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The Industrial Revolution, which began inEnglandabout 1760, led to radical changes at every level of civilization throughout the world. The growth of heavy industry brought a flood of new building materials—such as cast iron, steel, and glass—with which architects and engineers devised structures hitherto undreamed of in function, size, and form. In the second half of the 19th century dislocations brought about by the Industrial Revolution became overwhelming. Many were shocked by the hideous new urban districts of factories and workers’ housing and by the deterioration of public taste among the newly rich. For the new modes of transportation, canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad stations, architects were employed only to provide a cultural veneer. Taxes against glass, windows and bricks were repealed which saw a new interest in using these building materials. Factory made plate glass was developed and complex designs in iron grillwork were a popular decoration for the classical and Gothic buildings. There were also terracotta manufacturing improvements, which allowed for more of its use in construction. Steel skeletons were covered with masonry and large glass skylights were popular. Improvements to the iron making process encouraged the building of bridges and other structures. Large indoor open spaces were now made possible with the use of strong iron framed construction; this was ideal for factories, museums and train stations. T
With the birth of mass production, architects and builders could apply a great deal of detailed ornamentation to housing. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Victorian style. The textile industry benefited greatly from the Industrial Revolution, and architects took advantage of this, bringing in lush fabrics such as velvet and printed and patterned fabrics
1824, the Portland cement, a fire resistant cement, and the advanced forms of ion or steel bars led
to the development of reinforced concrete in the 19th century. Ion lattice structures and the use of wrought ion became prominent in the construction sector and for decorating purposes on facades and indoor for treatment. The replacement of wood and limestone by ion lattice structure together with the newly invented Portland cement permitted the erection of buildings of gigantic height, bridges, train stations, factories.
With the advent now of steel and glass as favored construction materials. its design mimicked the greenhouses that were his customary stock in trade. England (Philip James Loutherbourg the Younger painted it. iron corners extending beyond the main line. a man who had learned how to put iron and glass together in the design of large greenhouses. “To the architectengineer belongs a new decorative art. the first ion cast bridge.” But it was heavily criticized by some architects and artists who scorned it as an example of the “blackness of industry” and saw it as blight on the city’s skyline. Built by Joseph Paxton within six months. New districts of identical rows of houses built quickly and cheaply to house factory and foundry workers in rapidly growing industrial towns 2. It was spacious enough to enclose mature existing trees within its walls. built for the 1889 Exhibition in Paris was a dramatic demonstration by the French of their mastery of this new construction technology. such as ornamental bolts. Urbanization 1. Much poor quality housing—densely packed. was the work of Sir Joseph Paxton. International. and Postmodernism were born. which dazzled the millions of visitors who passed through its doors. Crystal palace The Crystal Palace created to enclose the Great Exhibition of 1851 inEnglandwas a glass and iron showpiece. and in its carefully planed building process. was erected across the Severn River in Coalbrookdale. he 20th century moved the Industrial Revolution into a new definition of the machine age. reconstructed 1852-1854) in London. styles such as Bauhaus. It demonstrated a hitherto undreamedof kind of spatial beauty. a sort of Gothic lacework of iron. with little sunlight and few amenities Cities: No city walls Quarters separated by function: Business section: alive only at daytime . Eiffel tower Also important in its innovative use of metal was the great tower (1887-1889) of Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel in Paris the Eiffel Tower. which included prefabricated standard parts. Buildings 1779. in 1801). We find that to some extent in the Eiffel Tower. Expansion of small villages near coalfields into new industrial towns 3. it foreshadowed industrialized building and the widespread use of cast iron and steel. a vast but ephemeral exhibition hall. The Crystal Palace (1850-1851. and movement toward lean architecture.
epidemics. tiny flats. penury. low life expectancy . street-lighting Industrial area: in the suburbs. The rich lived in downtown palaces on avenues or in the green area. crowded. industrial accidents. high infant mortality rate. nearby: Workers’ area: warrens (bérkaszárnya). drainage system.