Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing, step-wise rating, and transients

Eric M Smith

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing, step-wise rating, and transients. Eric M. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7

Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

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Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers
A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing, step-wise rating, and transients

Eric M Smith

John Wiley & Sons, Ltd


Copyright © 2005 Published by

Eric M. Smith John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 8SQ, England Telephone (+44) 1243 779777

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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 1-86058-461-6 Typeset by Techset Composition Limited, Salisbury, Wiltshire Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe, Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production.

This volume is dedicated to Dorothy my wife for her unfailing kindness and understanding, and to my three sons for their consistent support.

'If you can build hotter or colder than anyone else, If you can build higher or faster than anyone else, If you can build deeper or stronger than anyone else, If... Then, in principle, you can solve all the other problems in between.' (Attributed to Sir Monty Finniston, FRS)

Preface Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Classification Class definition Exclusions and extensions Helical-tube, multi-start coil Plate-fin exchangers RODbaffle Helically twisted flattened tube Spirally wire-wrapped Bayonet tube Wire-woven heat exchangers Porous matrix heat exchangers Some possible applications Fundamentals Simple temperature distributions Log mean temperature difference LMTD-Ntu rating problem LMTD-Ntu sizing problem Link between Ntu values and LMTD The 'theta' methods Effectiveness and number of transfer units e-Ntu rating problem e-Ntu sizing problem Comparison of LMTD-Ntu and e-Ntu approaches Sizing when Q is not specified Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow Optimum pressure losses in contraflow Compactness and performance Required values of Ntu in cryogenics To dig deeper Dimensionless groups Steady-State Temperature Profiles Linear temperature profiles in contraflow General cases of contraflow and parallel flow xxiii
1 1 1 3 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10

19 19 21 23 25 26 26 27 31 32 33 34 35 40 42 42 45 47 59 59 61

2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17
Chapter 3 3.1 3.2



3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11

Condensation and evaporation Longitudinal conduction in contraflow Mean temperature difference in unmixed crossflow Extension to two-pass unmixed crossflow Involute-curved plate-fin exchangers Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow Determined and undetermined crossflow Possible optimization criteria Cautionary remark about core pressure loss Mean temperature difference in complex arrangements Exergy destruction Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Exchanger lay-up Plate-fin surface geometries Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations Rating and direct-sizing design software Direct-sizing of an unmixed crossflow exchanger Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow Direct-sizing of a contraflow exchanger Best of rectangular and triangular ducts Best small, plain rectangular duct Fine-tuning of ROSF surfaces Overview of surface performance Headers and flow distribution Multi-stream design (cryogenics) Buffer zone or leakage plate 'sandwich' Consistency in design methods Geometry of rectangular offset strip fins Compact fin surfaces generally Conclusions Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers Design framework Consistent geometry Simplified geometry Thermal design Completion of the design Thermal design results for t/d = 1.346 Fine tuning Design for curved tubes Discussion Part-load operation with by-pass control Conclusions

66 67 74 79 82 83 90 92 92 93 94 99 99 101 103 103 106 110 113 120 125 127 127 130 130 130 132 133 138 138 143 143 145 151 153 159 162 163 168 172 174 174



Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Isothermal shell-side conditions Evaporation Condensation Design illustration Non-isothermal shell-side conditions Special explicit case Explicit solution General numerical solutions Pressure loss Conclusions Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers Design framework Configuration of the RODbaffle exchanger Approach to direct-sizing Flow areas Characteristic dimensions Design correlations Reynolds numbers Heat transfer Pressure loss tube-side Pressure loss shell-side Direct-sizing Tube-bundle diameter Practical design Generalized correlations Recommendations Other shell-and-tube designs Conclusions Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss Exergy loss Objective Historical development Exergy change for any flow process Exergy loss for any heat exchangers Contraflow exchangers Dependence of exergy loss number on absolute temperature level Performance of cryogenic plant Allowing for leakage Commercial considerations Conclusions

177 177 178 189 190 191 194 196 199 201 204 207 207 208 208 209 209 210 211 211 213 214 215 217 217 220 222 222 224 229 229 229 230 231 233 234 236 238 240 242 242

1 12.4 10.12 8.2 12.1 9.3 Pressure loss Control of flow distribution Header design Minimizing effects of flow maldistribution Embedded heat exchangers Pumping power Transients in Heat Exchangers Review of solution methods .6 Chapter 10 10.8 10.crossflow Single-Blow Test Methods Features of the test method Choice of theoretical model Analytical and physical assumptions Simple theory Relative accuracy of outlet response curves in experimentation Conclusions on test methods Practical considerations Solution by finite differences Regenerators Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant Background Liquefaction concepts and components Liquefaction of nitrogen Hydrogen liquefaction plant Preliminary direct-sizing of multi-stream heat exchangers Step-wise rating of multi-stream heat exchangers Future commercial applications Conclusions Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow With and without phase change Two-phase flow regimes Two-phase pressure loss 243 243 244 250 251 253 257 257 259 265 266 267 268 275 275 276 277 278 284 287 287 289 290 297 297 298 307 313 314 317 321 322 325 325 326 327 .15 Chapter 9 9.6 11.5 11.7 11.4 9.7 10.11 8.3 11.6 10.8 Chapter 12 12.9 Chapter 11 11.crossflow Engineering applications .2 9.1 10.3 9.2 10.5 9.contraflow Contraflow with finite differences Further considerations Engineering applications .13 8.contraflow Review of solution methods .x Contents 8.1 11.14 8.5 10.4 11.3 10.2 11.

4 B.5 12.8 Appendix A A.3 B.6 12. 1 A.3 C.I B.2 C.5 B. Plate-Fin Surfaces Fine-tuning of rectangular offset strip fins Trend curves Optimization graphs Manglik & Bergles correlations Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers Further heat-transfer and flow-friction data Baffle-ring by-pass Proving the Single-Blow Test Method .8 Two-phase heat-transfer correlations Two-phase design of a double-tube exchanger Discussion Aspects of air conditioning Rate processes Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage Mass flow and temperature transients in contraflow Summarized development of transient equations for contraflow Computational approach Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings Algorithms for mean temperature distribution in one-pass unmixed crossflow Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact one-pass crossflow exchanger Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact contraflow exchanger Parameters for rectangular offset strip fins Longitudinal conduction in contraflow Spline-fitting of data Extrapolation of data Finite-difference solution schemes for transients 331 333 336 340 343 349 349 352 355 361 361 364 365 366 370 375 376 377 383 405 405 407 408 409 411 411 414 Supplement to Appendix B .2 B.2 Appendix E E.2 A.4 12.I C.Transient Algorithms Appendix C C.7 B.I D.6 B.3 Appendix B B.Theory and Experimentation Analytical approach using Laplace transforms 419 419 .7 12.Contents xi 12.4 Appendix D D.I Optimization of Rectangular Offset Strip.

some recent literature Creep Life of Thick Tubes Applications Fundamental equations Early work on thick tubes Equivalence of stress systems Fail-safe and safe-life Constitutive equations for creep Clarke's creep curves Further and recent developments Acknowledgements Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization Acceptable flow velocities Overview of surface performance Design problem Exchanger optimization Possible surface geometries Continuum Equations Laws of continuum mechanics Coupled continuum theory De-coupling the balance of energy equation Suggested Further Research Sinusoidal-lenticular surfaces Steady-state crossflow 420 423 425 425 426 429 429 429 431 433 433 439 442 443 443 443 445 446 447 447 449 451 451 455 455 455 458 466 467 469 469 473 474 477 477 478 .3 1.xii Contents E.9 Appendix J J.2 Appendix G G.3 Appendix F F.I G.2 1. 1 J.2 E.3 Appendix H H.2 Numerical evaluation of Laplace outlet response Experimental test equipment Most Efficient Temperature Difference in Contraflow Calculus of variations Optimum temperature profiles Physical Properties of Materials and Fluids Sources of data Fluids Solids Source Books on Heat Exchangers Texts in chronological order Exchanger types not already covered Fouling .5 Appendix K K.I K.2 K.3 Appendix I 1.3 Appendix L L.I L.6 1.2 J.7 1.4 J.3 J.2 H. 1 F.1 1.I H.4 1.8 1.2 G.5 1.

3 L.4 Appendix M Notation Commentary Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Appendix A Appendix I Index Header design Transients in contraflow Conversion Factors xiii 478 479 483 487 487 488 489 490 491 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 Fundamentals Steady-state temperature profiles Direct-sizing of plate-fin exchangers Direct-sizing of helical-tube exchangers Direct-sizing of bayonet-tube exchangers Direct-sizing of RODbaffle exchangers Exergy loss and pressure loss Transients in heat exchangers Single-blow test methods Heat exchangers in cryogenic plant Heat transfer and flow friction in two-phase flow Transient equations with longitudinal conduction and wall thermal storage Creep life of thick tubes 503 .Contents L.

— const.XIV THERMAL DESIGN ROADMAP (outline guide for contraflow) DIRECT-SIZING (minimum input data required) INPUT DATA contraflow Qduty OPTIMAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION Grassman & Kopp exergy constraint -—. Ntu VALUES {find Th2 Tci} LMTD-nT approach approach EXCHANGER TYPE Plate-fin Helical-tube RODbaffle MEAN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES specific heats absolute viscosities thermal conductivities .

1 FOR RANGE OF Re VALUES FOR SIDE-1 GENERATE heat-transfer curve pressure-loss curve. Side-2 FIXED GEOMETRIES coincidence of Ap curves unlikely VARIABLE GEOMETRIES coincidence of Ap curves possible . Side-1 pressure-loss curve.XV APPLY LMTD UxS = Qduty LMTD COMPACT PLATE-FIN GEOMETRIES heat-transfer correlations flow-friction correlations FIXED GEOMETRIES K&L correlations 1 L&S correlations | range of validity J =spline-fits=>- VARIABLE GEOMETRIES ( M&B correlations I (ROSF variable) [ range of validity DIRECT-SIZING block heat exchanger equivalent plate with half-height surfaces optimal pressure loss exergy constraint but preferably design with Ma < 0.

XVI NEAR-OPTIMUM EXCHANGER estimated cross-section and length LONGITUDINAL CONDUCTION (reduced performance in most exchangers) STEADY-STATE TEMPERATURE PROFILES three simultaneous partial differential equations ( hot fluid ..... balance of energy \ cold fluid. balance of energy J LMTD REDUCTION (allowing for longitudinal conduction) KROEGER SOLUTION equal water equivalents | analytical solution I greatest conduction GENERAL SOLUTION unequal water equivalents f numerical solution 1 1 Crank-Nicholson I APPLY CORRECTION TO DIRECT-SIZING LMTD leading to CONSERVATIVE DIRECT-SIZING DESIGN with mean thermophysical values accurate cross-section and length OPTIMIZED DESIGN vary local surface geometries until Ap curves coincide .. balance of energy } solid wall..

XVII STEP-WISE RATING (using cross-section from direct-sizing) AWKWARD CONDITIONS arbitrary temperature profiles physical properties varying along length FOR TEMPERATURE RANGE OF EXCHANGER spline-fit thermophysical data for interpolation SECTION-WISE DESIGN assume equal temperature intervals for one fluid and use enthalpy balance to calculate corresponding temperatures for other fluid LMTD AND MEAN TEMPERATURES AT EACH SECTION thermophysical properties for each section using spline-fitted data CALCULATE SURFACE AREA AND LENGTH for each section CALCULATE PRESSURE LOSS FOR EACH FLUID for each section SUM LENGTHS AND PRESSURE LOSSES to obtain final step-wise design MULTI-STREAM DESIGN (refer to specialist papers for cross-conduction and near-optimization) .

.XVIII TRANSIENTS (for known steady-state design) COMBINED MASS FLOW AND TEMPERATURE TRANSIENTS temperature-dependent physical properties seven simultaneous partial differential equations hot fluid balance of mass balance of linear momentum balance of energy balance of energy cold fluid balance of linear momentum balance of mass solid wall — balance of energy FINITE-DIFFERENCE SOLUTION solve sequentially by finite differences two pairs of outer equations for density and velocity three simultaneous central equations for temperature field DELAYED ENTRY TO INDIVIDUAL CHANNELS AND CROSS-CONDUCTION EFFECTS (refer to specialist papers) In general. and for transients. as temperature-dependent physical properties could then most easily be accommodated. finite-difference schemes were preferred for both steady-state analysis.

and is also a Member of the Institute of Refrigeration. and ASTM. Dr Smith has published with IMechE. and has presented papers at international and national level. His early career included a total of 5 years in civil nuclear engineering research at C. Kernreaktor Kernforschungszentrum. He received his BSc and PhD degrees from the University of Glasgow. Parsons & Co. . Karlsruhe. He has represented the UK at a Nato AGARD Special Technical Meeting in Washington DC. and was retained as an expert witness by Norton Rose of London on behalf of shipbuilders Harland and Wolff of Belfast. His early research on the strength of high-temperature materials was complemented by an interest in heat transfer.About the Author Eric Smith is a Fellow of both the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The next 20 years involved teaching and research to post-graduate level in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. and teaching engineering in Hong Kong.A. Ltd of Newcastle upon Tyne and at the Institut fur Reaktor Bauelemente. Following short periods in Defence Consultancy in the UK. he returned to the UK to pursue his interests in long-range engineering. ASME.

The single-blow method for determining heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations is outlined. • Exergy loss number is defined. • Recommended Ntu performance limits for parallel flow. and its relation to quality of heat exchange and absolute temperature level of operation developed. • Methods are set out for predicting full transients in contraflow allowing for temperature-dependent physical properties. • An unambiguous measure of specific thermal performance is defined. and matching of local surface geometries prior to direct sizing is explored. starting from the controlling differential equations and building towards understanding of thermal design at every level. longitudinal conduction can be approximated by calculating the LMTD reduction factor in contraflow sizing. • Aspects of design for cryogenic and two-phase flow problems are examined. and a number of new points of understanding have been uncovered. . and the proper way of evaluating pumping power are presented. Elimination of pressure losses in headers. permitting appropriate choice for duty. and contraflow designs have been established. • The application of direct-sizing to three different types of heat exchanger is presented in some detail. • Numerical methods are emphasized throughout. applicable to all types of exchanger. crossflow. Specifically and illustratively: • Alternative Effectiveness -Ntu and LMTD-Ntu approaches to design are shown to be equivalent in finding terminal temperatures or Ntu values. • With the LMTD-Ntu approach.The Book All material presented in this volume has been computed from scratch by the author.

a good collection being found in the two reference volumes by Jakob (1949. particularly in the case of variable thermophysical properties (Soyars. Brighton 1994) Purpose of this work The primary objective in any engineering design process has to be the elimination of uncertainties. 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. and partly because the concept of 'effectiveness' provided a measure of the approach to ultimate performance of the exchanger. use of mean values) may introduce variations in design as large as the uncertainties introduced in heat-transfer and flowfriction correlations. The text is not intended as a collection of heat-transfer and pressure-loss correlations.Preface 'I would like to extend the way in which you may think about the design of heat exchangers. so that the reader can develop his/her own approach to solution of problems. and is designed as a reference text. and strive to eliminate as many sources of error as possible by choosing design configurations that avoid such problems at source. which in this author's view has not been entirely beneficial. 1992). Accumulation of these assumptions (e.' (author. and in the case of crossflow. . Theory is explained simply.. This book is set at research graduate and professional level in clean technologies.. In thermal design of heat exchangers there are presently many stages in which assumptions in mathematical solution of the design problem are being made. partly on the grounds that the LMTD approach did not give explicit results in some elementary cases. although a fair amount of such material has been included.g. The separate concepts of mean temperature difference and of effectiveness both have useful roles to play in assessing the performance of heat exchangers and should be used in combination. 1957). The consequence has been that since 1942 many important papers have concentrated on expressing results in terms of effectiveness in preference to mean temperature difference. Historical development of the subject Up until the early 1940s virtually all papers employ 'mean temperature difference' as the design parameter. Around 1942 the method of designing contra-parallel-flow heat exchangers was effectively changed by London & Seban (1980) from using LMTD to using the s-Ntu approach. The designer needs to understand where these inaccuracies may arise.

guessing is no longer necessary. while satisfying all thermal performance constraints. Cc.. The case of unmixed-unmixed two-pass crossflow is examined in some detail.. iteration cannot be avoided when only inlet temperatures and LMTD are known and outlet temperatures are required). and contains expressions for 'energy' and 'rate' processes (. dPc mh. while aiming for least exergy loss in contraflow leads to temperature profiles with a pinch point at the cold end. For the class of heat exchangers in which 'local' geometry of the heat-transfer surface is fully representative of the whole geometry. TC2 thermal duty Direct sizing thermal duty Q. Th\ mc. Thi mc. dPh.xxiv Preface The present treatment shows that: • The LMTD-Ntu approach is fully explicit in finding terminal temperatures in contraflow and parallel flow. Aiming for minimum entropy generation in contraflow leads to temperature profiles with a pinch point at the hot end. but exergy loss number is essential in cryogenics. Guessing one principal dimension of the exchanger may be necessary before the performance of the core can be compared with design requirements. concentrates on presenting results in terms of effectiveness alone. and for accurate design the assumption of equal mass flowrate at inlet to each channel should be replaced by the assumption of equal pressure loss in each flow channel. Dow's (1950) approach for designing headers with zero pressure loss allows concentration on core pressure loss. understanding has been lost in not computing temperature sheets. Direct-sizing methods 'Sizing' methods have traditionally posed more problems than 'rating' methods. Cc. Design approaches for contraflow Data Given Inlet values Find Rating block size L x W xH mh. • Exchanger comparisons are best made using the specific performance parameter where Sref is the reference surface. Methods of directsizing go straight to the dimensions of the heat exchanger core. The very comprehensive analytical paper by Baclic (1990) which examines 72 possible configurations for two-pass crossflow. However. Ch. Ch. • Effectiveness may be a measure of performance for entropy loss. Tc2 block size .

.as with the helical-tube. P. More often a numerical approach is preferred because the interpolating cubic spline-fit provides more accurate temperature-dependent physical properties plus heat-transfer and flow-friction coefficients. Rgas) physical properties of material of construction (A. This provides a heat-transfer curve. C. with the special advantage that spline-fits cannot be extrapolated outside the range of their validity. In cases where heat-transfer and pressure-loss correlations are suitable a fully algebraic solution may be possible . 17. Pressure-loss performance is similarly evaluated for both sides over the same range of valid Reynolds numbers. typically those described by Tinker1 (1951. and the intersection furthest to the right provides the initial design point. Longitudinal and cross-conduction Techniques for estimating longitudinal conduction effects in both contraflow and crossflow exchangers are described. p. Both pressure-loss curves will intersect the heat-transfer curve.Preface xxv In direct-sizing. the design approach is limited to that class of heat exchangers in which 'local geometry' is fully representative of the complete heat exchange surface and which provide core layouts which eliminate/minimize parasitic losses due to flow leakage and by-pass flows. Fig. providing two separate pressure-loss curves. A) allowable pressure loss data (AP. Longitudinal conduction reduces exchanger performance. 6). Part I. Tbuik. and the design approach is to calculate and apply the reduction in mean temperature difference. The concept can be applied to such different designs as: compact plate-fin exchangers helical-tube. the necessary input data for complete sizing take the following form: exchanger duty (Q) mean temperature difference for heat exchange (A0m) 'local' geometry on both sides mass flowrates of both fluids (m) physical properties for both fluids at mean bulk temperature (Pr. multi-start coil heat exchanger. C) For the selected geometry. the standard procedure is to evaluate heat-transfer performance over the range of valid Reynolds numbers for both sides of the exchanger. multi-start coil exchangers platen-type heat exchangers RODbaffle shell-and-tube exchangers lamella heat exchangers flattened and helically twisted tubes printed-circuit heat exchangers HELIXCHANGERs As all terminal temperatures may be determined in advance of direct-sizing.

and for all temperature-dependent physical parameters. combined with a numerical approach is one way forward. caused by fluids flowing in the same direction having different temperature profiles along the length of the exchanger. it may be appropriate to design by step-wise rating. Cross-conduction effects may then have to be taken into account. Arbitrary inlet temperature disturbances and longitudinal conduction effects in a matrix involve deeper analytical theory than presented in this text. . Step-wise rating is the intermediate stage between design assessment using mean values and full numerical prediction of transient performance of a design. At least 50 stations along the length of a contraflow exchanger are desirable.1) it becomes practicable to separate the problem into solution of mass flowrate and temperature-field disturbances. and direct-sizing can be helpful in providing the start-up information. This method of obtaining data for heattransfer and flow-friction correlations is well established as reliable. To start this process an initial cross-section of the exchanger is required. Transient response In contraflow exchangers which experience transient temperature disturbances. By using temperaturedependent physical properties. and it is not desired to go to full transient analysis.xxvi Preface With multi-stream and crossflow exchangers. to reveal the extent of their limitations when incorporated in heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations. As the Mach number in heat exchangers is normally less than (Ma = 0. A subset of the full transient equations. Rayleigh's empirical approach and Buckingham's 7r-method are not included as they are readily available elsewhere. Step-wise rating When changes in thermophysical properties are significant. A full numerical study of transients in a two-stream contraflow exchanger involves preparation of interpolating cubic spline-fits for both heat-transfer and flow-friction data against Reynolds number. and evaluating LMTD for each section. linker's work on baffle losses in shell-and-tube exchangers has been reproduced in textbooks and papers since Me Adams (1954). providing that assumptions in the mathematical analysis are correctly matched to the experimental method. the design can be made more accurate. longitudinal conduction terms appear in the set of seven simultaneous partial differential equations. The extraction of dimensionless numbers from governing differential equations is covered in outline. an additional problem exists. Single-blow testing To measure heat-transfer and flow-friction performance of heat exchanger surfaces the contraflow transient equations are simplified to the point where they become the Single-Blow Transient Test Equations.

closer choice of starting values for compact surfaces. viz.preference of rectangular ducts over square ducts. Appendix C Subsequently. Section 4. Much of the difficulty that arises in reading the literature on heat exchangers stems from the way in which temperatures are labelled at the ends of the exchanger. one for each fluid. the exchanger can sometimes be split into two or more sections in which single-phase behaviour can be assumed. .choice between rectangular and triangular ducts. or in which different stages of two-phase behaviour can be shown to exist.overview of plain duct performance. viz. for a two-stream contraflow exchanger with single-phase fluids.Preface xxvii Design involving phase change For fluids that experience changes in thermal capacity. and final slight adjustments made to have the pressure-loss curves coincide at the design point. with a few exceptions to improve clarity. Section 2. Full listings for each chapter are provided at the end of the appendices. This is done by setting the pressure loss on the other side as high as permitted to reduce its influence on design to a minimum. Section 4.g. one for heat transfer and two pressure-loss curves.9 . For a heat exchanger under steady-state conditions two possibilities exist. e. etc. Once the two independently optimized pressure-loss curves have been found.: • label one end with subscript 1 and the other end with subscript 2 • label the exchanger to give all inlet temperatures subscript 1 and all outlet temperatures subscript 2 . phase-change applications. The two final chapters outline some considerations in both step-wise rating and variable fluid properties Optimization in direct-sizing First stages in optimization of compact exchangers may involve: • limitation of exergy loss in contraflow due to pressure losses. The refined approach involves independent optimization of surface geometry for each side in turn (Appendix J). With such an approach it is more easily seen when the use of primary surfaces becomes advantageous. Appendix J • study of directions for improvement in rectangular offset strip-fin (ROSF) surfaces..11 . direct-sizing involves construction of three design curves.8 . (1993) provide good argument for accepting new notation in a Preface to their handbook on process heat transfer. Design is achieved when each pressure-loss curve cuts the heat-transfer curve at the same point. looking for minimum core volume. minimum frontal area. Hewitt et al. Notation The international standards for nomenclature are adopted. the design is recalculated with the pair of optimized surfaces.13 • selection of appropriate local surface geometries. Section 4.

and other components is specifically excluded from this volume. Appendix H contains a list of useful textbooks together with other publications of interest to designers. Sir Monty Finniston. inspired research engineers to achieve of their best through his leadership. retaining the same names for compatibility. The reader will find that some references listed at the end of each chapter are not directly mentioned in the text. Most of the software will be acceptable to free Pascal Compilers. Stressing of exchanger tubes. and over many years of discussion. late of the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. was kind enough to permit a young engineering lecturer to attend the post-graduate mathematics course in Continuum Mechanics. etc. land-based power plant. etc. and/or Linux.A. including aerospace. shells. A brief summary is given in Appendix I.0 on an 8 MHz machine with 1 Mbyte of RAM and no hard disk. Professor Aubrey Burstall. core mass. Applications The possible applications for exchangers suitable for direct-sizing are quite wide. Some of the original (extended) procedure bodies would require a rebuild. Ltd.output from one package becoming input for the next package. It is possible to go directly to the optimum exchanger core and minimize the choice of core volume. and it is worth scanning the references for interesting titles. Director of International Research and Development of C. These are papers that may indicate possible further directions of development. encouragement was provided by Professor Alan Jeffrey of the Department of Engineering Mathematics at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. marine propulsion systems. requiring only minor changes. Unix. Much of the original software was designed to be 'pipelined' . Professor Albert Green. References . This platform is now obsolete. core frontal area. Parsons & Co. Computer software All computation for this volume was developed in HP-Pascal 3. but the software remains valid. The first option is to be preferred and is used in this text. late head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne supported initiation of both experimental and theoretical work by the author over a range of topics. A dual floppy drive for 1 Mbyte disks was the only storage used. the author found the solution to the problem of creep in thick tubes which may be of use in extreme temperature/pressure conditions. However. Acknowledgements In the author's early days. Multistream exchangers for cryogenic duty must usually be sized by step-wise rating. Any future development on a modern platform would require conversion from Macintosh WordPerfect (where listings now reside) to Mac OS-X. chemical engineering plant.xxviii Preface The second option leads to confusion as one is always referring back to ascertain if the analysis has been correctly assembled.

From 1983. the author chose to work privately on material for this book while undertaking a modest amount of industrial consultancy to help defray the cost. Eric M. Thoughtful and constructive suggestions have been made by many experienced engineers in the preparation of this text. Gentry of Philips Petroleum. allowed a mechanical engineer occasional overnight access to the machine room. together with matching technical and software support. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. and the American Society for Testing and Materials. UK . Material from the author's published papers is included with the permission and/or acknowledgement of the Institution of Chemical Engineers. both professionally and personally. the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Both teaching and research continued successfully under Professor Leonard Maunder. All information used in production of this present edition was sourced from the open literature. or developed from scratch by the author. the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Special acknowledgements are due to Sheril Leitch (Commissioning Editor) and Lou Attwood (Co-ordinating Editor) of Professional Engineering Publishing. Ltd. Clarification of some points in the design of RODbaffle exchangers was kindly provided by C. for their consideration. and when Attila explained the advantage of transforming differential equations into Riemannian space before solving explicitly along a geodesic. Chris Woodford on the staff of the same laboratory developed the original spline-fitting algorithm since used extensively over many years. Outstanding facilities were provided by Professor Ewan Page and staff of the university Computing Laboratory. suggested by others. apart from less than 2 years of formal employment. Ltd. C. The author particularly wishes to thank the referees for the care taken in assessing this final manuscript.Preface xxix including investigative research on the single-blow test method. Deputy Director of the Computing Laboratory. Late changes to the manuscript occurred and these made the final version through the kind assistance of Martin Tribe (Executive Project Editor) at John Wiley & Sons. Assurance Serious preparation of the first edition of this text began around 1994. whose patience and talents were outstanding. If any material in this text has been included without proper recognition the author would be pleased to have this drawn to his attention. Smith St Andrews. Elizabeth Barraclough. These involved mainframe computers that were nationally state of the art. Special thanks to my close colleagues Tom Frost and Attila Fogarasy in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. contributions and patience with the author in arriving at the near-final text. Particularly so when Tom took the leadership with an inexperienced partner in rock climbing and hilarious hill-walking.

A. 5-16. II (1957). Dow. London. Hewitt. Jakob. and American Society of Mechanical Engineers. vol. and Seban. 89-96.L. 1957) Heat Transfer. (1950) The uniform distribution of a fluid flowing through a perforated pipe. G. R. W. Florida.H. J. M. New York. (1951) Shell-side characteristics of shell and tube heat exchangers. . 37. Hemisphere. ASME. Appl. B. CRC Press. pp.W.M. Parts I. R. 97-109. Heat Mass Transfer. I (1949) and vol.A Festschrift for A. M. 3rd edn. Soyars. (1954) Heat Transmission. (1949. London. T. (Eds. New York. McGraw-Hill. Metzger). pp.. 23. W.L. Preface References Baclic.S. Compact Heat Exchangers . 431-438. London. (1990) e-Ntu analysis of complicated flow arrangements.R. December. 11-13 September 1951. Trans. p. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Shires. Kraus. Part A. II and III. In Proceedings of General Discussion on Heat Transfer.D.A. (1980) (Release of unpublished 1942 paper) A generalisation of the methods of heat exchanger analysis. 31-90. (1993) Process Heat Transfer. Shah. Plenum Press. and Bott. G. T. J. 110-116. and D. Mechanics. 217-223.L. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 278.F. Tinker. (1992) The applicability of constant property analyses in cryogenic helium heat exchangers. Int.. London. pp. vol. New York. A.K. John Wiley.

such that local geometry is fully representative of the whole surface. and transients. Most automotive heat exchangers operate in crossflow. Chapter 2 • Shah & Sekulic (2003). for the main objective is to study thermal design of contraflow exchangers proceeding via steady-state direct-sizing. The Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. namely: Helical-tube. flattened tube Spirally wire-wrapped Bayonet tube Wire-woven tubes Porous matrix heat exchanger Illustrations of many types of exchanger are included in the following recent texts: • Hewitt et al (1994).1 Class definition Direct-sizing is concerned with members of the class of heat exchangers that have consistent geometry throughout the exchanger core. through optimization. but the list is short and illustrative only. Chapter 1 1. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. multi-start coil Plate-fin RODbaffle Helically twisted. Chapter 4 • Hesselgreaves (2001). step-wise rating. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . and have a relatively small flow length on the air-side. They may be constructed of tubes inserted in corrugated plate-fins. The following configurations are included in that class and are discussed further in this chapter. Ltd. Eric M. to the study of transients.2 Exclusions and extensions Exclusions Not every heat exchanger design is considered in this textbook.CHAPTER 1 Classification Consistent core geometry in heat exchangers 1. or made up from welded channels with corrugated fins.

because steadystate design follows standard contraflow or parallel-flow procedures. for in the right application such exchangers may be more economic. Optimization may proceed in a similar way as for compact plate-fin heat exchangers. Plate-and-frame designs can be similar in flow arrangement to plate-fin designs. Segmentally baffled shell-and-tube designs Segmentally baffled and disc-and-doughnut baffled shell-and-tube designs are not specifically included because the exchanger core may not have sufficiently regular flow geometry. Effects of this headering arrangement have been considered by Das & Roetzel (1995). (1994) provides an introduction to steady-state design using plates with standard corrugations. Single-spiral radial flow Also excluded is the single-spiral heat exchanger with inward and outward spiral (pseudo-radial) flow. It is not covered in this text. The text by Hewitt et al. Plate-frame designs The plate-and-frame heat exchanger is not specifically considered. Extensions Exchangers that may be suitable for direct-sizing include: Single-spiral axial design The single-spiral exchanger with axial flow has been realized and is a candidate for direct-sizing using the thermal design approach outlined in Chapter 4 (Oswald et a/. However. and the choice of U-type headering is evident in the paper by Crisalli & Parker (1993) describing a recuperated gas-turbine plant using plate-fin heat exchangers. However. the reader should consider Dow's (1950) approach to the design of headers in Chapter 8 of this text. plus helically baffled shell-and-tube exchangers which are referenced in Chapter 7. but there is restriction on the headering geometry. It is only necessary to source sets of heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations before proceeding. or more suitable for corrosive or fouling service. 1999). 1992. but is likely to be less comprehensive until universal correlations for the best plate-panel corrugations become available. and the same arrangement for plate-fin designs. and provides further references. there have been some attempts to develop a directsizing approach for these exchangers. Papers analysing performance of this exchanger design have been published by Bes & Roetzel (1991. Inlet and return headering for plate-and-frame designs. Faster response is obtained with U-type headering than with Z-type headering. . 1993).2 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers small air flow length rather marks them out as a special design case and the subject deserves separate attention.. The paper by Focke (1985) considers asymmetrically corrugated plates. The omission of this design is not a criticism of its usefulness. may add a phase shift to the outlet transient response following an inlet disturbance.

It is important that the best geometry of flow channel is selected for each fluid stream.and tube-side flow.1 has no internal baffle leakage problems. The stack of plates is then diffusion bonded together to form the single core of an exchanger. is placed on top of the first plate. as it then becomes problematic to calculate correct temperature profiles. Rapid prototyping (but real) designs The technique of producing rapid prototypes of complex components has now been extended to include construction of complete heat exchangers (see UK Patent GB2338293). and the stacking process repeated until a desired stack height is reached. Small ligaments may be required to locate otherwise unsupported parts of a slice in place. Potential advantages which can be identified include greater metal/fluid surface area for heat transfer.3 Helical-tube. and provides advantageous counterflow terminal temperature distribution in the .0 mm. and that proper consideration is given to inlet and outlet headers so as not to create an exchanger with mixed crossflow and contraflow features. The technique involves slicing the finished concept drawings into flat shapes which then may be either cut from meta sheet by laser. 1. and the possibility of using the porous substrate for mounting catalysts. with good means for header connections to shell. If adjacent slices also require support. Depending on geometry and availability of appropriate heat-transfer and flowfriction correlations. leaving equal spacing for shell-side flow between the flat tube ducts. or stamped out. These metal sections are then stacked and diffusion bonded to recover the final exchanger. in which baffle passes are repeated to minimize the number of slices required. foamed metal fillings inside tubes. This approach has already been successful in creating a small and well-designed shell-and-tube heat exchanger. then ligaments are staggered to preserve flow paths past the ligaments. Lamella heat exchangers Flat tube ducts are fitted inside a tubular shell. For the second fluid a further plate with similar etched channels. The geometry offers a very flexible surface arrangement. it permits uninterrupted crossflow through the tube bank for high heat-transfer coefficients. Two-stream and multi-stream exchangers may be constructed in this way.Classification 3 Printed-circuit heat exchangers These are constructed first by taking a suitable flat plate. thermal design can be approached in the same way as for plate-fin exchangers. then printing a chemically resistant photographic image of material between desired flow channels on to the plate. and sometimes as external fins. multi-start coil This design shown in Fig. 1. but probably of different design. and then etching the plate to a depth not exceeding 2. Porous metal developments New interest has been noted in the use of porous.

1978. Profos. 1983). 1965. Chen. Although exchangers of this type had been in use since the first patents by Hampson (1895) and L'Air Liquide (1934). 1970. further examples being found in the papers by Abadzic & Scholz (1972).4 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. A single unit may exceed 18 m in length and 25 tonnes in mass with a rating of 125 MWt. 1978. 1. 1972. 1971). 1975. and a method of direct-sizing has been obtained by Smith (1986) which is further reported in this text. The pressurized-water reactor (PWR) nuclear ship Otto Hahn was provided with a helical-coil integral boiler built by Deutsche Babcock (Ulken. Anon. Since that time programmes of work on helical-coil tube bundles have appeared (Gilli. 1969. 1979). 1983) in both his German and his English texts. 1983). Some modification to the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) is necessary when the number of tube turns is less than about ten and this analysis has been provided by Hausen (1950. Smith & King. 1976). and by Sulzer and others for several HTGR reactors (Kalin. consistent geometry in the coiled tube bundle does not seem to have been known before Smith (1960).1 Helical-tube multi-start coil exchanger whole exchanger. Bourguet (1972) and Weimer & Hartzog (1972). For LNG . High-temperature nuclear heat exchangers have been constructed in very large multiple units by Babcock Power Ltd for two AGR reactors (Perrin. Cryogenic heat exchangers to this design have been built by Linde AG and are illustrated in both editions of Hausen (1950. Smith & Coombs. Bachmann. Gill et al.

stainless steel. The layup is a stack of plates and finned surfaces which are either brazed or diffusion bonded together. and its principal use has been in cryogenics and in aerospace where high performance with low mass and volume are important. 1. Fig. The finned surfaces are generally made from folded and cut sheet and serve both as spacers separating adjacent plates. It is manufactured in several countries. and titanium.1. Weimer & Hartzog (1972) report that coiled heat exchangers are preferred for reduced sensitivity to flow maldistribution. Constructional materials include aluminium alloys. to which the finned surfaces are attached.4 Plate-fin exchangers The compact plate-fin exchanger is now well known due to the work of Kays & London (1964).2 (a) Compact plate-fin heat exchanger. and as providers of channels in which the fluids may flow [Fig 1. Not all of the above heat exchangers have consistent geometry within the tube bundle. London & Shah (1968). and many others.2(a)].Classification 5 applications. (b) rectangular offset strip-fin surface . nickel. Flat plates separate the two fluids.

5 RODbaffle The RODbaffle exchanger is essentially a shell-and-tube exchanger with conventional plate-baffles (segmental or disc-and-doughnut) replaced by grids of rods. 1973). To Fig. 1. Kays & London (1964) and Fig. Square pitching of the tube bundle is considered the most practicable with RODbaffles.6 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Many types of finned surface have been tested. see e. 1.3 RODbaffle set of four baffles . The objective is to obtain high heat-transfer coefficients without correspondingly increased pressure-loss penalties. Unlike plate-baffles. thus high heat-transfer coefficients are obtained. Originally the design was produced to eliminate tube failure due to transverse vortex-shedding-induced vibration of unsupported tubes in crossflow (Eilers & Small.2(b) shows an example of a rectangular offset strip-fin surface which is one of the best-performing geometries. each new edge starts a new boundary layer which is very thin. but the new configuration also provided enhanced performance and has been developed further by Gentry (1990) and others.g. As the stripfins act as flat plates in the flowing fluid. RODbaffle sections extend over the full transverse crosssection of the exchanger. and circular rods are placed between alternate tubes to maintain spacing. 1.

