /gout/ con dê /gould/ vàng 136 /gæl n/

trọng lực. rủi ro đống. rãnh. gru:. graund/ /grip/ /’gritinis/ /gru:v/ /graundn^ts/ /gru:p/ /grou. tác hại gặt hái. ground) grip grittiness groove groundnuts group grow (grew. sinh trưởng guanin.hom 'dzi:ni s/ cái búa. khoan khóai bàn xát. thùng chứa giá đỡ. 6 hướng khác nhau khớp. C5H5ON5 máy xén. tổ chức thi cử sức chứa. làm cho cứng lại độ cứng có hại.het rou'dzi:nj s/ /heks g n/ /hek'sæg nl/ /hindz/ /hould/ /houldiηk 'pæsiti/ /hould / /. trồng trọt.groun/ /guanin/ /gil ti:n/ /’dzimn sp :m/ vàng lá hàng hóa dần dần. nắm giữ tiến hành tốt. giữ lấy. helminth hence herewith heterogeneous hexagon hexagonal hinge hold hold examinations holding capacity holder homogeneous /hæm / /’hamst / /hændl/ /ha:d/ /ha:d n/ /ha:dnis/ /'ha:m/ /ha:mful/ /’ha:vist/ /'hæzad/ /hip/ /hi:t/ /helminð/ /hens/ /hi 'wið/ /. có hạt cứng khía. từng bước chia độ. thanh gõ/ đóng vào. chăm chỉ đóng bìa cứng. dầu bôi trơn hơi xanh tai họa. đồng nhất 137 . bệ. lắp bao gồm. cung cấp nhiệt giun sán do đó. đui đèn đồng thể. từ từ. xén cắt cây hạt trần H hammer hamster handle hard hardbound harden hardness harm harmful harvest hazard heap heat apply h. máy búa. gõ vào chuột đồng tay cầm. khó khăn. gây hại có hại. vì thế. nối. hình hạt sự nhường/ cấp cho. lực hút bôi mỡ. nóng/ đun nóng đun nóng. đụn nhiệt. vận hành. dung lượng.g. phong cho than grafit dễ chịu. tra dầu. kể từ đây kèm theo đây khác giống. trọng lượng. giới hạn tôi luyện. leaf goods gradually graduate to graduate (from) grain grammar-school granular grant graphite grateful grater grating stage gravity grease greenish grief grind (ground. tay quay/ điều khiển. tập hợp lại phát triển. nghiền mịn bắt. grown) guanine guillotine gymnosperm /gudz/ /grædju li/ /grædjueit/ /grædjueit/ /grein/ /græm / /grænjul / /gra:nt/ /græfait/ /greitf(u)l/ /’greit / /’gritiη steidz/ /græviti/ /gri:s/ /gri:ni∫/ /gri:f/ /graind. dị thể hình 6 cạnh (thuộc) hình 6 cạnh. bàn mài giai đoạn nghiền và mài qua lưới tỷ trọng. thu hoạch nguy hiểm. tăng dần dần tốt nghiệp (đại học) hạt trường trung học (thuộc) hạt. sử dụng cứng. đau khổ nghiền. định giá. cho mượn. nhường. đường rãnh hạt lạc nhóm. giữ chặt tình trạng có sạn.

đồng nhất hóa bác bỏ. doanh thu. vụn vặt ngâm. dấu hiệu bản xứ không thể thiếu được (thuộc) công nghiệp ngành công nghiệp 138 . bromide hydrogenation hydrolysis hydronium ion hydroxide hydroxyl hypha. độ không thuần khiết vô hoạt. chỉ thị kế chỉ số.haidr 'klorik/ /haidr dz n/ /broumaid/ .hori'zontl/ /houz/ /hostl/ /hot/ /haushould/ /hju:dz/ /hju:'miditi/ /h^sk/ /hai'dr :lik/ /. ống dẫn bằng nhựa nhà trọ nóng.indis'pens bl/ /indstri l/ /ind stri/ đá. đông thành đá xác định. H bromua hydrro. pl. phi vật chất. đồ sộ.indi'pend nt/ /indikeit/ /indi'keit / /.haidroudzi'nei∫ n /hai'drolisis/ /haidrouni m/ /hai'droksaid/ /hai'droksil/ /haif . tác động độ bền va đập không thấm được tẩm. hyphae /h umsted/ /hud/ /hop/ /. biểu thị chất chỉ thị. nhận ra. cay người nội trợ to lớn. HBr quá trình hydrogen hóa sự thủy phân ion H+ hydroxyt nhóm hydroxyn OHnấm. lợi tức tăng lên. haifi:/ trang trại nắp chụp. duy trì trong tủ ấm không phụ thuộc vào. ngập dịch không thể trộn lẫn vào nhau được sự miễn. gồm có thu nhập. vô tác dụng đồ ăn uống không cấp đủ (không tương xứng) bao gồm. nâng chất lượng không tinh khiết. phát hiện. va đập.im 'ti ri l/ /i'm :s/ /i'misibl/ /'imju:niti/ /'imju'nol gzi/ /impækt/ /im'p :vi s/ /impregneit/ /’impregreit/ /im'pru:v m nt/ /im'pju / /im'pju riti/ /in'æktiv/ /inæ’dikwit pr ’vizn/ /in'klu:d/ /’ink m/ /in'kri:s/ /. sự biểu thị. độc lập với chỉ ra. háo nước hydrocacbon axit clohydric hydro.homestead hood hop h. nâng cao lên nuôi cấy. khổng lồ độ ẩm. được miễn miễn dịch học sự va chạm. jack horizontal hose hostel hot household huge humidity husk hydraulic hydrocarbon hydrochloric acid hydrogen h. đo được. sợi nấm mốc I ice identify ignore immaterial immerse immiscible immunity immunology impact i.haidrou'ka:b n/ /. strength impervious impregnate impregrate improvement impure impurity inactive inadequate provision include income increase incubation independent of indicate indicator indication indigenous indispensable industrial industry /ais/ /ai'dentifai/ /ig'n :/ /. có tạp chất độ tạp chất. thụ tinh cải tiến. cải thiện.inkju:'bei∫ n/ /. thấm thấm. chụp hốt hoa huplông hộp hoa huplông nằm ngang ống mềm. phớt lờ vô hình.indi'kei∫n/ /in’didzin s/ /. bị ẩm vỏ trấu có nước. nhúng chìm. nhiễm. tiêm nhiễm.

bộ phận. chất kìm hãm đầu tiên. chất cách điện sự phân lập. không sinh động sự lắp đặt. hoàn thành.int mi:di t/ /int ’miηliη/ /. điều hại. gây ra. sáng chế tóm tắt. toàn bộ tính nguyên. vô vị. sự tác động qua lại trao đổi lẫn nhau. sát. có ý định lực. inventories invert inversion /i'n :t/ /influ ns/ /in'fju:z bl/ /in'dzes∫n/ /in'gri:di nt/ /in'hi:rnt/ /in'hibit/ /in'hibit / /ini∫ l/ /i'ni∫iet/ /in'dzek∫ n/ /indz ri/ /inlet/ /i'nokjuleit/ /i. chạy trục trặc. đè lên nhạt nhẽo. tính toàn bộ. lúc ngừng trộn đều.int 'mit nt/ /.int mou'lekjul / /in't :nl/ /. instruments i. cách nhiệt bảo đảm. sự tiêm.insti'tju:∫n:/ /. trộn lẫn kỹ càng. thoạt tiên bắt đầu. tác dụng. không thể tách ra được vòng vào. sự cấy truyền VSV (thuộc) hóa vô cơ không thể phân tách được. sản phẩm trung gian. xít.insjulei∫n/ /insjuleit / /in'∫u / /intidz / /intigrl/ /in'tend/ /in'tensiti/ /. vốn thuộc về ức chế. pha trộn gián đoạn. tích phân dự tính. đảo ngược.electronics i. cách điện vật cách điện. kết thúc giới thiệu. gá đặt thiết bị thể chế. cố hữu. cường độ. gắn vào. khởi đầu. kiểm kê nguyên vật liệu cơ sở nghịch chuyển. ngăn cách. cô lập.intro'dju:s/ /in'vent/ /in'ven∫n/ /inv ntri/ /in’v :t/ /in'v :∫ n/ công nghiệp điện tử công nghệ cơ khí chính xác Công nghệ chế tạo máy khí trơ. cạnh. độ mạnh sự tương tác lẫn nhau. dụng cụ đo phân lập. sự phun ống tiêm sự làm hại.int 'firn/ /. phía trong quan hệ qua lại khoảng. sự hỗ trợ. tổng thể. đánh trộn đều kỹ càng. chuyển đổi. machine-building i.int 'ræk∫ n/ /'int t∫eindz/ /. phản ứng theo hai chiều phép nghịch đảo 139 . đưa vào. tính tổng thể. inert influence infusible ingestion ingredient inherent inhibit inhibitor initial initiate injection i. xen kẽ nhau chất kìm hãm (ức chế) sinh sản bán sản phẩm.instrumen'tei∫n/ /insjuleit/ /. kiềm chế. có ảnh hưởng tính không thể nóng chảy được sự tiêu thụ thức ăn. mở đầu sự kiện phát minh. thỉnh thoảng lại ngừng. vật lồng vào cấy truyền vi sinh vật sự tiêm chủng. làm môi giới trộn lẫn. sự phân cách. không tác tụng ảnh hưởng. thức ăn thành phần.nokju'lei∫n/ /ino:'gænik/ /in'sep r bl/ /in’∫ :t/ /in’sipid/ /. sự cách điện chất cách điện. cơ bản. lúc có lúc không giữa phân tử bên trong.int ri'leitid/ /int v l/ /intim si/ /intimit/ /. cửa vào. hai chiều. vết thương/ làm hỏng lối vào. lỗ lắp vào. kìm hãm chất ức chế. người quen thuộc thiết bị đo.inst 'lei∫n/ /. moulding injury inlet inoculate inoculation inorganic inseparable insert insipid installation institution instrumentation insulate insulating material insulation insulator insure integer integral intend intensity interaction interchange interferon intermediate intermingling intermittent inter-molecular internal interrelated interval intimacy intimate introduce invent invention inventory pl. bảo hiểm nguyên. khởi xướng sự bơm. cấu tử vốn có. khoảng cách. quãng.