Tube counts on triangular pitching are possible using the Phadke (1984) approach. The outside of the tube bundle requires a shield to ensure correct shell-side flow geometry. and the performance of this design is discussed thoroughly in the recent textbook by Dzyubenko et al. 1.6 Helically twisted flattened tube This compact shell-and-tube design was developed by Dzyubenko et al. and that it should not therefore be included in this study. although the title of the book is somewhat misleading. However. Thus as far as the shell-side fluid is concerned there is consistent geometry in the exchanger even though the RODbaffles themselves are placed 150 mm apart. Figure 1. Tube counts are possible for square pitching using the Phadke (1984) approach.3 illustrates arrangement of baffles in the RODbaffle design. Thus each tube in the bank receives support along its length. (1990).4 Helically twisted flattened tube . With triangular pitching it is possible Fig. one set of vertical rods in a baffle section is placed between every second row of tubes. similarly arranged.1.Classification 7 minimize blockage. and it complies with the requirement of consistent local geometry in every respect when triangular pitching is used. It might be argued that the RODbaffle geometry is not completely consistent throughout its shell-side.a concept used with nuclear fuel rods. 1. At the next baffle section the vertical rods are placed in the alternate gaps between tubes not previously filled at the first baffle section. 1. (1990) for aerospace use. and the space between the exchanger pressure shell and the shield can be filled with internal insulating material. the spacing rods in the shell-side fluid were found to be shedding von Karman vortex streets longitudinally which persist up to the next baffle rod.7 Spirally wire-wrapped A further shell-and-tube concept is based on providing spiral wire-wraps to plain tubes . The design is illustrated in Fig.4. The next two baffle sections have horizontal rod spacers.

e.1.g.5 Cross-section of R-O-L spirally wire-wrapped layout to arrange a mixture of right-hand (R). Hurd (1946) appears to be the first to have analysed the performance of the bayonet-tube heat exchanger. The Phadke (1984) tube-count method will apply to triangular pitching. plain (0) and left-hand (L) wire-wraps so as to reinforce mixing in the shell-side fluid. In several nuclear fuel rod geometries the arrangement of rods does not follow a regular triangular pattern. The cross-section of a tube bundle is shown in Fig. This concept has not been tested for heat exchangers. Martin (1992). This leads to opposing streams at the point of closest approach of rods. The R-O-L configuration provides even shell-side fluid distribution and mixing. and the wire-wraps extend for about the central 90 per cent of the tube length. 1.8 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. and swirling in the truncated triangular cusped flow principal flow channels. being of the order 12-18° to the longitudinal axis of the rod. as the plain tubes lack the finning effect of the wire-wrap. and it does not quite fulfil the requirements of consistent local geometry. The most common spiral wire-wrap configuration is to have all nuclear fuel rods with the same-handed spiral. both have been discussed in other works. 1. The upper diagram in Fig. Practical uses include heating of batch processing tanks. but his analysis was not complete and further results are reported in the present text.5.8 Bayonet tube Both bayonet-tube and double-pipe heat exchangers satisfy the concept of consistent shell-side and tube-side geometry.6 show a typical exchanger. 1. sometimes with vertical bayonet tubes with condensation of steam in the annuli . and correlations need to be assessed accordingly. The spiral wrap is slow.

freezing of ground.38 mm. 1992).10 Porous matrix heat exchangers The surface of the porous matrix heat exchanger described by Hesselgreaves (1995. 1. When this is combined with insulating the inner tubes. Given the right layout this arrangement could easily qualify for direct-sizing. or flattened expanded mesh metal. thus creating a three-dimensional flow field in the matrix. and high-temperature recuperators using silicon carbide tubes.1. 1.137 to 0. thus forcing fluid in the annulus to follow a helical path.6 shows the arrangement. 1.6 Bayonet-tube exchanger (upper diagram). The new geometry offers an increased number of 'flat plate' edges to the flow stream. stacked so that each section is offset half a pitch from its immediate neighbours (Fig. Wire-woven tubes (lower diagram) (Holger. improved external heat transfer will result. Residence time of the fluid in the annulus may be extended by adding a spiral wire-wrap to the outside of the inner tube. plus greater cross-sectional area for heat to flow towards the channel . 1. The fluid flows in and out of the plane of the fins in its passage through the exchanger. coupled with diverging and converging flow. 1997) is built up from flattened sections of perforated plate.7).Classification 9 Fig. The lower diagram in Fig. and cooling of cryogenic storage tanks. (1992). presently ranging from 0. Individual plate thicknesses are much thinner than with conventional plate-fin geometries.9 Wire-woven heat exchangers The concept of fine tubes woven with wire threads into a flat sheet is a recent proposal by Echigo et al.

Propulsion systems Interceded and recuperated gas turbine cycles for marine propulsion are presently being developed for the considerable fuel savings that are possible (Cownie. 1.11 Some possible applications At this stage it is only possible to indicate some applications for the heat exchanger configurations described earlier. Not all of this technology is yet in service. and the reader is simply asked to appreciate some possible applications which exist for the new direct-sizing designs described.9. as illustrated in Fig. This arrangement could prove suitable for the vehicular gas-turbine application shown in Fig. with separating plates between streams.8. Sufficient examples of exchangers with a recognizable 'local geometry' have now been given to allow the reader to recognize new types of exchanger which conform to requirements for 'direct-sizing'. 1993. the prospect of constructing a completely bonded two-pass annular flow exchanger exists. 1. 1. to form a very strong exchanger. 1. An infinite number of geometries are possible. As such a construction seems amenable to forming plate-packs with involute curvature. than for plate-fin designs. but there is every indication that the pressure loss will be lower.7 Stacked plates of porous matrix heat exchanger separating plates. the flattened expanded mesh plates have been diffusion bonded together in packs of from 6 to 15 layers. with the possibility of changing mesh size along the length of the exchanger.10 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. and the heat transfer higher. So far. or indeed constructed. . The layout is thus better configured for heat transfer than conventional plate-fin geometries. Presently only preliminary test results are available.

as it could be more easily cleaned. In the compact vehicle propulsion system shown in Fig.8 Cross-section of involute-curved plate-fin heat exchanger Crisalli & Parker. but it introduces the problem of sliding seals. For a single-pass contraflow design some thought would be required in the arrangement of headers.Classification 11 Fig. (Fig. Large recuperators For the recuperator of a larger gas turbine a plate-and-frame design with U-type headering was developed for marine propulsion (Valenti. 1993). A further problem with the involute exchanger is the difficulty of cleaning curved channels. but the practicalities of inlet and outlet ducting have also to be considered.9 (after Collinge. In every case a contraflow heat exchanger arrangement is the natural first choice as it provides more energy recovery than multi-pass crossflow. 1994).1. Crisalli & Parker . the power turbine exhaust flows outwards through the exchanger core while high-pressure combustion air flows axially through the exchanger in two passes. Plate spacing on the high-pressure cold air side is narrow while the spacing on the low-pressure hot gas side is wide. 1995). Wilson (1995) believes that a rotating ceramic regenerator should be preferred. 1992).8). Some development work would be required to realize the involute-curved plate-fin exchanger. 1. Small recuperators A recuperator of two-pass involute design has been developed for military tank propulsion (Ward & Holman. Thermal sizing is identical to that for the compact flat-plate design. Swirling exhaust gases can be directed by an outlet scroll before entering the exhaust stack. 1.

1. Bannister et al. Thermal . 1993. With this arrangement the gas turbine would not become exposed to sea-water leaking from a damaged intercooler. In the latest Rolls-Royce design of recuperator. 1.10(a). Liquid hydrogen propulsion Related to both the helical-tube. with freshwater/glycol supply and return from external annular header pipes.10(b). 1979).9 Schematic arrangement of two-spool power gas turbine with two-pass crossflow exhaust exchanger (1993) and Shepard et al.. 1994). Fig. Pressure in the closed-loop fresh-water/glycol system can be adjusted to suit the desired operating conditions. serpentine-tube panel design used by Pratt & Whitney in one of their experimental engines powered by liquid hydrogen (Mulready. compact plate-fin-type surfaces were used. the pitch between adjacent panels is constant with radius and the shell-side fluid sees the same geometry everywhere.12 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. The exchanger can be segmented for ease of maintenance.1. This has to be a contraflow plate-fin design for compactness. The tube panel is a single serpentine tube arranged such that the shell-side fluid may flow transversely over the tube as in crossflow over rows of tubes. multi-start coil heat exchanger and the involutecurved plate-fin exchanger is the involute-curved. Each panel is given an involute curve and is placed together with others in an annular pattern as in Fig. (1995) report on development of the WR-21 intercooled and recuperated marine gas turbine. Intercoolers An intercooler can also be fitted between low-pressure and high-pressure compressors of large marine and land-based systems (Crisalli & Parker.

1. . and will apply to involute-curved serpentine panels also. (b) involute pattern performance of flat serpentine panels has been discussed by Hausen (1950). The incentive to go to this design must be high. which may affect tube-side heat transfer and pressure loss hardly at all.10 (a) Serpentine tube panel.Classification 13 Fig. to make pressure loss in repeated bends acceptable. The only difference is a secondary effect due to involute curvature.

The liquid cryogen is at a higher pressure at the bottom of the tank compared with the surface. Cryogenic storage tank One problem that has troubled cryogenic and petrochemical industries is that of 'roll-over' in cryogenic storage tanks. and once that technique has been developed it is straightforward to apply the same methods to cryogenic designs in which the LMTD concept would otherwise be perfectly viable.14 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. due to liquid density.1. The . especially when near to the critical point.11 Cryogenic storage tank with bayonet-tube exchanger (schematic) Cryogenic plant Cryogenic heat exchangers The sizing of cryogenic heat exchangers is discussed in Chapter 11. A step-wise rating approach is required.

Paper B-l. If conditions are such that this liquid travels to the top of the tank by convection then the massive evaporation which ensues at the lower pressure can be sufficient to rupture the tank. The bayonet-tube heat exchanger is a design that requires only single penetration of a pressure vessel.. Special Number 'NUCLEX 78'. W. (1994) Turbines for the turn of the century. Julich 1979. W. U. Roetzel. pp. Engng. J. If such an exchanger is fitted to the top of a cryogenic storage tank and a cryogen used in this exchanger to cool the contents of the tank. 18.. vol. D. pp. Bes. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. 26-28 November 1979. See also IAEA Specialist meeting. E. pp. Int.. (1975) Steam generators for the 300-MWe power station with a thorium hightemperature reactor. Th. If there is external heat leak into the tank then it is possible for the liquid at the bottom of the tank to be at a temperature higher than that at the top.N. Chen. R. and D. 116(6). London. Springer Verlag.M. (1992) Distribution of heat flux density in spiral heat exchangers. It is hoped that the above long-range concepts may stimulate the reader to consider other arrangements for heat exchangers that can be directly sized. Plenum Press. 42-51. Bes. British Nuclear Energy Society. 765-773. 223-232. In Proceedings of the 1972 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. 18. pp.A. In Proceedings of the 1972 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. 189-194. Heggs. Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers (Eds. Sulzer Tech. Th. Little. Plenum Press. 18. In Proceedings of an International Conference. Hamburg. (1991) Approximate theory of the spiral heat exchanger. (1979) The high temperature reactor and process applications. Berlin. H. and McQuiggan. Th. The possible effectiveness of the bayonet-tube exchanger in inhibiting 'roll-over' seems worthy of investigation. Bourguet. Bes.. then controlled circulation may be set up in the tank with colder fluid at the centre falling to the bottom and warmer fluid at the side walls rising to the free surface (Fig. (1978) General behaviour of flow induced vibrations in helical tube bundle heat exchangers. and Roetzel. Rev. Mech.S. March 1980. June.E. Anon..W. 36(3). 9-26. Paper A-2.J. 27 February-1 March 1991.) An extension of this would be to provide the mixing propeller with a hollow shaft incorporating a bayonet-tube exchanger. Int. and Roetzel. . (1972) Cryogenics technology and scaleup problems of very large LNG plants. W. Butterworth). and Scholz. 59-68. Y. 1331-1347. Presently a mixing propeller on a shaft is used to circulate liquid within the tank to keep the contents close to isothermal. Cheruvu. vol.11. Bannister. 68-75. Bachmann. Heat Mass Transfer. W. G. and Roetzel. (1972) Coiled tubular heat exchangers. (1993) Thermal theory of the spiral heat exchanger. Proceedings of the EUROTHERM Seminar no. References Abadzic. J. in Nuclear Engng Int. J. P. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. 1.. Sulzer Tech. 57(4). N. Rev.L.Classification 15 saturation pressure is thus higher at the bottom of the tank. 35(6). 24. Heat Mass Transfer.

(1992) Fine-tube heat exchanger woven with threads. Gill. 4-7.. 1266-1271. December. pp. 57-61. Springer. IMechE Paper C5109/082/95. Parallel Flow and Cross Flow. pp. In International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition. S. 35(3). (1990) Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in Helical Tube Bundles.C. CRC Press. BHRA Fluid Engineering Conference. pp. 48-57. J. and Parker. New York.R.F. Prof. 232-248. J. . Das. 431-438. Engng. New York. Heat Mass Transfer. K. A modern engine for a modern fleet. Yoshida. H. Shires. Dow. (1995) Dynamic analysis of plate heat exchangers with dispersion in both fluids (plate-and-frame exchanger). Hemisphere.A. December. N. Heat Transfer in Counter Flow. (1965) Heat transfer and pressure drop for crossflow through banks of multistart helical tubes with uniform inclinations and uniform longitudinal pitches. and Bott. G.F. H. Engng Prog. (1993) Aerospace 90 years on. Echigo. Nuclear Sci. 22...A. (1946) Mean temperature difference in the field or bayonet tube.. 213-228. C.. 17-18 September 1997. Cincinnati. W. Hemisphere. British Patent 10165. Eilers. 2nd (English) edn. H. 67-77. Hampson. 298-314. Dzyubenko. Hewitt. Trans. London. July. Heat Mass Transfer. 24-27 May 1993. M. and Ashmantas. J.V. Pergamon. Hesselgreaves. Holger. AJ. 38(12). 1127-1140. In Proceedings of the 4th National Conference on Heat Transfer. Cownie. R. Comm. 8. Ohio. G. and Small. Institution of Chemical Engineers. Appl. M. 17-19.L.-V.. Focke. Dreitser..K.A. (1990) RODbaffle heat exchanger technology. Crisalli. J. Ind. Manchester. 6(11). Hausen. In 5th UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. J. Heat Mass Transfer. (1950) Kreuzstrom in Verbindung mit Parallelstrom im Kreuzgegenstromer. (1895) Improvements relating to the progressive refrigeration of gases. (1983) Full scale modelling of a helical boiler tube. 111-111.. G.. G.W. Warmeubertragung im Gegenstrom. May. Int. and Walker. In International Conference on Physical Modelling of Multi-Phase Flow.F. M. (1992) Heat Exchangers. B. Berlin. Int.F. and Roetzel. J.. Chem. 38(6). Paper K4. Int.. Hausen. Gilli. 1st (German) edn. (1973) Tube vibration in a thermosiphon reboiler. (1997) Single phase and boiling performance of a novel highly compact heat exchanger surface. McGraw-Hill.S. Florida. (1994) Lycoming ACT 1500 powers the Ml Abrams. Technische Physik no. Engng Chem. H. IGTI Global Gas Turbine News. (2001) Compact Heat Exchangers. W. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. 12(1). December. pp. 69(7). and Mori. Harrison. 86(7).V.L. T. April 1983. Engng Prog. Hurd. Mech. P. M. ASME.M. ASME J. Chem. W. Hesselgreaves. 481-500.W. 26-27 September 1995. (1983) Crossflow combined with parallel flow in the cross-counterflow heat exchanger. J. (1985) Asymmetrically corrugated plate heat exchanger plates (plate-and-frame exchanger).. (1995) Concept proving of a novel compact heat exchanger surface. ASME Paper 93-GT-231. K. W. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom.M. (1993) Overview of the WR-21 intercooled recuperated gas turbine engine system.L.. Gentry. G. (1950) The uniform distribution of a fluid flowing through a perforated pipe. L. New York. 479-486. Hanamura. Engng. Imperial College of Science & Technology.16 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Collinge. Hesselgreaves.

ASME Winter Annual Meeting. (1972) Effects of maldistribution on the performance of multistream multi-passage heat exchangers.096. IGTI Global Gas Turbine News. 70-73. 12-34. ASME J. New York.A.heat transfer and flow-friction characteristics. A. 18.P. H. (1971) N. ASME Paper 99-GT-369. (1995) A turbine for tomorrow's Navy (recuperated WR-21). vol. and King. 7-12 December 1986. A. L'Air Liquide (1934) Improvements relating to the progressive refrigeration of gases.A. Nuclear Engng Int. 83. Engng Gas Turbines Power. California. Engng. Valenti. Profos. Sulzer Tech. Engng. Shah. (1960) The geometry of multi-start helical coil heat exchangers. D. (1986) Design of helical-tube multi-start coil heat exchangers.M. D. 69-83. New York.L. Marine Engs. Weimer. and Clawley. Proceedings of the 1972 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. New York. Michigan. D. (1992) Heat Exchangers. and Hartzog. . Indiana. Bowen. E. pp. McGraw-Hill.I. 48-51. John Wiley. 205-220. In DFVLR International Symposium: Hydrogen in Air Transportation. In International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition..M.K. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. T. In 6th International Heat Transfer Conference. Trans Inst. B. 52(3). (1992) Primary surface recuperator for high performance prime movers. Rev. Smith. E. (1976) Hartlepool and Hey sham pod boilers. 35(4). R. 7-10 June 1999. and London. (1968) Offset rectangular plate-fin surfaces . L. Unpublished report. (1999) A new durable gas turbine recuperator. and Coombs. 65-83. Mulready. R.S. September. and Holman.F.C. Wilson. USA.B. 14(3).K.. 90. R. Sulzer Tech. Engng Sci. J. Smith. J. (1995) Design and development of the WR-21 intercooled recuperated (ICR) marine gas turbine.. Perrin. Detroit. Hemisphere.G. Indianapolis. (1978) Thermal performance of further cross-inclined in-line and staggered tube banks.G.. (1969) The steam generators of Fort St. 95-104. M. Paper B-2. J. September. (1979) Liquid hydrogen engines. British Patent 416. P. Chem. 21(239). Paper HX14.L. 117.P. SAE Paper 920150.J. Oswald. D. 557-562. M. 66. London.. 65-68.. and Chiprich. J.. In Advances in Heat Exchanger Design. Smith. ASME Publication HTD-Vol.L. Otto Hahn.. W. 2nd edn (3rd edn exists). Toronto.E. 53(2). Special number 'NUCLEX 1969'. Mech. 52-64. Rev. R.M. pp. (1995) Automotive gas turbines: government funding and the way ahead. 24-28 February 1994. E. Plenum Press. Stuttgart. Engng Power. Vrain nuclear power plant. 117(9). O. July.L.M. SAE International Congress and Exposition. Ward. and Sekulic. D. Mech. (1970) The new steam generating system for the French nuclear power station EL-4. Martin. (1984) Determining tube counts for shell-and-tube exchangers. 17-21. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers. Kays. Ulken. Smith. Anaheim. February. E.M. (2003) Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. A. Shepard.M. and Shah. ASME J. (1972) Thermal performance of cross-inclined tube bundles measured by a transient technique. 276-272. S. pp. Phadke. 218-228.Classification 17 Kalin. L.S. 11-14 September 1979. W. Dawson. 167-174.

(1994) Heat exchanger ubiquity in advanced gas turbine cycles. D. Butterworth. Appl. 317-386. C. Caravello. Devois. (Eds. and Hallgren. Section 11. (1991) Technology of Tanks.F. Appl. 16(8/9). Institution of Chemical Engineers. M. Brighton. 3-32. 258-262. . Thermal Engng. In The Industrial Sessions Papers. vol.M. Lisbon.F. Oregon. 2 vols.18 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Bibliography Adderley. L. C. Afgan. McDonald. 25-27 October 1994. pp.the key component for hightemperature nuclear process heat realisation with advanced MHR. R. In Conference: New Developments in Heat Exchangers. 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. and Wilson. Jane's Information Group. (1996) The utilisation of recuperated and regenerated engine cycles for high efficiency gas turbines in the 21st century. J. C. ASME/IGTI Portland. Thermal Engng. Ogorkiewicz. N. (1994) The design and manufacture of diffusion bonded plate-fin heat exchangers. Portugal. C.9. McDonald. 16(1). pp.G.F. D. Roetzel). 14-18 August 1994. Gordon & Breach. Gas Turbines. A Bar-Cohen. 8th Congress and Exposition on Gas Turbines in Cogeneration and Utility. and W. Industrial and Independent Power Generation. and Duranstanti. (1993) Modelling of spiral plate heat exchangers by a finite-difference method.F.G. (1996) Compact buffer zone plate-fin IHX . J. 681-703. 635-653. In ASME Cogen Turbo Power. 9. McDonald.F. pp.H. Chapter 11.

an elementary length of surface is taken across which the temperature difference is assumed to remain constant. temperatures of the fluids change over the length of the surface. The first design problem is to determine the mean temperature difference for heat transfer between the two fluids.L Fig.2 Temperature profiles.2. so as to be able to use the design equation where A0m is the mean temperature difference between fluids. Evaporator: Fluid at constant temperature receives heat from a hotter fluid whose temperature decreases Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. and transients. L S.2. Ltd. Condenser: Fluid at constant temperature gives up heat to a colder fluid whose temperature increases Fig. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . step-wise rating. and a principal method of classifying heat exchangers is according to the directions of fluid flow on each 'side' and the effect upon the temperatures in the system.CHAPTER 2 Fundamentals Insights 2.1 Simple temperature distributions In considering overall heat-transfer coefficients. Eric M.1 Temperature profiles. S. In general.

Contraflow: Fluids flow in opposite directions. More efficient use of temperature difference allows colder fluid to exit at higher temperature than the hotter fluid Fig. Temperature cross-over is a fictitious temperature profile situation which can be assumed unconsciously if 'external' terminal temperatures are used to produce a single LMTD for the design of the whole exchanger.2. In the desuperheating feed-heater below. and separate values of LMTD calculated for each section. Fig.20 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.5 Desuperheating feed-heater with phase changes Fig. or situations in which enthalpy changes of single-phase fluids do not change linearly with temperature (as in some cryogenic heat exchangers). Parallel flow: Both fluids flow in the same direction.4 Temperature profiles.2.6 Temperature cross-over in feedheater . one increasing in temperature.3 Temperature profiles. the other decreasing in temperature It is essential to watch out for phase changes. the 'internal' terminal temperatures must first be found.2.2.

Fundamentals 21 Similarly with cryogenic recuperators.7 Contraflow Fig. For the simplest exchangers the problem reduces either to 'rating' an existing design..8 Parallel flow . or 'sizing' a new exchanger. Cc) • negligible heat loss to surroundings Fig. mc) • constant overall heat-transfer coefficient (If) • constant specific heats (Ch. in which one fluid at a pressure just above its critical value is being cooled around its critical temperature. The cryogenic exchanger may require incremental design along its length.2 Log mean temper ure difference Consider parallel and contraflow heat exchangers assuming: • fluids with steady mass flowrates (m/.2.2. Rating Given: geometry Sizing Given: Q (duty) Find: Q (duty) Find: geometry Note: The allowable pressure losses (Ap/.. 2. against the flow of a colder fluid at lower pressure well away from its critical point. Apc) have a role to play in design which will be explored in later chapters. Notation is explained in the sections which follow. The contraflow feed-heater may be properly designed as three separate exchangers. Two design approaches which can be used are the LMTD-Ntu method and the s-Ntu method.

5) and (2. then mean temperature difference as defined below can always be employed where n is the number of stations along the length of the exchanger at which temperature differences A0 are known. . then Also.6) and comparing this expression with equation (2. A0m can be written as the logarithmic mean temperature difference.1). when specific heats vary along the length of an exchanger.22 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers For an element of area 8S.4) between stations 1 and 2 Eliminating the square bracket term between equations (2. considering each fluid Now the increment in temperature difference A0 is Thus Integrating between stations 1 and 2 also integrating equation (2. This is true. for example. A0/mfrf In real exchangers the mean temperature difference A0m may not necessarily equal the mathematical LMTD expression based on four terminal temperatures.

Also hot-side.Fundamentals 23 Equation (2.7) is correct also for condensers and evaporators. solidwall. the surface area 5 is known..2.10 Parallel flow profiles .9 Contraflow profiles Fig. 2. = mcCc). In the special case of contraflow with equal water equivalents (m/jQ. and cold-side heat-transfer coefficients a/. and aw = (\w/tw) may be evaluated from heat-transfer correlations and physical properties. ac.7) is indeterminate because A0i = A02.2.3 LMTD-Ntu rating problem Contraflow (LMTD-Ntu) rating Given: geometry Parallel flow (LMTD-Ntu) rating Given: geometry Find: Q (duty) Find: Q (duty) Since the geometry is defined. equation (2. as temperature profiles are parallel straight lines. giving the overall Fig.

all coefficients being referred to the same reference surface area S. For duty Q. proceed as follows: From equation (2.9) From equation (2.12) Equating equations (2.10) and (2.12) .9) where where Then Then The first bracket in the numerator may be written The second bracket in the numerator may be written hence hence Equating equations (2.24 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers heat-transfer coefficient U.10) and (2.

numerical values may be inserted in the simultaneous LMTD-Ntu equations to find the two unknown temperatures. . the unknown temperatures are found from the energy balances allowing the LMTD to be calculated directly. Tc\) for parallel flow.Fundamentals 25 From equations (2. Tc2) for contraflow. Th\) and (Nc. The product US can then be evaluated and used in direct-sizing methods of design described in later sections.13) the LMTD-Ntu equation pairs for contraflow and parallel flow are Contraflow Parallel flow Given (Nh. Th\) and (Nc. and b = exp(A^ — Afc).10) and (2. with similar expressions for parallel flow. [In a slightly different form. these equations were anticipated by Clayton (1984).4 LMTD-Ntu sizing problem Contraflow LMTD-Ntu sizing Given: Q (duty) Parallel flow LMTD-Ntu sizing Given: Q (duty) Find: geometry Find: geometry Writing energy balances In sizing.] Explicit algebraic solutions for the unknowns in contraflow can be written where a = Nc/Nh. Exchanger duty can now be determined from Q = 2. whose paper was not seen until the first edition of this text was in its final editing stage. or (Nh.

and reference to these may be found in Hewitt et al.15) and (2. where in the notation of this text .26 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 2. (1994).16) there results which includes the relationship Nh — Nc = ln(A0i/A02). Thus explicit expressions for LMTD may be written in the form given by Spalding (1990) Contraj low Pat•allel flow 2.6 The 'theta' methods Alternative methods of representing the performance of heat exchangers exist. The basic parameter 'theta' was devised by Taborek (1983).5 Link between Ntu values and LMTD For the contraflow heat exchanger Since then but Combining equations (2.

). The 'theta' method is related to associated '£" and '/>' methods by the expressions and the relationships between parameters are often presented in graphical form. 2. 12) where A0m is mean temperature difference. t e assumptions remain the same as in Section 2.12 Parallel flow (Figs 2.2.2. then (Nc > AT/.Fundamentals 27 Fig.11 Contraflow Fig. However.2.C/j).7 Effectiveness and number of transfer units Considering contraflow and parallel-flow exchangers. and assume (mcCc < m/. .. they all depend on finding A0m or A0/mft/. 11 and 2. Define whichever is the greater..

17) may be written Solving for effectiveness Contraflow Parallel flow These equations may be expressed in alternative form by writing (it is necessary to have W < 1) and write Afc = Ntu.28 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Equation (2.17) may be written Equation (2. then Contraflow Parallel flow The exponentials are written with negative exponents so that limiting values for effectiveness may be obtained .

Fundamentals 29 A special case occurs with contraflow when the water equivalents of the two flui are equal. Directly and Special case For condensation the condition mcCc < rrihCh holds for the definition of MM. Then mcCc = m/.1).C/. For evaporation the condition m^C/. and the same effectiveness solution for either contraflow or parallel flow applies. and W = 1. Fig. and the effectiveness solution for either contraflow or parallel flow applies. and the temperature profiles are parallel straight lines (proof in Section 3.13 Contraflow . < mcCc holds for the definition of MM.2.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Fig.2.14 Condensatio

Fig.2.15 Evaporation

For both cases assume first that a small temperature difference exists in the phasechange fluid. This is not far from the truth because pressure loss always exists in fluid flow. Then



thus AND

thus AND

Equations (2.22) for effectiveness hold equally for condensation or evaporation. Results of equations (2.18), (2.19), and (2.22) are presented graphically in Fig. 2.16. To maintain reasonable terminal temperature differences the value Nh + Nc for parallel flow should not exceed about 4.0, thus for equal values, Nh = Nc = 2.0. In a later section it will be shown that for crossflow with both fluids unmixed, equal values of Ntu should not exceed about Nh = Nc — 4.0. For contraflow, comfortable equal values of Ntu lie well above 10.0.



Fig.2.16 Generalized effectiveness plot with parameter Nh/Nc for contraflow and parallel-flow heat exchangers

Effectiveness versus Ntu plots Many texts present curves of effectiveness (e) versus number of transfer units (Ntu) over a range of capacity-rate ratios for a variety of flow arrangements, and apply these curves in design. Examining definitions of these axes in contraflow

allows effectiveness as

and equally we might have plotted (kdmax/Tspari) versus Ntu. The parameter pair (e, Ntu) thus says nothing about the physical size of the exchanger core (see Section 2.14).


f-Ntu rating problem
Contraflow e-Ntu rating Given: geometry Parallel flow e-Ntu rating Given: geometry

Find: Q (duty)

Find: Q (duty)


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers the values Ntu =

Referring to the figures in Section 2.4, then for mcCc < m US/(mcCc) and W = mcCc/rhhCh apply, thus

Hence Tc\ may be found, then Th2, so

Hence Tc2 may be found, then

, so


E-Ntu sizing problem
Contraflow e-Ntu sizing Given: Q (duty) Parallel flow e-Ntu sizing Given: Q (duty)

Find: geometry

Find: geometry

For mcCc < m^C/,, W = rncCc/(rhhCh) and unknown temperatures may be found immediately:

Then solve for Ntu from

Then solve for Ntu from



Since mcCc < ihhCh, the value of MM = US/(rhcCc) gives the product US, leaving the geometry to be determined as in Section 2.4.

2.10 Comparison of IMTD-Ntu and e-Ntu approaches
Contraflow rating problem Given: geometry

Find: Q (duty)

Consider the problem of rating a contraflow exchanger with surface area S = 40.0m2, and for which the overall heat-transfer coefficient U = 100 J/(m2 K) has been estimated from appropriate correlations by taking physical properties at the assumed mean bulk temperature (7),i + TC2)/2, then with
Mass flowrates Inlet temperatures Specific heats

Fig.2.17 Contraflow profiles


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

LMTD-Ntu approach

e-Ntu approach

Subtracting equations (a) from (b)


Sizing when Q is not specified

Occasionally a sizing problem may arise when Q is not known but 'best practicable recuperation' is desired. The normal procedure is to determine the end of the exchanger at which the temperature pinch point occurs, and give A0 an appropriate value, say 4 °C. With two known terminal temperatures it is then possible to solve the heat balance equations for the unknown temperatures directly in five out of six possible cases. The remaining case arises when the pinch point is at the same end as the two known temperatures. When an exchanger of this type is required, there is usually a limiting temperature for one of the unknowns. If this is not a restriction, then an alternative approach may be to determine the limiting value of



Fig.2.18 Six possible cases when Q is unknown

effectiveness, e.g. Contraflow, eiim = 1 Parallel flow, eiim =
1 l+W

and obtain the actual effectiveness from e =f * s\[m where from practical experience (0.7 < / < 0.9) approximately. Alternatively, and preferably, it is possible to proceed along lines suggested by Grassmann & Kopp (1957), as discussed in Section 2.12.


Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow

The paper by Grassmann & Kopp (1957) presented an analysis based on minimizing exergy loss for temperatures below the dead state TO. This original work is now adapted and extended. In the optimization of power plant the objective is to get the maximum amount of work out of a given amount of supplied heat. Usable work (or exergy) can be lost if the design of a heat exchanger is poor. In the optimization of cryogenic plant the objective is to minimize the compression work required to operate the system by minimizing exergy loss in the heat exchangers. Minimum exergy loss targets may differ from some targets in chemical plant design, where a particular temperature level has to be achieved for a process to occur, but in general the overall target is still to minimize the work required to operate the plant.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Fig.2.19 Schematic temperature profiles

In a contraflow heat exchanger the differential exergy rate changes of the hot and cold fluid are

Total exergy rate change is thus



and the problem reduces to the variational problem 'find a function A0 = <^>(r) such that the integral in these last equations is a minimum, subject to the constraint that the surface area S has a fixed value'. For constant specific heats, generally



and it becomes evident that A0 = <j*(T) should be as small as racticable, but not zero which would be for zero heat exchange. Values of A0 must also satisfy the energy balance equation

where the negative sign is present because T/, is reducing as S is increasing. With overall heat-transfer coefficient U and surface area 5, constant equations (2.25) may be integrated to give the energy equations

Equations (2.24) are to be solved, subject to the constraint of equation (2.26) Using variational calculus (see Appendix F), by inspection, the equations so far developed are seen to match those given in that appendix, viz. Integral

from which





Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

End conditions




The Euler equation becomes

Only the +ve square root will do

with solution


The pairs of solutions are equivalent, only depending on whether the initial reckoning of A 0 is to be from 7), or Tc. Consider the 'a' form.



thus giving


At the optimum it follows that

When Grassmannn & Kopp made the heat-transfer coefficient a function of temperature also, the influence of temperature was found to be very weak, and could be neglected. Generally we may thus write

For cryogenic design, equation (2.29) might be written as A0 = T/20, while for near-ambient conditions the expression might be written A0 = J/30. The constant is chosen to produce an acceptable temperature difference between streams. Three valid expressions exist for equation (2.29), viz.

Fig.2.20 Variation of b/(l - b) versus b [and a versus «/(! + a)]

no account has been taken of pressure-loss optimization.40 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers where but the same constant cannot be used in each form.2 Hot fluid profile Cold fluid profile 2. Exergy approach Starting from the exergy change for a single fluid the rate of entropy generation for a contraflow exchanger transferring heat between two fluids may be found as For perfect gases which may be written OR Considering pressure terms alone . The optimum temperature profiles can be found analytically.13 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow So far. and the derivations are given in Appendix F.

Unless there is a special requirement it is not desirable to move out of the incompressible flow region. and Mach numbers should not ever exceed 0.05 to permit use of most experimental correlations for flow friction. then equation (2. and the other pressure-loss curve must always fall on the same design point found in direct-sizing (see Chapter 4). it is not necessary to specify both pressure losses. i. and the colder gas stream in cryogenic design (but see Appendix J).32) whenever possible. while the better limit would be 0. In any two-stream exchanger without phase change.1. Mach number approach The 'controlling' pressure loss . the hotter gas stream in recuperator design. as an aid to minimizing the effort to find the optimum exchanger with minimum core volume. and R is the gas constant.34). inlet and outlet pressure losses.33) can be rewritten as If the exergy loss rate for pressure loss (Spress) is required to be fixed. acceleration losses. and header pressure losses.34) provides some allowance for redistribution of pressure loss between the two streams. For near-ideal gases the maximum choice of flow velocity is then given by where y is the ratio of specific heats. In many cases the allowable pressure-loss level is related to Mach number in the flow channels.Fundamentals 41 or Further simplification is possible using the expansion for ln(l — x) and neglecting higher-order terms. but it is safer to remain with equation (2. the 'controlling' pressure loss is nearly always associated with the lower pressure level. However. because the use of direct-sizing software always produces a 'controlling' pressure loss. have to be added to the core pressure losses. Once a core has been sized.e. It is natural to seek a relationship between pressures and pressure losses such as equation (2. viz. Equation (2.

Check the Mach numbers. 3. 2. for very short heat exchangers may sometimes be produced.21 which makes use of the basic expressions for Carnot efficiency above . Now fix both A/? values.15 Required values of Ntu in cryogenics The problem of lifting energy at cryogenic temperatures is best illustrated by Fig.42 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The strategy for initial optimization might follow the undernoted sequential scheme: 1. 2. First fix both surface geometries. Allowances for longitudinal conduction may be made in the value for A0m. For full optimization there remains the problem of 'best guessing' both surface geometries. For rectangular offset strip-fin geometries. Performance comparison The dimensionless exergy loss number provides universal performance comparison for all heat exchangers. a guide will be found in Appendix C suggesting appropriate directions in which changes might be made. 2. A safer measure is obtained by starting from Q = USkdm which allows the expression for specific performance as this is now independent of choice of surface area. and vary the 'controlling' A/? until acceptable performance is found (the other Ap arrives automatically in direct-sizing). The summary of fully developed laminar flow solutions reported by Bhatti & Shah (1987) and by Webb (1994) also provide useful guide information. see Chapter 8. see Chapter 3. and systematically vary both surface geometries until appropriate performance is found.14 Compactness and performance Specific performance For comparison of different heat exchanger designs some authors use the parameter This is unsatisfactory because surface area 5 may or may not include secondary surfaces. See also Appendix J. 2. In all of these stages it is wise to find the LMTD reduction factor for longitudinal conduction and apply this in design. and it is easier to do this logically than to guess pressure losses.

4 for diatomic gases (see Chapter 11). He./20 allows evaluation of the levels of Ntu required in cryogenic heat exchange. respectively. and 'engines'. A0 = T/. y is around 1. A thermophysically efficient means of creating a refrigerating stream is to expand high-pressure gas in an inward radial flow cryo-turbine. N2.Fundamentals 43 Fig. 'heat pumps'.g. O2. The work required to lift heat from cryogenic temperatures and reject it to the dead state places a premium on achieving best possible heat exchange conditions. This information. viz. and Ar.21 Carnot efficiency above and below dead state T0 and below the dead state to define the regions named 'cryogenics'. H2. Ne. these ratios correspond to maximum temperature reduction ratios of around 1:2 and 2:3. The temperature reduction so caused depends on the isentropic index (y = CP/CV) of the expanded gas. Let us assume cooling of high-pressure product stream of nitrogen by a second refrigerating stream of nitrogen first expanded in a cryo-turbine. For the cryogenic gases of interest.2. To avoid loss-producing shock waves a limiting Mach number of 1 in the inlet nozzles of the cryo-turbine produces limiting pressure ratios of around 10:1 and 6:1 for monatomic and diatomic gases. together with the result obtained by Grassmann & Kopp that the temperature difference in cryogenic heat exchange should be proportional to absolute temperature.66 for monatomic gases and around 1. respectively. both streams . In cryogenic practice desirable pressure ratios are about one-third of the limiting values. e.