bình.involve iodine ion iron irradiation isolate isolation isoprene isotope insulin italicize. bánh bằng mứt quả liên kết. lò sấy loại giống động học. nối. bức xạ phân lập.reidi'ei∫ n/ /ais leit/ /. lớp tường lót mứt nhừ. sự chuyển động nhào trộn kinh nghiệm. dát mỏng sự cán mỏng. viết nghiêng ngà vòi J jacket jam jar jelly joint journal juice / 'dzækit/ /dzæm/ /dza:/ /dzeli/ /dzoint/ /dz :nl/ /dzu:s/ vỏ ngoài. mức độ hiểu biết kiến thức. nước quả K keep within bounds keg kerosene ketene kettle key kiln kind kinetic knead know-how knowledge /baundz/ /keg/ /ker si:n/ /keti:n/ /ketl/ /ki:/ /kiln. áo khóac. dầu lửa Ketôn ấm đun nước. thiết bị nấu bia chìa khóa. gen. axit lactic đường lactoza cán mỏng. miền vùng. tầng. loại trừ quá trình phân lập. Fe / là chiếu xạ. keo đông. I2 ion sắt. phân loại izopren chất đồng vị insulin. công nhân.50 lít dầu hỏa. báo chí nước ép quả. C45H69O14N11S.ais 'lei∫n/ /aisopren/ /aisoutoup/ /insjulin/ /i'tælisaiz/ /aiv ri/ bao gồm. bí quyết công nghệ. kil/ /kaind/ /kai'netik/ /ni:d/ /nou hau/ /'nolidz/ giữ lại bằng các liên kết. mấu chốt tủ sấy. Pb/ bọc chì 140 . lab labour lactalbumin lactic lactose laminate lamination largely latex latitude lattice lay down layer lead /l 'bor t ri/ /'læb r t ri/. -ise ivory /in'volv/ /ai di:n/ /ai n/ /ai n/ /i. phân tách. 3H2O In nghiêng. kéo theo Iod. hình thành lớp. mủ cao su vĩ độ. sự dát mỏng một cách rộng lớn latec. tiếp xúc. bề rộng mạng lưới. khớp nối tạp chí. lọ cổ rộng thạch. để xuống. màng chì. sức lao động albumin của sữa lactic. mứt quả nhừ bình. /læb/ /’leib / /lækt'ælbjumin/ /læktik/ /læktous/ /lamineit/ /la:dzli/ /læt ks/ /lætitju:d/ /lætis/ /lei daun/ /lei / /led/ phòng thí nghiệm lao động. cách tử đặt nằm xuống. bom đựng bia loại nhỏ 25 . sự hiểu biết L laboratory.

khối. nơi tiêu thụ có thể tiêu thụ được. chủ yếu bảo dưỡng. điểm thị trường. sự thóat ra hệ thống chiếu sáng than nâu có thể đúng. MgO Magiê. hải quân dấu.lead leather leaven length level liberate liberation lighting lignite likelihood lime limitation limited line line of study liquefy liquid litmus litter lixiviate load locomotion loop loss lower lubricant lubricating lump luster /li:d/ /'leð / /’levn/ /leηð/ /'levl/ /lib reit/ /. thiết bị làm bởi. vật liệu bằng da men. ánh lên.mænju'fækt∫ r / /m 'ri:n/ /ma:k/ /ma:kit/ /ma:kit bl/ máy móc. thói. long lanh M machine mixing m. lớn hơn tính rèn được. hóa vôi. kiểu tội ngộ sát. quan trọng. người chế tạo (thuộc) biển. thắt vòng sự mất mát. tạo malt Mangan. dẫn tới. ý nghĩ kỳ quái đường ống phân phối/nhiều lần gấp đôi.louk 'm u∫n/ /lu:p/ /lɔs/ /lou / /lju:brik nt/ /lu:brikeitiη/ /lʌmp/ /lʌst / dẫn dắt. bị giới hạn dấu. sự hao hụt thấp hơn. nút lưới. tính dẻo malt đại mạch. chú ý. giấy quỳ lít ngâm chiết đường dẫn/ dẫn. đông đúc cách. dây dẫn chính da thuộc. machinery made up (of) magnesia magnesium magnify main maintain major malleability malt maganese maggot manifold manner manslaughter manufacture manufacturer marine mark market marketable /m '∫i:n/ /m '∫i:n ri/ /meid ^p/ /mæg'ni:∫ / /mæg'ni:zi m/ /mægnifai/ /mein/ /men'tein/ /meidz / /.mænju:'fækt∫ / /. mốc. thích hợp để bán 141 . làm lên men. đường thẳng/ bọc. hạ thấp. chế tạo/ sự chế tạo quá trình sản xuất. cấp. sự di chuyển quai.lib 'rei n/ /laitiη/ /lignait/ /’laiklihud/ /laim/ /limi'tei n/ /limitid/ /lain/ /likwifai/ /likwid/ /litm s/ /li:t / /lik’siveit/ /loud/ /. lót (lò) hướng nghiên cứu. hạ xuống. ngâm vôi sự hạn chế. pha trộn độ dài.mæli 'biliti/ /mɔ:lt/ /. thả ra sự giải phóng. dầu bôi trơn sự bôi trơn tảng. vòng. chiều dài mức độ. có nhiều khả năng như vậy vôi. miếng ánh. làm nhỏ đi chất bôi trơn. Mn con giòi. thóat ra. sự giới hạn bị hạn chế. cục. Mg khuyếch đại. tội giết người sản xuất. duy trì lớn. nóng chảy. lãnh đạo. chứa sự di động. sản phẩm người sản xuất. mức giải phóng. dịch hóa chất lỏng. đánh dấu. phóng đại chính. chuyên ngành hóa lỏng. chế tạo bởi magiê ôxit. thiết bị máy trộn (thuộc) máy móc. lối. lỏng quỳ.mæηg 'ni:z/ /'mæg t/ /mænifould/ /'mæn (r)/ /’mæslot / /. ngấn.

maikr 'skɔpik ( l)/ (thuộc) kính hiển vi /milk/ sữa /skimd milk/ sữa khử bơ. đa số. trị số cực đại. cùi quả cọ để ép dầu kim loại (thuộc) kim loại ngành luyện kim đồng hồ đo mêtan hệ mét chuỗi nhỏ. phần chỉ. sg. môi trường. dịch hèm/ quá trình nấu.mæði'mætiks/ /mæt / /m 'tju: / /mæksim m/ /min:z/ /mez / /. tối đa biện pháp. lớp màng mốc vật liệu. đống. đáp ứng melamin sự nấu chảy. vết mứt quả nghiền cặp vợ chồng bột nhão. meet (met) melamine melt member membrane merchant mercury mere merely mesocarp metal metallic metallurgy meter methane metric microcline microorganism micron microscope microscopic (al) milk skimmed milky millet mineral mineralogy miscible mite mix mixture mobile moderant /ma:kiη/ /ma:m leid/ /mærid k^pl/ /mæ∫/ /ma:sk/ /mæs/ /’mæsikjut/ /mæt/ /m 'ti ril/ /. sự tan chảy/ nấu chảy. chất thành đống khối đường ướt. vật chất. khối bột nhão đệm lót. nutrient m. phương tiện. Hg đốt.mek nai'zei∫n/ /'medsin/ /medit ’reinj n/ /'mi:di m/. đơn thuần cùi. =10-6 m /maikrɔn/ /maikr 'skoup/ kính hiển vi /. trung bình môi trường nuôi cấy vi sinh vật môi trường dinh dưỡng VSV gặp gỡ. bộ chống rung /'mɔd r nt/ 142 sự đánh dấu. vật liệu chín.marking marmalade married couple mash mask mass massecuite mat material mathematics matter mature maximum means. cách. /mi:di / /mi:t/ /'mel mi:n/ /melt/ /'memb / /'membrein/ /m :t∫ nt/ /m :kjuri/ /mi / /mi li/ /’mesouka:p/ /'met l/ /mi'tælik/ /me't l :dzi/ /’mit :/ /'meðein/ /'metrik/ /'maikrɔklain/ /'maikrou'ɔ:g ni-z m/ vi sinh vật micron. sự khuấy trộn sự nhào trộn /'mikst∫ / /mou'bail/ cơ động. phương pháp vừa. cách xa biển số trung bình. ngâm ủ mặt nạ. ngành luyện kim học /'misibl/ hỗn tạp. chi tiết. khúc. di chuyển sự điều hòa. có thể hòa trộn được /mait/ con mọt /miks/ trộn. phương tiện số đo. phần tử. màng ngăn. chất liệu toán học chất. thoả mãn. độ đo/ đo sự cơ khí hóa. lái buôn thủy ngân.min 'ræl dzi/ (thuộc) chất khóang. chín mùi cực đại. khung che. sữa gầy /milki/ có sữa /milit/ kê /'min r l/ chất khóang. thành thục. pl. media culture m. nung chảy phần. i pl. màng chắn nhà buôn. measure mechanization medicine mediterranean medium. cửa chắn sáng khối. điểm gặp nhau. che đậy. xích nhỏ . lưu động. bộ phận. cấu kiện màng. quặng /. nhào trộn hỗn hợp. cơ giới hóa thuốc men Địa trung hải. thước đo. trải. ngụy trang. sự ghi nhãn. linh động. đoạn. vật chất. số nhiều.