38) we obtain Nh = 8. Applying the 'rate' equation Applying the 'energy' equation Solving simultaneous equations (2. Fig. The outlet stream from the cryo-expander is at 100 K and is re warmed to 150 K while cooling the product stream. the resulting temperature profiles would be as shown in Fig.3).5 and 105 K for the product stream being cooled. With these overall values of Ntu.37) and (2.44 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers being sufficiently far away from the critical point so that linearization of the h-T curve for each fluid is a reasonable assumption (see Section 11. providing terminal temperature differences of 7.0 K.5148 and Nc = 8.2.22. providing the specific heats of both fluids remain constant. Inlet and outlet temperatures are 157.1093.5 and 5. and these values have to be equalled or exceeded.22 Normalized temperature profiles for contraflow with optimized temperature profiles . 2.

By comparing Figs 2. Engineers may find that full normalization of the mathematics sometimes takes away too much from the solution. A good example of this is to be found in Chapter 3. shifting the origin from one end of the exchanger to the other greatly simplified the mathematics for the isothermal and non-isothermal cases. Thus all four exchanger configurations are closely related.2 can be flipped about their vertical axes without changing the concept.1 and 2. this also allows the condensing or evaporating fluid to flow at right angles to the tubes and to the flow directions shown above. Figures 2. This 'normalization' does not change the relation of the curves to each other. 4. With the condenser and the evaporator. without changing the temperature field. In a real exchanger.10 on condensation and evaporation later in the text. 5. The curved temperature profiles in Figs 2. Shifting the origin can be helpful in simplifying mathematics. In Chapter 6 on bayonet-tube exchangers.4 can be drawn with the vertical scales corresponding to real temperatures and the horizontal scales corresponding to either exchanger length or surface area (the class of exchanger examined here has this constraint).1 to 2.4 the evaporator is a limiting-case of parallel flow.2 and 2.16). Anything to do with temperatures and temperature differences involves rate processes which are usually governed by exponentials. The reader may like to think about where the condenser and the evaporator might fit into this diagram. Similarly by comparing Figs 2. Figs 3. 3. one of shell-and-tube design. But these figures can be redrawn so that the maximum dimension in each direction is unity.Fundamentals 45 2. it does not matter whether the constanttemperature fluid flows to the right or to the left. Section 3. where full normalization would produce the following . and this observation is expressed formally in the 'generalized effectiveness plot' (Fig. Exponentials should be expected in the solutions to most of the cases examined in this text. 2.2.3 (the condenser and contraflow pair of diagrams).9 and 3. 1. The same is true for the parallel-flow exchanger (Fig.4 before proceeding to the rest of the text. 2. normalized results must be converted back to engineering dimensions before they can be applied.1 to 2.1 and 2. e.g. as a number of features may be seen by careful observation. Whenever possible the final expressions are expressed as dimensionless ratios for neatness.4 can be flipped about its vertical axis). the condenser is a limitingcase of contraflow. but simplifies the mathematics. it becomes obvious that as the hotter fluid in the contraflow exchanger increases in water equivalent beyond all bounds (mC -> oo). cf. 2. However.16 To dig deeper It is useful to think a little more carefully about Figs 2.

while recovering energy.46 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers canonical equation pair (Nusselt equations) at the expense of obscuring the problem. then good effectiveness values should be achieved without the need to address the effectiveness issue specifically in design. and the actual value of effectiveness achieved can usefully be compared to its limiting value. and checking these units is a valuable way of confirming that the equation has been correctly formulated. When care is taken to keep the temperature approach as small as practicable. Thinking is different for parallel-flow arrangements. The effectiveness concept Effectiveness is a measure of how closely the temperature of the fluid with the least water equivalent approaches the maximum possible temperature rise Tspan in the exchanger. Here the closest temperature approach in the exchanger is related to temperatures of fluids at the same end. this corresponds to seeking the closest temperature approach between fluids. or to controlling the drop in temperature of the hot fluid being cooled. respectively. Consider the symbols x and t representing distance (metres) and time (seconds). and to some extent for the crossflow arrangement. It is familiar territory to recognize velocity and acceleration. and only one of which has minimum entropy generation. Units in differential equations Throughout this text SI units are used. For the contraflow arrangement. It is perhaps not always realized that ordinary and partial differential equations have units. viz. as AN and but a short step to recognize that the units 'go' as the back end of the differential expressions: for velocity and acceleration. respectively and . because parallel-flow applications are usually more concerned with limiting the maximum temperature of the cold fluid being heated. It is possible to think of two contraflow exchangers with the same effectiveness.

for situations do exist where the form of the differential equations governing the phenomena under consideration may not be known. Into these conditions enter: (a) geometrical properties of the system (b) physical properties of the bodies involved in the phenomena under consideration . then units are obtained as The ntral partial differential equation of a set of three given as equation (A. viz. When the governing differential equations are known in advance. but they will be unfamiliar and difficult to apply. If too few are guessed then valid groups will still be produced.the conditions of singlevaluedness.I) of Appendix A is given below. This subject may require deeper study in other texts. To obtain one particular solution from the multitude of possible solutions we must provide additional information . There is some merit in examining both methods. the exact number of dimensionless groups can be extracted from them quite naturally. as here it has been simplified as far as seems practicable without destroying fundamental concepts of dimensional analysis of linear systems.17 Dimensionless groups It would not be proper to proceed further without some discussion of dimensionless groups which arise in both heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations used in the design of heat exchangers. This is the approach adopted below. If too many are guessed then the number of dimensionless groups may become over-large. Fundamental approach via differential equations A differential equation is a mathematical model of a whole class of phenomena (Luikov.Fundamentals 47 Where differential terms are themselves raised to powers. 2. 1966). Rayleigh's method and Buckingham's ir-theorem The reader may come across one or both of these algebraic approaches used in finding dimensionless groups. With both these approaches it is necessary first to intelligently 'guess' the number of independent variables involved in a problem. and the individual terms must have identical dimensions for the equation to make sense.

40) we can therefore write .48 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers (c) initial conditions describing the state of the system at the first instant (d) boundary conditions giving the interaction of the system with its surroundings Two conditions are similar if they are described by one and the same system of differential equations and have similar conditions of single-valuedness. We recognize the concepts of: • a class of phenomena .similarity • a single phenomenon . then In equation (2. There is no increased difficulty with heat generation.partial differential equations • a group of phenomena . the corresponding equation is Let the quantities referring to body 2 be related everywhere and for all times to the corresponding quantities of the first body where the F values are constants of proportionality. For body 1 this becomes If the surroundings are at TO then For body 2. but it introduces another parameter.partial differential equations plus conditions of singlevaluedness Similarity in transient thermal conduction Examine the case without internal heat generation. Consider the Cartesian form of the 'energy balance + Fourier constitutive' differential equation with constant physical properties.

39). which includes the physical constants.43) it follows that or. If equations (2. from equations (2. . where t is any characteristic dimension. The difference. and these relate to equation (2.41) will be identical to equation (2. providing First.Fundamentals 49 Equation (2. and 6 is the temperature in the solid wall. provided the boundary conditions and the initial conditions are also similar. it follows that + fO (FOURIER N The Fourier number. Second. Simple boundary conditions are illustrated in Fig.42) and (2. from equation (2. 2. is in a sense 'generalized time'. equation (2. In other words. and thus the heat flow in the two bodies similar. then the temperature distribution in the two bodies will be similar. and must be dimensionless because the F values are dimensionless. Tbuik is the temperature of the flowing stream and Ts is the surface temperature.45) implies that the bodies must be geometrically similar.45) and (2. is the temperature difference across the boundary layer.46) are satisfied.43) it follows that Thus where t\ and €2 are characteristic (or reference) lengths similarly defined in the two bodies. Ts — Tbuik = 6s.23.47).

23 Surface temperature profiles At the boundary f heat tranported across I boundary surface f heat flowing in 1 I body at surface J where a = surface heat transfer coefficient (J/m2 s K) 05 = temperature excess of surface above reference (K) I = dimension normal to the surface (m) Then by the same argument as before thus and the further condition is required that .50 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.2.

Thus the relationships define the conditions for similarity of heat conduction in a solid body. The analytical solution to this problem is given in terms of a Fourier series. This gives the condition of similarity of temperature distribution throughout the bodies at all times. of the initial conditions.e. heated on both sides in such a way that the surface temperatures are suddenly raised and maintained constant at temperature Ts. including similarity at the start.Fundamentals 51 or where I is a characteristic dimension = Bi (Biot number) The Biot number differs from the Nusselt number in that A refers to the solid. thus . consider the problem of a wall of finite thickness I. and not to the fluid surrounding the body. The basic 'energy balance + Fourier constitutive' differential equation governing this problem is with initial conditions r = O a t O < j t < L and surface conditions T = Ts at x = 0 and x = L. The condition that the ratio of the temperatures 6 at any point in the bodies to their surface temperatures Os is constant must also apply. Transient heat flow is therefore characterized by relations of the form Comparison with analytical solution To illustrate the connection between analytical solutions and conditions of similarity. which converges in about five terms where the term {1 — cos (mr)} is either 2 or 0. i.

24 Dimensionless plot of temperature history of an infinite flat plate with step change at the surface .24. 2. illustrating the use of dimensional groups as coordinates.2. Fig. the infinitely wide slab is the simplest case as heat flows along one axis only (thickness). A graphical plot prepared for this analytical solutions is presented in Fig.52 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers where The Biot number does not enter into this solution because surface temperatures were specified in fixing the boundary conditions. If surface heat-transfer coefficients had also been involved. the relationship would be of the form Williamson & Adams (1919) developed analytical solutions for the history of centre-line temperatures for a number of shapes whose surface temperatures were suddenly changed to a new value. The shapes considered were: infinitely wide slab cylinder with length equal to diameter cylinder with infinite length cube square bar sphere Of these.

describe the velocity components of a Newtonian fluid at each point in the fluid and at each instant of time.t. it would be necessary to solve simultaneously: (a) the single balance of mass equation (b) the three Navier-Stokes field equations (momentum balance -f Newtonian constitutive).50). it is not surprising that general solutions for the simultaneous linear differential equations describing fluid flow have not been found. To appreciate this.Fundamentals 53 Convective heat transfer Turning to convective heat transfer. .t.r. gives the temperature distribution throughout the fluid with respect to (w. time where <I> is the Rayleigh dissipation function These equations must be solved in association with: • boundary conditions (velocity and temperature conditions at the surface) • initial conditions (velocity and temperature conditions at time zero) • temperature-dependent physical properties Referring back to the very simple conduction equation (2.49) and its more complex analytical solution (2.r. and analytical solutions exist only for very simple physical situations.) location of each point in space w. Only the jc-direction equation is given below (c) the single-field equation (energy balance + Newtonian constitutive). the basic differential equations become extremely complex.

that they should be used with caution. and it will suffice to provide some physical interpretation of the dimensionless groups which may be encountered in experimental correlations for heat transfer and fluid flow. Dimensionless groups in heat transfer and fluid flow It is straightforward to set about extracting dimensionless groups from the NavierStokes and Newtonian energy balance equations. and that their range of applicability must always be known. and in other engineering texts. Gr A» pressure force Euler number. .Stokes) Reynolds number. Re Grashof number. for perfect gas speed of sound in fluid mu2/2 mCO kinetic energy thermal energy . Ma — u a velocity of fluid flow „ . .54 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers In forced turbulent convection simple experimental correlations for fluids and gases flowing through pipes. The dimensionless groups involved would include the following: From similarity of the velocity fields (Navier. The extraction will not be repeated here. may be written Comparing this with equation (2. . This is explained in Schlichting (1960). 6 temperature difference between wall and fluid perhaps to be understood from Mach number. . EC = —— = C.50) it is easy to induce that it might be better written as a more complicated series expansion This comparison suggests simply that empirical correlations are at best an approximation to what is actually happening. . Eu = —= = pu2 inertia force From similarity of the temperature fields (Newtonian energy balance) u2 2 x temperature increase at stagnation Eckert number.

. two. . At the elementary level used in heat transfer. Nu = — = A conductive heat transfer of fluid From geometric similarity One. which is a measure of whether heating effects caused by compressibility are likely to be important. Pr = — = —. Typical heat-transfer correlations are Forced turbulent convection inside a tube Natural convection air over horizontal pipes where the Rayleigh number Ra is the product of Grashof and Prandtl numbers. the friction factor (f) provides the link. Gr.30. e. (d/t} as one length ratio. EC. because Reynolds number applies to forced convection.g. . Whether the Eckert number need be present may be determined by the Mach number. A general function obtained from governing equations for convective heat transfer may look like N u = / R e .Fundamentals 55 „ . The Euler number provides a pressure-loss coefficient for flow. viz. then the fluid may be regarded as incompressible and the Eckert number can be omitted. . while Grashof number applies to natural convection. If Ma < 0. „ ^ ^ ut heat transfer by convection Pe = Pr Re = — = K heat transfer by conduction „ Pe CTI ri/p momentum diifusivity Prandtl number. Flow drag expressions in natural convection may be more complicated. The Stanton number may be used to replace the Nusselt number in some correlations. For forced turbulent convection inside a tube.—Re A K thermal diffusivity From similarity at the boundary at total heat transfer Nusselt number. Eu = </>(Re). P r . The Peclet number is adequately represented by the (Pr.. . Peclet number.„. Only when the magnitude of the two effects are of similar order will it be necessary to include both numbers.= — . or three lengths as appropriate. Re) groups and need not be explicitly present.= -^. It is not usual to have both Reynolds number and Grashof number present together.

g. and frequently a better fit can be produced employing an interpolating cubic spline-fit which allows for individual experimental errors at each data point. D. and Fulford. Catchpole. at the end of the book. Chem. R. Clayton. (1959) Dimensionless numbers for fluid mechanics. The reader is referred to Bejan (1995) for an up-to-date treatment of correlations. Kakac.E. G. M. Mech. 183-190. 1953. 1974).023(Re)a8(Pr)°-4 This equation is simply a mathematical 'best' fit to a graph of experimental data. Engng Education. (1987) Laminar convective heat transfer in ducts. aerodynamic heating in high-speed aircraft.6. Klockzien & Shannon (1969). In using heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations it is not essential to have a correlation expressed in mathematical form. Shah. Catchpole. A. and W. Boucher. Wiley Interscience. 71-78.F. Bhatti. 58(3). D. thermal effects due to compressibility become significant. (1995) Convective Heat Transfer. 55-83.e. Dugundji & Calligeros. Obot et ol. e. e.S. References Bejan.P. March.g. Ind. and Fulford. 1962. The reader may be impressed by the number of dimensionless groups listed by Catchpole & Fulford (1966. Some recommendations on spline-fitting procedures are given in Appendix B.. Ind. When the Eckert number is large. Applicability of dimensionless groups There are many applications where dimensional analysis provides information which would not otherwise be easily seen.K. Engng Chem. Hovanesian & Kowalski. heat transfer.K. i. (1984) Increasing the power of the LMTD method for heat exchangers. September. (1968) Dimensionless groups. illustrated by the papers by Boucher & Alves (1959). J. 60(3). J.P. and these effects are separable because the Eckert number is small. and Alves.. 55(9). J.56 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Coupling between the equation for heat transfer and the equation for pressure loss is through the Reynolds number. March. 1967. Engng Progress.. Nu = 0. (1966) Dimensionless groups.G. Jones. 46-60. 1968). New York. John Wiley.g. and Shah. Handbook of Single-phase Heat Transfer. G. S. G. . Engng Chem. Chapter 3 (Eds. mass transfer and chemical reaction. Aung). 13(3).g. and Morrison (1969). e. (1991) and Obot (1993) who extend flow similarity concepts to include transition to turbulent flow for different channel geometries. 2nd edn. Lessen. Int. thermal effects due to friction are small. R. However the principal applications have been in the field of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Similarity can also be applied to mechanical structures (see e.

Hemisphere. (1994) Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer. Section 1. 113. and Adams. Jones. February. J.M. Aerospace ScL. Jendrzejczyk. . 1. and Wambsganss. G. 3-10. 20(10). Obot.D. New York. 8. Pergamon.S.F.5. J. May. p.. (1993) The factional law of corresponding states: its origin and applications. L. Kaltetechnik. Engng ScL. Mech. Spalding. E. Hewitt).W. M. John Wiley. (1974) Similarity principles in structural mechanics. Hovanesian. Trans. (1962) Similarity laws for aerothermoelastic testing.. D. Engng Education.L. 71(A).D. Engng Education. 13-17 January 1969. J.B.A. (1969) Thermal scale modelling of spacecraft. F. 935-950.B. MS Thesis: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. vol. and Calligeros. January. V. J. New York. R. ASME.) Paterson. and Kowalski. Klockzien. R. Section 1. (1957) Zur gunstigen Wahl der Temperaturdifferenz und der Warmeubergangszahl in Warmeaustauchern. P.T. 1635-1636. 716-717. (1991) Direct determination of the onset of transition to turbulence in flow passages.. (The author is grateful to Captain David Herbein for making a copy of this thesis available. J. G. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. W. H. 289-300. Lessen. Taborek. Ind. Pun). Physical Rev. T. N. Harrison and W. Engineers. Aerospace ScL. 9(10). (1960) Boundary Layer Theory.G. Hemisphere Handbook of Heat Exchanger Design (Ed. Soc. (1933) Graphical computation of logarithmic mean temperature difference. Luikov. J. D. Paper 690196. A. CRC Press. (1919) Temperature distribution in solids during heating or cooling. Bull. Grassmann. Fluids Engng. August. McGraw-Hill.R. Hemisphere. J.T. Inst. (1983) Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. AJ.. Hewitt. (1967) Similarity in elasticity. G. J. Underwood. H. (1966) Heat and Mass Transfer in Capillary-Porous Bodies (English Translation by P.L. 39(11). 7. Chem.H.W. 2(2).Fundamentals 57 Dugundji. Williamson. Obot. June 1987. and Kopp. 82-84. 602-607. (1984) A replacement for the logarithmic mean. 14. and Bott.V. Int. Trans.A.V. 306-308. N. Florida. J. and Shannon. Mechanics. Shires. 43. (1953) On similarity in thermal stresses in bodies.3. 4th edn. 1-10.. N.L. 99-114.2. Table 2. Chem. Chemist. (1987) Comparison of entropy generation and conventional design methods for heat exchangers. Bibliography Herbein. (1969) Generalised dimensional analysis and similarity analyses.C.1-1. Exp. 167-170. Morrison. Webb. Schlichting.R. J. Mech. 29.M. New York. Automotive Engineers. (1990) Analytical solutions. M.F.

Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Proof of linear temperature profiles requires a simple introduction to the development of the differential equations that govern temperature distributions (see Fig. Taking differential energy balances. 3. Hotfluid f energy entering! I with hot fluid J f energy leaving! I with hot fluid j f heat transferred! 1 to cold fluid J f energy stored! [ in hot fluid J Fig.1). and transients.CHAPTER 3 Steady-State Temperature Profiles Mostly dinary differential equations 3. Eric M.1 Linear temperature profiles in contraflow This is a special case of contraflow that is of interest for heat exchangers in idealized recuperated gas turbine plant. Ltd.3.1 Arbitrary temperature profiles Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. step-wise rating. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .

2). From equation (3. .3) and differentiating but thus hence a linear profile exists (Fig.60 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers giving Coldfluid giving Writing overall values of Ntu as the coupled equations (3. It only remains to show that one temperature profile is linear. It is a necessary but not sufficient condition for straight and parallel temperature profiles. and it follows that dTh/dx = dTc/dx.2) become For equal water equivalents Nh= Nc. which shows that the gradients are the same at any '*'.1) and (3. 3.

Steady-State Temperatur Profiles 61 Fig.4 there is no longitudinal conduction in the wall. no energy storage in the fluids or the wall (transients).2 Normalized temperature profiles with Nh = Nc = 5. and no external losses.3.3.3 Contraflow . no heat generation in the fluids or the wall.2 General cases of contraflow and parallel flow In the treatments shown in Figs 3.3 and 3. Fig.0 3.

3. Hotfluid [energy entering! 1 with hot fluid j [energy leaving! ( with hot fluid J [ heat transferred! ( to cold fluid j ( [energy stored! em \ ii hot fluid J in Coldfluid Scaling of length x is possible by writing so that with .4 Parallel flow The analysis for each of the above heat exchanger flow configurations is practically identical. Similarly. the treatment of hot and cold fluids is virtually identical.62 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. thus only the contraflow exchanger will be considered.

4) and (3.4) Differentiating In equation (3. but for the present we can proceed more directly from equations (3.4) and (3. in the independent variable takes too much information away from the engineering and it is better to write £ = x/L.Steady-State Temperature Profiles equations (3. From equation (3. Then reverting back to the original notation Scaling and normalization will be useful later when compact notation is helpful.5).5) become for 0 < £ < 1 3 but including AT).6) with boundary conditions .5) Similarly for the cold fluid The solution to equation (3.

0 Fig.3. Normalized temperature profiles with Nh = 5.0 . Nr = 2.0. The chain-dotted lines generated Fig. valid for both hot fluid and cold fluid in contraflow A similar analysis for the parallel-flow case produces Expressions (Nh — Nc) and (A//. i. The following dimensionless expressions control the temperature profiles.9) cease to be effective. Nf . They are perhaps more fundamental than the concept of effectiveness itself. the condition when the driving temperature differences in equations (3. and provide means for assessing the useful length of the exchanger.0. and Figures 3.2.8) and (3.5 Contraflow.8 provide normalized temperature profiles for two cases of contraflow and two cases of parallel flow.3.e. respectively.6 Parallel flow.64 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers from which the following dimensionless (and normalized) result is obtained. and 'rate' and 'energy' equations derived earlier in the LMTD-Ntu approach in Section 2. in that they come directly from the differential equations.3. Normalized temperature profiles with Nh — 5.5 to 3. + Nc) relate back to both the common effectiveness diagram.

Nf = 5.0. Normalized temperature profiles with Nh — 2. Nc = 5. Intermediate wall temperature In steady-state heat exchange it is possible to obtain approximate expressions for wall temperature without formally introducing a differential equation for the wall.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 65 Fig.0 from the above dimensionless exponential ratios allow assessment of useful length of exchanger for effective heat transfer in practical cases. At any intermediate point in the exchanger.0 Fig. and there is no longitudinal conduction along the wall. write .8 Parallel flow.0. quite good. In such circumstances the wall has no stored energy (no transients). however. differential heat flow and energy expressions may be written To confirm the consistency of these equations.3. Normalized temperature profiles with Nh = 2.7 Contraflow.3. so that wall temperature gradients at the ends are not correctly represented. The representation is. Wall temperatures are required whenever a heat-transfer correlation contains a correction factor of the form (r^/r^)0-14.

11) above show that it would not be possible to determine which side of the exchanger is fouling without additional information. Although these cases are simple. It is not possible to obtain Tw from knowledge of A^ and Nc alone. This provides a measure of the overall heat-transfer coefficient.66 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Adding which is only true if seen to be correct for the case when no wall equation is present. The results in equation (3. and thus are worthy of consideration. However. may apply to other cases as well.11) will apply locally to the case of simple crossflow with both fluids unmixed and. equations (3.3 Condensation and evaporation Two special cases in which the temperature of one fluid remains constant require separate consideration. by inspection. their solutions also provide the inlet temperature distributions for the case of unmixed crossflow with constant inlet conditions.10. A^) using the LMTDNtu equations developed in Section 2. 3. The analysis can be simplified by considering normalized temperatures from the start. Again from the above derived equation giving In practical cases ah and ac will have been evaluated. Consider the case of condensation. which could be used to assess whether exchanger performance is deteriorating due to fouling. By measuring two inlet and two outlet temperatures in parallel-flow and contraflow exchangers it is practicable to calculate values of (Nh. .

10 Evaporation Coldfluid f energy enteringl 1 with cold fluid J f energy leaving 1 \ with cold fluid] f heat transferred 1 } from hot fluid j f energy stored 1 [in cold fluid J which provides the solution Similarly for the case of evaporation 3.3. conduction effects in the fluid can usually be neglected.4 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow Longitudinal conduction in the direction of falling temperature is a problem in higheffectiveness contraflow heat exchangers. particularly in the design of cryogenic plant. For gases.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 67 Fig.9 Condensation Fig.3. in the wall separating the two fluids and in the shell of the exchanger. . Conduction will occur in each fluid.1 thermal conductivity in the supercritical liquid region starts to become important.

by omitting Fig. a first design pass is necessary to determine the approximate size of the exchanger and obtain the wall cross-section involved in longitudinal conduction. the final design should be conservative. equations (A.68 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers and with plate-fin heat exchangers shell conduction losses are also small.I). The balance of energy equations for the steady state when longitudinal conduction is present is obtained from Appendix A. but as maximum deterioration in performance has been incorporated. the problem is to find the corrected LMTD to use in design when longitudinal conduction effects are present. Equal water equivalents The following analysis is based on the paper by Kroeger (1966) which includes a closed-form solution for the case of equal water equivalents .11 Schematic temperature profiles including the wall . In sizing a heat exchanger. and this reduced value of LMTD is applied in a second design pass to obtain the final size of the exchanger.identical to that for the case of most severe deterioration in heat exchanger performance. This avoids the necessity of solving three simultaneous partial differential equations for each individual case.3. The reduction in LMTD is then obtained using Kroeger's method.I. Given the terminal temperatures of a contraflow heat exchanger. leaving only longitudinal conduction in the wall as a significant effect. The approach is approximate.

15) and equation (3. A) refer to the wall. the set of equations (3.Steady-State Temperature Profiles time-dependent terms. the central equation may be written as and for the special case of equal water equivalents (m^Q = mcCc = mC).15) now becomes . and writing the effective thermal diffusivity as 69 The central equation of equations (3.15) may be written as Using the first and last of equations (3. and understanding that (A.14). we may write Writing AND as local MM values.

which have the solutions The boundary conditions are Substituting in the first and last of equations (3. then corresponding with Kroeger's equations.70 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Writing and normalizing the length of the exchanger by putting X = x/L.19) .

00 — — 1000.1 Data for evaluating longitudinal conduction profiles Parameter (units) Mass flowrate. m Thermal conductivity. Tc) in equation (3. J/(kg K) Local transfer units. MM Density.Steady-State Temperature Profiles Differentiating the central equation of equations (3.23).0 0.1 have been selected to exaggerate the effect of longitudinal conduction on the performance of a contraflow exchanger.24).0 5. Tw. kg/s Specific heat.50 800.25) may be written and solved for AI. kg/s Cross-section. m2 Exchanger length. J/(m s K) Hot gas Cold fluid Solid wall 1.10 0.50 500.20) from equation (3.0 .20) is then solved for AO. and A3. allowing complete solution for temperature profiles (T/. Schematic temperature profiles Analytical solution The data in Table 3.19) 71 and substituting from the two boundary conditions given above Subtracting equation (3. (3. Figure 3.00 — — 1. Equation (3.0 4. The group of curves marked Temperature profiles' have solid lines for actual temperature profiles and chain-dotted line for the wall temperature profile when longitudinal conduction is present.12 applies to the case of equal water equivalents only.19). A 2 .00 1200. The Table 3. and parameters have been 'tweaked' to emphasize features.21) Simultaneous equations (3. and (3..

3. The reduction to be applied to LMTD calculated from terminal temperatures is obtained numerically and is the average over 50 stations. The solution for equal water equivalents (m/. . 3.C/. = mhCh) gives the maximum reduction in LMTD. The computational results presented in Fig.72 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. The steady-state equations including longitudinal conduction are set out below. temperatures are replaced by their subscripts in upper case. The reduced temperature difference along the exchanger and the LMTD reduction factor due to longitudinal conduction is also shown.14 applies to realistic profiles.12 show temperature profiles when longitudinal conduction is ignored. to simplify notation.12 show fluid and solid wall temperatures deviating from expected linear temperature profiles. Figure 3. Dotted lines have been omitted on the 'Temperature profiles' curves. and the LMTD reduction curves have been calculated numerically. Here. The LMTD reduction curve shows the difference in temperature of the two solid temperature profile lines. The LMTD reduction factor is used later in design.12 Temperature profiles with longitudinal conduction (equal water equivalents) straight dotted lines in Fig. Unequal water equivalents Kroeger's paper does not discuss evaluation of LMTD reduction for unequal water equivalents (ihhCh ^ mcCc).3. We now proceed to obtain a numerical solution for the unequal case.

Steady-State Temperature Profiles where 73 The numerical solution for unequal water equivalents depends on writing finitedifference expressions for wall temperatures only at internal positions (Fig. refers to the Wj position. becomes where P. and the coefficients may be inserted in a [3m.see the example in Section 3.3.13). The reason for this is examined at the beginning of Section 3. thus At hot fluid inlet where inlet temperature (Ho) is known Similar expressions exist for the two remaining reduced equations.8 Fig.8. 3. and then generalizing this to Vn' intervals.13 Notation for five finite-difference intervals . Care is required when creating the forward finite-difference expressions to ensure that temperatures are always evaluated at the internal wall station. 3m + 1] matrix . For the first equation. Matrices are most easily generated by writing out in full the equations for five finite-difference intervals.

All of the expression obtained require numerical evaluation to be of use. but it does work so close to the balanced situation so as not to matter. 3. Solution of the matrix is by Gaussian inversion. S) may be taken as constants. followed by direct numerical solution of these equations using finite differences. Instead the fundamental equations will first be obtained in canonical form. Results for one computation are shown in Fig.10 x (mcCc) for the approach.14 LMTD reduction for unequal water equivalents (/n/jC/.) = 1. . The parameters (P.3. 3. the fundamental configuration having both fluids unmixed (Fig. A solution to the problem was obtained first by Nusselt (1911) in the form of analytical series expansions. We shall not travel down that path. A simple case is for one fluid mixed. This avoids having to proceed via the Kroeger analytical approach. The finite-difference computation does not work for equal water equivalents. Here we shall consider the fundamental problem of both fluids unmixed in a onepass exchanger and neglect effects of longitudinal conduction.14. R. and between passes each fluid can be mixed or unmixed. 3.15). When two and more passes are involved then the number of possible arrangements increases. Since that time many other workers have sought improved solutions.5 Mean temperature difference in unmixed crossflow One-pass crossflow offers several possible arrangements. but it was left to Baclic & Heggs (1985) to show that all of these were mathematically equivalent. for heat exchange in each pass can be both unmixed or with one fluid mixed. Q. or evaluated at each station when temperatures are known.74 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.

3.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 75 Fig.15 Differential temperatures for one-pass unmixed crossflow This prepares the reader for later chapters in which transients are considered. where a numerical approach rather like solving the unmixed crossflow problem is required. The mass flow in the x-direction entering the element of side 8y is Striking energy balances for hot fluid and cold fluid together: Hotfluid f energy entering 1 I with hot fluid J f energy leaving! } with hot fluid J f heat transf erred 1 \ to cold fluid J f energy stored 1 \ is hot fluid j Coldfluid .

refrain from making the complete normalization which would produce the canonical pair of Nusselt equations (see Section 3. The present choice retains the values of Ntu to help with physical interpretation of the finite-difference solution.76 Thus Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers giving Normalizing the sides (Lx.2). For temperature distributions in crossflow. symbolic logic software evaluation of one of the many equivalent mathematical series solutions obtained by . and from this point onwards reverting to the original notation for temperature for simplicity. Ly) of the exchanger and the temperatures on both sides with linear scaling results in the equations To keep the Ntu values visible.

viz. If both Th and Tc are uniform at inlet. This allows a straightforward numerical solution similar in style to solving the transient contraflow problem. It is straightforward to set up a finite-difference solution starting with equations (3.0 are shown in Figs 3. using a unit block (x.0. The above approach is explicit finite difference.0 and Tc = 0. With Nh = Nc = 10. y. A better choice is for maximum values of Ntu around 4. For equally spaced intervals at least a 50 x 50 mesh should be used. T) and (1.0 for one-pass unmixed crossflow. .0 can be used to obtain the temperature responses for Th at jc = 0 and Th at y — 0. which turn out to be the same temperature distributions as for condensation and evaporation. Clearly the crossflow exchanger is not an appropriate design selection when Ntu values close to 10. 1] and Tc[l.[1. which provides: • • • • • • • mean temperature difference mean outlet temperatures outlet temperature profiles temperature sheets temperature difference sheet effectiveness self-checking heat balances We notice that the independent variables occur in different equations. use the modified Euler-Cauchy The process is repeated until the temperature sheets are complete. T) as a means of representing the temperature field. All essential design parameters may now be found. the computed temperature difference sheet (Th — Tc) is near zero at the corners (0.1. — 1. then the initial states 7). particularly from the steepest parts of the temperature field. T).16 and 3. and desirably correct analytical values used as input data. Now consider the (x. 1] are now kn method values to generate n.27). respectively. and results for NH = Nc = 5. y) face of the block as a 50 x 50 square grid. and from Nusselt slopes at jc = 0 and y = 0 obtain Since both 7).Steady-State Temperature Profiles 77 Baclic & Heggs (1985) may be less comprehensive than proceeding directly from the finite-difference numerical solution.17.0. and accuracy is affected by error propagation.0 are involved. providing no driving force for heat transfer.

78 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.0 . The graphical results of Figs 3. Fig.3.3.16 and 3.17 Temperature difference sheet (Th .16 Temperature sheets Th and Tc for Nh = Nc = 5.Tc) for Nh = Nc = 5.17 were produced with these listings.0 Schematic algorithms Listings that allow construction of finite-difference algorithms in any source code are presented in Appendix B.

The exchanger can be considered as two single-pass exchangers of equal surface area.6 Extension to two-pass unmixed crossflow Figure 3. Values of Ntu employed in the solution now refer to half the total surface area. and the cold fluid inlet temperature as Tc = 0. negative temperature differences may appear as profiles approach. and the solution proceeds by solving the simple cases A and B successively until there is no change in intermediate temperature distributions for Th and Tc (Fig. and the process continues until no significant changes in intermediate temperature distributions for 7). is calculated.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 79 3.3. and Tc are obtained. In this coupled solution.19). which then becomes the input for case B. An approximate intermediate warm outlet temperature distribution for 7).5 everywhere. and temperature and temperature-difference distributions may be obtained by making use of the algorithm for the simple unmixed crossflow case. Of the possible arrangements suggested by Stevens et al. (1957) and by Baclic (1990). 3. This may indicate the need for one or more of: • improved algorithms • an increase in the number of finite-difference stations • use of a computer with more accurate floating point capability Fig.18 Computation of mean temperature difference for two-pass crossflow . This produces a better estimate for the intermediate temperature distribution Tc. this is possibly the most practicable configuration. A solution to case A is first obtained by assuming that the intermediate cold inlet temperature distribution is Tc = 0. It is convenient to take the hot fluid inlet temperature as Th = 1.18 illustrates one flow arrangement for a two-pass crossflow exchanger.

3.0 As soon as a negative temperature difference appears an adjusted mean of the two temperatures was substituted according to the following scheme: Mean outlet values for Th and Tc can then be evaluated.25 show mean outlet temperatures together with their associated temperature bands.23.24 and 3.80 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.21). Surface areas of such regions are inefficient in heat transfer. e.0 whenever exchanger mass is important.0. 3. .g. while two-pass unmixed crossflow might be used to Ntu values around 7. and it is relevant to note the values ofNtu above which local temperature differences in the exchanger become negligible.0. it is also important to examine the outlet temperature profiles in Figs 3. aerospace applications. Appropriate selection of order switching leads to solutions for different exchanger configurations. However. Nc = 7. Band limits should not get too close to the limiting values 1 and 0. and these are best studied on Fig.19 Terminal temperature profiles for Nh = 7.18. Little difference in performance is evident from the e-Ntu curves which are based on mixed outlet temperature value (Figs 3. together with all other information concerning temperature distributions. In preparing the algorithm it is important to note the order of switching of numerical values for intermediate temperature distributions between cases A and B. Figures 3. indicating that one-pass unmixed crossflow is limited to Ntu values below 4. Final mixing involves external thermodynamic irreversibilities.22 and 3.20 and 3.

In the limit. there exists an alternative design philosophy to that of equal surface areas.3. For sizing A and B. but the designer should be aware of the situation and decide when another pass is to be added.23 Outlet temperature profiles for two-pass unmixed crossflow. It involves iterating until effectiveness values are equal for A and B.3.3.22 Outlet temperature profiles for one-pass unmixed crossflow. Nh=Nc = 1.10 .it just means that some of the surface is doing nothing while the remainder carries more duty. Fig. Nc) for each section. 2.20 e-Ntu for one-pass unmixed crossflow Fig. This results in different paired values (Nh.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 81 Fig. and the surface areas involved will thus be different. 5. Nh=Nc = 1. 2.10 Fig. the performance of a four-pass crossflow arrangement approaches that of a contraflow design.21 e-Ntu for two-pass unmixed crossflow There is no restriction in going to higher Ntu values .3. 5.

7 Involute-curved plate-fin exchangers These may be designed as unmixed/unmixed single-pass contraflow exchangers using the same theory as developed for flat-plate compact contraflow exchangers in Chapter 4.26) in equations (3. Nh=Nc = 1.10 3.25 Mean outlet temperatures and temperature bands for two-pass unmixed crossflow.10 Fig.24 Mean outlet temperatures and temperature bands for one-pass unmixed crossflow. Parametric representation of the involute curve depends on angle t measured on the base circle Differential length of arc is given by giving ds = ^/(dx) + (dy) and Using equations (3.3. 5.27) . 5.82 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. 2.3. 2. Nh=Nc = 1. It is only necessary to relate the curved length of an involute plate (s) to the inner (a) and outer (b) radii of the exchanger core.

or a numerical solution which can be coded without some effort. as was the case with pure contraflow. 3.1) and (1. A simpler approach based on that of Chiou may be employed. The second arrangement has two radial passes and one axial pass. The starting point is the set of three partial differential energy equations for steady-state crossflow . Thus Chiou's results are of practical interest perhaps only for Ntu values less than 5. The first arrangement has one radial pass and two axial passes. If these 'boundary' conditions become available. equations (A. Two unmixed two-pass crossflow arrangements are possible. Elsewhere in this text it is shown that surface area in the (0.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 83 Outer radius b is given by One.I.0 for single-phase fluids. Chiou investigated performance deterioration for Ntu values in the range 1-100. The greatest deterioration occurred with equal water equivalents. In considering how we might solve these coupled equations it is useful first to consider whether solutions can be found for the two flow-inlet faces of the crossflow exchanger. .0.0) corners of the unit block for one-pass unmixed crossflow tend to become ineffective at Ntu values greater than about 5. Arrangements with higher numbers of passes are also possible but at the expense of greater complexity in manufacture. see Chiou (1978).8 Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow There is no clean analytical solution to this comparison with those for contraflow in Appendix A. Insulation strips would be required in both cases. The unmixed one-pass crossflow arrangement has one fluid flowing axially and the other fluid flowing radially. then the chances of finding a solution to the complete problem are much improved.I).and two-pass crossflow arrangements may also be developed using the same theory developed for flat-plate compact crossflow exchangers in Chapter 4.

viz. = 1 for x — 0 and for all y.84 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Equation pairs for the inlet faces The governing equations for both hot fluid and cold fluid conditions may be extracted from the above set. for the presence of Tw alone in the first equation of both sets means that explicit equations for Tw and its derivatives can be found for substitution in the second equation of each pair. A cubic equation which can . Boundary conditions are T/.h(Lx/Uh) Residence mass mc = mc(Ly/uc) and thermal diffusivities are defined as giving parameter /?/. and when normalized to unit length and unit temperature span these provide two separate sets of equations. Wall temperature at the origin might be obtained from knowledge of the local heat-transfer coefficients on each side of the exchanger Tw = ah/(ah + ac) as there is no longitudinal conduction at this point. but as will be seen later this may be a questionable assumption when longitudinal conduction is present. and Tc = 0 for y = 0 and for all x. for constant fluid velocities only Residence mass m/. = MwCw/(mhCh) giving parameter Rc = MwCw/(mcCc) Cold inlet face Solution methods Analytical approach Attempts were made first to solve these equations analytically. Hot inlet face where. This results in a third-order ordinary differential equation in Th or Tc which may be solved by assuming the usual exponential solution. = m.