thuật ngữ không đàn hồi được 143 . ngõng (trục).mɔd 'rei∫ n/ /mɔd 'reit / /'mɔdifai/ /mɔist/ /'mɔist∫ / /m 'læsiz/ /mɔld/ /'mou'lekjul / /'mɔlikju:l/ /moul/ /moult n/ /mɔ'libdin m/ /m 'nɔp li/ /'mɔ:t / /mɔsiz/ /mou∫n/ /'mout / /mould/ /mouldiη/ /m unt/ /mu:v/ /maltipl/ /maltiplai/ /mju'nisipl/ /. acid nitrogen node nomenclature non-elastic /neil/ /’neitiv/ /'næt∫r l/ /'neit∫ / /ni'sesiti/ /nek/ /. móng vốt tự nhiên. đốt mắt. sự lũng đoạn cái cối cái cối nghiền. gas nature necessity neck neutralization neutralize neutron nickel nitric n. khuyếch đại. nhiều số. Mo sự độc quyền. ôn hòa/ giảm tốc. làm cho đất tơi sự làm khuôn. đồi cao chuyển động. tăng cường. có động cơ khuôn đúc. chuyển chỗ bội số. môtơ. biến đổi sự biến đổi chủng vi sinh vật ẩm ướt. làm mất tác hại làm trung hòa nơtron điện tử niken. tiện ngấn. tiết điểm danh pháp. sự ẩm ướt nước mật. di chuyển. làm tăng lên (thuộc) thành phố thị xã. bản chất. mat molecular molecule mole molten molybdenum monopoly mortar grinding m. tính chất sự cần thiết. N nút. có chứa nitơ axit nitric Nitơ. quận có chính quyền địa phương riêng mutcovit. bắt buộc phải có cổ. chỗ thắt. sự giảm tốc. tự nhiên khí tự nhiên thiên nhiên. hệ sợi N nail native natural n. trung hòa. máy nghiền rêu sự chuyển động. rỉ đường nấm lớp màng mốc (thuộc) phân tử phân tử mol. mấu.nɔni'læstik/ cái đinh. sự điều hòa bộ tiết chế. kền/ mạ kền (thuộc) nitơ.nju:tr lai'zei∫n/ /nju:tr laiz/ /nju:trɔn/ /nikl/ /'naitrik/ /nait'r dz n/ /noud/ /nou'menkl t∫ / /. ren sự trung hòa. dập khuôn. phân tử gam nóng chảy môlipđen. bộ phận giảm tốc sửa đổi. chống rung sự chống rung động. nấm mốc/ làm khuôn. ẩm.mju:nisi'pæliti/ /m^sk vait/ /’mjut nt/ /mai'si:li m/ vừa phải.moderate moderation moderator modify modificationofthe strain moist moisture molasses mold m. bẩm sinh (thuộc) thiên nhiên. sự vận động động cơ. thành phố. Ni. chỗ hẹp/ uốn khúc. ướt độ ẩm. nhiều phần. sự ép theo khuôn. hơi ẩm. phức nhân. mica trắng tác nhân gây đột biến thể sợi nấm. mosses motion motor mo(u)ld moulding mount move multiple multiply municipal municipality muscovite mutant mycelium /'mɔd reit/ /'mɔd rit/ /. sự rót khuôn núi.

ngược lại /ɔp zit/ (thuộc) quang học. sự cố. phù hợp nhất /ɔptim l/ điều kiện tối ưu /ɔptim m/ nhiệt độ tối ưu cây cam. xuất hiện. acid oncogenic substance operate operation opportunity opposite optical optimal optimum o.ɔp 'tju:niti/ đối nhau. temperature orange order ordinary ore organic organism origin original o. thời cơ /. xuất hiện dầu/ chế biến dầu khí dầu mỏ dầu gazoin (thuộc) dầu. thực phẩm vòi phun. trình tự. bằng số thức ăn. điều khiển /ɔp reit/ sự vận hành. vòi (thuộc) hạt nhân hạt nhân. pl. quả cam. nuclei numerical nutrient nutrition /'nɔn'fer s/ /'nɔn'metl/ /'nɔn b'dzek∫n bl/ /nout/ /'nʌri∫m nt/ /nɔzl/ /nju:kli / /nju:kli s. sự điều khiển. thích hợp nhất. theo dõi đạt được. bộ. hút giữ. ghi chú sự nuôi dưỡng. tồn tại việc xảy ra. hương thơm không có mùi. màu da cam /'ɔrindz/ dãy. thị giác /ɔptikl/ tối ưu. oily oleic o.ɔp 'rei∫ n/ cơ hội. tâm các hạt nhân (thuộc) số. bản gốc. nguồn gốc sữa chua giống máy cắt bằng lưới sắt /’ ɔsileitiη wai / 144 . yoghurt oscillating wire /ɔ'blig tri/ / b'z 'vei∫n/ / b'z :v/ / b'tein/ /ɔ'klu:d/ / 'k :/ / 'kar ns/ /oud / /oud lis/ /ɔf / /ɔil/ bắt buộc. thông thường. trơn như dầu /ɔili/ dầu ôliu /ɔliik/ axit ôleic /ɔηkdzeinik sʌbst ns/ chất gây ung thư vận hành. ống phun. đơn đặt hàng /ɔ:d / thường. sự xuất hiện mùi. nghĩa vụ sự quan sát. bít. á kim không gây phản ứng. đậy nắp lại xảy ra. phi kim loại. sự đặt hàng.non-ferrous non-metal non-objectionable note nourishment nozzle nuclear nucleus. nguyên công /. nju:kliai/ /nju:'merikl/ /nju:tri nt/ /nju:'tri∫ n/ không phải sắt. nhân. gas gas o. thu được / hiện hành đút nút. cơ thể. ngược nhau. gốc. miệng phun. chất dinh dưỡng/ bổ. sự dinh dưỡng. hoạt động. dinh dưỡng sự nuôi dưỡng. đề nghị cung cấp. thức ăn O obligatory observation observe obtain occlude occur occurrence odo(u)r odo(u)rless offer oil o. cưỡng bách. thao tác. không gây khó chịu chú thích. không có hương thơm đưa ra. điểm xuất phát /'ɔridzin/ /o'ridzin l/ nguyên bản. thức ăn. không có sắt không phải kim loại. ban đầu. sự hoạt động. sự quan trắc quan sát. thứ tự. bộ phận cơ thể /ɔ:g nizm/ nguồn gốc. bình thường /ɔ:'din ri/ quặng /ɔ:/ hữu cơ /ɔ:'gænik/ sinh vật. mùi thơm. chuỗi. có dầu.

mức độ ôxi hóa ôxyt ôxi hóa Ôxy. product palatability palladium palm kernel nuts paper paraffin parasite partially particle particular pass out passage paste pasteurization pasty patent pathogenic paving p. phác họa. đề cương. phần tràn ra nhấn mạnh quá. màu vẽ. hồ bột/ dán (bằng hồ) sự diệt khuẩn theo phương pháp pasteur sền sệt. sự xuất hiện đột ngột. hạt nhỏ. O2 ôzôn. state oxide oxidize oxygen ozone /’ ɔzmous/ /’ ɔzmou’t l r ns/ /'autbreik/ /'aut m ust/ /autlet/ /autput/ /aut'strip/ /'ouvl/ /'ʌvn/ /ouv flou/ /. đặc quyền chế tạo. có hình ovan.ouv remf saiz/ /. theo từng phần hạt. quét. tô vẽ ngon sản phẩm ngon miệng vị ngon Paladi. sản phẩm. hạt nhỏ đặc biệt. thóc sơn. tube outline output outstrip oval oven overflow overemphasize overlay ownership oxidation o. quá nổi bật vật phủ (lên trên vật khác)/ che. số liệu ra bỏ xa. lối ra. tín hiệu ra. sự phủ lên gạch lát đường hạt rời.ouv 'flou/ /. đặc điểm chính. có bằng sáng chế. Pd hạt nhân cây cọ giấy. riêng biệt đi ra.ɔksi'dei∫ n/ /ɔksaid/ /ɔksidaiz/ /ɔksidz n/ /ɔzon/ sự thẩm thấu. hình trứng lò nung. O3 P paddy paint palatable p. lượng ra. sản lượng. thâm nhập bán đảo 145 . gói giấy parafin/ phủ parafin ký sinh một cách cục bộ. thóat ra. thuốc màu. bột chín bằng sáng chế. thấm qua. sự sản xuất. xay nghiền (thuộc)than bùn pectin máy gọt vỏ xuyên qua. lối đi qua. hiệu suất. thuốc vẽ/ sơn. pæt nt/ /pæð ’dzenik/ /'peiviη/ /p :l/ /pi:t/ /pektin/ /'pi:l / /penitreit/ /pi'ninsjul / lúa mạch. có khả năng hơn hình ovan.ouv 'lei/ /'oun ∫ip/ /. vượt xa. chảy ra sự đi qua. nhão. lỗ rãnh bột nhão. brick pearle peat pectin peeler penetrate peninsula /pædi/ /peint/ /’pæl t bl/ /p 'leidi m/ /pa:m k n l nʌts/ /'peip / /pær fin/ /'pær sait/ /pa:∫ li/ /'pa:tikl/ /p 'tikjul / /pa:s/ /'pæsidz/ /peist/ /pæst rai'zei∫n/ /peisti/ /'peit nt. phủ quyền sở hữu sự ôxi hóa trạng thái ôxi hóa. thấm lọc khả năng chịu áp suất thẩm thấu cao sự bột phát. phía xa nhất lối thóat. ống tràn.osmose. ống thóat phác thảo. rê. lò đốt sự tràn ra. nguyên tắc chung công suất. osmosis osmotolerance outbreak outermost outlet o. sự truyền qua. được cấp bằng sáng chế phát sinh bệnh. sự bùng nổ phía ngoài cùng. dòng chảy tràn. gây bệnh sự lát. sự thóat nước ống ra.viên.

penny stack per per capita per cent percentage perform period periodic perlocate permanent permanganate permit personnel pest pestle petrol petroleum p. oil phase phenol phenolphthalein phenomenon, pl. phenomena phosphate phosphide phosphite phosphorous phosphorus phosphoric p. acid photographic photometric (al) photosynthesis physical physics pier pierce pile pinch pipe piping piston place plain planar plant pilot-p. plastic plate p. glass platinum plentiful plot plum