1980) provides a solution for the temperature field in crossflow when longitudinal conduction is present. and as we are only interested in the difference between hot and cold fluid temperatures in determining degradation in exchanger performance this seems quite acceptable. then loading these in a matrix for direct solution. Implicit modified finite-difference approach The method of Chiou (1978. This may be because the requirement of zero wall temperature gradient at the origin is very swiftly followed by a point of inflexion in the wall profile.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 85 be solved numerically permits an analytical solution for both temperature profiles on each face and the necessary boundary conditions are available for a complete solution. although the cubic could be solved. It became apparent at this stage that the equations were very 'stiff. Explicit finite-difference approach When an explicit finite-difference method was applied starting at the origin. notation temperatures are replaced by their subscripts in upper-case (Fig. Formulation of the matrix Matrices are most easily generated by writing out in full the equations for five finitedifference intervals.26). 3.26 Notation for five finite-difference intervals ./(a/.34) and the y-direction. but the equations presented by Chiou are quite complicated. the roots so produced became arguments in exponentials. when numerical values for a real exchanger were inserted. again the solution 'blew up'. and then generalizing this to 'm' intervals. The same remarks apply for equations (3. Another approach thus became necessary. and some other method of solution would be required. However. + ac) at the origin is required.3. To simplify. as the author freely admitted in his paper. and also because the assumption of Tw = a/. some of which could not be evaluated on the computer.34) the trick is to avoid writing wall equations for x = 0 and jc = Lx. Fig. For equations (3. Examining this solution it became apparent that it was entirely equivalent to writing simultaneous finite-difference expressions.

5) and Tw at X = (j + 0.AX .86 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers For five intervals on the 'hot' face (//). 3.33) above may be written The second equation of equations (3. 4.AX (7 = 1.2. the first equation of equations (3.33) may be written Writing the coefficients as follows the 10x11 matrix to be solved is given in Table 3. 2.5). Inversion of this matrix gives the values of Th at X =j.

2 as a model.Steady-State Temperature Profiles Table 3. 1 1 7/7 P Q 2 #2 P Q 3 H3 4 #4 5 H5 6 WO R 7 Wl R 8 W2 9 10 W4 11 RHS 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -Q R R P Q S S P Q P U+T T S T U T T U T T U T R -S T U+T S S S S S S RHS. The value of Th at X = 0 is 1. 0' = 0.32).2 Matrix of coefficients 87 T Eq. the general PASCAL algorithms for a (2m.0 and the value of Tw at X = 0 may be taken as ^/(a^ + «c). BEGIN END . In this case it is approximately a sine curve (Fig. 1. L is length of the exchanger in the direction of conduction. where A is the crosssection for axial conduction. 4). Evaluation of the cross-section for the Kays & London (1964) plain plate-fin surface 19.27). e. 2. 3. In equations (3. A similar matrix exists for equations (3. Solution of the inlet problem Data for the crossflow exchanger are due to Shah (1983). Using the matrix in Table 3. 3. The half-height cross-section for rectangular offset strip-fin surface .86 is eased if the centre-line of the geometry is first obtained. V is the volume of solid material in the heat exchange surfaces. Note that we are interested in only half-fin height associated with one plate in the exchanger. and the arc length may be determined using standard methods. and K is the thermal diffusivity of the material of construction. and so on.32) coefficients are evaluated in terms of k = (AL/V)K. Wylie (1953). right-hand side. 2m + 1) matrix may easily be constructed as follows: BEGIN END.g.31) and (3.

and this is only half the width of the plate.28. which contributes to deterioration in performance on the other side of the plate. This provides values of surface cross-sections useful in determining V which must also include the plate./(«/! + ac). For the rectangular offset strip-fin surface again half the cross-section of the material was assumed effective.86 the conduction section is the same as that for determining volume of material. In the case of plain plate-fin surface 19. The reader may rightly enquire whether such detailed evaluation of the surfaces for longitudinal conduction is necessary. but this simpler procedure is altogether less traumatic.88 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. Cross-sections for longitudinal conduction may be obtained at the same time. We still have to find V to calculate the mass of material for evaluating Rh and Rc.27 Centre-line of plain plate-fin surface 19. A little more thought is required to evaluate the contribution of both surfaces in conduction at right angles to their flow lengths.3. the ends of the computed curve for wall temperature being marked by 'plus' symbols to show how distant they were from the end values.86 (approximately to scale) 104(S). for we could more simply use K instead of k and still obtain a conservative design.31) and (3. Also shown as dotted lines are the steady-state values computed for the case without the wall equation.32) and are presented graphically in Fig. For the plain surface 19. Normalized inlet conditions for both sides of the exchanger were computed using equations (3. 3. For the exchanger examined.61 is more easily determined. Tw = «/. In the case of rectangular offset strip-fin surface 104(S) the conduction path is effectively reduced to material attached directly to the plate. Reduction in mean temperature difference on the 'condenser' face was .86 this was taken as the cross-section of the material. It was found possible to use 50 divisions along each face. longitudinal conduction in the wall does affect performance. designated 1/8-15. normalized wall temperature being evaluated by using the appropriate ratios of local heat transfer coefficients.

if the mean temperature difference reduction factor for the whole exchanger is computed this would be better. then the reduction factor obtained from temperature profiles on the inlet faces will suffice.992 58. If we use the maximum reduction factor found. we still do not have an exact solution to the problem (Fig. and reduction in mean temperature on the 'evaporator' face of 0.29). Figures 3. If the objective is to reduce longitudinal conduction to a minimum so as to be able to calculate transients. The one reservation associated with Chiou's method is that it cannot properly evaluate dTw/dx = 0 at jc = 0 unless the increments AJC are extremely small.3. and temperature profiles on these faces will be used to assess the amount of longitudinal conduction.28 Schematic temperature profiles on inlet faces of a crossflow exchanger evaluated as 0. y = 0). and probably may be neglected. .17 show the temperature ridge starting at (x = 1. The two inlet faces provide an immediate approximation to the steepest slopes. Of course. and divide the exchanger duty by this factor.99251 was found. In this mathematical respect. then a second run of the program will produce a design that allows for the effect. y = 0) and as any hill climber knows the easiest route is along the ridge.16 and 3. It is likely that greatest longitudinal conduction effects are to be found at right angles to this ridge and near to the point (x = 0. but the approach should be clear. y = 1) finishing at (x = 0. 3.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 89 Fig. This involves systematically changing individual surface geometries. However. It is beyond the scope of this book as the heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for the plain sinusoidal gas-side surface geometry have not yet been reduced to universal correlations. WARNING The reduction in mean temperature difference caused by longitudinal conduction in crossflow is very small.

The performance of the fin plates may be handled as for straight rectangular fins.9 Determined and undetermined crossflow A principal difficulty in sizing crossflow heat exchangers arises when the configuration does not exactly match the mathematical requirements for mixed or unmixed crossflow.29 Temperature profiles near the origin for the 'evaporator' a much more serious problem exists. However triangular tube pitching is better suited to estimating fin performance of the flat plates.90 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.30 is an example of mixed/unmixed crossflow which is repeated in a simpler form in Fig. making the mean temperature difference uncertain. Permutation pairs of three flow arrangements . 3.I. but the external finning lacks recreation of the boundary layers to obtain higher heat-transfer coefficients. but the overall design will still suffer from longitudinal conduction in the flat . Figure 3. as the performance ratio of circular disc fins may be used in place of the hexagonal shapes. The flat plates may be rippled transversely to the flow to improve heat transfer. and undetermined . See Appendix L. Figure 3. Section L. unmixed. Viscosity is temperature-dependent and the variation in temperature along each flow channel could invalidate the assumption of equal mass flowrates. 3.are possible.mixed.31 is an example of unmixed/undetermined crossflow in which flat ducts are used in place of tubes.32(c) the configuration becomes unmixed/unmixed.3.32(a). Once internal finning is introduced as shown in Fig. Figure 3.32(b) is also mixed/unmixed. 3.

Slotted or louvred fins may then become necessary both to recreate boundary layers and to control longitudinal conduction.30 Fin and tube exchanger. mixed/unmixed crossflow. approach to unmixed/unmixed crossflow . unmixed/unmixed crossflow. (b) plate-fin and tube with triangular pitching. mixed/ unmixed crossflow Fig.3.3. (d) plate-fin and flattened tubes.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 91 Fig. long flat ducts into many small staggered flat ducts or flattened tubes. Figure 3.32 Some possible crossflow configurations: (a) plate-fin and tube with square pitching.31 Fin and duct exchanger. (c) plate-fin and flat ducts with internal finning.32(d) breaks up the single. approaching the unmixed/unmixed configuration without quite achieving it.3. With rippled plates this configuration begins to approximate to the rectangular offset-strip plate-fin surfaces used in compact heat exchangers. mixed/unmixed crossflow. Fig. unmixed/undetermined crossflow plate fins.

and by sliding the cold curve horizontally towards the hot curve on the T-h diagram. then this also corresponds to minimization of surface area. even with single-phase crossflow. and the short overview paper by Terrill & Douglas (1987). When the mean temperature difference cannot easily be determined then recourse to testing may be necessary.10 Possible optimization criteria It is possible to optimize the performance of an exchanger by progressively changing the local geometry on one or both sides.8 and 5. The technique introduces a distinction between 'avoidable' and 'unavoidable' inefficiencies. We should not be surprised if the final result should differ from case to case . the simple expression for friction loss may be used. see Figs 5. Pinch technology In a process plant with many heat exchangers. the recent reference text by Hewitt et al. a minimum temperature difference or 'pinch point' is found somewhere in the operational field. (1982). Optimization may include minimization of any one of several criteria. By first constructing separate composite T-h curves for hot streams and cold streams. 3. viz. Process integration is best approached by first consulting the 'User Guide' prepared by Linhoff et al. This represents the best energy recovery configuration for the system that can be achieved with the chosen minimum temperature difference.only one optimum at a time. (1994). a little thought reveals that when an exchanger is optimized so as to utilize all the allowable pressure loss on both sides.92 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers but in that case the fins are so small and close that a good approximation to unmixed/ unmixed flow exists. optimization of the whole system has been made thermodynamically simple by process integration technology developed by Linnhoff & Flower (1978) and others.13).11 Cautionary remark about core pressure loss For approximate core pressure loss.9. The second stage is to consider the heat exchangers making up the network. . In cases where the sum of pressure losses is the constraint (see Section 3. 3. it is straightforward to write a statement that calculates the allowable pressure loss on one side when that on the other side is known. However. including: • core volume • core mass • frontal area etc. and proceed with the normal optimization procedure. with the rider that no heat should be transferred across the pinch point.

both fluids unmixed • single passes. The mean bulk condition for gases may be approximated by first evaluating the mean pressure and temperature levels. and secondly because their mathematical analyses are already well covered in other publications. Not all of the arrangements listed are appropriate for direct-sizing.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 93 Loss due to friction is often 98 per cent or more of the total pressure loss given by Kays & London (1964) in their expression for pressure loss in an exchanger core. four passes tube-side Underwood (1934) one pass shell-side. otherwise significant discrepancies between the two solutions of the same problem will arise.36) See Shah (1983) for a detailed breakdown of equation (3. With this method it will be found that the reciprocal of mean density is equal to the mean specific volume. 3. In both direct-sizing and rating design methods it is essential to be consistent in the treatment of variables. both fluids mixed Nusselt (1911) Smith (1934) . it was decided to include the following list of solutions for mean temperature difference in other arrangements. two passes tube-side Underwood (1934) one pass shell-side. infinite number of passes tube-side Smith (1934) two passes shell-side. together with the name of the author(s) who first published the solutions. firstly because some of these exchangers are simply more complex arrangements of those that are discussed. Much grief can be avoided by using a consistent method for evaluating mean density (pm) in equation (3. three passes tube-side Fischer (1938) one pass shell-side.36). four passes tube-side Underwood (1934) Mean temperature difference in multiple crossflow • single passes. inlet loss flow acceleration core friction outlet loss (3.12 Mean temperature difference in complex arrangements The reader will notice that some arrangements of heat exchanger are not considered in this volume. and the mean density is similarly taken as the mean of densities at inlet and outlet conditions. For completeness.36). This will not happen when the mean specific volume is taken as the mean of specific volumes at inlet and outlet conditions. Mean temperature difference in multipass parallel flow one pass shell-side.35) and mean specific volume (vm) in equation (3. and only then evaluating the mean density and mean specific volume. viz.

Cryogenic liquefaction plant provides one example of a system where design of the 'isolated' exchanger is practicable.and three-pass crossflow arrangements are considered by Stevens et al. was there an appeal to the growth of entropy inequality (Second Law. Two possible approaches to reducing exergy destruction can be identified. The first is exergy analysis of the isolated heat exchanger. Three-fluid heat exchangers Sekulic & Shah (1995) published a 105-page paper on thermal design of three-fluid heat exchangers.or perhaps we should say that successful operation of the whole plant 'demands' such local optimization.12. Four-pass arrangements tend to approach true crossflow. Comprehensive e-Ntu type results for 36 two-pass cross-parallel flow arrangements and 36 two-pass cross-counterflow arrangements have been presented by Baclic (1990). which greatly extends the work of Stevens et al. except between passes Smith (1934) Smith (1934) All the above mathematical analyses (and references) are included in the textbook by Jakob (1957). Recuperated gas turbine plant provides one example of a system where the isolated exchanger cannot normally be optimized properly. plus a degenerate form of the balance of linear momentum axiom for pressure loss.13 Exergy destruction By this stage the reader should be aware that the traditional heat exchanger design is based on the balance of energy axiom. Earlier. and readers are directed to this monograph-sized article. second fluid unmixed • first fluid single-pass mixed.94 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers • single passes. A more recent paper by Spang & Roetzel (1995) provides an approximate equation with three or four empirical parameters for the calculation of LMTD correction factors for about 50 different flow configurations. in Section 2. first fluid mixed. or destruction ofexergy). Yuan & Kou (1998) have considered the effects of longitudinal conduction in a three-fluid crossflow exchanger. Further analyses of single-. This does not imply that exergy analysis of the complete plant can then be neglected. second fluid two passes unmixed. explicit solutions were provided by Baclic & Gvozdenac (1981). the correct requirement for every fluid in any crossflow arrangement is equal pressure loss in each channel as this controls flow distribution. because configuration of the plant allows for such optimization . These results are suitable for use in LMTD-Ntu type solutions. and not the assumption of equal mass flowrate in each channel. (1957). Only briefly. while some of the equivalent e-Ntu solutions are given by Shah (1982). because the temperature distribution produced by embedding requires the largest temperature difference to . However. Graphs are presented to help select the best flow arrangements which minimize irreversibilities due to mixing at exit and between passes. The second is exergy analysis of the exchanger already embedded in a thermodynamic cycle. 3. two. (1957).

Sekulic (1986. 31-90. P.F. (1980) The advancement of compact heat exchanger theory considering the effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity. C. To obtain an overview of the role of thermodynamics in the design of heat exchangers (plus power and cryogenic cycles) the reader should study the excellent text by Bejan (1988).Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design (Eds.K.P. pp. (1990) s-Ntu analysis of complicated flow arrangements. Shah. Exergy destruction in heat exchangers also arises through 'heat transfer across a finite temperature difference' and by 'flow with friction'. and Gvozdenac. G00183.E. 481-494. Int.P. the reader should now study Chapter 8. New York. Herbein & Rohsenow (1988) compared the entropy generation method of optimization of Bejan with conventional methods of optimizing a recuperator in a gas turbine cycle. B. Das. and D. Chem. 100. . 377-383. R. Compromise in design of the exchanger is then necessary. and concluded that Bejan's entropy generation method did not necessarily find the best optimum.1990) emphasized the importance of including irreversibility due to pressure loss.a festschrift for A.S. New York. Metzger). Questions of exergy destruction should thus be settled at the plant layout stage. New York. (1995) Exergetic analysis of plate heat exchanger in presence of axial dispersion in fluid. (1981) Exact explicit equations for some two and three pass crossflow heat exchangers. Cryogenics 35(1). 3-8. Chiou. 30.K..K. Compact Heat Exchangers . J. 28(10). Kraus. and exergy optimization has rather to be for the complete plant. L London (Eds. Engng. A.F. In concurrence with this observation. Bejan. Technological Advancement and Mechanical Design Problems (Eds. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. well before detailed heat exchanger design commences. (1938) Mean temperature difference correction in multipass exchangers. pp.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 95 be at the cold end of the exchanger. and C. and Heggs. Kaka9. Baclic. Wiley.S. W. Baclic.P. Howard). Mayinger). Ind. indicating that minimization of irreversibility (entropy generation) is possible. The value of the exergy destruction approach is that it usually reveals where best to make improvements. A. Hemisphere. Fischer. S. Heat Exchangers . K. A. R. 346-351. S. B.D. D. B. J. Das & Roetzel (1995) have applied the approach to plate-fin exchangers. References Baclic. Heat Mass Transfer. (1985) On the search for new solutions of the single-pass crossflow heat exchanger problem. 1965-1976. Hemisphere. ASME book no. McDonald. Heat Transfer.S. (1978) The effect of longitudinal heat conduction on crossflow exchanger. which presents thorough and readable analyses of many engineering systems of interest. and F. (1988) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Bejan's analysis of a heat exchanger showed that there exists a trade-off in performance between mean temperature difference and pressure loss. ASME J. New York. Shah. In Symposium on Compact Heat Exchangers-History.D.J. and Roetzel. Chiou. J. May. Bergles.

(1949. Underwood. D. J. 83-88. 479-481 and 606-607. D.. pp. 7. Yuan. and Bott.R. (1957) Mean temperature difference in one. Kroeger. H. 219-324. Nusselt. Sekulic. Part A. and Woolf. New York.M. 79. 250-257. Linnhoff. 26. vol.evolutionary generation of networks with various criteria of optimality. (1966) Performance deterioration in high effectiveness heat exchangers due to axial conduction effects. Heat Mass Transfer. D. 2nd edn.E. Ind. 33(12). 2021-2024. Rugby. (1988) Comparison of entropy generation and conventional method of optimizing a gas turbine regenerator (Note: 'regenerator' is used in the sense of heat recovery in a thermodynamic cycle). Heat Transfer Engng. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers.. Florida. B. 241-244. W. and Flower. Engineering. and Roetzel. Bibliography . (1978) Synthesis of heat exchanger networks. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.R. D.M. W. and Shah.L. Technische Physik in Einzeldarstellung. Wylie. Trans. J. J.R. Applications. (1995) Neue Naherungsgleichung zur einheitlichen Berechnung von Warmeiibertragern (new approximate equation for uniform heat exchanger design).G. R. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. II (1957). Int. John Wiley. 31(2). Res. M. Boland. In Proceedings of 1966 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. (1934) Mean temperature difference in crossflow. Heat and Mass Transfer (Wdrme und Stoffubertragung).. A. AIChE J. W. G. Berlin. Institution of Chemical Engineers. Smith.P. (1934) The calculation of the mean temperature difference in industrial heat exchanger configuration. D. Terrill. (1990) A reconsideration of the definition of a heat exchanger. McGraw-Hill. 283-289. 20.V. 31(2). CRC Press.. 145-158.A. 21-72. and Marsland.L.K. (1983) Heat exchanger basic design methods. (1987) A (T-h) method for heat exchanger network synthesis. A. (1911) Der Warmeiibergang im Kreuzstrom.. R. Inst. and Kou.W. Engng Chem. T. P. Bergles). R.M. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. B. (1953) Calculus. (1986) Entropy generation in a heat exchanger. Kakag. pp.. 417-422. G. R. Paper E-5. 55. Zeitschrift Vereines deutscher Ingenieure.S. Low Reynolds Number Flow Heat Exchangers (Eds. Townsend. 633-642 and 642-654. New York. Part 1 systematic generation of energy optimal networks. S. (1995) Thermal design of three-fluid heat exchangers. B. A. Shires.K. Hewitt. J. P. Stevens.F. Part 2 . D. Guy.-S. 175-179. C. 24. 30. Thomas. pp. 2748-2750. Springer. New York. H. and Douglas. Hausen. Spang. J.P.L. Int. Hewitt. Fernandez. Heat Mass Transfer. Kays. and A. November. Hemisphere. Plenum Press.E. Linnhoff. (1998) Effect of longitudinal wall conduction in a three-fluid crossflow heat exchanger. pp.A. and London. W. ASME. 138. R. Sekulic. and Rohsenow. (1982) A User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient Use of Energy. D..K. 363-372. J. Sekulic.P.R. Jakob. Petroleum Technology.96 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Herbein. B. 1957) Heat Transfer. UK. I (1949) and vol. two and three-pass crossflow heat exchangers. Adv.F. 12. Shah. McGraw-Hill. 26. vol. 135-150. 287-297. Numerical Heat Transfer. February.R.J. Heat Transfer. J.. D.H. G. (1950) Wdrmeiibertragung im Gegenstrom. Band 8. Shah.M.

W. (1983) The pinch design method for heat exchanger networks. and Linnhoff. (Also Chem. Manson. B. 378. Technische Mechanik und Thermodynamik. B.. 801-803. and Hindmarsh. Proc. Engng Res. In Proceedings of 2nd US National Applied Mechanics Conference. July.L. 91-97. 1. Nusselt. Soc.Steady-State Temperature Profiles 97 Linnhoff. March 8th. Series A. 1-33. Chem. (1954) Heat transfer in crossflow. (1930) Eine neue Formel fur den Warmedurchgang im Kreuzstrom. Townsend. Engng. 207-223. pp. Chem. (1982) Designing total energy systems by systematic methods. D. Engng Sci. W.. Linnhoff. 61(4). E. 417-422. (1983) New concepts in thermodynamics for better chemical process design. Design. 38(5) 745-763. March. J. R. . 386 (1790). B.

thermal sizing is eased by first determining the heat exchange duty of one 'slice' (Fig. step-wise rating. Careful design places half-height surfaces at the top and bottom of a well insulated block. although diffusion bonding can be used with suitable materials. and relate these to the single.1 Exchanger lay-up Figures 4. the complete exchanger then being made up of an appropriate number of slices. The exchanger may then be considered as 'slices'.4. flat plate surface. For correct heat flow the task is to associate heat-transfer coefficients with half-height fin surfaces.1 Crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing.4 show the lay-up of simple two-stream plate-fin heat exchangers made up of alternate layers of extended surface separated by flat plates. Eric M. A complete block is usually of brazed construction. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.CHAPTER 4 Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Practical design examples 4. Row-friction and heat-transfer correlations are based on the cell geometries of full-height surfaces. For correct pressure loss the task is to calculate the loss for an individual flow channel. made up of a flat plate with a half-height extended surface attached to each side.2). 4. edge length x flow length Fig. and transients.1 to 4. For the crossflow design.

Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations are based on the cell geometries of full-height surfaces.2 Design geometry for crossflow plate-fin exchanger For the contraflow design. For correct heat flow the task is to associate heat-transfer Fig.4.4.4) with total plate surface S = EL. For correct pressure loss the task is to calculate the loss for an individual flow channel.3 Contraflow plate-fin heat exchanger . thermal sizing is eased by mentally reconfiguring slices of the original exchanger as an equivalent single-plate heat exchanger (Fig. 4. Only the '£" length is shown in Fig.4.100 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. 4.

and relate these to the total plate surface (S = EL). and is accomplished using the approach described in Sections 4.7. This should always be the case. It is not always possible to secure absolute matching. Baclic & Heggs (1985). When channel transverse temperature symmetry has been lost. see Section 11.g. transverse temperature symmetry is equally desirable. . This chapter will outline a new 'direct-sizing' approach.g. the multi-stream exchanger must first be 'sized' before 'rating' methods can be applied. unless care is taken at plant configuration stage to match longitudinal temperature profiles throughout the multi-stream exchanger.6. heat transfer is referred to total surface on one side of the exchanger.4. In two-stream designs. In multi-stream contraflow designs. then special 'rating' procedures due to Haseler (1983) and Prasad (1993) become necessary in order to accommodate the 'cross-conduction' effect. 1988).5 and 4.4 Design geometry for contraflow exchanger coefficients with half-height fin surfaces. For design. Manglik & Bergles (1990). 4. London (1982). in general. However.2 Plate-fin surface geometries In the pioneering design approach by Kays & London (1964). variation in channel geometry due to poor manufacturing techniques. it is desirable to refer heat transfer to the base-plate surface.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 101 Fig. Several major reviews of heat exchanger design methodology have been published. but this symmetry can be lost through other causes. particularly when specific heat (C) for one or more fluids may vary along a multi-stream exchanger. direct-sizing using 'slices' of plate-fin heat exchangers implies that transverse temperature distributions in all channels are everywhere symmetric. this possibly being an arrangement resulting from the single-blow experimental test procedure adopted when obtaining test data for the correlations. unless flow maldistribution exists due to other causes. e. even with perfect channel geometry. Shah (1983. This can be done without changing the original correlations by Kays & London (1964) and London & Shah (1968). with zero temperature gradient at the centre of each channel. e.

and its contribution to heat transfer might be neglected. For the double-cell geometry a problem exists as to whether the central surface areas should be considered as fin area contributing to fluid heat transfer. the second with one central splitter (Figs 4. For symmetric transverse temperature fields the splitter (with attached fin surface) is isothermal.7 ROSF single-cell surface showing strip length x .4.5 and 4.4. which would be proper for the Fig. the universal flowfriction and heat-transfer correlations found by Manglik & Bergles (1990) may be used providing geometrical parameters can be generated. information did not seem to be available as to how the geometrical parameters of surfaces listed by Kays & London (1964) and by London & Shah (1968) were determined. Two cell configurations exist: the first with no splitter.6 ROSF double-cell surface with strip length x For variable rectangular offset strip-fin (ROSF) surfaces.102 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. However. it is possible at layup time to fit a half-height layer at the block ends to provide the same pressure drop and a reasonable approximation to correct heat transfer with half the mass flowrate. Providing that at least one geometry is of the double-cell type. Kays & London include this area. From references scanned.5 ROSF single-cell surface with strip length x Fig.4.6).

1983). and many other investigators who have presented flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations for plate-fin surfaces. The preferred approach for using heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations in computer software is to fit the original data tables using an interpolating cubic spline-fit. Geometrical parameters were calculated from scratch. The first employed tabulated data for individual correlations given by Kays & London (1964) and by London & Shah (1968) to create individual interpolating spline-fits. The splitter and attached surfaces do. To this end the author wrote four 'direct-sizing' programs and checked these against each other and against two 'rating' programs. and Table 4. However. and Shah & London (1978) are independent of referral surface. For ROSF surfaces an alternative approach is to use the universal /.1). contribute to longitudinal conduction in all cases. and it is swiftly possible to find the design well out of range of the geometries on which the universal correlations are based. 1993). Table 4. largely due to the extensive research of Kays & London (1964). The reader should also note that there is no natural upper or lower limit on their application. This was not the approach adopted by early workers.3 Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations Presentation of correlations Plate-fin heat exchangers are conventional. Further details of the Manglik & Bergles correlations will be found towards the end of this chapter. but that values for double-cell geometries show some deviation.and jcorrelations developed by Manglik & Bergles (1990). London & Shah (1968). these only have an accuracy around ±10 per cent.. Webb (1994). the original experimental data developed by Kays & London (1964).Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 103 case of non-symmetric transverse temperature fields (Haseler. however. The rating approach requires the designer to start with an exchanger block of known dimensions (Table 4. The fit is frequently better than those to be seen in figures in the 1964 text by Kays & London. London & Shah (1968). 4. and are thus best used in exploring trends in surface selection. 4. In rating methods and in direct-sizing methods it is most convenient to refer each extended surface to its base plate.12 confirms that a good match exists with Kays & London data for the single-cell geometries. A recent development is the vortex generator surface (Brockmeier et al.4 Rating and direct-sizing design software It is essential to have confidence in the design methods selected. and used geometrical parameters for surfaces given by these authors. . however.12 lists the results. Two direct-sizing programs were written for contraflow.

Thus programs KAYSFIN or CROSSFIN should be run twice in succession. M&B. This approach used basic dimensions of the geometries to generate the geometrical parameters.2 Computer programs for direct-sizing design Exchanger type Contraflow Crossflow Surface correlation K&L/L&S M&B K&L/L&S M&B Surface geometry Any listed ROSF Any listed ROSF Correlation accuracy Spline-fit ±10% Spline-fit ±10% Software program EDGEFIN BERGFIN KAYSFIN CROSSFIN K&L. viz. The four direct-sizing programs are set out in Table 4.Ch. In the work which follows. Kays & London (1964). the two rating programs summarized in Table 4.Cc.1 Design methods for contraflow Data Given Inlet values Find Rating method block size LxWxH mh. cold inlet and outlet temperatures are reversed. the direct-sizing approach is emphasized. In support of the above direct-sizing programs. both outlet fluid temperatures are evaluated very near the end of computation. Thus Table 4. Thi ™ /"* mc. Two further direct-sizing programs were written for crossflow in a similar manner.dPh. In running direct-sizing programs for steady-state contraflow. and thus more accurate mean physical properties.dPc mh.lT 2 c block size 1 For crossflow. . Only when the outlet temperatures are known can best estimates for mean bulk temperature.104 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 4.Lc.3 were also written. be obtained for inclusion in the original input data. London & Shah (1968). all terminal temperatures are known in advance of computation. Manglik & Bergles (1990). the second time with adjustments in physical properties. EDGEFIN or BERGFIN. L&S.2. The second pair of programs employed the generalized correlations for ROSF given by Manglik & Bergles (1990). Computational considerations In running direct-sizing programs for steady-state crossflow. These were prepared so as to be able to recalculate existing published designs and remove any round-off that might be present in earlier hand calculations. Tc2 thermal duty Direct-sizing thermal duty Q. Th\ mc.Ch.

L&S. It is commonly assumed that a discontinuity of slope in the temperature occurs at both entry and exit.8 would require simplification for a steady-state solution. Appendix A. However. 16) 16) good estimates for mean physical properties can be included in the input data. 3. In transient work. Nature does not behave in such a way. Interpolating cubic spline-fits of physical properties against temperature also need to be created. London & Shah ( 9 8 .4. and then incorporated in the computational program. Kays & London ( 9 4 .3 Computer programs for rating method Exchanger type Contraflow Crossflow Surface correlation K&L/L&S K&L/L&S Surface geometry Any listed Any listed Correlation accuracy Spline-fit Spline-fit Software program CONTRRATE CROSSRATE 105 K&L. Just how fast the bulk fluid temperature changes at entry and exit may deserve exploration.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Table 4. A more detailed steady-state solution would raise further questions on assumptions made about inlet and outlet conditions. but the effect may be small enough for one dimensional flow . An alternative approach might be to use the method of lines with Runge-Kutta algorithms at least for the mass and momentum equations. In Chapter 3. or Crank-Nicholson software needs to be written for the steady state to match that for the transient solution. Input data for LOGMEAN is output during a first run of either EDGEFIN or BERGFIN. Section 3. neither of course do heat exchangers. and Appendix B possible methods for calculating transients are discussed. and reduction in effective LMTD. .5. Total pressure loss Only core pressure loss is used in direct-sizing and rating methods of design. Either transient programs need to be run from an initial isothermal state. acceleration loss. and outlet loss. Chapter 3 Section 3. the matching finite-difference algorithm KROEGER2 being presented in Appendix B.29. In Chapter 9. for this can lead to significant longitudinal conduction effects. a numerical method is developed for calculating reduction in LMTD due to longitudinal conduction. It is essential to return to the expression given by Kays & London (1964. These programs should then be run again applying a factor for reduction of LMTD. because transient algorithms require accurate physical properties at close computational stations along the length of the exchanger.11) for addition of inlet loss. The Crank-Nicholson solution of three energy equations outlined in the supplement to Appendix B. the Crank-Nicholson approach is restricted to time intervals smaller than the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy conditions described later.see Fig. one potential inaccuracy in contraflow design occurs when the fluid flow length is short. It is not appropriate to use output data from steady-state direct-sizing designs as input for computation of transient response in contraflow.

Given parameters are as set out in Table 4. Crossflow direct-sizing .4. This is because the pressure loss on one side determines channel length. The one-pass unmixed/unmixed crossflow exchanger is considered to be built up as a stack of single plates with half-height surfaces on each side. kg/m3 Surface geometry Warm gas Cool air Q = 4. For direct-sizing by KAYSFIN. The concept is to size one plate in the stack using allowable pressure losses. so that software can check that the assumed values are consistent. . values of mean bulk temperature required for evaluation of physical properties are usually first estimated from the known inlet temperatures. If the desired exchanger duty does not match calculated heat transfer then the solution is iterated until it does. However.854 82 MW tp = 0. then allowance for entrance effect. Only core pressure loss is used in the 'direct-sizing' treatment. and exit effects can be made. Four numerical values for mean values of Pr = Crj/A and p = pRT are included as input data. flow acceleration. and from that determine heat transfer for the whole stack.3048 Xw = 20. Prior to comparison it was found necessary to rework Kays & London's original rating design using the CROSSRATE program to eliminate some 'round-off' errors. Data are first converted to SI units.06 single-cell The crossflow exchanger has a unique design which satisfies all constraints simultaneously. with half-height surfaces on each side. J/(m s K) Plate and fin density. and the mean values (Thl + Tc\)/2 taken after a first design pass. Exchanger duty Plate material Plate thickness. Physical properties for fluids and core material may be evaluated at the mean of the inter temperatures initially. and thus constrains edge length for the other side.77 pw = 7030. with additional information given below.10 single-cell K-L louvre 3/8-06.0 K-L plain 1/4-11. mm Plate thermal conductivity. Example 2 of their 1964 text) and calculate dimensions of the exchanger from scratch.5 Direct-sizing of an unmixed crossflow exchanger The best way of showing that 'direct-sizing' works is to use the data from a 'rating' example provided by Kays & London (Appendix B.106 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 4. here the same values were used as quoted in the published example. and corrected later after the first design pass has been completed. Here identical values as used by Kays & London are adopted.KAYSFIN program The concept is based on designing a single plate. It is about 98 per cent of the total loss in the example presented. Once the exchanger core is sized.