/'peni stæk/ /p / /p 'sentidz/ /p 'fɔ:m/ /'pi ri d/ /,pi ri'ɔdik/ /,p :l 'keit/ /'p :m n nt/ /p :'mæηg mit/ /p 'mit/ /,p :s 'nel/ /pest/ /pestle/ /petr l/ /pi'troulj m/ /feiz/ /fi:nɔl/ /,fi:nɔl'fðæliin/ /.fi'nomin n/ / - / /fɔsfeit/ /fɔsfaid/ /fɔsfait/ /fɔsf r s/ /fɔsf r s/ /fɔs'forik/ /,fout' græfik/ /,foutou'metrik/ /,foutou'sinð sis/ /fizikl/ /fiziks/ /pi / /pi s/ /pail/ /pint∫/ /paip/ /paipiη/ /pistn/ /pleis/ /plein/ /plein / /pla:nt/ /pail t/ /plæstik/ /pleit/ /plætin m/ /plentiful/ /plɔt/ /plʌm/

một đống lớn hình tròn theo, bằng, trên theo đầu người phần trăm tỷ lệ phần trăm thực hiện, hoàn thành, trình bày thời kì, khoảng thời gian, chu kỳ (thuộc) chu kỳ, tuần hoàn, giai đoạn xuyên qua, thấm qua, đổ chảy ra lâu bền, vĩnh cửu, cố định, thường xuyên pecmaganat, KMnO4 sự cho phép/ cho phép, thừa nhận nhân sự, cá nhân, bản thân bệnh dịch, người làm hại, vật làm hại cái chày/ giã bằng chày xăng dầu mỏ dầu mỏ pha, thời kì, giai đoạn phenol phenolphtalein hiện tượng, chất liệu photphat/ photphat hóa photphit photpho hóa muối photphát photpho, P muối photphoric hóa trị 5 axit photphoric, H3PO4 (thuộc) thuật chụp ảnh, như chụp ảnh độ sáng, đo độ sáng quá trình quang hợp (thuộc) vật lý vật lý học cầu tàu, bến tàu, cấu trúc bằng gỗ, sắt đâm, chọc chồng đống, lò phản ứng/ đóng cọc, chất đống sự vát lại, sự thắt lại, hiệu ứng bóp ống, ống dẫn/ đặt đường ống, vận chuyển bằng ống sự đặt đường ống, hệ thống đường ống pitông nơi, địa điểm, vị trí/ để, đặt đồng bằng, rõ rệt, đơn giản, không phụ gia bằng phẳng, mặt phẳng, đồng bằng xưởng, nhà máy, máy móc, cây/ trồng, gieo xưởng sản xuất thí nghiệm (nhỏ) chất dẻo, sản phẩm nhựa dẻo, đồ nhựa tấm, bản, đĩa kính tấm, thủy tinh tấm platin, bạch kim, Pt phong phú, dồi dào sơ đồ, biểu đồ, đồ thị/ lập đồ thị cây mận, quả mận/ đá chèn 146

plunge pocket money point boiling p. freezing p. melting p. starting p. poison poisonous polar polish pollute pollution polyamide polyamine polybasic polymer polymerization polymerize polysulfide sodium p. popp popcorn porcelain pore porosity porous porridge porter portion possess post-graduate potable potash potassium potential pots pound pound pour p. off powder powdery power p. demand p. station powerful practice praise precautionary precipitate prefix

/plandz/ /pɔkit/ /pɔint/

nhúng, nhấn chìm, làm nguội đột ngột tiền tiêu vặt điểm, mũi nhọn, chấm, dấu chấm điểm sôi điểm đóng băng điểm nóng chảy điểm khởi động, điểm xuất phát chất độc, độc tố/ gây độc, làm hỏng độc, có chất độc, ươn, thiu địa cực, cực sự đánh bóng/ đánh bóng. mài nhẵn làm bẩn, làm ô nhiễm, làm ôi thiu sự ô nhiễm, ự làm bẩn, sự thiu polyamit poliamin đa chức polyme sự trùng hợp, sự polyme hóa trùng hợp polysunfit polysufit natri nổ bỏng bỏng ngô (thuộc) đồ sứ, sứ lỗ, lỗ hổng, lỗ rỗ, bọt khí tính xốp, độ xốp, rỗ/ tạo lỗ nhỏ xốp, rỗ cháo người khuân vác, một loại bia đen tỉ lệ, phần, phần chia có, chiếm hữu, chiếm đoạt nghiên cứu sinh uống được kali cacbonat, K2CO3 Kali, K (thuộc) thế, thế, điện áp, tiềm năng bình, hũ, lọ, vại pao (=453,6g); đồng bảng Anh nghiền, giã rót, đổ đi, đổ ra đổ bớt, rót bớt, vãi ra, đổ ra bột, bụi, thuốc nổ/ nghiền thành bột, rắc bột dạng bột lực, cường độ, công suất, năng lượng, khả năng, năng suất nhu cầu năng lượng, nhu cầu điện năng trạm cấp điện mạnh, có công suất lớn thực hành, thực tiễn, kinh nghiệm khen ngợi, tán dương/ sự khen ngợi sự lo trước, sự đề phòng, điều cảnh báo kết tủa, lắng, lắng xuống tiền tố, đặt ở đằng trước, tiếp đầu ngữ 147

/pɔizn/ /pɔizn s/ /poul / /'pɔli∫/ /p 'lu:t/ /p 'lu:∫n/ /,pɔli'æmaid/ /,poli'æmin/ /,pɔli'beisik/ /'pɔlim / /,pɔlim ri'zei∫ n/ /pɔlim raiz/ /,pɔli'salfaid/ /p p/ /p pcɔ:n/ /'pɔ:slin/ /pɔ:/ /pɔ:'rositi/ /pɔ:r s/ /'p ridz/ /pɔ:t / /pɔ:∫ n/ /p 'zes/ /'poust'grædjueit/ /pɔt bl/ /pɔtæ:∫/ /p 'tæsj m/ /p 'ten∫l/ /p ts/ /paund/ /pɔ:/ /paud / /paudri/ /pau / /'pau di'ma:nd/ /pau ful/ /præktis/ /preiz/ /pri'kos :n ri/ /pri'sipiteit/, /-tit/ /pri:fiks/

precipitation precise predator predict predominate prefabricated preferably prefix mono-; di-; tri-; tetra-; penta-; hexa; hepta-; octopreliminary preparation prepare preserve preserving industry press p. in pressure standard parometric p. presumably presuppose prevalent prevent price prickly trunk primary primarily principally principle problem procaryotic procedure proceed process produce producer gas p. product end p. final p. finished p. semifinished p. production large-scale p. profit progressive prolong prominent promote promoter proof propagation propane

sự kết tủa, sự lắng xuống, sự tách ra /pri,sipi'tei∫n/ /pri'sais/ đúng, chính xác, tỉ mỉ, nghiêm ngặt /'pred t / thú ăn thịt /pri'dikt/ dự đoán, đoán trước, tiên đoán chiếm ưu thế, trội hơn hẳn, xuất hiện /pri'dɔmineit/ /'pri:'fæbrikeitid/ được chế tạo sơ bộ, được chế tạo sẵn, đúc sẵn /pref r bli/ thích hơn, ưa hơn /pri:fiks/ tiền tố, tiếp đầu ngữ, tín hiệu mở các tiếp đầu ngữ: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 /mɔn ; dai; trai; tetr ; pent ; heks ; hept ; ɔktou/ /pri'limin ri/ sơ bộ, thô, nguyên công sự chuẩn bị, sự điều chế, chế phẩm /,prep 'rei∫n/ /pri'pe / chuẩn bị, điều chế /pri'z :v/ bảo quản, đóng hộp, lưu lại/ chất bảo quản công nghiệp đồ hộp, CN bảo quản /pres/ dập, nén, ép/ máy dập, máy nén, máy ép nén, ép, ấn vào, in dấu lên áp suất, áp lực, sức ép, sức nén /'pre∫ / áp suất không khí thông thường /pri'zju:m bli/ /,pri:s 'pouz/ /'prev lent/ /pri'vent/ /prais/ /'prikli truηk/ /praim ri/ /prin's p li/ /p'risipl/ /p'robl m/ /pr 'kæri,outik/ /pr 'si:dz / /pr 'si:d/ /prouses/ /pr 'dju:s/ /pr 'dju:s / /prɔd kt/ tương tự, có lẽ, khoảng chừng giả thiết, phỏng đoán, giả định trước thường thấy, thịnh hành ngăn chặn, hạn chế, ngăn ngừa giá cả thân cây đầy gai cơ sở, chủ yếu, đầu tiên thứ nhất, chủ yếu, đầu tiên chủ yếu, đại bộ phận quy luật, định luật, bản chất, nguyên tắc vấn đề, câu hỏi, vai trò, nhiệm vụ thuộc loại tế bào procaryotic, tế bào nhân sơ quy trình sản xuất, quy trình, thủ tục thực hiện, quy trình, tiến hành, xẩy ra, diễn ra quá trình, quy trình sản xuất, sản phẩm, khai thác người, nhà sản xuất, nơi sản xuất bình gaz, máy tạo gaz sản phẩm, phần thu được sản phẩm cuối cùng sản phẩm cuối cùng, sản phẩm hoàn thành sản phẩm hoàn chỉnh bán sản phẩm quá trình sản xuất sản xuất lớn ở mức độ công nghiệp lợi nhuận, lợi ích, tận dụng, thuận lợi lần lượt, tiến bộ, tốt hơn lên, từng bước, theo thứ tự kéo dài ra đáng chú ý, nổi bật đẩy mạnh, xúc tiến, đề bạt, thăng cấp, tăng cường chất hoạt hóa, người được thăng cấp bằng chứng, chứng cớ, thử thách, kiểm chứng, chứng minh sự nhân giồng, cấy truyền, truyền bá, mở rộng propan 148

/pr 'dak∫ n/ /prɔfit/ /pr 'gresiv/ /pr 'lɔη/ /prɔmin nt/ /pr 'mout/ /pr 'mout / /pru:f/ /,prɔp 'gei∫n/ /prɔpein/

làm trong. sự trang bị. bột giấy. cặn bã bột gỗ. định tính giấy kẻ ô vuông hóa trị bốn (thuộc) số. phồng lôi. rất quí tỉ lệ. định lượng thạch anh tắt. nở phồng đều sự nở. tạo ra với điều kiện là sự cung cấp. đăng bánh ngọt từ gạo từng lớp. loại/ sắp xếp hạng một hiếm. bảo vệ quá trình bảo quản. xenluloza.pjur fi'kei∫n/ /pju rifai/ /p :p s/ /pairait/ tính chất tỷ lệ. chỉ ra. phẩm chất.property proportion prosecute protect protection protein protoplasm protozoan prove provide with provided that provision publish puffed rice puffer pull. khởi tố chống lại. đổi chác sức mua bán tinh khiết. bột nhão. nhịp điệu cái bơm/ bơm mùi hăng hắc. power range rank first rank rare rate ratio raw /’reidi l/ /. kéo. sự lọc trong làm sạch. thu góp lực nâng dãy hàng. hiếm có.pr ut 'z u n/ /pru:v/ /pr 'vaid/ /pr 'vaidid/ /pr 'viz n/ /pʌbli∫/ /pʌfd rais/ /pʌf / /pul/ /pʌpl/ /pʌlpi/ /pʌls/ /pʌmp/ /pʌndz nt/ /p :t∫ s/ /pju / /. quá trình chống lại. làm nguội lạnh R radial radiation radioactive radiochemistry radium raise r. số lượng. có ý định.reidiou'ækti/ /'reidiou'kemistri /’reidi m/ /reiz/ /reindz/ /ræηk/ /re / /reit/ /rei∫iou/ /rɔ:/ (thuộc) tia. lĩnh vực hàng dãy. phần. hút. công bố. dẫn ra trang bị. bộ phận kiện.reidi'ei∫ n/ /. sự bảo vệ protein nguyên sinh chất nguyên sinh động vật thử nghiệm. chưa gọt giũa. kiểm ta. tỏa tròn sự bức xạ. xuất bản. chưa chế biến 149 . hạng. tỉ lệ thô. tinh chế mục đích. CN gỗ. hoàn hảo sự làm sạch. dập tắt. tốc độ. kết quả pyrit Q qualitative quadrill-ruled quadrivalence quantitative quartz quench /kwɔlit tiv/ /kw 'drilru:ld/ kwɔdri'væl ns /kwɔtit tiv/ /kwɔ:ts/ /kwent∫/ (thuộc) chất. tăng lên. chứng minh. cay sự mua bán. nguyên chất. nhúng vào nước lạnh. sự tỏa ra phóng xạ hóa học phóng xạ radi (Ra) nâng lên. cung cấp. pulling pupl pulpy pulse pump pungent purchase purchasing power pure purification purify purpose pyrite /prɔop ti/ /pr 'pɔ: ∫ n/ /'prɔsikju:t/ /pr 'tekt/ /pr 'tek∫ n/ /proutii:n/ /prout plæz m/ /. xuyên tâm. ước lượng tỉ số. thịt quả mạch. đánh giá. phạm vi. nút giật CN giấy.

thực hành. từ chối sự thu hồi lại. sự xem. thấy rõ. thường xuyên điều chỉnh. tinh luyện dòng ngược. chất phản ứng thực hiện. nguyên liệu ban đầu tia. tính dễ phản ứng sẵn sàng. thu được lí do. tỏa rọi tia X tia cực tím tơ nhân tạo. để xem xét. số ghi thuốc thử. thùng hứng sự vận động qua lại kiểu pitong. về cái gì/ có liên quan tới không kể. đo đỏ nóng đỏ / nung đỏ màu đỏ. chính qui đều đặn. tài liệu tham khảo lọc. kể đến. thu hồi. thu nhỏ.vai let/ /reiɔn/ /ri:t∫/ /ri'ækt/ /ri'ækt nt/ /ri'æ∫n/ /ri'æktiv/ /ri:'ækt / /ri k'tiviti/ /redili/ /ri:diη/ /ri'eidznt/ /ri laiz/ /ri:zn/ /ri'si:v / /ri'sipr keitiη/ /'rek gnaiz/ /. tầm với. ướp lạnh. công nhận tiếp hợp ghi chép. không chú ý tới. điều tiết. tinh chế. cân đối. dễ dàng. ướp đá đồ thừa. lọc trong. sự thu hồi (thuộc) hình chữ nhật tuần hoàn lại. phế phẩm/ thải. thiết bị phản ứng lò phản ứng gián đoạn lò phản ứng liên tục khả năng phản ứng. thu hồi lại sự chú ý. hồi phục có thể tái sinh được. vật chịu nhiệt/ chịu lửa. bình chứa. material ray x. có tương quan 150 . sự chảy ngược ống sinh hàn vật liệu chịu lửa. bất chấp đều đặn. đồ thải. suy luận người nhận.hot redness reduce refer (to) reference refine reflux r. sự giành lại. khó cháy làm lạnh. lụa nhân tạo sự trải ra. lẽ phải. liên quan đến sự chuyển đến. màu đỏ hung hạ. có thể thu hồi được sự hồi phục. sự chuyển động qua lại nhận biết. flow r. phản ứng sản phẩm của phản ứng tác động trở lại.r. sự phản tác dụng. nhận ra.violet rays rayon reach react reactant reaction r. không khó khăn gì sự đọc. có liên quan. lượng thu hồi/ thu lại. có liên quan về phần. chất tham gia phản ứng sự phản ứng lại. giảm. phản ứng lại lò phản ứng.ray ultra . chu kỳ lặp lại hơi đỏ. product reactive reactor batch r. băng nhạc / ghi băng tái sinh. khử hoàn nguyên qui cho. điều hòa thiết bị điều chỉnh có liên hệ. chuyển tới. reactivity readily reading reagent realize reason receiver reciprocating motion recognize recombinant record recover recoverable recovery rectangular recycle reddish red . khoảng rộng/ đến. thùng chứa. cái nhìn/ coi như./ri'kɔ:d/ /ri'kʌv / /ri'kʌv r bl/ /ri'kʌv ri/ /re'ktæηgjul / /'ri:'saikl/ /redi∫/ /rednis/ /ri'dju:s/ /ri'f :/ /refr ns/ /ri'fain/ /ri:flʌks/ /ri'frækt ri/ /ri'fridz reit/ /refju:s/ /ri'gein/ /re'ga:d/ /'regjul / /re'gjul li/ /'regjuleit/ nguyên liệu thô. tới.rek m'bin nt/ /rekɔ:d/. condenser refractory refrigerate refuse regain regard as regards regardless regular regularly regulate regulating appliance related /ri'leitid/ /rei/ /'altr . trải ra phản ứng lại chất phản ứng. sự tái sinh. không thay đổi.

phần sót lại. chất lắng cặn tính giãn nỡ. vòng cách. nghịch đảo. vành.ri:pr 'dak∫n/ /ri'kwai / /ri'kwai m nt/ /ri's :t∫/ /ri's :t∫ / /ri'zembl/ /ri'z :v/ /rez vwa:/ /'rezidju:/ /ri'zili nsi/ /'rezin/ /ri'zist/ /ri'zistns/ /ri'zist nt/ /ri'zistiv/ /. dễ phản ứng sự nghỉ. vẫn duy trì làm chậm. có khả năng chống đỡ chống lại. bình cổ cong thuận nghịch. nhạy. sự sao chép đòi hỏi. chuông/ lắp vòng.relation relationship relative rely remain remainder remove rennet replace report reproducibility reproduction require requirement research r. làm chậm lại hạn chế. người khảo sát giống với. rắn chắc. điểm tựa. sự duyệt lại/ xét lại cách mạng. hạn chế. sự khảo sát viện nghiên cứu công việc nghiên cứu nhà nghiên cứu. điều kiện cần thiết nghiên cứu. vật dự trữ/ để dành. thanh đỡ. tính chống lại. mối tương quan tương đối. ngăn cản. sản phẩm phản ứng giữ. có liên quan dựa vào. rung chuông chín. cầm lại. kho.rev 'lu:∫n ri/ /rais/ /ridzid/ /raind/ /riη/ /raip n/ mối quan hệ. sự sinh sản. bản tường trình tính sinh sản. bể chứa. work researcher resemble reserve reservoir residue resiliency resin resist resistance resistant to resistive respiration responsive rest restrain restrict result r. độ bền bền vững. yêu cầu sự đòi hỏi.ri:pr 'dju:sibiliti /. sự hô hấp đáp lại. tẩy trừ chất renin. nhu cầu. tính sao chép. kháng lại. giới hạn. dời đi. đồ thừa. di chuyển. sức bền. trì hoãn. hợp lực. điểm tỳ.resp 'rei∫ n/ /ris'pɔnsiv/ /rest/ /ri'strein/ /ri'strikt/ /ri'zʌlt/ /ri'zlt nt/ /ri'tein/ /ri'ta:d/ /ri'tɔ:t/ /ri'v :sb l/ /ri'vju:/ /. trạng thái tĩnh kìm hãm. tin vào cặn bã. chỗ còn lại. chống đỡ được. kết quả. cặn bã. from resultant retain retard retort reversible review revolutionary rice rigid rind ring ripen /ri'lei∫n/ /ri'lei∫n∫ip/ /rel tiv/ /ri'lai/ /ri'mein/ /ri'meind / /ri'muv/ /renit/ /ri'pleis/ /ri'pɔ:t/ /. chống lại sức cản. dự trữ thùng chứa. hệ thức mối quan hệ. khảo sát/ sự nghiên cứu. tháo dỡ. tính co giãn. vững. enzim renin làm fomát thay thế. trả lời. mối tương quan. institute r. thóc lúa cứng. có điện trở sự thở. đặt lại chỗ cũ bản báo cáo. giải phóng ra bình chưng. nguồn phần còn lại. bởi/ dẫn đến gây bởi. thay vị trí. thu hẹp kết quả. tính bật nhảy nhựa lớp bảo vệ chống ăn mòn/ kháng cự. nghiêm khắc vỏ cứng. có hành trình ngược sự xem xét. có kết quả vectơ tổng. tái sản xuất sự tái sản xuất. phần giữ lại phần còn lại. ghi nhớ. vỏ ngoài cùng vòng. số dư loại bỏ. do. chất làm đông sữa. tương tự như sự dự trữ. nhà cách mạng gạo. chín muồi / làm cho chín 151 .