044 744 Side-2 Rc = 287. kg/m3 Cold HP air Side-2 mc = 24.07 pc = 5.90 77.4 Input data for direct-sizing of crossflow exchanger Hot LP gas Side-1 mh = 24.318 pc2 = 9. J/(m s K) Density by gas laws Gas constant.1014 Apc = 3562.670 = 1084.0145 x 10-5 = 0.683 m = 1. m2 Gl = Rel*mul/Dl Lpl = dPl*2*rhol*Dl/(4*fl*Gl*Gl) E2 = Lpl Splate = E1*E2 Next use geometric parameters to find mass flows for single plate.10 single-cell fins Louvre 3/8-06.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Table 4.06 single-cell fins alpha 1 =bl*betal/(bl+2*tp + b2) alpha2 = b2*beta2/(bl+2*tp + b2) betal = GIVEN data beta2 = GIVEN data gammal = GIVEN data . K Mean values Prandtl number Specific heat at constant pressure.8 = 3. kg/s Inlet absolute pressure. and use the friction factor correlation to obtain friction factor (fl).670 Cc = 1051. We now have the single plate size single plate.850 x 10~5 Ac = 0. kg/(m s) Thermal conductivity. then: Side-1 (HOT) Mass velocity.59 Prh Ch f]h AA Side-1 = 0.07 ph = 0.93 7 cl =448. = 2. m Edge length for Side-2.63 7*i = 702.048 8 17 107 Flow stream parameters Specified parameters Mass flowrate.576 79 Geometrical parameters at cell-level are taken from Kays & London (1964). N/m 2 Inlet temperatures. . Side-1 (HOT) Side-2 (COLD) Plain 1/4-11. gamma2 = GIVEN data kappal =bl*betal/2 kappa2 = b2*beta2/2 lambdal = gammal*kappal Iambda2 = gamma2*kappa2 sigmal = betal*Dl/4 sigma2 = beta2*D2/4 omega 1 = alpha 1/kappal omega2 = alpha2/kappa2 Now estimate a value for Rel within validity range of correlations on Side-1 (HOT). m Repeat the process for Side-2.8268 Side-1 Rh = 287. J/(kg K) Absolute viscosity.15 Side-2 Prc = 0. kg/(m2 s) Flow length for Side-1. bar Allowable (core) pressure loss. J/(kg K) Density.027 35 Ap* = 2659.

m2 Mass flowrate for Side-1. Section 3. mul. Multiply by difference in inlet temperatures (Tspan) to obtain TDmean. Side-1 (HOT) parameters Fin height (m) Parameter for fin efficiency Hyperbolic tangent Fin performance ratio Parameter Heat-transfer coefficient. Afrontl = El*(bl/2) (half-height fins) Aflowl = Afrontl *sigmal mpl = Gl*Aflowl (single-plate) Number of plates required in stack Nl = TRUNC(ml/mpl) + 1 N2 = TRUNC(m2/mp2) + 1 Test if (Nl = N2). if not then choose smaller value. Dl evaluate heat-transfer coefficients from correlation (hi). Now relate heat-transfer coefficients to plate surface. K Exchanger duty Performance. Mean temperature difference. Design of Heat Exchangers Side-1 (HOT). kg/s Repeat the process for Side-2. J/(m2 s K) Side-2 (COLD) parameters Same as for Side-1 Overall heat-transfer coefficient and Ntu uw = kp/tp Wall coefficient U = l/(l/ul + l/uw+l/u2) Overall coefficient Number of transfer units Ntul = U*Sexchr/(ml*Cpl) To obtain dimensionless mean temperature difference in crossflow.I)/ (EXP(2*mYl) + 1) phil = tanhl/mYl etal = 1 — gammal*(l — phil) hit = etal*hl (referred to Stotal) ul = hlt*kappal (referred to Sexchr) Q = U*Sexchr*TDmean/1000000 .5). MW TDmean = 44. single plate Frontal area for Side-1. J/(m2 s K) Heat-transfer coefficient. Prl.108 Advances in Thermal. m2 Flow area for Side-1. use Ntu values in algorithm CROSSTD (see Chapter 3. Repeat for Side-2.64 Yl=bl/2 mYl = Yl*SQRT(2*hl/(kfl*tfl)) tanhl = (EXP(2*mYl) . call this (N) Height of stacked plates (m) H = N*(bl /2 + tp + b2/2) Volume of exchanger (m3) Vol = E1*E2*H Total plate surface (m ) Sexchr = N*Splate With parameters Rel.

computed thermal duty in Fig. m2 Total surface area.2261 Side-2 ac = 263. K Flow friction Correlation coefficients Velocity.07 St* = 0. J/(m2 s K) Outlet temperatures.5 Design results for crossflow exchanger Flow stream parameters Dimensionless numbers Reynolds numbers Stanton number Ntu values Heat transfer Correlation coeffs.1496 U N Splate Sexchr Q Q/(VMm) A0m . 4.8 is a sloping almost straight line. Section 3.343 Me = 55 1. 4.858 28.4844 189. The graph shows where exchangers sit within the permissible operational envelope.037 180 Velc = 4.015 673 Velh = 23.854 82 MW). difference.Fin Exchangers 109 If the value of Q does not correspond to the specified duty (Q = 4.0371 Side-1 ah = 85.421 Td = 637.Direct-Sizing of Plate. The vertical line from this design point can be drawn to intersect the curve for design core volume. Only then can the hot and cold fluid outlet temperatures be calculated from the energy balances In practice it is best first to explore the range of validity of Reynolds number in spaced equal intervals so as to construct a graph. MW Mean temp.50 4.652 7/8 = 521.98 Stc = 0.944 Side-2 fc = 0.5 presents the results of computation. For the example chosen. In this way it becomes possible to assess possible directions of improvement (Fig.. Table 4. m/s Design results Overall heat transfer coeff.283 Side-1 fh = 0. Final adjustment on each side is to add inlet.373 345 1. kW/(m3 K) Hot LP gas Cold HP air Side-2 Rec = 4079.009 581 Ntuc = 4. and exit losses to core pressure losses (see Chapter 3.6565 571. and the design point is where the horizontal desired duty line intersects this sloping line.854 82 44. then iterate Rel and repeat the procedure until a match is obtained.005 894 Ntuh = 4. K Specific performance.381 uh = 289. J/(m2 s K) Plate-referred coeffs. J/(m2 s K) Number of separating plates Plate surface area. acceleration/deceleration.8). and then return to seek the iterated final solution. m2 Performance comparison Exchanger duty. Table 4.11).456 58 Side-1 Re* = 1366.

4. .2959 * Original height adjusted to fit specified surfaces. followed by comparison of rating and direct-sizing designs.2893 Direct sizing (m) 0.4).6 Comparison of rating and sizing methods Design parameters Block dimensions: Gas-flow path length Air-flow path length Block height Kays & London (rating method) (ft) (m) 3.0 0.9144 6.0 1.8 Direct-sizing design plot for one-pass (unmixed/unmixed) crossflow exchanger Table 4.4. 4.511* 2.9103 1.6 with input data used in the CROSSRATE 'rating' method. The concept is based on treating the whole exchanger as a single plate.8197 2. with half-height surfaces on both sides (Fig.110 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.6 Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow The concept of explicit analytical direct-sizing design will be discussed first. Once plate surface (S = EL) has been determined from flow length L and edge length E.8288 7. then E may be divided into n equal strips to create a suitable aspect ratio for the finished block exchanger. Computed block dimensions obtained in 'direct-sizing' cross-flow by EDGEFIT are compared in Table 4. The match is found to be good.

Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 111 A triangular fin-cell geometry will be employed here for the simplicity of its heattransfer and flow-friction correlations. are the unknowns to be determined. Referring fin surface (S/) and exposed base surface (Sxb) to plate surface. kg/(m2 s) Reynolds number - Heat-transfer coefficient from equation (4. The number of cells multiplied by cell pitch equals edge length on both sides Heat transfer Mass velocity.1) Fin performance The above correlations may be evaluated for both stream 1 and stream 2. and flow path length L (exchanger block length). Explicit heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for equilateral triangle cells (special case of isosceles cells) over a small Reynolds number range are given by Kays & London (1964) as Edge length E. allowing for differing cell geometries. the heat-transfer coefficients become .

For streams 1 and 2.7) it can be seen that there are three simultaneous equations with only two unknowns. This identifies the 'controlling' pressure loss. and (4.7) provide the same solution at the design point.2) in the expression for friction factor and inserting/in the pressure loss equation then.4). and is the loss considered in direct-sizing.7) may be plotted together (Fig.9). (4.4). Pressure loss Core loss greatly exceeds other losses.112 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers giving Design is valid above this rectangular hyperbola.6) and (4. as this is no longer the maximum permitted value. Curves for equations (4. using the chosen triangular cell geometry to evaluate (a. Using equation (4. When this heat exchanger constraint can be combined with a system pressure loss constraint such as equations (2. Full use of the two allowable pressure losses is achieved when these two equations become equal at the design point.6).34) or (2./Konst\)l/2 and E = (const. G) and design is valid to the right of this straight line. The greater of the two values E = (const. The non-controlling pressure loss for the other side has to be evaluated anew. For a solution which is not over-determined it is desirable that equations (4.36) then pressure . and (4. D. Returning to equations (4.6). This implies that Konst\ = Konst2 and it quickly follows that Thus the ratio of usable pressure losses may be fully determined for any given pair of compact surfaces./Konst2)l/2 is taken as the solution from which L may be determined. 4. (4.

For direct-sizing however.4. We choose the same data values as for the previous crossflow design in Section 4. however. Tc\.Pressure losses are usually dealt with later in the design. two mass flowrates (mi . all four terminal temperatures (TM. only one pressure loss is specified and the other 'floats' then less work will be required in design. if both pressure losses are specified then it will be necessary to adjust cell geometries progressively to achieve the design. 4.^2). Mean fluid temperatures can be calculated.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 113 Fig. however. but some 'fine-tuning' may subsequently be required. TC2). as this will provide the best specification of exchanger duty (0.7 Direct-sizing of a contraflow exchanger Design concept Direct-sizing is a method of arriving at exchanger dimensions without any prior assumption as to their values. the values used were kept exactly the same as for the rating design example. . If. In general. Here. Input data In good design an overall exergy analysis of the whole plant should be made first.9 Design solution plot losses need not be specified as input data.5 to see what kind of block size will emerge. Input data are given in Table 4. the design message is: make pressure loss curve solutions coincide on the E—L plot.2. and two inlet pressure levels (phi.Pc2).7. and all physical property values obtained from interpolating cubic spline-fits of tabulated data as appropriate. T/.

7 Input data for contraflow exchanger Flow stream parameters Specified parameters Mass flowrate.683 1.77 pw = 7030. mm Plate thermal conductivity.854 82 MW tp = 0.15 637. press.114 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 4. kg/m3 Hot LP gas mh = Phi = TM = Th2 = Cold HP air mc = Pc2 = Tc^ = Tel = Side-1 24.044744 Re PC Side-1 = 287.59 521.90 5 Vc = 2.13. Section 2. K Outlet temperature. Exchanger duty Plate material Plate thickness. We try the same surfaces first to see what kind of improved performance can be obtained using existing geometries. kg/m3 Surface geometry Warm gas Cold air Q = 4.1014 448. which will not be optimum.0 K-L plain 1/4-11.318 9.02735 702.048817 Side-2 Cc = 1051.850 x 10~ Ac = 0. J/(kg K) Absolute viscosity.70994 The surface geometries used in the previous Kays & London crossflow example may not be best suited to a contraflow design in which the surface plate edge length at flow entry will be the same for both surfaces. J/(m s K) Plate and fin density. K Mean values Specific heat at const.07 = 5.07 RH Ph = 0.59618 Side-2 = 287. In changing from crossflow to contraflow. in contraflow the plate edge length will be the same for both fluids.94 ch = Side-1 1084. J/(m s K) Density by gas law Gas constant..3048 \w = 20.10 single-cell K-L louvre 3/8-06.06 single-cell Pressure losses The exergy analysis of Chapter 2. J/(kg K) Mean density.015 x 10~ Aft = 0. kg/s Inlet absolute pressure. the main difference is that where previously the hot gas and cold air flows had independent plate edge lengths at flow entry. kg/(m s) Thermal conductivity. develops the following expression as an aid to selecting appropriate pressure losses .68 Side-2 24.5 5 Vh = 3. Further development would then involve more appropriate choices of compact surfaces. bar Inlet temperature.

. When the terminal temperatures are known. with halfheight surfaces on each side (Fig. a smaller fin height might be preferable.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 115 Usually the pressure loss is limited for the side having the lowest absolute pressure level. Geometrical parameters at cell level required for evaluation of flow-friction and heat transfer correlations are given below: Side-1 (HOT) Side-2 (COLD) Plain 1/4-11. and the product (US) determined from Q/LMTD. then this equation provides means for estimating the second pressure loss. When the right-hand side of equation (4.4). Cautionary remark.10 single-cell fins louvre 3/8-06.EDGEFIN program The concept is based on treating the whole exchanger as a single plate. and the constant on the right-hand side of equation (4. Future pressure loss pairs could then be compared with the original right-hand side of equation (4. no exergy analysis from a complete plant was available.9) was first evaluated. Pressure loss on the high-pressure side may then be set as high as the direct-sizing plot will allow. When the first comparative design is complete (or found unsatisfactory) then improved choices of finned surfaces can be made.06 single-cell fins alpha 1 = bl*betal/(bl+2*tp + b2) alpha2 = b2*beta2/(bl + 2*tp + b2) betal = GIVEN data beta2 = GIVEN data gammal = GIVEN data gamma2 = GIVEN data kappal = bl*betal/2 kappa2 = b2*beta2/2 lambdal = gammal *kappal Iambda2 = gamma2*kappa2 sigmal =betal*Dl/4 sigma2 = beta2*D2/4 omega 1 = alpha 1/kappal omega2 = alpha2/kappa2 For reduced plate edge length with hot gas flow. Adjustment of pressure loss pairs can then be made without much change in the exergy analysis. One matter of potential concern is high values of flow velocity which arise from relatively low values of Reynolds number. therefore both input pressure losses (dph. a taller fin height might be preferable. In the present case. When no prior information is available concerning allowable pressure losses then it is appropriate to fix the pressure loss on the low-pressure side so as to provide an acceptable outlet pressure. dpc) were input. to approach incompressible flow. as the direct-sizing design process automatically provides the correct pressure loss to pair with that specified for the lowpressure side.1. 4. log mean temperature may be found (LMTD). One constraint is for the Mach number not to exceed 0.9) is fixed by exergy analysis.9) even if surface geometries were changed. Contraflow direct-sizing . For increased plate edge length with cold air flow.

. J/(m2 s K) Side-2 (COLD) parameters Same as for Side-1. m2 Mass velocity. This means: (a) all the detail involved in the correlations is reproduced precisely (b) there is no possibility of extrapolating beyond data limits Geometrical parameters and corresponding flow-friction and heat-transfer interpolating spline-fits may be accessed from the pre-compiled software module SURFACE. m2 Edge length.116 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Several area parameters can now be evaluated. Both Reynolds numbers must lie within the validity range of each spline-fitted correlation at all times.. kg/(m2 s) Total flow area. m2 Total frontal area. z2 = TRUNC(E/c2) + 1 Afront2 = E*(b2/2) Afront2*sigma2 G2 = m2/Aflow2 Re2 = D2*G2/mu2 Mass velocities and Reynolds numbers for each side are now available. m Parameter for fin efficiency Hyperbolic tangent Fin performance ratio Parameter Heat-transfer coeff. kg/(m2 s) Forced Reynolds number Gl = Rel*mul/Dl Aflowl = ml/Gl Afrontl = Aflowl/sigmal E = Afrontl/(bl/2) zl = TRUNC(E/cl) + 1 Note: edge length in contraflow is (zl*cl = E = z2*c2). allowing for half-height cell surfaces acting as fins. It remains to refer the cell heat-transfer coefficients (hh. hc) to the common plate surface heat-transfer coefficients (uh. Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations are replaced by interpolating cubic spline-fits generated from the tabulated data in Kays & London (1964). m Number of cells (rounded) Side-2 (COLD) parameters Number of cells (rounded) Total frontal area. For Rel specified in scan of Reynolds number range Side-1 (HOT) parameters Mass velocity. m2 Total flow area.I)/ (EXP(2*mYl) + 1) phil = tanhl/mYl etal = l-gammal*(l-phil) hit = etal*hl (referred to Stotal) ul = hlt*kappal (referred to Sexchr) . Rec) to determine flow-friction and heat-transfer values on each side of the exchanger. Yl = bl/2 mYl = Yl*SQRT(2*hl/(kfl*tfl)) tanhl = (EXP(2*mYl) . J/(m2 s K) Heat-transfer coeff.uc).. Spline-fitted correlations for flow-friction (/) and the Colburn y-factor (f) are now used with the Reynolds number pairs (Re/. Side-1 (HOT) parameters Fin height.

Half-height surfaces exist on each side of the plate.10). The reverse procedure applies if the right-most intersection is with Lp\. When the correct pair of pressure losses are specified.Lpi. The exchanger volume . then the design length is taken to be where the right-most intersection takes place. If the conditions are not satisfied. (Chapter 2. Rate equation Energy equation Appropriate tests are to check that ABS(termNtul-heatNtul) < 0. The heat-transfer procedure can now evaluate the following parameters Surface area of exchanger Row length for heat transfer Sexchr = (US)/U (plate referred) Lh = Sexchr/E The flow-friction procedures give separate values for flow lengths. Design is now complete. 15). by solving the simultaneous LMTD-Mw rate and energy equations. Usually this is not the case.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 117 Overall heat-transfer coefficient and Ntu Wall coefficient uw = kp/tp Overall coefficient U = 1 /( 1 /u 1 + 1 /uw + 1 /u2) Number of transfer units Ntul = U*Sexchr/(ml*Cpl) A check is now possible on MM values from terminal temperatures alone.Lp2). repeating the test for Side-2. For an initially estimated value of Rel. By varying values of Rel three curves can be plotted on a graph for parameters (Lh. then check that still holds within the input data. we now have three values for flow length (Lh. as the edge length (£) and the flow length (L) are now available. then this is taken as flow length for the plate and the reduced pressure loss for Side-1 is calculated.Lp2) (Fig.001 for Side-1. Side-1 (HOT) parameters Mass velocity. Section 2. the two pressure length curves will cut the heat-transfer curve at the same point.Lpi. If this should be for the Lp2 curve. kg/(m2 s) Rel*mul/Dl Flow length for Side-1 pressure loss Lpl = dPl*2*rhol*Dl/(4*frGl*Gl) Similar values can be evaluated for Side-2. 4.

shows that these values are necessary to give the same effectiveness. We can bring the temperature profiles closer in contraflow to reduce temperature exergy loss (with modest increase in pressure exergy loss). the overall coefficient ((/) would be unchanged and the same duty (Q = USkdimtd) simply requires a longer flow length to leave the product SA0.g.0371 Ntuc = 4. Keeping the original surface geometries and inlet face areas. The specific performance has gone down by a factor 0. Contraflow Ntuh = 2. 1964).2261 Inspection of e-Ntu curves for contraflow and crossflow (see e. Alternative contraflow design The previous contraflow example kept the same thermal duty as for crossflow but allowed the mean temperature difference to grow by a factor of 1. but Ntu vales were only 0. If the pressure loss values obtained are not acceptable. following recommendations given with equation (4. An improved method of designing for minimum block volume in contraflow is developed in Appendix J . or if there is no intersection of both pressure loss curves with the heat-transfer curve. while volumetric rating has gone up by a factor of 1.432. The same Kays & London compact surfaces were used in each case. which was one intention of the comparison. .543.697. and then stacking them. In the examples presented the difference in Ntu values between crossflow and contraflow designs is quite remarkable in view of the improved volumetric rating of the contraflow design.6134 = 2. Kays & London. the options are: (a) select different allowable pressure loss values. the contraflow exchanger volume has gone down by a factor of 0.698.Compact surface selection for sizing optimization.647 the size of crossflow values. see Chapter 8.118 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers is found from the following expression The height of the finished block is open to choice by cutting the edge length (£) into a suitable number (N) of equal sections. This produced a block volume for the contraflow case smaller by a factor of 0.7347 Crossflow Ntuh = 4.928 due entirely to the larger mean temperature difference in the equivalent contraflow design.9) (b) change one or more surface geometries Compared with crossflow. This confirmed that Ntu values are not suitable for comparing different designs (Ntu is just the ratio of two temperature differences).mr</ unchanged. Clearly Ntu and effectiveness values are not appropriate parameters for performance comparison of different types of exchanger.

652 398. m Number of plates Height.504 U L E Sexchr LMTD Q/V Q/(V x LMTD) L W N H Cold HP air Side-2 Prc = 0.7230 550. . Appendix C of this volume provides only a brief overview of the sets of figures given in the first edition.877 of that for the smaller contraflow example.014 630 dph = 2659.40265 0.011 305 ac = 177.6134 Side-1 Sth = 0.762 Side-1 fh = 0.63 Velh = 25. K Volumetric rating..7347 Side-2 Stc = 0. Q = 4. J/(m2 s K) Flow-friction Correlation coefficients Pressure losses. 119 Hot LP gas Side-1 Prh = 0..Optimization of rectangular offset strip-fin surfaces. while the volume was 0. m Width. 1997).1308 69. bar Velocity.25 Velc = 2.041 177 dpc = 519.854 82 MW) "Height of block. J/(m2 s K) Plate-referred coeff.005 765 ah = 95.85 Ntuh = 2.827705 26.. but using plain rectangular fins.224 1. The duty in MW increased by a factor of 1.607 175.066 MC = 393. MW/m3 Specific performance. kW/(m3 K) Exchanger dimensions Length.8 Design results for contraflow exchanger Flow stream parameters Dimensionless numbers Prandtl numbers Reynolds numbers MM values Heat transfer Stanton numbers Correlation coeff. difference. m Edge length. The optimized design procedure begins with inspection of performance trend curves presented by the author in Appendix C .065 uh = 318. m (Exchanger duty. J/(m2 s K) Flow length.7230 open choice E/W * with the same mean temperature difference as the crossflow example.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Table 4.57 Ntuc = 2. m/s Design results Overall heat-transfer coeff.670 Rec = 2324.704 0. m2 Performance comparison Mean temp.127 over both previous examples in this Chapter. in the first edition of this book (Smith.670 Reft = 1555.768 Side-2 fc = 0. m Total surface area.

8 Best of plain rectangular and triangular ducts Duct constraints We calculate performance of particular rectangular and triangular ducts in order to assess their relative merit. allowance is made for longitudinal conduction effects. we impose the following constraints: • the height of the rectangular duct (b) shall be twice the base (c) width.120 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. 4. Once a contraflow exchanger is sized. For mathematical simplicity both ducts shall be assumed to have a wall thickness that is very small in comparison to the duct dimensions.7. Final adjustment on each side is to add inlet. • the base of the triangular duct shall be (a) .10 Direct-sizing design plot for contraflow.11). acceleration/deceleration.4. and the values obtained are presented in Table J. The optimized contraflow design is preliminary as there was a lack of detailed heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations. with the same height (b) between separating plates. Further. to core pressure losses (see Section 3. showing original pressure-loss curves Performances are compared by using the specific performance parameter. and exit losses. allowing software to run again with a reduced value of LMTD. but the results obtained point clearly to the reduced set of experimental tests necessary to obtain completely valid correlations. The LMTD reduction factor can be calculated as discussed in Chapter 3.

then a = (4/^/3)c and the same hydraulic diameter D = (4/3)c exists for both ducts. and both half-height contraflow exchanger surfaces shall have the same edge length (E) Local nomenclature A flow area of both ducts f friction factor k fin thermal conductivity L length of duct m factor in fin performance m mass flowrate Nu Nusselt number p cell pitching Greek a heat-transfer coefficient 17 absolute viscosity A thermal conductivity of fluid Duct geometries Parameter Flow area Wetted perimeter Hydraulic diameter P Q Re s 5 t Y duct wetted perimeter heat transferred Reynolds number sloping side of triangular duct surface area for heat transfer thickness of fin material height of fin material p <f> density of fluid flowing fin performance ratio Rectangular duct Triangular duct Hydraulic diameter For equality always subject to the constraint that (b > c). Imposing the constraint (b = 2c). Sloping side of triangular duct Sloping side s = ^/b2 + (a2/4) from which s = b2/^/b2 — c2.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 121 for performance comparison both ducts shall be arranged to have the same hydraulic diameter (D) and the same mass velocity (G) flow in both ducts shall have the same pressure loss (A/?). . and with (b = 2c) we get s = (4/\/3)c hence the triangle is equilateral.

548 Triangular duct Nu# = 3.123 /Re = 15.122 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Simplified flow area and mass flowrate Parameter Rectangular duct Triangular duct Flow area Mass flowrate Heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations (laminar flow) From the results of Shah & London (1978) Parameter Nusselt number Friction factor Rectangular duct Nu// = 4.333 Heat-transfer coefficient Parameter Rectangular duct Heat-transfer coefficient Triangular duct remembering that hydraulic diameter is the same for both ducts. Reynolds numbers Re = — is the same for both ducts. DC' Flow length The Fanning core pressure loss is given by from where Parameter Rectangular duct Triangular duct Row length .111 /Re = 13.

Effective duct surface The pitch of rectangular fins is c and one fin is associated with this base surface. .Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers Fin length Parameter Fin length Fin performance (rectangular cross-section) Parameter Rectangular duct Triangular duct Parameter m Rectangular duct Triangular duct 123 Parameter mY mY = 2. Parameter Surface area Number of cells Parameter Rectangular duct Rectangular duct Triangular duct Triangular duct For identical contraflow edge length (£") we need 11 547 rectangular fins for 10 000 triangular fins.302 per cent. The difference in the two values of mFis less than 0. The pitch of triangular fins is and one fin is associated with this base surface. thus fin performance ratio* (f> = tanh(mF)/mF is almost the same for each duct.

25 per cent smaller. thermal performance of the rectangular duct is 14.548 11547 = 0. The results confirm the general conclusions of Webb (1994.333 15.8660 13333 LMTD reduction due to longitudinal conduction Comparison For the above special cases. .4 per cent smaller.148 triangular 2.SArmeaw. then from Q = a. the exchanger is 14.6942(1 + = 2. longitudinal conduction would be increased. Performance ratios Specific thermal performance rectangular 3.124 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Check that the flow areas are the same: Flow area for rectangular fins =11 547 x 2c2 = 23 094c2 Flow area for triangular fins = 1000 x -pc2 = 23 094c2 Thermal performance Volume of each half-height surface is V = EcL. 115-116).8 per cent better.0923 ^ An = = 1. pp.0923(1 + </>)— EC = 2.6942(1 + <£) — EC Finned area for longitudinal conduction Parameter Rectangular duct Triangular duct Cross-section for longitudinal conduction \\541tc lOOOOffflc = 13333tc \3/ Should sinusoidal fins passing through corners of the triangular geometry be used.0923(1 + <£)AL = 3. and the LMTD reduction factor is 13. the specific thermal performance is: Parameter Rectangular duct Triangular duct = 3.6942 Comparative exchanger length rectangular triangular rectangular triangular 13.

548 14. plain rectangular duct If the pressure levels on opposite sides of an exchanger are widely separated. One of the best performing compact surfaces is the rectangular offset strip-fin (ROSF) geometry. Notice also that results for the sequence given by Shah & London (1978) can be extended to aspect ratios 2/1. What now is required is some information about mass flowrate. allowable pressure loss and duct cross-section. together with the physical properties of a suitable Table 4. Heat transfer (Nu#) is the Nusselt number for constant heat flux. (1994.9 Extract from results of Shah & London (1978) (Fully developed laminar flow in plain rectangular ducts) Duct aspect 1/8 1/6 1/4 1/2 1/1 NuH 6. or with half-height fins.490 6. 4. and the flow area is b x c. On the above considerations the software LOGMEAN for calculating LMTD reduction factors was prepared for rectangular fins only. and flow friction is the product of friction factor and Reynolds number.049 5. then it is likely that the cell flow areas will differ significantly. A relevant portion of these tables is reproduced below as Table 4.608 f x Re 20. This is most easily accomplished by assessing performance of the plain rectangular duct. as is required when dealing with direct-sizing surfaces. A summary of some results pertaining to plain rectangular ducts subsequently appeared as a single page in the texts by Webb (1994. and 8/1.9 Best small.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 125 Longitudinal conduction losses Rectangular offset strip fins will have even smaller longitudinal conduction losses.227 . p. The input data for LOGMEAN is produced directly from running either EDGEFIN or BERGFIN source listings.585 19.702 18. the height as b. Here we are not concerned with the niceties of proper allowance for fin thickness. and the respective mass flows are roughly the same.123 3. 4/1. 43) and by Hewitt et al.331 4.233 15. For laminar flow.9 in which the base of the duct is designated c. 6/1. theoretical studies of the performance of plain rectangular ducts in fully developed laminar flow were presented in book form by Shah & London (1978). 303). p. Comparison of the effects of geometric aspect ratio (b/c) on the performance of similar ducts begins with the requirement that all ducts shall have the same crosssectional area. But before considering how this surface might be used it is important to consider what happens when the cell geometry is varied.

Such information cannot be plucked from thin air. and compare the performance of eight square ducts of 2 x 2 mm sides against performance of a single rectangular duct of 2 x 16mm sides. with the long side lying parallel to the separating plate. Re Friction factor. = 6. mm Hydraulic diameter. / Flow length.003 55 b x c = 32 x 10~6 Nu. Let us assume a fixed mass velocity.05 a = NuA/D = 90. m.. D Flow area.585 TJ = 0.8786 = 0. thin fin surfaces perpendicular to the plate surface are well covered in published correlations.126 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers fluid (e.0 Table 4. and a fixed allowable pressure loss. N/m 2 G=16 A = 3000 What matters is the duct footprint on the separating plates of a compact exchanger.10 Cell parameters Geometry Cell height.002 b x c = 4 x 10~6 = 3. kg/(m2 s) Pressure loss. = 8 x 0. If we take the surface area transferring heat from one side of a cell to be simply the product of cell width times flow length. Flow conditions Mass velocity.000 03 DG/rj = 1866. such that the Reynolds number will remain in the laminar region for all cases investigated.8888 A = 0.0110277 A/?D/(2/G2) = 1. A Dimensionless numbers Nusselt number Friction number Friction factor Abs.. J/(m2 s K) 2bc/(b + c) = 0. then: Eight square cells One rectangular cell S = cL = 0.67 (/Re)/Re = 0. m.030 331m2 2 = 0.016 x 1.05 . L Heat transfer Thermal cond. m2. Tall.608 /Re = 14.8786 c = 16.0 2bc/(b + c) = 0.20 A = 0. nitrogen).227 il = 0. mm Cell width. We explore the problem of dealing with plain ducts of low height which are much less dependent on fin performance.0133378 A/?D/(2/G2) = 0.67 (/Re)/Re = 0.000 03 DG/7? = 1066.002 x 0. J/(m s K) Heat-transfer coeff. There are eight square cells for one rectangular flow cell. it can however be obtained by assessing duct performance. viscosity.490 /Re = 20.014 058m Comparison of single duct performance Aspect b/c — 1/1 Aspect b/c =1/8 b = 2. kg/(m s) Reynolds number..g.

this is still not sufficient to make the square cell better than the rectangular cell because the new comparative performance is: Eight square cells ^-) = 2. however.103 50 watts/K \A0/ However.002) x 1.8888 = 0. the single. we might redefine cell surface areas to be: Eight square cells = 8(c + b)L = 8 x (0. for equal mass velocities.g.535 97 watts/K y One rectangular cell ( %-} =3. and there are eight more sides on the square cells than on the rectangular cells. Where winding of flow passages becomes necessary to combine small total flow area with large surface area for heat transfer.268 03 watts/K One rectangular cell =hS = 91. minimum block volume.014058 = 1 . the square duct might be preferred so as to better approach the contraflow ideal.004) x 0. p. The major restriction in designing with universal correlations is . In choosing a winding geometry. This is because the universal flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations of Manglik & Bergles (1990) allow surface geometries to be adjusted at will (see Appendix C) so as to approach the desired optimum exchanger block (e.0340m2 There may be some uncertainty about fin efficiency at these small sizes when the fin is 'chunky'. Assuming fin efficiency <f> = 1 .10 Fine-tuning of ROSF surfaces Fine-tuning becomes possible when working with rectangular offset strip-fin (ROSF) geometries using BERGFIN or CROSSFIN software.28 x 0. etc.20 x 0. but numerical evaluation would reveal whether rectangular ducts showed better performance.).7686 watts/K There will be fin effect on cell sides. 4.(0. multi-start helical coil would be better than a multi-start serpentine platen. minimum frontal area. Section 49. flattened.030331 = 2. See Hausen (1950).Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 127 Comparative thermal performance per unit temperature difference is then: Eight square cells =hS = 90.028 115m2 . the rectangular cell will reach a Reynolds number of 2000 first.0 mm. and cell spacing to be 1.8786 = 0.0. for analysis of coils and platens having short lengths.016 + 0. 213 onwards.

4. then experimental testing is unavoidable. Single-blow testing (Chapter 10) can be used to provide original flow-friction and heat-transfer data for subsequent interpolative cubic splinefitting (Appendix B. the second restriction being that accuracy of the correlations will lie only within +10 per cent. The extract presented as Table 4. together with the physical properties of a suitable fluid. mm2 Fin thickness.11 Overview of surface performance At this point it is useful to overview the situation to assess whether our choices so far are appropriate. When more exact match of ROSF geometries is desired. J/(m s K) Gas absolute viscosity. We do this by examining the performance of an isolated plain rectangular duct. Such information cannot be plucked from thin air.128 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers that local surface dimensions must fall within the dimensional envelope of the geometries used to produce the original correlations.0001 A/? = 3000. nitrogen.6). mm Physical properties Fin material density.000 03 The characteristic dimension for the duct is found dhyd = 4 x area for flow wetted perimeter 2bc \ b + c. = 8906.10 pf A/ pg Ag 17. kg/s Pressure loss.0 A = 8. For laminar flow. which is the basic building block for sub-compact heat exchangers.9 was discussed in Section 4. it can however be obtained for a single duct from an appropriate direct-sized design. J/(m s K) Gas density. kg/m3 Fin thermal conductivity.0 = 20.g. and duct cross-section. allowable pressure loss.550 = 0. kg/m3 Gas thermal conductivity.0 = 0. theoretical studies of the performance of plain rectangular ducts in fully developed laminar flow were presented in book form by Shah & London (1978). N/m2 Duct cross-sectional area.00 f/ = 0. . Subsequently we shall interpret our findings to match the performance of other surfaces as appropriate. such that the Reynolds number will remain in the laminar region for all cases investigated. Flow conditions Mass flowrate.05 = 0. What now is required is some information about mass flowrate. and that the horizontal sides of the duct form the surfaces of separating plates. e. kg/(m s) mg = 0. It will be assumed that the single duct is embedded in a compact heat exchanger such that the vertical side walls of the ducts form the inside surfaces of fins of thickness tf.9.

the Reynolds number is calculated as and theflow-frictionfactor is found from (/ =/ Re/Re).14) (4. however. In practice this can be mitigated by using stainless steel instead of aluminium which reduces thermal conductivity by approximately one order of magnitude. specific performance can be improved when ROSF surfaces are used as higher heat-transfer coefficients can be obtained due to continual restarting of the boundary layer. The fin efficiency follows from ($ = tanh(wF)/wF). which is represented at the centre of the figure. This leads to the lower porosity of PCHE blocks. In laminar flow. performance may be found as (4. V = b x c x L From the simple expression for heat transferred (Q = aSejfAff). On the left-hand side of Fig. This explains the success of the printed-circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) primary surfaces. however. the wall thicknesses through which heat is to be transferred would also be required to be reduced by the same order of magnitude. From pressure loss.11. L = Duct volume. The worst choice is the square duct.11. The length and volume of duct may then be obtained as Duct length. being somewhat poorer for tall. an exchanger design based on the flat thin ducts would introduce many more separating plates. making them more susceptible to parasitic longitudinal conduction losses. thin ducts on the left. Specific performance is best for flat.15) the value for specific Results of the computation. thin ducts on the right. 4. simple flat plate theory predicts the mean heat-transfer coefficient to be twice that at the trailing edge of the plate.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 129 allowing the heat-transfer coefficient (a) to be obtained from the corresponding value of Nu#. Thus we may anticipate that the Qspec curve on the left would be much higher for ROSF surfaces. where and and the effective heat-transfer surface for the plain duct to a single plate surface per unit length of duct is Effective surface of duct. . 4. plotted to a base of LOG(duct base/duct height) are shown in Fig.

low-pressure flows a good starting point would be to choose an effectiveness of 0.4. • allowing for variable 'phase-lag' in exchangers subject to transients. 4. 4. low-pressure flows need large flow areas and cold.130 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.8 (see Fig. using plain ducts in laminar flow.11 and also Appendix J).11 also reveals that it is not desirable to go to extreme left or right limits of the diagram. before embarking on final design with ROSF or printed-circuit surfaces. as this leads to shorter flow lengths and correspondingly greater susceptibility to longitudinal conduction losses. Pressure losses in the tapering rectangular ducts would have to be evaluated. both the mean width of ducts and the taper angle being reduced as the flow decreases to aim for equal pressure losses. Simple 'ribbing' of the distributor surface would create expanding and contracting flow channels at inlet and outlet.11 Specific performance comparison of plain rectangular ducts Figure 4. Hot. It may not be practicable to design a contraflow plate-fin heat exchanger without flow distributors. • allowing for additional heat transfer. . high-pressure flows need small flow areas. Problems created by introducing this extra surface include: • allowing for additional pressure loss.12 Headers and flow distributors The subject of zero pressure loss in headers is dealt with in Chapter 8. For hot. Included angles of less than 15 degrees would minimize separation losses. The distance between separating plates is governed by flow area requirements. A possible design philosopy would be to optimize the exchanger roughly.

when stream temperature profiles do not match along the length of the exchanger. and that separate sections have the same length. However. and Prasad (1993) become necessary (see Chapter 11). assessed by Weimer & Hartzog (1972). Both the plate spacing (b) and pitch (c) are small. Correction for longitudinal conduction is incorporated by adjustment of LMTD in the way described. Shah (1990) has discussed brazing methods. is the leakage plate 'sandwich' used to prevent crosscontamination of two fluid streams. it only being necessary to ensure that the same pressure loss exists in both parts of the stream which is split.14 Buffer zone or leakage plate 'sandwich' Many aspects of hardware design have not been addressed in this volume. length adjustment may be achieved by varying strip length (x). 1994).Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 131 4. In thermal design it is a simple matter to treat the leakage plate 'sandwich' as a single plate. The following simple treatment provides an approach which may prove useful when more accurate data are not available. so that any leakage may be to the external environment or to a leak detection system (McDonald. but the problem of transverse conduction to non-adjacent streams will arise unless stream temperature profiles have already been matched in the earlier design process. The problem is to determine an equivalent thermal conductivity for the new barrier to heat flow. The case of three streams is straightforward. recourse to 'rating' design approaches like those of Haseler (1983). The surface may be represented by . as problems can be reduced through proper attention to matching terminal temperatures and choice of streams. and which directly affects thermal performance. while 'fin' thickness (tf) of the shallow plain surface is as large as practicable. and proceed with direct-sizing as indicated earlier. Prasad & Gurukul (1992). No end bars are fitted to the sandwich. Taylor (1987) edited a guide to plate-fin heat exchangers which discusses mechanical construction including headering and pressure limitations. One mechanical feature not previously discussed. Assume that the geometry of the shallow plain surface of thickness t is in the form of a sinusoid of pitch c and amplitude b. When ROSF surfaces are used. The Aluminium Plate Fin Heat Exchanger Manufacturers' Association recently produced a set of standards (ALPEMA. 4. At lay-up each separating plate is replaced by two separating plates between which a shallow plain surface is placed. Haseler & Fox (1995) considered distributor models. 1995). Imperfections in construction lead to maldistribution and loss of performance. This is a matter of careful layout of cryogenic plant at the system design stage.13 Multi-stream design (cryogenics) It is possible to extend the contraflow design method to sizing of simple multistream exchangers. The staggered brazing better guarantees that no cross-leakage can occur.

the horizontal distance across the shallow plain surface can be found. 4.18) and (4. hence the angled heat flow width per unit length of the exchanger is AI = 2t. A = E(2 x tp +1). The vertical heat flow length is £2 = b and the air-gap width is area per unit length of exchanger (A2).19) and represent each heat flow path by a lumped form of Fourier's law Q = M(A0/£). c) are desirable. direction of the sinusoids should be arranged at right-angles to the fluid flow directions. which is a manufacturing constraint. Estimate the conduction length using gradient of the sinusoid at (x = 0.132 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers By taking the derivative at (x = 0. 1994).4 is then for two separating plates and one narrow plate. and simple to incorporate in computer calculations. y = 0) to obtain t\. it is reported that when the cold air flow is by-passed then the hot-side fouling can be burnt off quite successfully. (Webb. However. Greater longitudinal conduction has now been built into the exchanger. the air-gaps may be slid together horizontally giving an equivalent air-gap length which is easier to handle. It follows that large values of t and small values of (b. 4. viz. Mentally removing the metal surface. To simplify notation replace the square-root expression by the single symbol x in equations (4. There are two heat flow paths of width t in any cell pitch c.15 Consistency in design methods Practical considerations Plain fins are sometimes recommended for the gas-side of gas turbine recuperators. Cross-section for conduction in the single-plate design of Fig. y = 0) and using Pythagoras. given by For the metal surface the heat flow path is not at right angles to the separating plates. In any single pitch (c) there are two such horizontal distances. For contraflow. . as plain fins can be cleaned effectively whereas rectangular offset strip fins cannot. then In practical cases x = 1»hence the equivalent conduction of the gap between the two 'leakage plates' becomes This is intuitively acceptable.

while for single surfaces a near exact match with experimental values can be obtained using interpolating cubic spline-fitting. and each side of the exchanger will normally produce different numerical values. There is + 10 per cent scatter in the Manglik & Bergles universal correlations. One source of the problem was found to be the two values of hydraulic diameter quoted both in feet and in inches in Table 9. This of course is messy. and these values do not quite correspond due to round-off. Surface specifications in Table 4. Manglik & Bergles developed an improved value for definition of hydraulic diameter given as No explicit definition of hydraulic diameter was given by Kays & London in their 1964 text. Matching the notation of Manglik & Bergles is done by re-defining dimensions thus when the hydraulic diameter obtained in this text is found to be The numerical difference between alternative definitions is tiny.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 133 Computational problems When direct-sizing programs were run with the same input data. for consistency. .3 of Kays & London (1964). Differences were finally traced to slight discrepancies in the dimensions used for local surface geometry. However. and correctness of heat-transfer coefficient and friction-factor values obtained depends on using the same definition as the original author(s). but the writer provides means for defining this in Table 4. 4. Earlier definitions used by different authors are to be found in the paper by Manglik & Bergles (1990).16 Geometry of rectangular offset strip fins It is straightforward to generate ROSF surface parameters from basic fin dimensions. initially it was found that the predicted size of the exchanger might differ by about 1 per cent between programs. the Manglik & Bergles expression should be used with their universal correlations. Cautionary note.10. The test of accuracy is to find that (omegal = omega2).1 1 are based on cell dimensions only. Hydraulic diameter Different definitions have been used for hydraulic diameter in generating the heattransfer and flow-friction correlations.

tf] tf/x + (c) tf/x [(b .tf] (c .ts)/2 .tf) b/2 2[(b .tf) be (two cells) Notes Exposed base Plate surface Total volume Fin sides Fin ends Base ends Splitter Fin sides Plates Fin ends Base ends Splitter Fin height Cell sides Cell ends Fin ends Base ends Cell flow area Cell frontal area Stotal/x Y Per (one cell) Aflow (one cell) Afront The following parameters can be evaluated from Table 4.134 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 4.2tf] tf/x + 2(c) tf/x + 2(c .ts)/2 .ts)/2 .tf) + 2[(b .tf) + 4[(b .ts)/2 .11 Geometries for rectangular offset strip-fin cells (cell surface valid over one strip length) Parameter Sbase/x Splate/x Vtotal/x Sfins/x Single cell 2(c .tf) (c .tf] tf/x + 2(c) tf/x + 2(c .tf) be (one cell) Double cell 2(c . Side-1 cells Aflow 1 Afront 1 Perl Sfinsl Stotall Yl Vtotall Splatel Vexchrl Parameter Flow area on one side Frontal area on one side Effective perimeter of a cell Fin surface on one side Total surface on one side Fin height Total flow volume on one side Total surface area of separating plate Volume of whole exchanger core Side-2 cells Aflow2 Afront2 Per2 Sfins2 Stotal2 Y2 Vtotal2 Splate2 Vexchr2 Geometrical parameters (not all dimensionless): Side-1 geometry alphal = (Stotall/Vexchrl) betal = (Stotall/Vtotall) gammal = (Sfinsl/Stotall) Side-2 geometry alpha2 = (Stotal2/Vexchr2) beta2 = (Stotal2/Vtotal2) gamma2 = (Sfin2/Stotal2) + 2(b .tf) + 2(b .tf) 2c be 4[(b .tf) tf/x + (c) tf/x (b .tf) + 2(c-tf) + 2(b .ts)/2 .tf] + 4[(b .tf) 4[(b .2 tf) tf/x + (c)tf/x 2(b .tf] + 2(c .ts)/2 .tf) + 2(c .tf] + 2(c .tf) 2c be 2(b .ts)/2 .tf) tf/x + (c) tf/x b/2 2(b .

845 0.03 (S) l/2-11.523 0.356 0.490 2.840 0.359 2.371 1.06 (D) L&S paper 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 1.andy-correlations permit full optimization of heat exchanger cores.572 0.290 1.302 0.708 1.803 2.467 1.00 (D) 1/8-19.610 0.466 0.549 2.75 (D) 1/8-16. cell pitch (c) and strip-length (x).850 0.794 0.810 0.303 0.611* 0. more experimental work on shorter.859 0.82 (D) 1/8-20.231 2.218 2.373 0.468 0.386 1.809 0. This allows continuous adjustment of basic cell geometry. there are limits on the correlations. wider geometries seems desirable.61 (S) 1/9-22.596 0.887 0.486 2. kappal = (Stotall/Splatel) lambdal = (Sfinsl/Splatel) sigmal = (Aflowl/Afrontl) taul = (Sbasel/Splatel) omegal = (Splatel/Vexchrl) kappa2 = (Stotal2/Splate2) Iambda2 = (Sfins2/Splate2) sigma2 = (Aflow2/Afront2) tau2 = (Sbase2/Splate2) omega2 = (Splate2/Vexchr2) In Table 4. Calc.847 0.841 0. K&L gamma K&L rh (mm) Calc.517 0. no.841 0.248 0.796 0.94(D) 1/6-12. with some discrepancy for double-cell surfaces.12 results of computation with these expressions compared with values quoted in the London & Shah paper of 1968 gave close agreement for single-cell surfaces. First. 0.845 0.and these may be different for different surface geometries.351 0.067 2.356 0. upper and lower limits must be observed on the basic cell parameters.35 (S) 1/10-27. viz.373 104 (S) 103 (S) 105 (S) 101 (S) 106 (S) 102 (S) — — — — — — * Values quoted in Kays & London (3rd edn) are incorrect.387 0.434 0. Manglik & Bergles universal correlations For ROSF surfaces generalized explicit/.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 135 Table 4.659 0.434 0. and the above values are taken from the London & Shah (1968) paper.546 2. The techniques used by Manglik & Bergles (1995) to obtain the correlations are also described by Webb (1994) and by Churchill & Usagi (1972).18 (D) 1/7-15.827 2.665* 0.858 0.567 0.12 Comparison of Kays & London (1964) K&L values and calculated values for ROSF single-cell (S) and double-cell (D) surfaces beta (I/ mm) Geom.667 0.68 (S) 1/9-24. see Appendix I. Since experimental results for most ROSF geometries were obtained over a fairly limited range of cell aspect ratios (b/c).843 0.067 2. K&L Calc.351 0.885 0.374 0.359 2. However. upper and lower limits must be observed for Reynolds number . and seem to have been applied earlier to an entirely different problem by Clarke (1966).12 (S) 1/9-25.597 0.664 0. Second.726 1.850 0.464 1.381 Surface designation 1/8-15. cell height (b).797 2.885 0.512 1.01 (S) 1/10-19.500 1.385 0. .886 0.830 2.845 0.

and/-correlations for rectangular offset strip-fin surfaces do provide a good representation of original data.13 Manglik & Bergles heattransfer correlation for rectangular offset strip fins To confirm that the generalized Manglik & Bergles/. six London & Shah single-cell and six Kays & London double-cell surfaces were reassessed for fit. In the notation of this text the factor definitions of parameters are The correlation for flow friction is The correlation for heat transfer is where the Colburn /'-factor is j = St Pr2//3 . and the linear (log-log) fits presented in Figs 4.136 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.14 where (a. Surfaces used are set out in Table 4. y) are geometrical factors used by Manglik & Bergles.13 are very close to those originally given by Manglik & Bergles.12 Manglik & Bergles flowfriction correlation for rectangular off-set strip fins Fig. 5.4.12 and 4.4.

067 2.152 1.152 0.726 1.885 0.175 3.596 0.61 (02) 1/9-22.70 4.102 — — — — — — 0.085 1.356 0.841 0.627 1.152 0.434 0.895 0.796 0.282 1.053 1.266 3.512 1.540 2.466 0.016 1.845 0.102 0.00 (D) 1/8-19.385 0.102 0.102 0.847 0.809 0.102 0.18 (D) 1/7-15.803 2. .373 ts (mm) beta (1/ mm) gamma rh(mm) Surfaces used to generate Manglik & Bergles f.302 0.06 (D) Geom.629 3.152 0.127 2.567 0.611* 0.207 5.350 7.175 * Values quoted in Kays & London (3rd edn) are incorrect.170 2.521 3.831 2.and j-correlations Surface designation 1/8-15.850 0.152 0.313 0.645 1.386 1.887 0.467 1.722 6. b (mm) c (mm) x (mm) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 5.517 0.75 (D) 1/8-16.01 (S) 1/10-19.94 (D) 1/6-12.13 tf(mm) 0.Table 4.231 2.175 3.351 0.822 2.905 6.665* 0.03(S) 1/2-11.102 0.102 0.102 0.12(8) 1/9-25.120 1.373 0.102 0.940 2.152 0. and the above values are taken from the London & Shah (1968) paper.819 2.820 2.68(8) 1/9-24.350 6.490 2.152 0.843 0.080 1.966 7.35 (S) 1/10-27.82 (D) 1/8-20.152 0.588 1.477 5.549 2.540 12.659 0.102 0.613 1.359 2.290 0.020 8.015 1.

plain sinusoidal.14 General parameters for one side of an exchanger as first developed by Kays & London Geometrical parameters Stotall/Vexchrl Stotall/Vtotall Sfinsl/Stotall Stotall/Splatel Sfinsl/Splatel Aflowl/Afrontl Sbasel/Splatel Splatel/Vexchrl Name alpha 1 betal gamma 1 kappa 1 lambda 1 sigmal* taul omega 1 Kays & London all surfaces b\ x betal /(bl+2tp + b2) GIVEN GIVEN b\ x betal/2 kappal x gammal betal x Dl/4 — alphal / kappal This text (ROSF only) bl x betal /(bl+2tp + b2) Use Table 4.17 Compact fin surfaces generally One of the best-performing surfaces for clean conditions is probably the ROSF surface. including plain triangular. 4. Ntu > 10. J. The 'wavy' fin may show slightly better heat-transfer and flow-friction performance. It is not to be expected that exactly the same results will be obtained comparing design using interpolating cubic spline-fitted correlations against the universal Manglik & Bergles correlations which have to allow for ±10 per cent scatter. louvred triangular. Rectangular ducts offer one of the most convenient high-performance compact surface. unmixed crossflow.0 Contraflow. From nearness of approach of temperature profiles (Chapter 3). The present form was found to be more convenient in programming. 4. 11 Use Table 4. 11 Use Appendix B. 3.138 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 4. Ntu = 2. Many alternative types of compact fin surface are possible candidates for use.I).0 2. Ntu = 4. Ntu = 7.0 two-pass. plain trapezoidal. 11 Use Table 4. but it lacks the ability to reduce the effects of longitudinal conduction (but see Fig. This is because the small strips continuously recreate the boundary layer and provide high heat-transfer coefficients. 11 Use Table 4.0 one-pass. etc. 11 Use Table 4. suggesting optimum directions for geometrical change. . plain wavy.18 Conclusions 1.4 alphal / kappal *Note: the definition of parameter (sigma) differs from that used by Kays & London. Trend curves for performance of single-cell and double-cell ROSF surfaces are presented in Appendix C. approximate maximum values of Ntu are likely to be as follows: Parallel flow. and because the discontinuous surface helps reduce effects of longitudinal conduction. louvred trapezoidal. unmixed crossflow. and new surface geometries continue to appear.

Parallel Flow and Crossflow. Am. Low values of Reynolds number do not imply low values of flow velocity in compact heat exchanger designs. A method of adjusting LMTD values to allow for longitudinal conduction in design of contraflow exchangers is available.F. (Eds. Clarke. (1950) Wdrmeubertragung im Gegenstrom. (1995) Distributor models for plate-fin heat exchangers.E. W. P. reprinted 1995. 449-456. Chem. R. Churchill. 7. (1985) On the search for new solutions of the single-pass crossflow heat exchanger problem. Berlin. B. and London. Florida. Heat exchanger duty densities tending towards the following values appear practicable when surface geometries can be tuned. McGraw-Hill. J. 3rd edn (1984). specific performance 9. viz. Hewitt. G. In 4th UK National Heat Transfer Conference. L. Manchester. Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill. Int. 26-27 September 1995. Afgan). 8(6). 8. 5. (1966) A convenient representation of creep strain data for problems involving time-varying stresses and temperatures. pp. and Bott. and Usagi.M. Check the Mach numbers. and Fox. (1972) A general expression for the correlation of rates of transfer and other phenomena. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. Hants.M. R284. 1965-1976.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 139 4. 6. Any dimensional discrepancies found may influence the accuracy of heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations.W. Springer. Demonstration of 'direct-sizing' of a crossflow exchanger confirms the precision of the method. Pyestock. (1983) Performance calculation methods for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. Haseler.. and N. The similar approach to direct-sizing of contraflow exchangers is described. A. J. References ALPEMA (1994) The Standards of the Brazed Aluminium Plate-fin Heat Exchanger Manufacturer's Association. 1976.L. Haseler. Shires. G. Inst. 2nd edn (1964). Eng. Hausen. (English edition: Heat transfer in Counterflow. S. Heat Exchangers: Theory and Practice. Taborek. and Heggs. T.L.R. L... 28(10). J. Assessment of small plain ducts indicates that a rectangular aspect ratio will give better performance than a square aspect ratio. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. T. H. .F. The desirability of careful checking of published geometrical parameters of surfaces is emphasized. Brief discussion of extension of 'direct-sizing' to multi-stream exchangers is included. New York.S. Pressure loss pairs can be adjusted for constant exergy generation in directsizing. ALPEMA. CRC Press. 495-506.J. G.E. NOTE Report No. 1121-1128. 10. National Gas Turbine Establishment. Kays. New York. J. Baclic. pp. Heat Mass Transfer. (1964) Textbook: Compact Heat Exchangers.) Hewitt. McGraw-Hill.

Metzger). Academic Press.U-type arrangements. (1984) Flow distribution and pressure drop in plate heat exchangers. (1978) Laminar Forced Flow Convection in Ducts. Mashelkar). John Wiley. Handbook of Single-phase Heat Transfer (Eds.K. Hemisphere.E. .140 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers London.S.K. Manglik. A. UK. and Bergles. and Hartzog.Guide to their Specification and Use.K.A. (1995) Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for the rectangular offset strip fin compact heat exchanger. 14-18 August 1994. Exp. pp.) (1987) Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers . Shah. Kakag. New York. Oxford University Press.F.Z-type arrangements. S. A.E. Thermal Fluid Sci. Bassiouny. D. (1982) Compact heat exchanger surface selection. HTFS. (1992) Differential methods for the performance prediction of multistream plate-fin heat exchangers. M. E. 2nd edn. Shah. John Wiley.M. Harwell (amended 1990). and London. (1995) Compact buffer zone plate-fin IHX . Shah. Shah.L. B.K. R. R. and W. pp.V. Appl. (1994) Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer.K. and A. 18. 3-32. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.V.K. and Bergles.K. Bhatti.L. ASME J.M. 10.E. C. and D. UK. 41-49. R. optimisation and computeraided thermal design.S. McDonald. R. 815-844.L. (1988) Plate-fin and tube-fin heat exchanger design procedures. Kraus. Shah. pp.D.K. New York. New York. Institution of Chemical Engineers. 171 -180. Compact Heat Exchangers . Heat Transfer Equipment Design (Eds.F. R. Webb. and Martin. M.M. London. 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. Supplement 1 to Advances in Heat Transfer. (Eds. R. London (Eds. R. Part 1 .the key component for high temperature nuclear process heat realisation with advanced MHR.G. Hemisphere.K. Shah. Shah. Smith. Engng Sci. 52-64. Kaka9.F. New York. and A. The Industrial Sessions Papers. S. R. 491-529. Heat Transfer.G. Aung). A. London. pp. Bergles). and Shah. and R. and Shah. Prasad. R. Shah. 90. (1972) Effects of maldistribution on the performance of multistream multipassage heat exchangers.. 123-149.M. Compact Heat Exchangers . (1993) The performance prediction of multistream plate-fin heat exchangers based on stacking pattern. and Gurukul. New York. ASME J. Engng Power. Hemisphere.a festschrift for A. R. R. A. Manglik. Part 2 . methodology.a festschrift for A. Bergles). 16(1). vol. 58-70. Chem. (1985) Cryogenic Systems. Weimer. R. S. B. Hemisphere. R. A.K. (1987) Laminar convective heat transfer in ducts. Paper B-2.heat transfer and flow-friction characteristics. pp. M. Metzger). p.A. 256-266. (Eds.L. R. (1994) Direct thermal sizing of plate-fin heat exchangers. Kraus. Plenum Press.K. A. 114. Bibliography Barron. 12(4).K. 121..K. 218-228. Shah. 39(4). (1968) Offset rectangular plate-fin surfaces .L. Kaka§. E. Low Reynolds Number Flow Heat Exchangers. In Proceedings of the 12th Cryogenic Engineering Conference.E. Heat Transfer Engng. Subbarao. H.S. R. (Ed. Shah. S. Taylor. R. 845-876. (1990) Brazing of compact heat exchangers.D. Low Reynolds Number Flow Heat Exchangers (Eds. pp. Brighton. A.K. 693-700.L. (1982) Compact heat exchangers . Thermal Engng. and D. R. (1990) The thermal hydraulic design of the rectangular offset strip-fin compact heat exchanger. Prasad.A. New York.

August. Kelkar. 635-653.V. 120. Heat Mass Transfer. Th. and Rohsenow. J. Howard).. and Kays. 2575-2587. 31(2). ASME.I. M.. (1993) Performance evaluation of a vortex generator heat transfer surface and comparison with different high performance surfaces. P. (1965) Principles of Heat Transfer. pp. 101-121.P. L. N. Int. Int. (1996) The utilisation of recuperated and regenerated engine cycles for high-efficiency gas turbines in the 21st century. In 6th UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. Incropera. 521. Zhang. pp. Heat Transfer. p. R. MacDonald. and C.J. (1987) Prediction of heat transfer and friction in the offset strip fin array. 69-84. J. Jacobi. December 431-438. Elsevier. Heat Mass Transfer.C. Gas turbine regenerators: a method for selecting the optimum plate-finned surface pair for minimum core volume. Macmillan. pp. 12. Cool. (1980) The advancement of compact heat exchanger theory considering the effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity. S. Hashemi).History. In Proceedings of the 1966 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. Appl. Pennsylvania. R. . 52. 2nd edn. ASME HTD-Vol. Appl. J. Chiou.P. A. U.M.. Int. 363-372. 521. Dejong. pp.. Dow. Herbein. Part A.K. Grassman. Heat Mass Transfer. Guentermann. 3441-3450. D. Int. (1988) Comparison of entropy generation and conventional method of optimising a gas turbine regenerator (actually recuperator). 35(12). p.P.K. Chiou. D. (1981) Fundamentals of Heat Transfer. (1992). C. and Adderley. (1993) Optimising size and weight of plate-fin heat exchangers. and Tafti. 36(10). J. (1998) A complementary experimental and numerical study of the flow and heat transfer in offset strip-fin heat exchangers. In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Heat Exchanger Technology.G. IMechE. Stevens. C. F. Trans. A. 27-32. P. Joshi. (1950) The uniform distribution of a fluid flowing through a perforated pipe. Shah.S. Int. ASME J. and Kopp. March. S. and Fiebig. W. 30. J. Scranton. R. Balachandar. 75... J. John Wiley. (Also. and Rohsenow. Computer Methodology..: Numerical Heat Transfer. 10. J. A. 391-399. McDonald. and Wilson. (1966) Performance deterioration in high effectiveness heat exchangers due to axial conduction effects. (1957) Zur gunstigen Wahl der Temperaturdifferenz und der Warmeiibergagszahl in Warmeaustauschern. Heat Transfer. International Textbook Co.L. C. Palo Alta. 16-21 November 1980.M. Clark.M. Hesselgreaves. July.G.W. and Patankar. ASME Winter Annual Meeting. 10.M. 3rd edn.. Paper E-5. ASME. J. S. F. p. and DeWitt. (1999) Heat exchanger optimisation using genetic algorithms. 346-351. W.E. J. Kaltetechnik. London. H.. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. (1953) Laminar-flow forced convection in rectangular tubes. ASME Publication HTD-Vol.M.Direct-Sizing of Plate-Fin Exchangers 141 Brockmeier. W.F. D. KM. Compact Heat Exchangers .) Kreith. Trans. 15-17 February 1993 (Eds. 100. California. 149-164. Shah and A. (1978) The effect of longitudinal heat conduction on crossflow heat exchanger.H.P. Trans. (1974) Heat Transfer. Heat Mass Transfer. and Webb. ASME. (1989) Numerical prediction of heat transfer and fluid flow in rectangular offset-fin arrays. vol. 241-244. Kroeger. Chicago. 16(8/9). Technological Advancement and Mechanical Design Problems (Eds.F. 306-308. Chapman. T. 15(2). 690-698. J.K. 9 Jahregang. Campbell.F. 859-866. Plenum Press.P. Thermal Engng. W.M. D. J. pp. 497. 21-28.

IChemE.M.E.P. P.a continuous formulation. August. J.W. pp. S.R. J. Mayinger). 16 (8/9). 100. Y.142 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Najjar. and Prakash. 78(A). Heat Exchangers . (1967) Heat transfer in fully developed laminar flow through rectangular and isoceles triangular ducts. Hemisphere. Heat Mass Transfer. 10. Reneaume. New York. A. 514-519. ASME J.V.M. A. J. and Newell. (1998) Gas Turbine Performance. P. C. Int. 769-776.G. M.E. Appl. 849-859. Soland. F. Kaka£.H. (1975) Empirical correlations for heat transfer and flow friction characteristics of rectangular offset fin heat exchangers. (2000) Optimisation of plate fin heat exchangers . Trans. ASME. Thermal Engng. Heat Mass Transfer. Oxford. 488-490.K. Trans. and F. Shah. and Rohsenow.. and Fletcher. Int. Heat Transfer. W. Patankar. 97. Weiting. Schmidt. Heat Transfer.. Mack. 24(11).. (1996) Relative effect of pressure losses and inefficiencies of turbomachines on the performance of the heat-exchange gas turbine cycle. and Niclout. 1121-1123. J. (1981) Compact heat exchanger design procedures. (1981) An analysis of the effect of plate thickness on laminar flow and heat transfer in interrupted plate passages. . W. H. Bergles.ThermalHydraulic Fundamentals and Design (Eds. 495-536. (1978) Performance ranking of plate-fin heat exchanger surfaces.M. 1801-1810.S. September. J. Walsh. Pingaud. R.. N. Blackwell Science. S.

step-wise rating. once the exchanger has been sized it is practicable to fine tune the design by tube coil length adjustment so that constant pressure loss occurs everywhere across the shell-side and also across the tube-side. multi-start coil heat exchanger. and transients. A numerical design approach is also possible. Setting up the numerical solution is left as an exercise. Consistent geometry provides uniform helix angles. However. In this chapter a fully explicit design approach can be demonstrated because all correlations for heat transfer and pressure loss are available as algebraic expressions. Some modification to LMTD is required when the number of tube turns is less than about ten. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . 5. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. 5. simplified tube-side flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations for straight tubes are employed to permit a clean solution. In developing the 'direct-sizing' method. 'Sizing' of a contraflow exchanger begins when both mean temperature difference A0m and the product US of the overall heat-transfer coefficient and the surface area have been determined. has no internal baffle leakage problems. For design-critical conditions. This starts from knowledge of local tube and pitching geometry. multi-start coil heat exchanger (Fig. It permits uninterrupted crossflow through the tube bank for high local heat-transfer coefficients. and when the 'design window' is open (see Fig.10) we arrive at an optimum tube-bundle configuration satisfying specified shell-side and tube-side heat-transfer and pressureloss constraints. uniform transverse and longitudinal tube pitches.CHAPTER 5 Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers Practical design example 5.1). and this analysis has been presented by Hausen in both his Germa (1950) and his English (1983) texts. Given tube geometry and both tube-side and shell-side pressure losses. and is probably to be preferred for practical design purposes. Eric M. tube curvature has an effect on heat transfer and pressure loss. a method is presented for arriving at an optimal tubebundle configuration for the heat exchanger with single-phase fluids. and in exchangers with central ducts. and identical tube lengths throughout the bundle. The helical-tube.1 Design framework Theoretical expressions are developed for the geometrical arrangement of the tube bundle in a simple helical-tube. and provides advantageous counterflow terminal temperature distribution in the overall exchanger.

and in cryogenic applications including LNG plant. 1978. and subsequently repatented by L'Air Liquide (1934). 1965.5. however. have preferred the helical . 1972. be usefully varied. 1983). A substantial amount of international work has been done on the helical-coil design. Smith & King. However. A very brief note outlining the principal results was published (Smith. and is particularly useful when exchange is required between high-pressure-low-volume flow and lowpressure-high-volume flow as often encountered in cryogenics. Further geometrical results have been derived. Gill et ai. This type of exchanger was patented by Hampson (1895). formal geometry of the helical-tube. Smith & Coombs. and a direct method of arriving at the design of the tube bundle has been obtained. Thermal expansion can be accommodated by deflection of the ends of the coiled tube bundle. Flow areas on both sides may. 1964). both of which are included in this chapter. programmes of experimental work on heat transfer in helical-coil tube bundles have been published (Gilli. It has been applied in gas-cooled nuclear reactor plant. both marine and land-based pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Weimer & Hartzog (1972).1 Helical tube bundle with start factor r = 1 The design is largely restricted to non-fouling fluids. 1974. 1960).144 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. Abadzic. Since that time. multi-start coil heat exchanger does not seem to have been given before 1960 when it was presented in an industrial report (Smith.

3. 5. and true counterflow is achieved without the use of redirecting baffles. which is an integer and which may take the values 1. It is the purpose of this chapter to describe an approach to direct-sizing starting from the product US and the LMTD.1). is desirable. then for the shell-side fluid. the effect of tube curvature on heat transfer and pressure loss through the tube is neglected. and t > d always. and to adopt an annular arrangement where the central coil has one tube. The mean coil diameters are selected so that the shell-side fluid everywhere passes over exactly the same number of tube turns in traversing the bundle. The simplest method of satisfying the above conditions is to give every tube the same helix angle. The method applies to tube arrangements in which the local geometry of the bundle is independent of the number of tubes in the exchanger. Noting that p > d/cos (f> always. as the design is less sensitive to flow maldistribution. whereas an intermediate coil is denoted as the z-th coil and contains rz tubes. 5. It is possible to generalize the above case by multiplying the number of tubes in all coils by a constant factor r. each parallel flow path should have the same axial configuration.e. the number of times that shell-side fluid crosses a tube turn. and the related surface area (US). Before proceeding to thermal design. i. the third coil three tubes and so on. and increases the helix angle of the tube coils. 1983). 2. the outermost coil is denoted as the m-th and contains rm tubes.2 Consistent geometry Start factor (r) If. In heat exchanger sizing. Mean diameter of the z-th coil (Dz) This parameter is required for finding shell-side flow area. 5. both LMTD-Ntu and s-Ntu methods deliver the product of the overall heat-transfer coefficient. For the same heat-transfer surface it reduces the required length of individual tubes. then for every tube in the exchanger (Fig. For complete generality a central axial cylinder is introduced (Fig. This increases the number of tubes in the exchanger and the area for flow on the tube-side r times. see (Hausen (1950. For the tube-side fluid each tube should have the same length. and this results in an innermost coil which is denoted as the n-th coil and contains rn tubes. etc. leaving the design configuration to be determined by other methods. the shell-side area for flow for a single tube can be determined. .Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 145 coil heat exchangers for LNG service. as a simplification.2). A minimum value of y = 10. This layout will be especially satisfactory when a small area for flow in the tube bundle is required compared with the shell-side flow area. the second coil has two tubes. certain geometrical expressions for the helical-coil geometry have to be developed below. In the expressions given below.

5. 5. Number of tubes in exchanger (N) The z-th coil contains rz tubes.3) from which L may be obtained. using relationships (5. so that .2) and (5.2) then.146 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.2 Developed z-th coil tan < Helix angle of coil (<j>) Length of the tube bundle (L) For every tube in the exchanger (Fig.

the outside diameter of the central axial cylinder (core mandrel) is given by Similarly the inside diameter of the exchanger shell (or bundle wrapper) is Considering smooth tubes only. from equation (5.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 147 hence Number of times that shell-side fluid crosses a tube turn (y) Length of tubing in one longitudinal tube pitch (tc) Knowledge of the dimension tc is required in heat-transfer design for condensation. 5. the shell-side projected face area for flow is hence the face area for axial flow.1) and Fig. From equation (5. shell-side is .6) Tubing in a projected transverse cross-section (tp) Parameter required in evaluation of shell-side minimum area for flow. ylc = total length of tubing = Nt thus using equation (5. Clearly.1) Shell-side minimum area for axial flow (Amin) This is required for axial crossflow through the tube bundle. hence.1.

'AB' represents the distance between the centre-lines of adjacent rows of tubes when the tube bundle may be considered as in-line. This will give an effective minimum shell-side flow area (Amin) which is greater than the minimum 'line-of-sight' flow area (A.d) = >n(D\ . Fig.).5.and left-hand coils in a multi-start helical-tube heat exchanger ensures a homogeneous mixture of all crossflow geometries between 'in-line' and 'staggered' in the tube bundle. and 'FG' represents the same distance when the tubes are staggered.5). The use of alternate right.4a gives a three-dimensional view of a portion of the tube bundle that is developed to give straight tubes. (5.10).9).4a and b. independent of any axial displacement of individual coils (Fig.D20)(l . and (5.1).148 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Using equations (5.3 As = TT(m + n)(m -n+ \)t(t . 5. 5.3 Shell-side area for flow area = £[77<mean diameter)(number of annuli)(width of annulus)] . The value of Amin for a multi-start coil helical-tube heat exchanger is found by considering Figs 5.d/t)/4 Denoting annular area between the central axial cylinder and the exchanger shell as it follows that the correction for face area is For flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations the fluid velocities in 'staggered' and 'in-line' tube-bundle arrangements are generally taken at the point of minimum gap between adjacent tubes. or proceeding directly from Fig. Figure 5.

Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 149 Because of symmetry it is sufficient to calculate the effective minimum area for flow which lies between AB and FG (Amin). the vertical distance between K and L is pbr. the gap between the tubes is There is a slight error in the above expression due to the assumption that tube crosssections are circular and not elliptical. Fig. Thus and assuming that the tube cross-section can be taken as circular.4 Minimum area for flow . and to compare this with the corresponding face area for flow (As).5. At any distance from AB.

1 1).13) as This expression will not apply when there is no spacing.12). (5. . and correlations may be better expressed in terms of tube-bundle porosity (see below). or very little spacing between the tubes. and (5. for then an entirely new shell-side geometry is created.150 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The minimum area for flow between AB and FG (amin) is found by integrating the above expression between the limits b = 0 and b = Trt/(2r). The area is This expression is of the form and has the solution hence where The corresponding face area between AB and FG is thus the correction factor for helix angle in the bundle is The shell-side area for flow is determined from equations (5.

Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 151 Tube-side area for flow (At) Shell-side to tube-side flow area ratio (ar) This parameter is independent of the number of tubes. and the outside diameter will then determine the value of n for the innermost coil using equation (5. The annular volume between exchanger shell and internal duct is Thus shell-side porosity is Py = 1 — (tube volume)/(annulus volume) Exchanger with central duct A central by-pass duct with a flow-control valve may be an advantage when close control of fluid temperature is necessary. 5.d is used to space tubes in both transverse and longitudinal directions. then several of the geometrical relationships are simplified . It is convenient first to establish the leading dimensions of a simple exchanger to obtain the length of the by-pass duct required. 1972. The inside diameter of the central duct is then selected on the basis of pressure loss in the duct. Shell-side porosity (Py) This parameter is used in correlating friction factor data for shell-side flow in the helical-coil tube bundle (Smith & Coombs. 1978). independent of number of tubes N.3 Simplified geometry When a wire space of diameter t . which permits direct-sizing of helical-tube. Smith & King. The external volume taken up by the tubes is. multi-start coil heat exchangers.9).

.20) in equation (5.15) for shell-side minimum area for axial flow. For values of r up to 4. For radial flow exchangers it may be preferable to have the tubes of successive coils set at right angles to each other.13) and in equation (5. Fig. when the intermediate coil of the other coiling hand is in the 'middle' position: Transverse area for flow = (2t — d) Diagonal area for flow = 2[tJ(\ + 4t/d) . When both ratios are equal to unity.18) Substituting equation (5. then minimum flow area is in diagonal direction. With the simplified geometry. In obtaining the expression (5. Again. thus r = 4 or 5.4) We note that r may take only integer values (1 to 6) for real values of t/p. certain assumptions were made concerning the location of minimum flow area. then porosity of the tube bundle will be the relevant parameter. when either the transverse pitch ratio (t/d) or the longitudinal pitch ratio (p/d) is unity.152 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers as follows: Using equation (5.5 shows that the assumption made earlier is certainly valid for the simplified geometry. thus r = 1 or 2.d] If p/d > \/(l + 4t/d) If p/d < -v/(l + 4t/d) then minimum flow area is in transverse direction. 5. The assumption should probably be checked for values of r greater than 2 for more general tube-pitching arrangements. It is necessary to show that at the locally 'staggered' section of the bundle the minimum flow area will always lie in the diagonal direction. For axial flow in the bundle it is best if the angle of inclination does not exceed 20° if heat-transfer correlations are to remain valid. then shell-side flow area will need to be reassessed.

74 1.52 1. which will provide the product U x S.1 Simplified geometry for tube bundle r 1 2 1.5 Location of shell-side minimum area for flow . Constant (mean) fluid properties are employed.571 5 1.5.094 28.055 3. log mean temperature difference (A0/m.651 1.4 Thermal design Input data To illustrate the design method.297 1. but the technique can be extended to piece.54 52. and exchanger duty (0 are known data.369 72.158 1.047 39.d).138 3.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers Table 5. kW log mean temperature difference. Terminal temperatures.56 153 3 4 1.283 9.wise calculation of exchangers in which change in fluid properties is significant.013 2. were modified to provide a single-phase problem. 1960-1964). K Fig.73 5.142 18. data for one of the OECD Dragon helium/steam heat exchangers (ENEA. Exchanger performance Exchanger duty.257 6 Pit l/L <$> 6.

The t/d ratio is also a constraint. J/(m s K) Absolute viscosity. = 0.24) follows from (5.000 029 78 Pr. in that it must lie 'within range' of values used in the test programme that established the shell-side correlations (1. Its use at this point avoids extensive listing of data which do not correspond to the design point.200 \w = 190. m Tube thermal conductivity. Nu = 0. kg/s Specific heat.484 ms= 1. kg/(m s) Prandtl number Shell-side fluid (helium) Mass flowrate.0 pt = 88.023(Re)° 8(Pr)04 Flow friction. kg/(m s) Prandtl number Local geometry Tube external diameter. Equation (5. The Dean number correlation for flow in curved tubes is omitted as this correlation would introduce complications in the first optimization. This can only be obtained after the computational runs required to construct Figs 5.0 ps= 1. Nu = 0.1040 77. and it corresponds to maximum utilization of available pressure losses.25) (5.1 m Tube minimum coiling diameter.346.500 Cs = 5120.= 1.0 r= 1 (5.007 61 Dm = 0. lr The optimized tube spacing corresponds to t/d — 1. / = 0. = 0.0559(Re)° 794 Friction factor.046(Re)-° Shell-side correlations Heat transfer.00 A.23) (5. J/(m s K) Coiling start factor Correlations and constraints Tube-side correlations Heat transfer.750 Ct = 6405.8 and 5.26) Equation (5.24) (5. J/(kg K) Density. .154 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Tube-side fluid (steam) Mass flowrate.00003850 Prc = 0.770 d = 0. m Optimized tube spacing. kg/m3 Thermal conductivity. J/(kg K) Density.022 di = 0.200 A5 = 0. m Tube internal diameter.018 t-d= 0.23) using Reynolds analogy.500). J/(m s K) Absolute viscosity. kg/s Specific heat.26(Re)-° 117 2 mt= 1.125 < t/d < 1.23) is the standard result for turbulent flow in a straight tube with the viscosity term omitted for simplicity. kg/m3 Thermal conductivity.256 T]S= 0.9. / = Py x 0.

but the data are not for uniform helical-coil tube bundles.5 < ufe < 6. Ozisik & Topakoglu (1968). Equations (5. and Gnielinski (1986).0 . Zukauskas & Ulinskas (1988).123(Re)07 (Pr)036 Nu = 0.332(Re)06 (Pr)036 Nu = 0. A comparison of the correlations presented by Smith & Coombs (1972) and Abadzic (1974) is presented in Fig. and of which the author has personal knowledge. A comprehensive review of available heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for helical-tube. N/m 2 10+4 to 10+6 1. 1967a. multi-start coil heat exchanger bundles was given by Le Feuvre (1986). 1978). which Abadzic (1974) found to be (Pr)° 36 with Pr =0.71. Jensen & Bergles (1981). 5.25) and (5. These papers contain references to further publications. 1972. fouling/erosion. Abadzic (1974) examined heat transfer data from several sources and recommended three generalized equations for an extended range of Reynolds number. and such multiple correlations can now be replaced by interpolating spline-fits of data with weighted errors. 1978). Mori & Nakayama (1965.6.26) were obtained during an experimental programme of work on investigation of shell-side flow in helical-coil heat exchangers (Smith & Coombs. Shell-side correlations used in this paper are those which were developed specifically for helical-coil tube bundles. limiting velocities may exist for erosion (upper bound) and for fouling (lower bound).b). Most of the data correlated by Abadzic corresponded to helix angles of around 9°.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 155 The design may be varied later using correlations selected from papers by Ito (1959). m/s Maximum design pressure loss.26) has a range of validity of Reynolds number.036(Re)08 (Pr)036 for (1 x 10+3 < Re < 2 x 10+4) for (2 x 10+4 < Re < 2 x 10+5) for (2 x 10+5 < Re < 9 x 10+5) These are straight-line (log-log) segments. Maximum desired pressure losses are specified for both tube-side and shell-side flow. Nu = 0. Each correlation (5. but not all of the winding geometries reported are consistent.26) are not great.25) and (5. the reader might turn to the extensive work on normal crossflow for in-line and staggered geometries by Zukauskas (1987). Yao (1984). Tube-side constraints Re for heat transfer and pressure loss Velocity.0 2000. and the constants can be modified to include the effects of Prandtl number. Smith & King. More recent work is reported by Kanevets & Politykina (1989). viz.23) to (5. In addition. When data outwith this extended range are required. The problem of flow-induced tube vibration may also have to be considered (Chen. The experimental Reynolds number ranges for equations (5. Unfortunately Abadzic does not report friction-factor correlations. or to Bejan's summary of these results (1993).