dâng lên. off /sæk rin/ /seifti/ /seil bl/ /sɔ:lt/ . xù xì. làm no phạm vi. vết nứt. hàng cao su / tráng cao su.scale scholarship school-leaving examination science scientific scientist scone scope scrape s. chuyển thành chảy ra. run) running water run into run out run off rupture rush /raiz/ /'roust / /rɔk/ /rɔd/ /'roud nt/ /roul/ /roul / /ru:fiη/ /rou'teit/ /rou'tei∫nl/ /rout / /r^f/ /rou/ /'rʌb / /'rjudiment ri/ /rʌn.. kích thước. mức đo thực tế học bổng kì thi tốt nghiệp khoa học (thuộc) khoa học nhà khoa học bánh nướng phạm vi. cạo. đổ vào khuôn(kim loại). sơ khai. cho chảy đi.sælju:'tei∫ n /sa:mp l/ /sænd/ /'sæpr 'filik/ /.rise roaster rock rod rodent roll roller roofing rotate rotational rotor rough row rubber rubber like rudimentary run (ran.sætis'fæktri/ /sæt∫ reit/ /skeil/ /ful skeil/ /skɔl ∫ip/ /sai ns/ /. sự phá hủy. làm đầy đủ làm bão hòa. đâm vào. tảng đá. trục lăn. con lăn. con lăn. sự đứt. ướp muối sự chào hỏi mẫu thử. luân chuyển rôto. thước tỷ lệ/ cân trên một phạm vi rộng. tầm mức/ tiếng gọi tắt một số khí cụ (microscope. dãy. chạy trật (đường) sự gãy. nhô lên. cuộn dây. ræn/ /rʌpt∫ / /rʌ∫/ tăng lên. bằng đá que. lớp cáu bẩn. tính an toàn dễ bán. dòng nước đâm phải. loài gậm nhấm cuộn. sự xuất hiện đột ngột S saccharine safety salable salt salutation sample sand saprophylic organisms satisfactory saturate scale on a large scale full . lộ ra lò nướng. vật liệu thô dòng.) tiếng rè. hết. sự đánh thủng / nứt. thang đo. trụ xoay trục quay. quay tròn. kì cọ cạo sạch. nham thạch. phá hủy sự cuốn đi. sự lợp mái quay. phần quay. thanh đòn chuột bọ. dễ tiêu thụ. cánh quạt thô nhám. làm gãy. vật làm mẫu / lấy mẫu cát VSV hoại sinh làm thỏa mãn. lò quay. sự vận hành nước chảy liên tục. đũa. nạo gọt. tang vật liệu lợp (mái). lăn tròn. telescope. bơm hết chảy đi. mức độ lớn tỷ xích tự nhiên. có thể bán được muối. mái lợp.sai n'tifik/ /sai ntist/ /scɔ:n/ /skoup/ /skreip/ sacarin (đường nhân tạo) sự an toàn. lăn tròn. luân chuyển quay tròn. thô sơ chạy. bọc cao su giống cao su sơ đẳng.. chảy kiệt. trục lăn. rang đá. hoạt động / hành trình. nạo sạch 152 .

chất lắng xuống quá trình lắng. che phủ bánh xe có răng khía. nước thải sắc thái. trục. sự đột biến. hồ bề mặt (vải) thứ yếu. vỏ sò tấm chắn. thỏa mãn. con dấu/ gắn kín. vách chắn / bọc. một ít. riêng rẽ phân tách bởi. hạt vừng mùa. sự rung lắc liên tục nông. mối hàn kín. rung / sự lắc. lắng trả lại tự do. đợt/ nhóm cùng gốc phục vụ. tách khí sự phân li. secure sediment sedimentation seed seeded agar sedimentary segregation sein . dãy. chuỗi. gắn xi. chuyển dần màu tay cầm. quá trình kết tủa hạt. vỏ che. tia sáng. giải phóng ra bắt đầu.sedim nt/ /. sự phân tách loạt. cú sốc 153 . cáu bẩn. kín khít máy khuấy được gắn kín bằng thủy ngân cây vừng. khuôn mẫu. phần. gióng. together shallow shape share shatter shea-nuts sheath sheave sheet shell shield shiny shock skreip bleid /skri:n/ /si:l/ /si:ld/ /'ses mi/ /si:zn/ /sek nd ri/ /sek∫n/ /sikju / /. nguyên nhân / kết thành hạt thạch dạng hạt. tiết diện. tuyển lựa / được lựa chọn sự lựa chọn.s. lưới sàng. gây ra. tập hợp. sản phẩm nửa tinh chế khí ẩm. lớp bảo vệ. khí hỗn hợp với hơi nước chia tách. lá chắn. góp phần mảnh vỡ / đập vỡ. in settle sewage shade shaft shake (shook. ngăn lại nút bịt kín.sedim n'tei∫n/ /si:d/ /. thạch giống nuôi cấy vi sinh vật lắng cặn sự tách riêng. mô hình/ tạo hình. dao cạo màn hình. rãnh tấm mỏng vỏ. nhóm máy. đáp ứng. ống thông hơi. thứ cấp. cạn hình dạng. vòng bịt kín.scraper blade screen seal sealed mercury-sealed stirrer seasame season secondary section cross . shaken) s. đã ăn sâu vào kết lắng. làm vỡ hạt cây có mỡ trắng vỏ bọc. khuynh hướng/ để. sự phân biệt.segri'gei∫n/ /'sein'netiη/ /si'lekt/ /si'lek∫n/ /semi/ /semi'fini∫/ /sep reit/. hạt giống. series serve set s. cái mộc sáng bóng. pl. thứ sinh sự chia cắt. lắng xuống tĩnh lại nước cống. tấm che. đóng dấu được bịt kín. đoạn. an toàn cặn. màn chắn/ chắn lại. đoạn cắt ra (làm mẫu) mặt cắt ngang chắc chắn. chiếu sáng sự đụng chạm mạnh. sự chia tách. sự chọn lọc một nửa bán sản phẩm.sedi'ment ri /.netting select selection semisemifinished product semi-water gas separate separate out of separation series. /seprit/ /sep 'rei∫ n/ /si ri:z/ /s :v/ /set/ /set fri:/ /set in/ /setl/ /sju:idz/ /∫eid/ /∫a:ft/ /∫eik/ /'∫ælou/ /∫eip/ /∫e / /∫æt / /∫i n^ts/ /∫i:ð/ /∫i:v/ /∫i:t/ /'∫el/ /∫i:ld/ /∫aini/ /∫ɔk/ lưỡi dao nạo. thời vụ / cho thêm gia vị. hố lắc. va chạm mạnh. cuống. phân tách. đặt. free s. mai. sự phân li lưới đánh cá lựa chọn. thân cột. làm khuôn phân chia / chia phần. hợp với bộ. mặt cắt. mặt sàng.

địa điểm. thành thạo. sơ đồ / phác họa kỹ xảo. vật rắn. hóa rắn tính hòa tan.sɔlju:'biliti/ /sɔljubl/ /s 'ljut/ /s 'lju∫ n/ /'sɔlv nt/ /sut/ /'sɔ:g m/ 154 . bố trí. sự đông cứng hóa cứng. -eit/ /silik n/ /silv / /siηgl/ /siηk/ /saif n/ /sait/ /sit/ /saitiη/ /saiz/ /skeit∫/ /skil/ /skim/ /slækn/ /slais/ /slait/ /slou/ /sl dz/ /smu:ð / /soup/ /soud / /soud æ∫/ /soudj m/ phần đóng góp. êm. nước thải trơn. quan trọng biểu thị. NaHCO3 bisunfit natri. lớp bọt nới lỏng. biểu hiện. biểu hiện. có tính chất gợi ý. nghiệm số. kí hiệu. NaOH nhẹ. mồ hóng lúa mạch /sɔft/ /sɔfn/ /sɔil/ /sɔlid/ /s 'lidifikei∫n/ /s 'lidifai/ /. tầm bắn. điểm chảy ra đất đai. bisufit s. kỹ năng lao động. nghĩa là. tan được chất tan dung dịch. cố định /cứng. hạ xuống. lao động hoàn hảo lớp váng sữa. (Ag) đơn độc. mỏng. ống thải nước ống si phông /dẫn qua ống si phông vị trí. trông thấy/ cửa quan sát kính nhìn.shot shovel sight sight glass sign signature significant signify silica silicate aluminium s. đặc sự hóa cứng. chắc. solvent soot sorghum /∫ɔt/ /∫ʌvl/ /sait/ /sain/ /signit∫ / /sig'nifik nt/ /signifai/ /silik / /silikit. đi thi sự chọn địa điểm/ lắp đặt. có tầm quan trọng silic diôxyt (SiO2) silicat. mềm. chậu rửa. hình khối. độ lớn / định cỡ bản phác thảo. cắt lát nhẹ. yếu làm chậm. chọn ra bồn rửa. muối silicat silicat nhôm (Al2(SiO3)3) silic (Si) bạc. sự hóa rắn. nhẵn bóng. bằng phẳng. Na bicacbonat natri. từ từ. chất bẩn / làm bẩn chất rắn. NaHSO3 natri clorua. silicon silver single sink siphon site sit for an examination sitting size sketch skill skilled labour skim. ash sodium s. skimmer slacken slice slight slow down sludge smooth soap soda s. ra hiệu ký tên đầy ý nghĩa. vảy mỏng. độ hòa tan dễ tan. sự làm thử. không va đập xà phòng / rửa bằng xà phòng xút (Na2CO3) sô đa khan. chloride s. có vạch bắn cái xẻng thấy. Na2CO3 khô natri. làm giãn. lá mỏng / cắt mỏng. chùng lại lát mỏng. bùn quánh. khổ. giảm bùn đặc. cửa quan sát dấu hiệu. làm nhạt điểm nóng chảy. chất đất. bãi đất làm bài thi. NaCl hydrôxit natri. làm dịu. kính quan sát. bicarbonat s. có tia. phân bố kích cỡ. hydroxide soft soften softening point soil solid solidification solidify solubility soluble solute solution commercial s. dịu làm mềm. cách giải quyết dung dịch kỹ thuật dung môi / làm hòa tan muội than.

tăng nhanh lên báo hiệu. phương diện (thuộc) thiếc IV (thuộc) thiếc II tinh bột / hồ bột (thuộc) có bột bộ khởi động. riêng trọng lượng riêng nhiệt dung riêng. hạng. mức. casting source space spark special speciality specialize species. species specific s. khoảng hở/ gian cách. rắc rải. trạng thái tác dụng tĩnh tại. gravity s. chọn tốc độ tăng tốc. lóe lửa. chất thành đống đài. rượu. pl. khoảng chia tách. mặt. vật đúc chắc chắn nguồn. xử lí bằng hơi áo hơi sự hóa hơi 155 . khoảng không. sự sôi lên/ trào ra. chuyên môn sâu chuyên môn. đều đặn hơi nước/ xông hơi. không có đốm thân cuống sự tiêu chuẩn hóa.spɔ:rju'lei∫n/ /spred/ /spriηkl/ /spraut/ /spat / /skwe / /skwi:z/ /steibilaiz/ /steibilaiz / /steibl/ /stæk/ /steidz/ /steilis/ /stɔ:k/ /. sự tách ra/ tách ra. heat speed s. chắc dồn đống. chồi/ mọc mầm. đặc thù. loài đặc trưng. quan điểm. tự sinh. sự chuẩn độ tiêu chuẩn hóa. xiết vào. chia cách tia lửa/ đánh lửa. định mức lập trường. giàn. động cơ khởi động/ bộ làm giống vi sinh vật. để yên ổn định. không có vết. chất mồi trạng thái. nhiên liệu lỏng mảnh vụn. dừng. miếng mỏng. vững chắc. tình trạng.stæti'sti∫ n/ /stedi/ /sti:m/ /sti:miη/ âm thanh. trải ra bình tưới/ phun tưới. gia cố bộ ổn định. hàng loạt bào tử sự hình thành bào tử. tốt. tỷ nhiệt tốc độ. thước đo góc. chuyên dụng. chuyên ngành hẹp chuyên môn hóa loại. chất ổn định. xoắn chặt làm ổn định. gây hỏng tự phát.stænd dai'-zei∫n/ /stænd daiz/ /stæn(d)pɔint/ /stænik/ /stæn s/ /sta:t∫/ /sta:t∫i/ /sta:t / /steit/ /stei∫ n ri/ /. đập nhỏ kẽ nứt. vang lên. bền vững. định mức. đâm chồi sự trào ra. of aggregation stationary statistician steady steam s. bình phương ép vào. giai đoạn/ công bố trạng thái kết tụ. chắc chắn/thăm dò vệt đúc tốt. không thay đổi chuyên viên thống kê ổn định. độ phát sáng/ tăng tốc độ. vẩy nước mầm. xăng. vận tốc. bứt ra hình vuông. giá. phân chia làm hư hỏng. jacket steamming /saund/ /sɔ:s/ /speis/ /spa:k/ /spe∫ l/ /spe∫i'æliti/ /spe∫ laiz/ /spi:∫i:z/ /spi'sifik/ /spi:d/ /spel/ /'sfæ routil s/ /sferikl/ /spirit/ /'splint / /split/ /'sp ilidz/ /spon'teinj s/ /spɔ:/ /. phát ra tia lửa đặc biệt. up spell sphaerotilus spherical spirit splinter split (split) spoilage spontaneous spore sporulation spread sprinkle sprout sputter square squeeze stabilize stabilizer stable stack stage stainless stalk standardization standardize standpoint stannic stannous starch starchy starter state s. đợt. que dò. thời gian ngắn khối vi khuẩn hình cầu thể kim có hình cầu. cấp/ dàn dựng không rỉ. nguồn nước. âm.sound s. vết rạn. có hình tròn cồn. mạch không gian. sự tạo bào tử dàn trải.

kế tiếp. tiếp vị ngữ đường đoán. kế tục liên tục. solution stopcock stopper storage s. -ly sucrose suction sudden suffering sufficient suffix sugar suggest suitable /sti:l/ /stepwai z/ /'stif/ /stil/ /stimjuleit/ /st :/ /st :r / /stok/ /stɔpkɔk/ /stɔp / /stɔ:ridz/ /stɔ:/ /staut/ /strein/ /strænd/ /streit m/ /strɔ:/ /stri:m/ /'strenju s/ /'stres/ /stret∫/ /straik/ /straikiη/ /'strindzent/ /strip/ /straiv/ /strakt∫rl/ /strakt∫ / /stʌd/ /. đường băng phấn đấu. sự ứng trước chất thực chất. trôi. nhà kho ắc quy. lớp nền. phun tia tích cực. thùng cất. vòi đóng cái nút. chất gắn. chất thay thế/ thay thế lớp dưới. chất ổn định. máy trộn nguyên liệu gốc. bắt phải lệ thuộc sự quyên góp. sự bảo quản. địa tầng rơm. lần lượt sacaroza. kho/ cung cấp. vít cấy. móc chặn sự cất giữ. sự hút đột ngột sự đau khổ. dự đoán. nỗ lực. nòi/ xiết./ /. đinh tán. ráng sức đòi hỏi. ổ nhớ sự cung cấp. đủ cứng. lớp mạ lót/ nện. băng tầng. quan trọng. không có ga kích thích khuấy trộn. pl. nhấn mạnh.steel stepwise stiff still stimulate stir stirrer stock s. luồng. đáng chú ý chính xác. tia chảy/ chảy. có thật. -a subterranean succeed successive. kích động. vật vô giá trị dòng. hăm hở. lắc trộn máy khuấy.vizn/ /sʌbdzikt/ /s b'dzekt/ /s b'skrip∫ n/ /sabst ns/ /s b'stæn∫ l/ /sʌbstịtu:t/ /sʌb'streit m. ngầm thành công. nghiền đặc biệt. lọc dải. cứng rắn nồi cất. bắt buộc căng ra va chạm. chốt. lớp. dòng nước. đầu tiếp xúc. yên tĩnh. đối tượng /lệ thuộc. mũi khoan/ bọc thép như bậc thang. đặc sắc. căng. nghiêm. nội dung sự thay thế.sʌbdi'vaid/ /'sʌbdi. sự chịu đựng số lượng đủ/ đủ. chất gốc dưới đất. hàng để cung cấp. đường mía sự mút. khuy rời. chủ đề. strata straw stream strenous stress stretch strike striking stringent strip strive structural structure stud subdivide subdivision subject subscription substance substantial substitute substratum. cell store stout strain strand stratum. . dung dịch gốc van đóng. gõ. -li/ /sju:krouz/ /sʌk∫ n/ /sʌd n/ /'sʌf riη/ /s 'fi∫ nt/ /sʌfiks/ /∫ug / /s 'dzest/ /sju:t bl/ thép. pl. núm cửa.sʌbt 'reinj n/ /s k'si:d/ /s k'sesiv. lưu trữ loại bia đen cao độ Porter giống. phối liệu dung dịch chuẩn. vật liệu gốc. tầng đất. gợi ý thích hợp 156 . cấp phân loại phụ chủ thể. có khả năng hậu tố. trụ nhỏ chia nhỏ ra sự chia nhỏ thêm. chặt chẽ mảnh. dải. cố gắng (thuộc)cấu trúc cấu trúc đinh đầu to. hình bậc thang cứng.

phương pháp kỹ thuật 157 . bao quanh sự sống sót sống sót treo lơ lửng. sulfate sulphide. (S)/ xử lí bằng lưu huỳnh sunfuric axit sunfuric (H2SO4) hạt. dây nhánh/ phân nhánh nước máy nhựa đường. -eit/ /sʌlfaid/ /sʌlfait/ /sʌlf / /sʌlfju rik/ /sʌnf'lau / /sju:p 'fisl/ /. symposia synthesis. phần phụ thêm/ phụ thêm. thiết bị.ni:k/ được sắp xếp thành bảng. pl. sulfuric s. hắc in/ rải nhựa có một vị. kéo thùng chứa. sự hoãn. pl. ở phía trên mặt bị quá nhiệt. phương pháp. kế hoạch học tập nuôi cấy cộng sinh VSV hội nghị các chuyên đề. sự phồng. -si:z/ /sinð saiz/ /sin'ðetik/ /sir p/ /'sistim/ sunphat. bị nung quá nhiệt cao hơn. lớp nền/ giúp đỡ. bệ đỡ. hoàn thiện hơn phần nổi trên bề mặt dịch phần bổ sung.sju:p 'hi:tid/ /sju'pi ri / /'sju:p 'neit nt/ /s^pplim nt/ /s 'plai/ /s 'pɔ:t/ /sju'pri:m/ /'s :dzik l/ /s :fis/ /s :'pa:s/ /s :pl s/ /s 'raund/ /s 'vaiv l/ /s 'vaiv/ /s s'pend/ /s s'pen∫n/ /swel/ /swit∫/ /sil b s/ /simbiɔ'tik/ /sim'pouzi m. sunphat hóa sunfua sunfit lưu huỳnh. sulfite sulphur. off syllabus symbiotic culture symposium. nút. nước đường đặc hệ. hoãn. mặt ngoài. đình chỉ sự treo. sulfur sulphuric. diện tích vượt hơn. hệ thống. trụ đỡ. công tắc. bổ sung chất lỏng trên bề mặt chất rắn sự cung cấp/ cung cấp gối tựa. vị/ nếm không có vị (thuộc) kỹ thuật trường kỹ thuật kỹ thuật viên kỹ thuật. -i / /sinð sis.sulphate. lên danh sách xảy ra. tài trợ tối cao. lớp phủ bề mặt. school technician technique /'tæbjul (r)/ /teik pleis/ /'tænd m/ /tæηk/ /tæp/ /ta:(r)/ /teist/ /teistlis/ /teknikl/ /tek'ni∫n/ /tek. guồng cuốn xé. hội thảo khoa học sự tổng hợp tổng hợp (thuộc) tổng hợp xiro. cao nhất. up tandem tank tap tap water tar taste tasteless technical t. sulfide sulphite. đưa vào sự kéo căng. uy thế (thuộc) phẫu thuật bề mặt. nước mật. diễn ra. cái chuyển mạch đóng mạch ngắt mạch đề cương bài học. chế độ T tabular take place t. trội hơn dư thừa vây quanh. sự trương nở cầu dao. acid sunflower superficial superheated superior to supernatant supplement supernant liquid supply support supreme surgical surface surpass surplus surround survival survive suspend suspension swell switch s. on s. -ses synthesize synthetic syrup system /sʌlfit. sự đình chỉ sự gợn sóng. hoa hướng dương (thuộc) bề mặt. thùng to vòi nước. két.