12) .0 The design approach has to work within the limits of the above envelope. Local geometry From relations (5. t/L.1 6 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. p. then: Number of tubes in exchanger.5.6 Shell-side correlations Shell-side constraints Re for heat transfer and pressure loss Velocity. and t/p are evaluated numerically. Py. tube vibration Maximum design pressure loss.22) given earlier. equation (5.19) to (5. N/m2 10+3 to 10+4 Chen (1978) 5000.5) Tube-side area for flow. equation (5.16) Correction for face area. equation (5.

Re upper bound = 18.1989 (m2 Nmar = 781 tubes 'max Only restrictions on Reynolds number are known for shell-side flow.0 (m/s) Amin = 0. and referring all heat-transfer coefficients to the outside of the tube. Hence shell-side area for flow is Velocity constraints Because tube size is specified.003 314 (m2) Nmin =14 tubes Re lower bound Vmin = 0.80 (m/s) 2 in = 0. equation (5.13) 157 Row area ratio (shell-side/tube-side). the shell-side area for flow corresponding to a single tube is determined. the tube-side velocity bounds on Reynolds number and on fouling/erosion may be used to determine the number of tubes required.e. . it is important to recognize that these are not the only considerations to be taken into account. However.1 (m/s) Amax = 0.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers Correction for helix angle. equation (5. carrying forward the unknown number of tubes (AO and the unknown tube length (£).0010578 (m ) in — 5 tubes Erosion upper bound V^ = 6. Re upper bound Nmin = 53 tubes Re lower bound A^ = 521 tubes Overall heat transfer is now considered. i.188 (m/s) Awax = 0.105 78 (m2 W/HOX = 415 tubes Erosion lower bound Vmin = 0.17) which is independent ofN. and these are handled in a slightly different manner.

Pressure-loss constraints Two further equations exist involving N and t.38) has to be satisfied to ensure correct heat transfer.158 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Heat-transfer constraints The tube-side heat-transfer coefficient is determined from correlation (5. All bounding values for Af must be found before taking the design decision. Thus Equation (5. Values of N already obtained under 'Velocity constraints' could now be substituted to obtain several values for tube length €. multiplier (df/d) The shell-side heat-transfer coefficient is determined from correlation (5.23) as follows: and referring to tube outside diameter.25) as follows: The tube-wall heat-transfer coefficient is determined as The expression for overall heat-transfer coefficient becomes The given product (U x 5) = (Q/&0imtd) = 38 31 1. respectively.93 may now be employed. but this would not necessarily guarantee performance as pressure losses have not yet been considered. . These are related to tube-side and shell-side pressure losses.

and both cut the heat-transfer curve at the same point because the optimized tube spacing (t — d) has been used.39) to obtain numerical values for N. Tube-side Eqns (5.40) Nmin = 55 tubes Shell-side Eqns (5.42) Nmin = 55 tubes These values are identical because the design has already been optimized to satisfy tube-side and shell-side pressure losses simultaneously. .41) and. as in Fig. In the present design the shell-side and tube-side curves are almost coincidental. If any other constraint had entered into the design consideration. Following solution of these equations.0 N/m2 For the shell-side and with the desired pressure loss of 5000. 5.side 159 and with the desired pressure drop of 2000.0 N/m2 Equations (5.42) each deliver the minimum number of tubes to satisfy respective pressure drops.38) and (5. then these two figures would be different. in which the tube-side curve is shifted to the right for the purpose of illustration.38) and (5.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers For the tube. (5. the design region satisfying thermal design may be identified.7. Each is solved in turn with the heat-transfer equation (5.

43). by rounding up the value obtained from equation (5.2.200 m.160 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. The smallest possible integer value of n is first obtained from minimum coiling diameter 0. and a first estimate of the integer m Table 5.7 Direct-sizing of helical-coil exchanger (schematic) 5.2 Design 'window' based on tubes Tube-side Reynolds no. Vortex shedding Heat transfer 5 (high Re) 14 (erosion) 55 (max A/?) 53 (high Re) No data 55 (max A/?) 415 (low Re) 731 (fouling) — 521 (low Re) No data — . which determines the minimum coiling diameter. The size of the central duct is known from exchanger by-pass requirements. This will not necessarily prove to be the number of tubes in a helical-coil exchanger as further geometrical constraints have to be satisfied to ensure that every coiling station in the tube bundle is filled. Fouling/erosion Heat transfer Shell-side Reynolds no. namely N= 55 tubes. The minimum surface area for which the exchanger design is viable would occur with the largest value ofNmin.5.5 Completion of the design Values of N obtained in earlier sections are summarized in Table 5.

3459 makes near-maximum use of both allowable pressure losses and provides close approach to the smallest practicable tubebundle volume. In unusual circumstances it may be appropriate to decrease the value of m by 1 and adjust n to get a best match. The design method might be extended by adding an iterative loop Fig. Optimizing the bundle to the smallest number of tubes greater than 55. Equation (5.44).716 m Using equation (5.44) is employed again in reverse using these values of m and n. length of coiled bundle L = 3.8 Optimized design of helical-coil exchanger .38) individual tube length t = 20. and n again increased progressively by 1 until the closest match above 55 is obtained. If the new value of N is below 55 then m is increased by 1. to obtain a first 'helical-coil' value for N.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 161 obtained using equation (5. If the new value of N is greater than 55 then the value of n is increased by 1 progressively until the closest match above 55 is obtained. The nearest approach to the desired value of 55 is subsequently taken.5.297 m The chosen value of t/d = 1. gives the following configuration: Using equation (5.4).

346 The undernoted results were obtained by hand.8 illustrates the effect of varying transverse tube pitching.6 Thermal design results for (t/d) = 1. Limiting conditions for shell-side and tube-side pressure drop are shown in Fig. of which the designer should become aware. J/(m2 s K) Wall heat-transfer coefficient. The jagged curves are a consequence of adjusting tube numbers to satisfy helical-coil tube geometry requirements.mtd) = 37.80 . m Bundle wrapper inside diameter. or both.5.9. m Core mandrel outside diameter. m3 Specific performance.3087 Va= 1.64 at = 1003. or erosion/fouling velocity limitations for different input data. m2 Tube length. m Face area of bundle. it was thought advisable to proceed by separate calculation for each value of t — d as the several design constraints may invoke alternative limiting conditions. m Bundle length. 5.9 Optimized design of helical-coil exchanger to vary tube spacing within the range of validity of the shell-side correlations. However. J/(m2 s K) Shell heat-transfer coefficient. Surface area for heat transfer.297 D0 = 0.0 U = 477.0178 <2/(VA0.266 Di = 0. J/(m2 s K) 5=80.180 t = 20.681 Aa = 0. 5. could easily be replaced by maximum Re.14 aw = 86 075. J/(m2 s K) Overall heat-transfer coefficient. kW/(m3K) Tube heat-transfer coefficient. Figure 5.716 L = 3. but one or other.14 as = 922.162 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. m2 Volume of bundle.

and a selection is made. 5. = 9316.0 Ap. . helical-tube design is a preferred configuration when one fluid is evaporating.456 Q = 1500. = 0.10 Design window for Dragon-type heat exchanger Tube-side Shell-side Tube-side Shell-side Tube-side Shell-side Tube-side Shell-side Reynolds number Reynolds number velocity. The Gnielinski correlations are compared with the earlier work of Ito (1959) and of Mori & Nakayama (1965. = 4078.5.0 Tube-side area for flow. 1967a.b).1 ut= 1.0143 As = 0. m/s velocity.05065 Ap.d). = 0. Gnielinski's review (1986) of tube-side correlations omitted the significant earlier work of Ito and of Mori & Nakayama. N/m2 Rer = 74 227. m2 Shell/tube area ratio Exchanger duty (U x S x A0/m. N/m2 pressure loss. m/s friction factor friction factor pressure loss.004 883 /.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 163 Fig.2 Re.0920 ar = 6. = 1926. This multi-start.7 Fine tuning Fine tuning of the design will now be developed to avoid thermodynamic mixing losses which degrade exchanger performance.586 /. m2 Shell-side area for flow. kW The optimized helical-tube design provides a useful standard against which competing designs may be assessed. because the shell-side is fully interconnected for that fluid.3906 us = 13.7 A. = 0.

however. and further experimental investigation into this aspect of performance is necessary. Laminar flow friction factor Ito Gnielinski Mori valid for 1 < Pr < oo. Transition Reynolds number The following expressions were examined by Gnielinski (1986) When plotted in the ranges 1000 < Re < 100 000 and 10 < D/d < 10 000 the Ito correlation is a straight line. little to choose between them up to a value of D/d =100 which is already a fairly large diameter heat exchanger. see Figs 5. There is. 10. Laminar flow heat transfer Laminar heat transfer is the least well understood flow regime. 100. De = (D/d).164 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Resume of correlations All the undernoted correlations are consistent with the definition of friction factor for laminar flow in straight tubes leading to/= 16/Re. as it does not require knowledge of bulk-to-wall properties.001 </ c < 1. and 200 the Gnielinski and Ito correlations were practically identical within the ranges 100 < Re < 100 000 and 0.1 la and b. 20. When plotted for values of D/d =5. . The Ito correlation is preferred for the present analysis. The Schmidt correlation is preferred as it correctly tends towards the straight tube transition at Re = 2300 for large values of Dean number. but the Schmidt correlation is curved. 50. The Mori correlation is purely theoretical and was not compared.

5.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 165 Fig.11 Correlations for flow in curved tubes with (a) D/d = 16.2 Schmidt . (b) D/d = 36.5.

the Schmidt correlation exhibited convergence towards the theoretical value. but requires knowledge of bulk-to-wall properties. (48/11) = 4. Turbulent flow friction factor Ito Gnielinski Mori & Nakayama Moderate Re. for uniform heat flux. When very large values of D/d were tried in an effort to recover the straight tube correlation at low Reynolds numbers. When plotted for values of D/d = 5. . and did not find favour.166 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Mori & Nakayama The last correlation was recommended in the third paper by Mori & Nakayama as being for practical use. 100.36. 10. Two other theoretical correlations developed in their earlier papers involved a great number of terms. 50. and 200 large differences were found in predicted values for Nu within the ranges 100 < Re < 100 000 and 1 < Nu < 100 between Schmidt and Mori & Nakayama. The Schmidt correlation is based on experimental results and seems the better of the two. 20.

2. . Transition between laminar and turbulent flow for the curved tube is marked by a vertical chain-dotted line. Row-friction and heat-transfer correlations for straight tubes are also shown. The Mori correlations are theoretical. with the Mori/C4 correlation corresponding closely with Ito over the ranges 1000 < Re < 100 000 and 0. for Pr = 1.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 167 Large Re. The Ito and Gnielinski correlations are both experimental and give identical results with i?wa///i7 = 1. The Mori /C4 correlation is employed.0 (liquids) The Mori & Nakayama gas correlation gives virtually identical results to the Gnielinski correlation in the ranges 1000 < Re < 100 000 and 1 < Nu < 1000 and is preferred as it does not require knowledge of bulk-to-wall properties.484.1. The integer 4 which appears in each of the above correlations adjusts the friction factor to the definition for straight tubes given earlier.1 la and b for D/d = 16. and matching of the transition between laminar and turbulent regions is remarkably good. Preferred correlations for curved tubes are shown as solid lines in Figs 5. The dashed line is the correlation for transition Reynolds number for flow in curved tubes. and the exchanger tube-side design condition is marked by a vertical dotted line in the turbulent region. respectively.5 and D/d = 36. Turbulent flow heat transfer Gnielinski The correlation makes use of the Gnielinski turbulent flow friction factor ( f c ) from above. Mori & Nakayama ForPr > 1.001 <fc < 0.

46 which provides This ensures that all constraints are properly taken into consideration.8 Design for curved tubes Straight-tube correlations The reference design employed straight-tube turbulent heat-transfer and flowfriction correlations for tube-side flow. Equations (5. Inner-coil tube count Outer-coil tube count Total number of tubes Inner-coil Dean number (D/d) Outer-coil Dean number (D/d) n=6 m = 12 N = 63 Den = 19. For the innermost coil (n = 5).51) and (5.1 Shell-side pressure drop. viz. = 1797. viz. . The resulting tube bundle configuration satisfying all constraints has Inner-coil tube count Outer-coil tube count Total number of tubes Inner-coil Dean number (Dfd) Outer-coil Dean number (D/d) n=5 m — 11 N — 56 Den = 16.53b) may therefore be replaced by the straight-tube equivalents of equations (5. gives D/d = 13.52) using the value of t/d = 1. The design program is run again with the following results.8 Fine tuning with curved-tube correlations The approach to fine tuning is determined by examination of the equations governing thermal performance for a single tube.53a) and (5.19 Severest conditions occur at the innermost coiling diameter.48 Values of tube-side and shell-side pressure drops obtained are within the required limits Tube-side pressure drop.45 Dem = 36. N/m2 A/?. = 3455.168 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 5.74 Dem = 39.346 found in the earlier optimization. N/m2 Ap.

and thermal performance of a single tube may be determined at each coiling diameter.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 169 If a cryogenic exchanger is involved. Solution involves simultaneous equations with two unknowns. and by assigning the parameter symbol K to that part which can be evaluated numerically. Then . Track is kept of these unknowns in the equations which follow by enclosing them in angle brackets < ) . thermodynamic mixing losses are to be avoided as temperature differences of a few Kelvins then become important. Since the ratio Rm = (mr/m. Adjustment of tube-side flow by orificing becomes necessary in order to maintain constant terminal temperatures. where S = Trdt and A = arTrdf/4. where ar is dependent only on local geometry. Individual coil design The number of coils is known. Applying the same philosophy of having constant exit temperatures everywhere in this high-temperature exchanger. Shell-side pressure loss This is constant at each coiling diameter.) must also remain constant. tube length (t\ and shell-side mass flowrate (ms). thus Tube-side pressure loss reduces with increase in coiling diameter. the corollary is increase in the length of shell-side flow path with increase in coil diameter. design LMTD and design terminal temperatures have to be maintained at each coiling diameter of the helical-coil design.

where and Referring at to outside diameter Overall heat-transfer coefficient Heat transfer (referred to outside tube surface) .170 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Shell-side heat transfer coefficient Tube-side heat-transfer coefficient where Prr and dt/D are specified.

023 704 mt (kg/m2) 0 0 7 994 .027 794 0.1 1665. t and mt can be found. Tube-side pressure loss (coiled) Tube performance in each coiling diameter may now be evaluated Required tube orifice pressure drops are obtained as AP.027 696 0.023 779 0. Once ms is determined. A good first estimate for ms is available from the reference design.901 2.3 per cent of the desired values.420 18.298 18.486 16.027 918 0.265 26. and ms is found by binary search.3.023 873 0.940 bpcoil (N/m2) 1761.873 2. When the program was first run.5 1739.725 50. — &PcoilVariations in mass flowrates The results of fine tuning are given in Table 5.027 743 0.932 2.3 1720.362 18.57) and (5.052 18.888 2. Table 53 Flowrates and tube-side pressure loss across tube bundle Coil no.023 740 0.023 824 0.023 995 0.419 79.023 930 0.343 37.027 654 I (m) 18.922 2. The variation in mass flowrates across the bundle can be seen.472 L(m) 2.4 1704.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 171 where The tube length (I) is eliminated from simultaneous equations (5.740 . and also because a greater number of tubes was subsequently obtained.226 18.63).7 £S (m2) 7. and the tubeside pressure loss may be evaluated.146 18.2 0.912 2.1 1689. all constraints were satisfied with the exception that cumulative mass flowrates obtained were 104.8 1677.416 64. This is a consequence of using curved-tube heat-transfer and pressure drop correlations for the innermost coil to ensure that all flow constraints were observed when calculating the reference configuration. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ms(kg/m2) 0.027 852 0.

Note that the right-hand scale has a suppressed zero.12 Fine tuning of Dragon-type exchanger .5. For the present design. Fig. a small reduction is applied to the Nusselt number in the reference design calculation only. N/m2 Shell-side pressure loss. 5.12 shows the variation in tube-side flowrates across the bundle.13 presents the outline of the Fig. The extent of tube-side orificing required is apparent. kg/s Tube-side pressure loss. by means of a multiplier. all tubes having a right-handed helix angle of 16° (Gilli.172 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Constraints to be satisfied: Cumulative tube-side flow.9 Discussion Actual exchangers for the Dragon reactor have n = 6 and m = 12 with a start factor r=l. this takes only a few moments.75 = 1. This would lead to a ratio p/t = 1.800. which is much greater than in the design presented here.50 = 1797 = 3456 To accommodate this problem. Figure 5. kg/s Cumulative shell-side flow. 5. which takes account of the changing thermal performance across the bundle. As the two programs are run in sequence. N/m2 cum mt cum ms Apf A/?5 = 1. 1965). The multiplier is adjusted until correct values of cumulative mass flow appear in the fine-tuning calculation. Shell-side mass flowrates follow exactly the same trend as tube-side mass flowrates.

5 .158 Dn = Dm= Ln = Lm = 0.326 Dt = 0. deg.355 0. m Outer bundle length.l)f. ENEA (1960-1964). illustrating the required variation in tube length against coiling diameter.Ts2)/Tspan = 0.7 Tti = 522. m Core outer diameter (2n .940 D0 . Inner mean coiling diameter (2nf). Inner-coil tube count Outer-coil tube count Total number of tubes Helix angle of tubes.740 The terminal temperatures used were as follows: Shell-side inlet temperature (helium). thus present results that cannot be directly compared although the . m Shell inner diameter (2m + \}t. °C Tube-side inlet temperature (steam).4 r. m Outer mean coiling diameter (2mt\ m Inner bundle length. °C Tube-side outlet temperature (steam).0.13 Aspect of fine-tuned heat exchanger tube bundle fine-tuned bundle.923 0 The real Dragon primary heat exchangers were designed for boiling on the steam side (tube-side) and consequently the LMTD was also considerably different.711 2. °C Shell-side outlet temperature (helium).Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 173 Fig.874 2.5.2 = 388. °C Thermal effectiveness Tsl = 600. m n =6 m = 12 N = 63 <j> = 9.0 Ts2 = 404.

11 Conclusions 1. .10 Part-load operation with by-pass control Each Dragon heat exchanger was provided with a central by-pass duct to control exit gas temperature on the shell-side of the exchanger during part-load operation. face area. and steamside heat transfer and LMTD are different. except for the case of heat transfer in laminar flow. direct-sizing of the tube bundle becomes possible. total tube length) may be carried out by repeating the process for each commercially available tube size. Curved-tube correlations for tube-side flow should be used for fine tuning of the design when thermodynamic mixing losses are to be avoided. bundle volume. 1974.1 la and b). This highlights the constraining factor which may then be scrutinized. Heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for straight tubes are adequate for the purpose. 5. (1974) Heat transfer on coiled tubular matrix. Correlations published by different authors for flow friction factor and heat transfer in curved tubes show consistency of prediction.10 as a solid line. AS ME Winter Annual Meeting. E. Under these conditions pressure loss in the central duct + control valve is equal to the pressure loss in the tube bundle. 4. For exacting applications. A simple example illustrating the method of thermal design has been presented.174 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers final number of tubes in the present exchanger is exactly the same as for the Dragon exchangers. 5. References Abadzic. 6. ASME Paper 74-WA/HT-64. Full optimization to minimize any selected parameter (e. Design optimization is possible by varying tube spacing (t — d). even though coiling directions and helix angles are different. Orificing pressure loss may be allowed for in extended tube 'tails'. 5. The two pressure-loss equations can be used. 8. 2.E. The number of tubes in the Dragon primary heat exchangers is confirmed. New York. 3. 5. The final configuration is represented in the 'design window' of Fig.g. Geometry relevant to the design of helical-coil exchangers has been presented. 7. together with the mixing equation at exit. Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations for flow in curved tubes match well at the transition between laminar and turbulent regions compared with those for straight tubes (Figs 5. adjustment of tube length may be required across the tube bundle. 9. Because the flow area ratio (shell-side/tube-side) is independent of the number of tubes in the exchanger. as the control valve makes any necessary adjustment. to solve for the mass flowrates and the exit temperature.

E.5.. G. 232-248. (1964) Helical-tube heat exchangers.Ye.Direct-Sizing of Helical-Tube Exchangers 175 Bejan. (1968) Heat transfer for laminar flow in a curved pipe. (1967b) Study on forced convective heat transfer in curved pipes (3rd report. Y.M.. Basic Engng.P. McGraw-Hill. vol. 103. 2(1). J. Gill. and Coombs. A. San Francisco. Smith. H.F. Heat Mass Transfer. Chen. and Nakayama. ASME J. A.A. New York. 2nd edn. pp. 81. (1967a) Study on forced convective heat transfer in curved pipes (2nd report. Hausen. San Francisco. 67-82. and Walker.M.M. vol. Le Feuvre. Kanevets. and Bergles. Jan-Feb. (1978) General behaviour of flow induced vibrations in helical tube bundle heat exchangers. G. M. and Nakayama. 270-273.E. and Nakayama. 1986. (1981) Critical heat flux in helically coiled tubes. Springer-Verlag. J. Anaheim. BHRA Fluid Engineering Conference. pp. Harrison. June. (1965) Study on forced convective heat transfer in curved pipes (1st report. laminar region). pp. Gnielinski. 22. M. pp. 313-318. 10.N. V. H. Smith. (1993) Heat Transfer. (1986) Design of helical-tube multi-start coil heat exchangers. In 8th International Heat Transfer Conference. (1986) Heat transfer and pressure drop in helically coiled tubes. Int. November. John Wiley. Rev. (1983) Heat Transfer in Counterflow. (1972) Thermal performance of cross-inclined tube bundles measured by a transient technique. ASME J.. Int. 14(3). theoretical analysis under the condition of uniform wall temperature and practical formulae). 205-220. British Patent 10165. P. pp.A. W. Heat Transfer. Int.4. E. Engng Sci. 213-228. turbulent region). Mori. Smith. G. Appl. 38-41. and Topakoglu. Engineering. Gilli. Nucl. pp. Ito. 66.. Jensen. In ASME Winter Annual Meeting. ASME Publication HTDVol. Mori. W. (1959) Friction factors for turbulent flow in curved pipes. Parallel Flow and Cross Flow. 123-129. pp. J. In International Conference on Physical Modelling of Multi-Phase Flow. 7 February. Heat Transfer. (1950). Unpublished report. Special Number 'NUCLEX 78'. 2847-2854. A. 681-695. Heat Mass Transfer. August. Berlin. California.N. E. Wdrmeiibertragung im Gegenstrom. (1983) Full scale modelling of a helical boiler tube. 6. W. Hampson. Sci. 2799-2804. Y. (1895) Improvements relating to the progressive refrigeration of gases. H. Section 5.S. (1960) The geometry of multi-start helical coil heat exchangers. E. J. British Patent 416. (1986) A method of modelling the heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of multi-start helically-coiled tube heat exchangers. Y. (1965) Heat transfer and pressure drop for crossflow through banks of multistart helical tubes with uniform inclinations and uniform longitudinal pitches. B. 6. 59-68. H.K.M. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. 10. 298-314. 37-59. R. 1986. 8. Annual Reports. Heat Mass Transfer. 660-666. Ozisik. 1st edn. 232.096. Mori. April 1983. Paper K4. Sulzer Tech. 95-104. and Politykina.M. Hausen. L'Air Liquide (1934) Improvements relating to the progressive refrigeration of gases. Mech. Smith. Engng. (1989) Heat transfer in crossflow over bundles of coiled heat exchanger tubes. M. In 8th International Heat Transfer Conference. 481-500. W. Thermal Sci. ENEA Paris (1960-1964) OECD High temperature reactor project (Dragon).. .V. Y. 7-12 December 1986.

ASME J. In Proceedings of the 1972 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. (1984) Heat convection in a horizontal curved pipe. (1995) Closed cycle gas turbine nuclear power plant for submarine propulsion. Kaka?. and W. (1988) Heat Transfer in Tube Banks in Crossflow. New York. Heat Transfer. Shah. L. pp. Plenum Press.F. 71-77. Yao. Paper HX-14. M. Vol. Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer. Naval Engrs J.A. J. Paper B-2. Weimer. R. D. (1978) Thermal performance of further cross-inclined in-line and staggered tube banks. Zukauskas. 18. 35-41.L. R.J. R. Bibliography Gouge. A. and Ulinskas. Toronto. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.G.M. John Wiley. pp. November. Aung). Chapter 6 (Eds. S. New York. In 6th International Heat Transfer Conference. Zukauskas. and Hartzog. 267-272. Hemisphere/Springer Verlag. 106.176 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Smith.K. 52-64. (1987) Convective heat transfer in cross flow.. 1978. and King. A. . (1972) Effects of maldistribution on the performance of multistream heat exchangers. E.S.A.

B.e. and transients. In designing bayonet-tube heat exchangers for the case when the shell-side fluid is essentially isothermal (e. position of closest shell to tube-side temperature approach. step-wise rating. the symbols (a. Analytical expressions and dimensionless plots are presented for the four possible configurations. condensing. first because fluid in the bayonet tube enters and exits from the same end.A.1 Isothermal shell-side conditions Explicit design of the bayonet-tube heat exchanger is practicable when the shell-side fluid is essentially isothermal. for some condensing and evaporating conditions. and that explicit design conditions existed. Ltd. second because each pass of that fluid requires separate identification. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . P) equivalent to 'Ntu per unit length' of the exchanger surface. Four configurations .1 will be examined in turn. AO is straightforward once the solutions have been obtained. and conversion to Ntu values (N. Eric M. C and D . It was found convenient to introduce the concept of 'perimeter transfer units' (P. 6.CHAPTER 6 Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Practical design example 6. or isothermal crossflow) it was found that a modified theoretical approach to that used by Hurd (1946) was necessary. Notation is awkward for the bayonet-tube exchanger. and direct determination of exchanger length. i.g. and for isothermal crossflow. The concepts of LMTD and meanTD are not useful. As only overall heat-transfer coefficients will be involved in the analysis which follows. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. giving full temperature profiles. These parameters arise quite naturally in the differential equations. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. where Z is the perimeter of outer tube where Z is the perimeter of inner tube In the solutions which follow. exchanger effectiveness. evaporating. two for evaporation and two for the condensing condition.illustrated in Fig. all physical parameters remain constant. /3) can be used for parameters in the solution.

6.2) gives Inner tube energy entering 1 with fluid J f energy leaving 1 I with fluid J J heat transfered 1 \ toannulus j f energy stored 1 [ in fluid J Annulus . Condensation is reflected evaporation 6.1 Alternative exchanger configurations.6.178 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.2 Evaporation Case A An energy balance written for a differential length (dx) of the tube (Fig.

Origin at flow entry and exit giving.3) and (6.Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers 179 Fig.4) produces which has the solution . Eliminating T from equations (6.2 Differential energy balance for case A. respectively.6.

viz.10) from which B0 may be found for re-introduction in equation (6. A second condition is obtained by noting that the overall energy balance must be satisfied. and following some algebra too extensive to reproduce where .9) and then in equation (6. Inserting boundary conditions T = T$ at x = 0 in equation (6.11) is then solved for TI at jc = L.11).180 with Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers An identical result exists for the other unknown temperature profile Annulus temperature profile (T) Two boundary conditions are required. but only T — Tj at x = 0 is immediately available.9) Substituting in equation (6. Equation (6.

1 it is evident that a minimum value may exist in the profile for T. 6. Three results from equation (6. but only T = T\ at jc = 0 is immediately available. Solving the first two for A.-. thus dT/dx = 0.3) at x = L. and /?.12) from which after substantial algebraic reduction there emerges providing the explicit result Equation (6. and inserting in the third condition Combining this result with equation (6. This is readily found from equation (6. From Fig. thus the restriction [1 < (Ti/T3) < (-a/0)] applies to equation (6.15) delivers lim(ri/T3) = (—a//3) as L -> oo.9) by solving giving the position of the minimum as .6) are then obtained.16).Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers 181 giving Inner temperature profile (T) Again two boundary conditions are required. From equation (6. T = T.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

(T2/T3) is found from equations (6.14) and (6.15) as

Inserting this result in equation (6.18), the locus of X^n is obtained as a straight line

Minimum annulus temperature T^n is obtained by inserting X^n in the expression for the annulus temperature profile (T/T^), viz.

This completes the analysis for Case A, but simplification is possible, noting from equation (6.7) that

Table 6.1 offers a selection of values for (a, b) covering most applications. The summary below recasts the above relationships in terms of (a, b) and Ntu = N = PL.

Summary of results for Case A Exchanger length

Position of minimum (T^an if it exists)

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Table 6.1 Useful values of (P/P, a, b) for Case A





16/15 15/14 14/13 13/12 12/11 11/10 10/9 9/8 8/7 7/6 6/5 5/4 4/3 3/2 5/3 7/4 10/5 13/6 9/4 16/7 7/3 20/8 24/9 11/4 30/10 36/11 42/12 49/13 57/14 67/15

-1/15 -1/14 -1/13 -1/12 -1/11 -1/10 -1/9 -1/8 -1/7 -1/6 -1/5 -1/4 -1/3 -1/2 -2/3 -3/4 -5/5 -7/6 -5/4 -9/7 -4/3 -12/8 -15/9 -7/4 -20/10 -25/11 -30/12 -36/13 -43/14 -52/15


1 2 3 4 5

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19* 20 21* 22 23 24* 25 26 27 28 29 30

16/225 = 0.0711 15/196 = 0 0 6 .75 14/169 = 0.0828 13/144 = 0 0 0 .93 12/121 = 0 0 9 .92 11/100 = 0.1100 10/81=0.1235 9/64 = 0.1406 8/49 = 0.1633 7/36 = 0.1944 6/25 = 0 2 0 .40 5/16 = 0.3125 4/9 = 0 4 4 .44 3/4 = 0 7 0 .50 10/9= 1.1111 21/16= 1.3125 50/25 = 2 0 0 .00 91/36 = 2.5278 45/16 = 2.8125 144/49 = 2.9388 28/9 = 3.1111 240/64 = 3.7500 360/81 = 4 4 4 .44 77/16 = 4.8125 600/100 = 6 0 0 .00 900/121 = 7.4380 1260/144 = 8 7 0 .50 1764/169= 10.4379 2451/196= 12.5051 3484/225 = 15.4844

17/15 16/14 15/13 14/12 13/11 12/10 11/9 10/8 9/7 8/6 7/5 6/4 5/3 4/2 7/3 10/4 15/5 20/6 7/2 25/7 11/3 32/8 39/9 9/2 50/10 61/11 72/12 85/13 100/14 119/15

15/16 14/15 13/14 12/13 11/12 10/11 9/10 8/9 7/8 6/7 5/6 4/5 3/4 2/3 3/5 4/7 5/10 6/13 4/9 7/16 3/7 8/20 9/24 4/11 10/30 11/36 12/42 13/49 14/57 15/67

For heat-transfer design, possibly only results in the range 1-14 above may be of interest. *Entries seem out of natural sequence.

Open-end temperature ratio


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Bayonet-end temperature ratio

Minimum annulus temperature

if it exists)

Inner temperature profile

Annulus temperature profile

Limiting effectiveness

Figures 6.3a and b show different exchanger performance only for parameter Q/L, i.e. heat transfer per unit length. If exchanger performance can be controlled by keeping T$ constant, then an optimum length of exchanger exists. If performance can be controlled by keeping TI constant then no useful optimum exists, and it may be best to limit exchanger length to some appropriate value, e.g. Nmin from equation (6.18a). Figure 6.4 illustrates actual temperature profiles referred to T^, with a minimum at T2. Figure 6.5 provides temperature profiles normalized to T\, with the length of the exchanger now adjusted to A^unCase B This case is simpler to analyse than Case A as the lower temperature profile does not include an intermediate minimum. Following a similar procedure the basic differential equations found are

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers


Fig.6.3 (a) Variation of parameters for Case A with a - +3/2, b = -1/2 [(7i/r3), (T2/T3), (rmin/r3), (g/L)/r3, ^n, and e] versus (AT = PL); (b) Variation of parameters for Case A with a = +3/2, b = -1/2 [(T3/Ti), (T2/Td, (Tmin/ TI), (Q/L)/Tlt Xmin, and e] versus (A^ = PL)


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Actual temperature profiles for Case A (a = +3/2, b = -1/2) and Case B (a = +1/2, b — -3/2) showing existence of minimum for Case A

Fig.6.5 Normalized temperature profiles for Case A (a = + 3/2, b = -1/2) and Case B (a = +1/2, b = -3/2) with minimum at fluid exit for Case A

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers


Eliminating T as before

which has the solution


An identical result exists for the other unknown temperature profile

From the annulus temperature profile and overall heat balance where termX = termY = termZ = denom giving Boundary conditions for the lower (inner) temperature profile, equation (6.24), again give T = T


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

which delivers

As before using equations (6.30) and (6.32)

allowing the explicit result

Here equation (6.34) delivers lim(ri/73) = —j8/a as L —> oo, thus the restriction [1 < (7yr3) < (-£/«*)] applies to equation (6.34). This completes the analysis for Case B, which is a reversal of flow direction of the tube-side fluid for Case A. Again simplification is possible, recasting the above relationships in terms of (a, b) and Ntu = N = PL.

Summary of results for Case B Exchanger length

Open-end temperature ratio

Bayonet-end temperature ratio

Inner temperature profile

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers


Annulus temperature profile

Limiting effectiveness

A design solution with the same P/P ratio as Case A is presented in Fig. 6.4. But note that the values for (a, b) are reversed, i.e. a = +1/2 and b = —3/2. Evaluation of equations (6.33) and (6.34) produces Ti/T2 = 2.5 at x = 0 and N = 1.2825, identical with Case A. Heat transfer and tube length are unaffected by direction of flow of the tube-side fluid, but temperature profiles are different.

Symbols (6, 0) are adopted for temperatures so as to permit transformation to (T, T) later in the analysis. Proceeding as for Case A, energy balances are again written for differential lengths of tube, viz. Inner tube J energy entering I [ with fluid J f energy leaving 1 I with fluid J J heat transferred 1 _ f energy stored 1 [ from annulus J ~~ | in fluid J

6.3 Condensation Case C


giving, respectively,


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equations (6.37) and (6.38) become identical with equations (6.3) and (6.4) of Case A. In a manner similar to case B, it may be shown that the governing equations for case D are identical to equations (6.23) and (6.24).
Hard number Kayansayan (1996) presented a thermal design method for evaporators and condensers in which he defined the Kurd number (Hu) as the ratio of inner tube number of transfer units divided by outer tube number of transfer units, however, in the present notation Case D

Kayansayan also presented a schematic illustration of a shell-and-tube exchanger fitted with bayonet tubes.


Design Illustration

In the absence of pressure-loss data for the bayonet end and the consequent impossibility of calculating total pressure loss in the bayonet tube at this time, it is presently only possible to design on the basis of heat transfer alone. Figure 6.6 below show variation of e against Ntu with (P/P} as parameter. Inspection of these curves leads to formulation of a direct method of design, viz. 1. For a given cross-section of the exchanger calculate: • both overall heat-transfer coefficients (U, U) • both perimeter transfer units (P, P) • obtain (a, b), say a - +3/2, b = (-1/2) 2. Calculate limiting value of temperature ratio Iim(7yr 3. Calculate limiting effectiveness 4. Take a design fraction of this, say/ = 0.9 to obtain actual effectiveness

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers


Fig.6.6 Effectiveness and limiting effectiveness

5. Solve for the actual temperature ratio (T\/T^), which is a measure of the heat transfer possible

6. Solve equation (6.16) explicitly to obtain N = 1.2825. Resulting temperature profiles for the design selected are shown as solid lines in Fig. 6.4. Helical annular flow between inner and outer tubes For effective operation it is important that the heat-transfer coefficient in the annulus be significantly higher than the heat-transfer coefficient in the inner tube. With single-phase flow it becomes necessary to provide helical fins between the outside diameter of the inner tube so that the annulus fluid is forced to flow in a helical path. This provides a smaller characteristic dimension and a smaller flow area than for the simple concentric annulus. This same condition applies also to the design configurations which follow. For a narrow annulus a wire-wrap might be considered.


Non-isothermal shell-side conditions

An explicit design solution exists for the bayonet-tube heat exchanger with nonisothermal shell-side conditions only for the special case of equal water equivalents. Four possible flow configurations exist, each having four (reflected) temperature profiles. For the non-explicit solutions, selection of an appropriate configuration before numerical evaluation is eased when expected temperature profiles can be examined.

B and their reflections) corresponding to those for isothermal shell-side conditions. as this simplifies the analysis.7 Differential energy balances for Case A (type 1). and parallel flow if in the same sense. Each class has four possible cases (A. Origin at bayonet end . Fig. Note that all equations are for x — 0 at the bayonet end. Figure 6.2 Non-isothermal configurations Exchanger class Contra-flow Parallel flow Case A Typel TypeS Case B Type3 Type? Case C Type 2 Type 6 Case D Type 4 Type8 Exchangers are classified as contra-flow if tube-side annulus flow and shell-side flow are in the opposite sense. selection of the origin being different from that for the isothermal solution.192 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 6.9 to 6.Case A (type 1). Narrow-band shading is used to denote heat transfer between shell-side fluid and annulus tube-side fluid.2.7 illustrates the heat balances used to obtain the three coupled governing equations for contraflow .6.12 presented later. For non-isothermal shell-side flow conditions. and as set out in Table 6. dashed lines represent flow in the inner tube of the bayonet. In Figs 6. the origin is placed at the bayonet end.

then When T = T and jc = 0 are specified at the bayonet end then all gradients are known at x = 0.8 on non-explicit solutions. f\ mass flowrate (mb). . Temperature (Te). At the bayonet end f = T. P. so for all configurations when temperature differences are kept positive.Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers 193 Temperatures (T. and specific heat (Cb~) will be used for the bayonet-tube fluid. the sign of the gradient gives the slope of the temperature profile. and specific heat (Ce) will be used for the external fluid. allowing generation of the temperature profile using finite differences from that end. Pe) are positive. See Section 6. Inner I energy entering 1 energy leaving I with fluid I | with fluid j f heat transfered I f energy stored 1 I to annulus I ~~ I in fluid I giving Annulus (similarly) External (similarly) The perimeter transfer units (P. mass flowrate (me).