nắm chặt. sự thử nghiệm. tính bám chắc xu hướng. kín. chứng chỉ (thuộc) tứ diện. siết chặt. bốn mặt khối tứ diện. hướng tới căng giãn. căng ra hộp thiếc. kỹ sư công nghệ công nghệ học. đồ nghề đỉnh.testi'mounj l/ /'tetr 'hedr l/ /'tetr 'hedr n/ /'tetr 'salfaid/ /tekstailz/ /ti:si:s/ /ði 'retik l/ /ð :m( )l/ /ð :mik/ /ð 'mɔmit / /ð :mɔ'plæstik /'ð :mou'setiη /ði:sis/. thiếc (Sn) sắc độ. bền. giới hạn. thrown) thresh tight tighten tin tint tire (tyre) tissue titrate titration ton tool top tosse total toughly /tek'nol dzist/ /tek'nɔl dzi/ /'ti:dj s/ /temprit∫ / /temp r rili/ /ti'næsiti/ /tend/ /tensail/ /streηð/ /t :m/ /t :mineit/ /test/ /. ống nghiệm giấy chứng nhận. kỹ lưỡng sự đe dọa van ba ngả. ba chiều ném.ðru:. chán. phân tích lắp đặt để kiểm tra. chặt chẽ. độ dai. thiếu hấp dẫn. ðroun/ /ðre∫/ /tait/ /taitn/ /tai / /tisju:/ /tai'treit/ /tai'trei∫n/ /tʌn/ /tu:l/ /tɔp/ /tɔs/ /toutl/ /tʌfli/ nhà công nghệ. đông đặc theo nhiệt nhựa hóa rắn do nhiệt. độ màu lốp. nhờ có kết thúc sự kiểm tra. căng. đẩy vào đập lúa. giấy lụa chuẩn độ sự chuẩn độ tấn dụng cụ. thuốc thử/ kiểm tra. pl. textiles theaceas theoretical thermal thermic thermometer thermoplastic thermosetting t. sản phẩm dệt tủ đựng chè (thuộc) lý thuyết. cứng cỏi. luận văn dày mỏng Thiokol thori hoàn toàn. theses thick thin Thiokol thorium thorough threat three-way cock throw (threw. gay go 158 . công nghệ nhạt nhẽo. tuốt lúa chặt. làm tơi ra tổng./ði:si:z/ /ðik/ /ðin/ /ðaiɔkɔl/ /ðɔ:ri m/ /ðar / /ðret/ /ðri: wei/ /ðrou. thuyết (thuộc) nhiệt (thuộc) nhiệt nhiệt kế nhựa dẻo nóng/ co giãn theo nhiệt độ nhiệt hóa rắn. điều kiện trong giới hạn. độ bền. vành đai vải.technologist technology tedious temperature temporarily tenacity tend tensile t. kéo căng. nhựa chịu nhiệt luận án. khối bốn mặt tetra sulfit tetrasulfit natri hàng dệt. chóp làm bông ra. nhất thời tính dai. chịu căng sức căng hạn kì. quá chậm/ quá dài nhiệt độ một cách tạm thời. khít lại. strength term in term of terminate test put to test test-tube testimonial tetrahedral tetrahedron tetrasulfide sodium t. sít chặt. tổng cộng dai. thẩm tra lại ống thử. nhà kỹ thuật. resin thesis.

uninterrupted universal unstable ultraviolet underground undoubtedly unleavened upheaval /'ʌltimitli/ /'ʌn 'fektid/ /ʌnk u'ɔ:din-eit/ /. sự cải tạo/ biến đổi sự đồng hóan dịch chuyển. nét buôn bán. sự truyền lại. đồng nhất thiết bị. sự mang chuyên chở được rác rưởi. đơn nguyên bộ nguồn. máy phát lực. gia công sự xử lí. trao đổi đánh dấu. sự nâng 159 . đạp. chắc chắn không dùng men. một kiểu. dấu vết. không ngang hàng trải qua. (thuộc) vũ trụ không ổn định. chuyển đổi. sự vắt qua. gây nên ba lần.juni'v :sl/ /’ʌn'steibl/ /'ʌltr 'vai lit/ /.toughness tower trace trade tracer trample transfer transform transition translate translation transparent transport transportable trashplate traverse treasurer treat treatment treiler trigger off triple tube tubing tubular tungsten turbidity turbine turn on t. thanh ngang thủ quỹ. đèn ống/ làm ống hệ thống ống. chòi vết. off type /tʌfnis/ /tau / /treis/ /treid/ /treis / /'træmpl/ /træns'f :/ /trænsfɔ:m/ /trænsi∫n/ /træn:s'leit/ /træn:s'lei∫n/ /træn'spe r nt /trænspɔ:t/ /træns'pɔ:t bl /træ∫pleit/ /træv :s/ /trez r / /tri:t/ /tri:tm nt/ /treil / /'trig / /tripl/ /tju:b/ /tju:biη/ /tjubjul / /tæηst n/ /t :'biditi/ /t :bin/ /t :n/ /taip/ trạng thái dai. thủ kho xử lí. không bền tia cực tím dưới đất một cách rõ ràng.int 'raptid/ /. tổ. sự dâng lên đột ngột. khối.ʌnd 'ni:ð/ /'ju:ni'seljul / /ju:nifɔ:m/ /ju:nit/ /'ʌn. sự dời chỗ. (W) tính đục.ʌnd 'grædjut/ /. độ dai tháp. sự cấy.ʌnd 'gou/ /. không bị gián đoạn vạn năng. đường ống. thông dụng. đơn vị công suất không bị ngắt. sự lắp ống có dạng ống wonfram. chịu đựng sinh viên đại học bên dưới. chất đánh dấu dẫm. cặn bã sự đi ngang qua. chà sự di chuyển. ba phần ống. sau chót không bị ảnh hưởng không đồng bộ. mẫu/ đánh máy U ultimately unaffected uncoordinate undergo undergraduate underneath unicellular uniform unit power u. dưới đơn bào bộ đồng phục/ đồng dạng. đơn vị. không chắc. độ đục tuốc bin bật lên tắt đi kiểu. sự gia công xe rơ moóc gây ra.ʌnd 'graund/ /'ʌn'dautidli/ /ʌn'levnd/ /ʌp'hi:vl/ cuối cùng. gấp ba. sao lại phép biến đổi. phiên dịch sự dịch mã trong suốt sự chuyên chở. không nở sự nổi lên.

lầy nhầy có thể trông thấy. (Ur) lò phản ứng uranium ure urin. thùng qua.vɔlju'metrik/ /valk naiz/ sự bỏ trống. khối lượng (thuộc) thể tích. sự thông gió. nhớt. nước tiểu cách sử dụng. chum bể lắng. bọng bình. up utilize /ʌp / /ju 'reini m/ /ju ri / /ju rrin/ /ju:zidz/ /ju:s/.upper uranium u. sự bỏ. cách dùng cách dùng/ sử dụng tận dụng. sử dụng V vacation vacuum value valve vanadium vanish vapo(u)r vapo(u)rization variant variation variety vary vast vat settling v. lỗ thóat. sự biến đổi sự đa dạng làm cho khác nhau. kiểm định tính linh hoạt. sự thóang khí kiểm tra. chất dễ bay hơi tính dễ bay hơi bay hơi. vận tốc lỗ. mầm mống sinh sản sinh dưỡng. thùng. thử nghiệm. khác nhau/ biến đổi sự khác nhau. theo đường. /ju:z/ /ju:tilaiz/ trên cao. vai's-/ /vju:/ /vig r s/ /vinig / /vai l ntli/ /vai lit/ /visk s/ /vizibl/ /vɔl tail/ /vɔl 'tiliti/ /vɔl tilaiz/ /vɔljum/ /. tính hay thay đổi chống lại đường thẳng đứng. thay đổi rộng lớn. vegetable vegetative velocity vent ventilation verify versatility versus vertical vesicular vessel via vice-chancellor vice versa vicinity view vigorous vinegar violently violet viscous visible volatile volatility volatilize volume volumetric vulcanize /v 'kei∫ n/ /vækju m/ /vælju:/ /vælv/ /v 'neidj m/ /væni∫/ /veip / /. làm bay hơi thể tích. thóang khí sự quạt. lỗ thông. thấy được dễ bay hơi. (Va) biến mất. vùng lân cận sự nhìn. mạnh mẽ màu tím sền sệt. đo thể tích lưu hóa 160 . lỗ phun/ thông hơi. thùng lắng rau. thượng urani. thực vật. thực vật tốc độ. tầm nhìn. hơi nước sự hóa hơi. sự bốc hơi biến thể.v :s 'tiliti/ /'v :s s/ /v :tikl/ /vesikjul / /vesl/ /vai / /'vais't∫a:ns l / /vaisi'v :s / /vi'siniti.ve ri'ei∫ n/ /v 'rai ti/ /ve ri/ /va:st/ /væt/ /vedzit bl/ /vedziteitiv/ /vi'lositi/ /vent/ /. pile urea urine usage use u. mặt thẳng đứng/ thẳng đứng (thuộc) túi. triệt tiêu hơi. nghỉ hè chân không giá trị van/ lắp van vanadi. dùng cho tới hết dùng. trái lại sự tiếp cận. khoảng rộng bao la bể. dung tích. lọ chậu. mãnh liệt dấm một cách mãnh liệt. hình chiếu/ xem mạnh mẽ.venti'lei∫ n/ /verifai/ /. theo phó hiệu trưởng ngược lại.veip rai'zei∫n/ /ve ri nt/ /.

đẫm nước. lành mạnh. chung nhất quả phụ độ rộng. hiểm yếu/ làm cho ấm rửa. sũng nước sóng/ uốn sóng. hậu quả. khỏe mạnh rộng trải rộng. thu hồi. ẩm ướt nhưng trái lại. trong khi mà. -kit/ kẽm muỗi kẽm 161 . xưởng dịch hèm. bình đo. lưới khối lượng. độ nặng. tiến hành đồ vật chế tạo. chịu đựng các công việc. glass watery wave wax weaning food weavebasket weight weld welfare wet whereas whey wheying wholesome wide widespread widow width willing winnow wire withdraw withstand works wort woven /weidz/ /we / /wɔ:m/ /wɔ∫/ /weist/ /wɔ:t / /wɔ:t ri/ /weiv/ /w ks/ /'wi:niη/ /wivb skit/ /weit/ /weld/ /welfe / /wet/ /we 'ræz/ /wei/ /weiiη/ /'houls m/ /waid/ /waidspred/ /widou/ /widð/ /wiliη/ /'win u/ /wai / /wið'drɔ:/ /wið'stænd/ /w :ks/ /w :t/ /w uvn/ tiền lương tuần. gas w. tách nước trong khỏi sữa bổ ích. còn nước sữa trong (sau khi tách protein) nước sữa. bình đong ướt. hủy bỏ chống lại. giặt chai rửa phế liệu. parafin/ bôi sáp bột trẻ em sau cai sữa rổ đan bằng tre. năng suất. hàng hóa ấm. bị tàn phá nồi hơi dùng nhiệt thải ra nước khí chứa nước thủy tinh lỏng. dịch malt sàng đan Y yeast yield yogurt lay (youghurt) /ji:st/ /ji:ld/ /'jɔg :t lei/ nấm men sản lượng.W wage ware warm wash w. gợn sóng sáp.-heat boiler water w. dây thép/ buộc bằng dây thép lấy ra. hiệu suất lớp sữa chua Z zinc zincate /ziηk/ /ziηkeit. không độc. chất thải. phân xưởng. dịch đường hóa cho sản xuất bia. chăm sóc ướt. bottle waste w. rút ra. cân đong mối hàn/ hàn kim loại phúc lợi. chiều rộng bằng lòng. sẵn sàng quạt dây. lãng phí.

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