From equation (6.41) are similar to those which Kroeger (1966) used in exploring the problem of longitudinal conduction in contraflow heat exchangers.39) and (6. and we do not gain another equation.41) in equation (6.194 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 6. which is also the situation here. Substitute equations (6.45) in equation (6.42) and the first boundary condition From equation (6. substitute equation (6.44) For inner temperature profile (T).40) Boundary conditions or which is the correct energy balance.39) to (6.40) .6 Special explicit case The set of partial differential equations (6. Kroeger found an explicit solution only for the special case of equal water equivalents.

46) Solution of homogeneous equation is of the form T = ebx. then in equation (6. = T\— (e+bL + e~bL) which provides the explicit inner temperature profile. implying Substituting in equation (6.51). If the assumption (&i = +b. thus roots are real.50) this implies that is P = Pe .47) and (6. const. bi = —b) is made in order to get the special case analytical solution.39) 195 Differentiate Substitute equations (6. but one is negative and internal temperature profile is Boundary conditions subject to subject to df/dx = 0 at x = 0 From equation (6.50) In equation (6.48) in equation (6. .Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers From equation (6. b\+bi = 0.53). so that the constraint m^Q. = meCe exists.

Case A (type 1) From equations (6. Case A (type 1) which checks with equation (6.39) and (6.7 Explicit solution Bayonet tube Inner profile (T).196 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 6. Case A (type 1) Differentiate equation (6.57) and substituting from equation (6.55) which confirms that dT/dx = 0 at x = 0. Case A (type 1) Inner profile gradient.55) Check on bayonet-end temperature. Annulus Annulus profile (T).56) . Cose A (type 1) Bayonet-end temperature (T2).

60) 197 Annulus profile gradient. an alternative expression for the external profile is: .Te2 -(T. but P = Pe.45). thus Te . Case A (type 1) From equation (6.65).58): External profile.61) and obtain a check on the energy balance Using equation (6. and then from equation (6.66) in equation (6. Case A (type 1) External profile From equation (6. Case A (type 1) which corresponds with equation (6.T).Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Exchanger duty.

8 Temperature profiles for explicit solution of non-isothermal case with P = Pe. Case A (type 1) Fig. Case A (type 1) positive root only Non-dimensional profiles Inner profile.60).198 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Alternative external profile. Exchanger length. mbCb = meCe and AF = Me . Case A (type 1) Exchanger length From equation (6.6.

Starting from the bayonet end. In laminar flow.4la) it is straightforward to set up a numerical method for generating temperature profiles. (b) Type 2.8 General numerical solutions The analytical approach to solution of the same coupled partial differential equations has already been given by Kroeger (1966). 6.8. given in Table 6.3.39a). and (6. contraflow Case A. it is necessary to assume a value for the bayonet-end temperature difference (72 — Te2). Fig. 6.Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers 199 Annulus profile. The resulting temperature profiles shown in Figs (6. but proceeding from equations (6. Case A (type 1) External profile.9 (a) Type 1.6. contraflow reflected A .9)-(6. Case A (type 1) Typical temperature profiles for the only explicit solution with P = Pe and me = MC are given in Fig. (6.40a). a short-length bayonet-tube exchanger may not allow fully developed profiles to appear. These solutions do not take longitudinal conduction in the tube walls into account.12) were obtained by using the same arbitrary data for each configuration.

contraflow Case B. (b) Type 6.6. (b) Type 8. (b) Type 4.10 (a) Type 3.200 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. parallel flow reflected C Fig. contraflow reflected B Fig.6. parallel flow Case C. parallel flow reflected D .11 (a) Type 5.6. parallel flow Case D.12 (a) Type 7.

Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Table 6. While sufficient information exists to calculate pressure loss in the central tube. Graham. and u = 0 at r = a we may obtain an expression for velocity profile across the tube .3 Numerical parameters used in solution Parameter Tube mean diameter. kg/s Specific heat. a senior honours student at Heriot-Watt University. Edinburgh and further (unpublished) data for simple annular flow were obtained in an experimental programme under Dr B. An expression for flow velocity («) along the tube is given by Inserting boundary conditions (infinite at r = 0.0 201 0. J/(m2 s K) Internal External 0.025 0.9 Pressure loss To obtain higher heat-transfer coefficients in the annulus it becomes essential to reduce annular flow area by forming helical channels. It is necessary to know pressure loss in the bayonet-tube heat exchanger before direct-sizing becomes possible.0 1000.0 6. the question of pressure loss in the circular channel in which the 'non-isothermal' bayonet tube may be placed can be explored. and it seems worthwhile to obtain the correct analytical value for hydraulic diameter in the annulus for laminar flow conditions. and for the bayonet end which will become highly flow-direction dependent. there may be one inner-tube diameter/thickness and one inner-tube/bayonet-end spacing which would provide the optimum (possibly least) pressure loss for a given reference Reynolds number.0 2000. m Mass flowrate. Burnside. For a given outer-tube diameter (D). While adequate bayonet-tube end and helical-channel pressure-loss data may not be available at this time. For the isothermal case only one pressure-loss curve will exist.070 1000.010 4200. J/(kg K) Heat-transfer coefficient. Some Russian data on pressure loss at the bayonet end for simple annular flow have been published by Idelchik & Ginzburg (1968) and are reported in the textbook by Miller (1990). at present there is sparse information about pressure loss for helical channel flow in the bayonet-tube annulus. This information was provided by D. There will then be consistency when attempting to fit heat-transfer and flow-friction data to turbulent correlations. Simple annular flow Steady laminar flow in a tube may be analysed using the cylindrical coordinate system to be found in most standard texts.015 0.

73) may be equated to give an expression for equivalent frictional diameter of an annulus As d —> 0. may be found by integration. the plain circular tube is recovered.6.13 Laminar flow friction equivalent diameter for concentric annulus . When a similar analysis is made for flow in a very narrow annulus (in the limit.e.13 as a solid line. s). An identical analysis for pressure loss in steady laminar flow within an annulus of outer radius a and inner radius b gives and the two equations (6.74) is plotted in Fig.72) and (6. 6. for a circular tube. flow between two flat plates of spacing. giving. The ratio of df/D from equation (6. in the limit df —> D.202 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers from which a mean velocity u say. i. then with Cartesian coordinates the expression for pressure loss becomes Fig.

Indeed this may be seen as supporting the approximate equivalent diameter for flow friction in an annulus as because the constant ^2/3 may be assimilated in the empirical constant of a correlation. pressure loss becomes highly flow-direction dependent. Considerable attention is paid to flow patterns and pressure losses at the bayonet end. For heat transfer. and several of the relevant papers are listed in the references below. The only experimental work on helical annular flow in rectangular ducts so far noted is that by Joye (1994) and by Joye & Cote (1995). flow at the bayonet-tube end should be mainly radial and longitudinal in character.76) is plotted in Fig. . With the additional effect of the 180° return at the bayonet-tube end. Review An up-to-date review on bayonet-tube heat exchangers was published by Lock & Minhas (1997) shortly after the first edition of this text appeared. With the bayonet-tube fluid entering the central tube. an additional tangential component is introduced to affect flow conditions. With the bayonet-tube fluid entering the helical annulus. plus references to the few papers of interest. and it is remarkable how well it matches the value of df/D for an annulus over much of the diameter ratios. 6. Helical annular flow An abstract survey covering the last 10 years suggests that published data on helical annular flow in near-rectangular ducts are very sparse. and only the paper by Wang & Andrews (1995) provides the correct analysis for helical annular flow. it may also be that temperature profiles derived earlier would be affected to second-order of magnitude by the 'slight discontinuities now introduced by helical annular flow.Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers Again by analogy with the solution for a circular tube 203 from which the equivalent factional diameter for a very narrow annulus is obtained as The ratio df/D from equation (6. Applications and design features are discussed in depth.13 as a dashed line.

Bayonet-tube heat exchangers are suitable for heat recovery at high temperatures where metals are not strong enough. 11. Pressure losses in the bayonet-tube end will be flow-direction dependent. 38(12). For the more common case of unequal water equivalents. 10. vertical bayonet tube at the centre of a large cryogenic storage tank. and this may be relevant in some design situations. December. Such an exchanger provides axi-symmetric cooling in the tank.L. The present derivation of temperature profiles for an individual bayonet-tube exchanger assumes that a constrained external longitudinal flow exists. and sufficient information has been gathered to allow intelligent attacks on actual design problems. References Kurd.204 6. The explicit solution provides a check on numerical solutions. Temperature profiles are significantly affected by direction of tube-side flow. 4. Non-isothermal shell-side 7. Engng Chemistry. superheating secondary steam at the top of a PWR fuel element channel. information helpful in selecting a suitable flow configuration has been provided. and a research programme to determine these is also needed.e. 2. (1946) Mean temperature difference in the field or bayonet tube. One possible application is the use of a single. and ice formation around sunken objects as a means of flotation. condensation. which is a possible design situation . Case A would be preferred to Case B when freezing of the tube-side fluid is to be avoided. 1266-1271. This implies a substantial experimental programme to produce correlations. 5. 6. The bayonet-tube exchanger transfers useful heat only from the outer tube. e. Silicon carbide bayonet tubes can be used. or isothermal crossflow on the shell-side. and Case C preferred to Case D when boiling of the tube-side flow is to be avoided. . Isothermal shell-side 3. Explicit temperature profiles are presented for the bayonet-tube exchanger having evaporation.g. An explicit solution for temperature profiles has been obtained for the case of equal water equivalents (me = MC). Ind. with external natural convection. Overall heat exchange and optimum length of exchanger are unaffected by the direction of tube-side flow. Possible applications include freezing of wet ground in order to stabilize conditions for excavation. 8. and may encourage slow controlled circulation of the contents of the tank. N.10 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Conclusions 1. thus helping to inhibit 'roll-over' incidents. and the annulus should have helical channels for effective performance. 9.g.

Chem. Appl. J. R. In Symposium on Industrial Heat Exchanger Technology. Ya. December. 1991. Paper no 81-WA NE-3. Luu.. (1991) Thermal coupling in laminar flow double-pipe heat exchangers. Thermal Engng. J. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Cold Regions Heat Transfer. . 415-472. Rev. H. (1995) Heat transfer enhancement in annular channels with helical and longitudinal flow. P. Mech. (1981) Optimal design of bayonet tube exchangers for isothermal shell-side conditions. pp. D. 50(8). Part I: response to inlet temperature changes. 19(136). Japan. 122-128.C. O'Doherty. 15(2). Cotta. and Bates.-W. 2nd edn.. Plenum Press. Soc. 12. D. and Brum. Wang. and Lock. M. A. (1985) Heat transfer to a bayonet heat exchanger immersed in a gas-fluidised bed. May. (1991) Heat transfer in laminar flow with wall axial conduction and external convection. 32-38. J. J.E. Kroeger. Bull. Thermal Engng.M. Pagliarini. E. G. R. Winsconsin. 429-440). In Proceedings of the 1966 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. (1996) Thermal design method of bayonet-tube evaporators and condensers. (Also in Cryogenic Engineering. 109-114. Heat Transfer Engng. 218-225. 79. G.L.S. 102-107. and Macias-Machin. E. 405-416). In 20th Joint ASME/AIChemE National Heat Transfer Conference. Heat Transfer. Refrigeration. K. G. 508-513.C. 17. ASME J. Joye. (1990) Internal Flow Systems. OctoberDecember. (1994) Optimum aspect ratio for heat transfer enhancement in curved rectangular channels. T. H. ASME Paper 81-HT-34. Lock.. and Minnas. Engrs.G. N. Turbulent frictional behaviour of a bayonet tube (pp. Guedes. and Cote. Int. A. (1991) How to design bayonet heatexchangers. 2-5 August 1981. Boulder Colorado.L. Bibliography Chung.D. and Wu.R.S.H. I. (1995) Numerical simulation of flow in helical ducts. April. Kayansayan. and Ginzburg. and Andrews. 13-15 June 1966.S. AIChE J. Fairbanks. pp. 1135-1140. vol. Jolly. 16(2). pp. (1997) Bayonet tube heat exchangers. N.Direct-Sizing of Bayonet-Tube Exchangers 205 Idelchik. Engng.H. 197-207.G.. Thermophysics. Int. G.) Lock. (1996) Laminar turbulent transition in a bayonet tube.J. Joye..O. Hernandez-Guerrero. I. 19(3). August. 29-34. 159-173. Miller. (1991) Laminar frictional behaviour of a bayonet tube (pp. Canada. Mech.H. (helical co-ordinate system and equations for flow in helical ducts). AJ. G. In ASME Winter Annual Meeting. and Barozzi. (1976) Dynamic response of bayonet-type heat exchangers. 1967. Appl. 363-372.D.. 113. (1981) Analytical solution of the heat transfer equation for a bayonet tube exchanger. 1263-1276.M. 5(2).L. 18(12). 526-534. August. J. M. (1966) Performance deterioration jn high effectiveness heat exchangers due to axial conduction effects.S. (1998) COHEX a computer model for solving the thermal energy exchanger in an ultra high temperature heat exchanger (ceramic bayonet tube to 1600°C). Milwaukee. and Grant. pp. Minnas. Todo. A.W. Heat Transfer Engng. D. BHRA (Information Services).S. Smith.S. October. 1071-1080. (1968) The hydraulic resistance of 180° annular bends. H. 41(5). Heat Fluid Flow. 15(4).

B.a user's experience. Ceramics in Heat Exchangers (Eds. Japan.W. 644-651. 14. (1978) Dynamic response of bayonet-type heat exchangers. (1985) Ceramic tube heat recuperator . (1984) A general mathematical model of parallel-flow. Engng Sci. American Ceramics Society. 21(154). Foster and J. .D. Ward. multichannel heat exchangers and analysis of its properties (includes bayonet tube exchangers). I. Bull. Mech. B. Part II: response to flow rate changes. vol. Advances in Ceramics. Patton). P.206 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Todo. 1251-1260. Chem. T.. Soc. Engrs. April. Zaleski. 39(7/8).

• Coefficients CL and CT in heat-transfer correlations for laminar and turbulent flow include expressions for Ai/As and L/D&. In setting out the Gentry et al. 1986. • Coefficients C\ and Ci in the pressure loss correlation for baffle sections each require knowledge of exchanger shell diameter (see Notation). (1982) presents a method for rating RODbaffle heat exchangers. The paper by Gentry et al. thus these methods can be classed only as 'rating' methods. It should be checked against the established rating method. design approach. Eric M. step-wise rating. Design methods proposed by the originators of this exchanger type require prior knowledge of the diameter of the exchanger shell. direct-sizing Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing..CHAPTER 7 Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers Practical design example 7. As no experimental work has been carried out to confirm the approach at this time. and the present chapter makes the case that the RODbaffle design may be handled in the same manner. then direct methods of thermal sizing become possible (Smith.1994). Direct 'sizing' of an exchanger becomes possible when the tube bundle can be designed with reference to 'local' geometry only. and transients. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.: • The exchanger inner-shell surface area is incorporated in the hydraulic diameter for pressure loss on the shell-side. Ltd. each of which requires knowledge of exchanger shell diameter (see Notation).1 Design framework The direct-sizing approach suggested in this chapter is provisional. This is based on test results obtained from experimental rigs on real heat exchangers. It is the purpose of this chapter to set out an alternative approach to design to permit direct thermal sizing of RODbaffle heat exchangers. several decisions were taken which effectively prevents their method from being used for direct-sizing of RODbaffle heat exchangers. Both compact plate-fin and helical-tube heat exchangers are amenable to this approach. When the 'local geometry' in a heat exchanger is fully representative of the whole geometry. The RODbaffle exchanger can be a better performing shell-and-tube design than conventional tube-and-baffle designs. and this paper indicates an approach to such a method. viz. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .

Because of the need to locate the baffle rods it is necessary to fit baffle rings between the tube bundle and the exchanger shell. (1982) for shell-side heat transfer and RODbaffle pressure loss were spline-fitted to obtain data for their ARA bundle configuration. neglecting flow distributions between the shell nozzles and the first and last baffles.3). which contravenes the basic concept of 'local action' in continuum mechanics.3 Approach to direct-sizing As the RODbaffle design is based on a set of four baffles. fluids with no memory do not recognize when a set of four baffles begins. 7. however. Published correlations for heat-transfer and shell-side pressure loss were assessed for direct-sizing (see references) but in the end. 1. and the method of Gentry et al. this may permit leakage flow. data presented in Figs 6 and 8 of Gentry et al. thus length design to at least the nearest baffle pitch becomes practicable. This seems an awkward concept. and friction on the inner shell surface. claims to take into account both loss through the plane of the baffle. Hesselgreaves took street length as the pitch between adjacent RODbaffles.2 Configuration of the RODbaffle exchanger The RODbaffle exchanger is essentially a shell-and-tube exchanger with conventional plate baffles (segmental or disc-and-doughnut) replaced by grids of rods (see Fig. Also. two with horizontal rods. At the next baffle section the vertical rods are placed in the alternate gaps between tubes not previously filled at the first baffle section. and this same pressure . Square pitching of the tube bundle is practicable with RODbaffles. it may be that street length is longer. will be used in the interests of clarity. and two with vertical rods. RODbaffle sections extend over the full transverse cross-section of the exchanger. similarly arranged. Minor changes to the notation used by Gentry et al. Hesselgreaves (1988) shows that RODbaffle flow creates von Karman vortex streets. this may not seem consistent with having constant local geometry throughout the bundle. An alternative concept of evaluating longitudinal leakage flow between the shell and the outside of the bundle might be employed. To minimize blockage one set of vertical rods in a baffle section is placed between every second row of tubes. for it implies that baffle hydraulic diameter must change with shell diameter. The next two baffle sections have horizontal rod spacers. 7. Thus each tube in the bank receives support along its length. Shell-side flow through the tube bundle could be evaluated first using local geometry concepts. However. well distributed in the shell-side fluid. Unlike plate-baffles.208 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers should be used only for preliminary design. The RODbaffle pressure loss data of Gentry et al. should be used to complete the final design.

and an opposite effect when the shell-side fluid is being cooled. allowing a definition of hydraulic diameter (Ds) for . However it is likely that the major contribution to leakage pressure loss would occur in the small clearance gaps around the baffle rings. With the above proposal. The final outlet temperature would be the result of mixing of both streams. Further discussion of the development of this concept is presented in Appendix D.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 209 loss then used to calculate the leakage flow between the baffles and the exchanger shell. Dimensions for the baffle rings are provided in the paper by Gentry (1990). 7. when the shell-side flow is being heated there will be some diffusion from the shell-side of the tube bundle into the leakage stream. This permits the direct-sizing approach. Experimental data for pressure loss due to leakage between baffle and shell is available in the thesis by Bell (1955) and in the papers by Bell & Bergelin (1957) and Bergelin et al (1958). The present design approach will simply assume that leakage flow losses can be included in the baffle loss coefficient (£&).5 Characteristic dimensions For shell-side heat transfer in the interior of a tube bundle the Reynolds number can be based on local geometry only.4 Flow areas Flow areas per single tube Tube-side Shell-side (plain tubes) Shell-side (baffle section) Total flow areas Tube-side total flow area Shell-side total flow area (plain tubes) Shell-side total flow area (baffle section) 7.

e.7. 7. Scatter around each correlation is within usually acceptable limits. and baffle loss coefficient on the shell-side. This avoids the need to know exchanger shell diameter and baffle-ring diameters before design commences. A possible case for making this simplification can be seen by inspection of the graphs provided by Gentry et al. one for plain tubes only and one for the baffle section.6 Design correlations Whenever explicit algebraic correlations for heat-transfer and friction factor can be used throughout. and an expression for the baffle ring section may be evaluated over a tube length equal to the thickness of the baffle (i. although tracing missing numerical values through the analysis requires some care (see Chapter 5 on helical-tube. whence from Fig. . viz. it becomes possible to seek a direct algebraic solution for L and Z.1 Local geometry of tube bundle at a RODbaffle section plain-tubes. dr = 2r).1. flow-friction. and to spline-fit the correlations for heat-transfer. Here it is the intention to use the correlations provided by Gentry et al. in graphical form. multi-start coil heat exchangers). 7. For shell-side pressure loss two characteristic dimensions are required. The above expression for Ds can be used for plain-tubes.210 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.

This is beyond the present task.8 Heat transfer Shell-side The heat-transfer correlation shown in Fig. but in the text the curve is described as exhibiting a gradual change of slope. 7. 6 of the paper by Gentry et al. Design within the valid envelope can then be completed. The baffle-section Reynolds number is obtained as follows. is depicted as two straight-line segments. The procedure is first to evaluate Reynolds number constraints on both shell-side and tube-side correlations. and corresponding Reynolds number values on the tube-side forced. Valid Reynolds number values on the shell-side can then be scanned. .Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 211 suggesting that it is possible to avoid detailed building of the main correlations from sub-correlations involving shell diameters and tube-bundle length.7 Reynolds numbers Shell-side (heat transfer) With an assumed value for shell-side Re.2. which is to establish that direct-sizing is possible. 7. The plain-tube value is identical with that assumed for heat transfer. and the number of tubes is determined. 7. Tube-side (heat transfer and pressure loss) The forced tube-side Reynolds number may now be obtained Shell-side (pressure loss) Two Reynolds numbers are involved. This feature is preserved in the spline-fit of Fig. It is to be expected that different correlations would be necessary for different tube-bundle arrangements. but see Appendix D.

1982) Assuming that the viscosity ratio term is unity.7. 1988... The shell-side heat-transfer coefficient becomes Tube wall The tube-wall heat-transfer coefficient may be written as Tube-side The conventional tube-side correlation (without viscosity correction) might be used. viz. and correcting to outside diameter we obtain .212 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. With the 'forced' value for Re. or a more comprehe ive correlation due to Churchill (1977. 1992). then Nusselt numbers can be determined.2 Heat-transfer correlation for configuration ARA (adapted from Gentry et a/.

3 Plain-tube flow-friction correlation: laminar (Moody. In direct-sizing only the frictional loss is considered. one due to flow acceleration/deceleration.3.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers Overall coefficient 213 Heat-transfer equation 7. The largest of these is due to friction. 7. but the other losses should be evaluated once dimensions of the exchanger are known.7. Chen (1979) provides an explicit correlation for turbulent friction factor in a pipe over the Reynolds number range (4000 <Re < 4 x 108) taking into account roughness e/d in the range (5 x 10"7 < (s/d) < 0. sometimes reaching 98 per cent of the total pressure loss. 1944) and turbulent (Chen. 1979) . Using the standard friction factor expression Fig. see Fig. and one due to entrance/exit effects.05). one due to friction.9 Pressure loss tube-side The total pressure loss is made up of three components.

In shell-side flow pressure loss in the plain-tube section of a RODbaffle exchanger tends to be an order of magnitude less than for that in the rod baffles. then . The technical literature contains papers on longitudinal flow in tube bundles. 7. one due to flow acceleration/deceleration.214 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers with the pressure-loss expression the pressure loss equation for the tube-side may be written 7. Only flow-friction and baffle losses are considered in direct-sizing. versus Re^. In the absence of exact information plain-tube pressure loss is calculated from the correlation for flow inside smooth tubes. one due to baffle losses. but the other losses should be evaluated once dimensions of the exchanger are known. using an appropriate hydraulic diameter. (Fig. Additionally. Plain tubes The Chen friction factor correlation may be used again. these tend to be for high Reynolds numbers (Tong. 1992). When results for square pitching are to be found. one due to friction on plaintubes.4). but these are mainly concerned with reporting results of heat-transfer and pressure-loss tests on nuclear fuel element bundles. 1968). and one due to entrance/exit effects. Often a near-triangular pitch is adopted which makes the results of less interest for the RODbaffle exchanger.10 Pressure loss shell-side The total pressure loss is made up of four components. very close spacing of the fuel rods is employed (Rehme. then Baffle section Baffle loss coefficient (k^) is obtained from a spline-fit of k\.

Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 215 Fig.19).7. staying within the validity limits of the correlations.4 Baffle loss coefficient (kb) for configuration ARA (adapted from Gentry et al.16). . and evaluate the three values of L corresponding to equations (7.14).7. Repeating the process as far as is necessary produces Fig.19) together with abscissa Z and ordinate L and construct a direct-sizing design solution plot (Fig.11 Direct-sizing To complete the design it is now appropriate to plot equations (7.16). The procedure is to assume a value of Z.14). 7. 7. (7. and (7.5). 1982) Additive pressure loss 7. and (7. (7.

Whichever curve provides the solution tube length may be chosen such that a whole number of shell-side baffles is obtained.7. Fig.5 Schematic design solution plot The real direct-sizing plot is Fig. 7.7 It is not known beforehand if shell-side pressure loss or tube-side pressure loss will lie to the right and be 'controlling'.216 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.0 . This constraint is perhaps not absolute because shell-side flow at entry to and exit from the bundle may be transverse to the tubes.7.6 Plot of tube count (Z) versus inside shell diameter (D.

K Q = 5450. kW Log mean temperature difference. In doing so. For accurate values it is necessary to consult the Phadke paper. There exists another square pitch tube layout in which there is no tube at the centre of the tube plate.12 Tube-bundle diameter The diameter of the tube bundle may be determined using the results provided by Phadke (1984). there are some gaps which need filling.6). The specific heat of the cold shell-side fluid is found from a heat balance.0000245 = 0. Terminal temperatures in the exchanger can then be found. kg/s Bulk mean temperature.0366 = 1027. or alternatively by adjusting values of allowable pressure loss in the 'sizing' design until suitable values of Z and L appear. = 14.2 Fluid properties Shell-side fluid (gas) Mass flowrate.-) is very nearly a straight line for tube numbers greater than 100 (Fig. 7. As no information was provided as to gas composition the physical properties of nitrogen are used. J/(m s K) Specific heat. This may give a slightly different tube count. C. K Absolute viscosity. It is very likely that the calculated value of Z does not provide the correct number of tubes to completely fill the tube plate without leaving gaps. Using data generated from the Phadke expressions a log-log plot of tube count (Z) versus inside shell diameter (D. it is seen that Phadke always assumed one tube at the exact centre of the tube plate. kg/(m s) Thermal conductivity.13 Practical design The paper by Gentry (1990) provides information on the design of a gas—gas heat exchanger used as a feed preheater in a catalytic incinerator process for a petrochemical plant. and then completing a 'rating' design. The number of tubes must now be adjusted to an appropriate value. This may be done either by selecting appropriate values for Z and L which lie in the shaded area of the design solution plot. allowing an estimation of specific heat for the hot gas. plus Ntu values from the (LMTD-Mw) relationships. J/(kg K) Prandtl number ms Ts i?5 A. The undernoted data were used in direct-sizing of the heat exchanger surface: Exchanger specification Performance: Exchanger duty.0 = 0. 7.946 = 467.1 = 0.686 . Pr.0 kQimtd = 106. While a substantial amount of information is available.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 217 7.

000 0283 A. possible.10 31.• dr Lb = = = = 38. Leading dimensions Tube length.7 is the actual design solution plot obtained from the computer in which the pressure-loss curves are seen to be coincident. and it was then realized that the Gentry data were for total losses in the exchanger. = 0.685 d d. Shell-side Tube-side Shell-side Tube-side Shell-side Tube-side pressure.75 6.63 Direct-sizing results Figure 7.437 Z = 519 B = 76 . K Absolute viscosity. plus flow distribution losses at the ends. mm Baffle rod diameter. plus flow-friction in the baffled shell-side.6687 &ps = 11 305. max. In direct-sizing pressure loss data are for friction in the heat exchange surface only. On the tube-side. kg/s Bulk mean temperature.46 Ap. guesstimate.218 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Tube-side fluid (gas) Mass flowrate. max. bar density.1026 pt = 0. but by using maximum values of pressure loss. the pressure losses actually determined may be close to those of the exchanger described.1 PS = 4. tube entry and exit effects. N/m2 pressure loss. kg/m3 density. constrained by the heat-transfer curve in directsizing.0426 C. kg/m3 pressure loss. guesstimate. = 0. Absolute values of pressure are required to evaluate gas densities. It seemed as if a design comparison would not be possible. mm Tube inside diameter. mm mt = 15.8 Pr. kg/(m s) Thermal conductivity.0 17.674 Tt = 573. Since no data are used beyond the experimental limits given by Gentry. J/(kg K) Prandtl number Local geometry RODbaffle configuration ARA Tube outside diameter. guesstimate. = 0. N/m2 ps = 5. and nozzle outlet losses will exist in addition to flow-friction in the tubes. possible. a good approximation to the tube-bundle design described by Gentry is obtained. nozzle inlet and outlet losses will be present. and these are guesstimates. = 1034. = 8493. m Number of tubes Number of RODbaffles L=\\. bar pressure.5 Pt — 1. J/(m s K) Specific heat. mm Baffle-section spacing. flow acceleration. On the shell-side.35 150 Pressure losses quoted by Gentry were outside the design 'window' for directsizing.

63 radial gap dr/2 z A 0.46 8493.d. Ntu 3.857 .0035 0.27 N.16 3.9 205.34 3. m RODbaffle performance Volume of exchanger.217 V = 13. kW/(m3K) Re. 40000.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 219 Fig.) Shell-side heat-transfer coefficient.34 11305.0032 529 1.7. J/(m2 s K) Tube-side heat-transfer coefficient. N/m2 Tube-side. m Baffle-ring/tubes clearance. m Nearest number of tubes to fill shell Corresponding inside shell diameter. J/(m2 s K) Number of transfer units Ntu shell-side Ntu tube-side Ntu overall Actual pressure losses Shell-side.7 Actual direct-sizing solution plot Reynolds numbers Shell-side. plain-tubes Tube-side Heat-transfer coefficients (referred to o. N/m2 Phadke shell sizing Shell/baffle-ring clearance. m3 Specific performance.39 134.98 12956. J/(m2 s K) Tube-wall heat-transfer coefficient. J/(m2 s K) Overall heat-transfer coefficient.0 43601. Re.3 U = 72.304 3.

see the Manglik & Bergles (1993) correlations for plate-fin exchangers. Total loss. The shell diameter found using Phadke (1984) would accommodate 529 tubes.. but some of this space is taken up by support rings and tie rods. Hesselgreaves found that . Apart from the inlet/outlet end discrepancy and the difference in values of the overall heat-transfer coefficients there seems close enough correspondence between the Gentry design and direct-sizing to warrant further investigation of direct-sizing.1 direct-sizing assumes that RODbaffles are spaced over the complete bundle.219 Direct-sizing 78 11.14 Generalized correlations Shell-side heat transfer The generalized correlations proposed by Hesselgreaves (1988) interpret the results for shell-side heat-transfer and pressure loss tests in terms of parameters derived from the detailed geometry of the RODbaffle exchanger.1 Design comparison Parameter Number of tubes Shell diameter. Such generalized correlations can be very useful in optimization.94* 72.047 m. This is particularly so when an annular vapour belt is provided. f Bundle only. (1982). 7. m Unsupported tube length. m Total surface area.610 753.27* 11 305.0* 519 1. J/(m2 s K) Shell-side pressure loss. with 76 baffles compared with 78 in the Gentry design. for then flow in the tube bundle will be radial.437 — 709. Gentry design 516 1.610 m of tube bundle in the Gentry design was said to be unsupported and adding this to the length found in direct-sizing gives 12. m2 Overall heat-transfer coeff. Some 0. Shell-side flow between the end RODbaffles and entry/exit nozzles does not necessarily relate to data for conventionally baffled shell-and-tube exchangers. and the writer could not find data for these end-effects. m Number of baffles Baffled tube length.582 0. which is within 1.461 For the results given in Table 7.3 35 700.217 76 11. More information is required for shell-side distributional flow between the inlet/outlet nozzles and the end RODbaffles. For the shell-side.220 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 7.0 61.2 per cent of the tube length quoted by Gentry (1990). Leakage flow past the RODbaffle rings may be the reason for lower coefficients calculated by Gentry et al. N/m2 *No allowance for leakage flow.

Shell-side baffle pressure loss Hesselgreaves found that an approximate representation of the drag coefficient could be represented by allowing the pressure loss per baffle to be written where . See Daughterly et al. (1985). Shell-side heat transfer was reasonably correlated over the whole range of Reynolds number by combining vortex street (laminar) Nusselt number (NuL). viz. Duncan et al. and White (1986) for discussion of the von Karman vortex street. and turbulent Nusselt number (Nuj). (1975).Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 221 geometric values of the ratio Dhyd _ hydraulic diameter of intertube space (Lb + L')/2 mean of (baffle spacing + vortex spacing*) * spacing on one side of the von Karman street only were necessary parameters in his correlations. in the form where NUL and NUT are to be found from the undernoted expressions recommended by Gnielinski (1990) The turbulent friction factor was by Chen (1979).

The attempt at a generalized correlation for baffle pressure loss was less successful. it is relevant to enquire whether a second 'Phadke' analysis is possible. but there may now be sufficient information to establish the structure of an optimization procedure.222 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers may be understood by reference to Fig. and because of the changing flow directions of shell-side flow traversing the tube bundle. and tube layout angle. is baffle velocity at the minimum flow area. 7. ratio. If the proposed concept for dealing with separate leakage flow (Section 7. 7. the paper by Policy & Dominique (1994) reports a study of conventionally baffled shell-and-tube exchangers which provides information on optimum tube-bundle layout including values of window -crossflow area ratio. enhancement of tube-side heattransfer would produce significant reduction in surface area.16 Other shell-and-tube designs Conventionally baffled shell-and-tube Direct-sizing is not immediately recommended for accurate design of conventional shell-and-tube heat exchangers because of the need to allow for leakage paths in the clearance between tubes and tube holes in the baffle plates. Appendix D.d. then thermal performance of RODbaffle geometry should be carried out in a square duct with no by-pass leakage. On the question of tube counts relating to inside shell diameter. Bell & Bergelin's (1957) method for calculating by-pass leakage flow may then be applied with more accuracy.3. From heat-transfer coefficients calculated. Further work was recommended.1. with relatively high scatter in the data as is evident in the figures of the paper by Hesselgreaves (1988). but for baffle pressure loss there is considerable scatter. tube pitch/ tube o.2) is to be accurately assessed.15 Recommendations All experimental work to date appears to involve testing of RODbaffle geometries complete with baffle rings and RODbaffle ring/shell by-pass leakage. This study was based on use of existing shell-and-tube computer design programs developed by the Heat Transfer and . starting with four tubes placed symmetrically at the centre of the tube plate. This will provide the 'local' thermal performance. Present designs should perhaps use experimental results for individual RODbaffle geometries which can be spline-fitted. The generalized data fit for heat transfer appears as good as that found by Manglik & Bergles (1993) for rectangular offset strip fins. However. without the unknown contribution due to by-pass leakage. 7. The prospect of using twisted-tape inserts has recently been examined by Manglik and Bergles (1993) in two extensive papers and the possibility of using internally rippled tubes seems worth considering. and the degradation in performance due to leakage will then be clearly seen. and m.

and the same problem exists of having extra shell-side flow space next to the shell. (1982a. which differs from the helically baffled exchanger in a number of significant ways. Direct-sizing methods could be applied. angled to direct flow along the exchanger. The Helixchanger employs a set of four quadrant segmental baffles. Butterworth.b). The Helixchanger has seen service in power plants. and the tubes are oriented so that the tubes are aligned along their length. (1990). Flattened and helically twisted tubes The helically twisted. The Bell-Delaware method is an extension of the Kern approach and introduces correction factors for shell-side leakage flow paths. 1996). A step-wise rating design approach may then become preferable. A more compact design than the RODbaffle configuration is possible. angle-baffled shell-and-tube heat exchanger was reported by Naess et al. The design provides near plug flow conditions and reduces dead space within the shell space. . thus minimizing dead space on the rear of a baffle plate.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 223 Fluid Flow Service and D. (1990). and other industrial processes in Czechoslovakia and the former USSR since the 1970s. Relatively high values of shell-side heat-transfer coefficient. low pressure drop. giving different values of overall mean temperature differences between each pair of baffles. the temperature profiles along a contraflow exchanger will not be parallel. The design approach generally proceeds through rating of a number of different exchanger configurations. See also levlev et al. 1984). (1993. which also allows end-flow conditions at the shell inlet and outlet nozzles to be treated differently. oil refineries. chemical plants. The problem of filling a circular shell with exactly the right number of tubes is the same (Phadke. This has now been superseded by more commercial work on the Helixchanger concept (Krai & Nemcansky. but equally the same uncertainties exist regarding transverse mixed flow at the ends of the bundle near shell-side nozzles or annular inlet/outlet connections. 1996). (1986) and by Dzyubenko et al.6 seems first to have been developed for aircraft applications in Russia as indicated in the texts by Danilov et al. and low shell-side fouling are also obtained. 1994. Helically baffled heat exchangers Norwegian development of the spiral shell-side flow.. The significant improvement was to arrange for flow leaving one baffle to pass on either side of the next baffle plate. 1996). by-passing flow and baffle shape. This geometry is equally suited to direct-sizing providing the tube pitching is given equal triangular or square pitching. In parallel the Brown Fintube Company is developing industrialscale shell-and-twisted-tube heat exchangers (Butterworth et al. using the generalized shell-side correlation given by Kern (1950) which is reported in the text by Hewitt et al. When unbalanced water equivalents exist. (1994). and later by Austergard et al. flattened-tube heat exchanger discussed in Section 1. each set being repeated along the exchanger. This may give a rapid way of arriving at a first estimate of exchanger size.

which should lead to enhanced understanding of the concept. Available from Norwegian Institute of Technology. Shell-side leakage flow should be examined to assess the prospect of handling losses in a different method from that presently recommended by Gentry et al. Available from Norwegian Institute of Technology. Compact Heat Exchangers.. Trondheim. E. UK. ICHMT International Symposium. O. Trondheim.17 Conclusions 1. 7. August 1994. Using an extension of the BellDelaware method. and S0nju. Thus performance improvement can be expected. for helical baffles they found a heat-transfer enhancement 1. E. Austergard. flattened-tube exchanger can probably be sized directly in exactly the same way. to proceed. Brighton. Naess. O..K. (1993) Three dimensional flow modelling of shell-side flow in a novel helical flow shell-and-tube heat exchanger. thus allowing the original method of design recommended by Gentry et al. by Kays & London (1964).. E. 4. (1982).K. (1982). (1994) Cross flow pressure drop in tube bundles.. Austergard. 6. Stehlik et al (1994) have compared correction factors for shell-and-tube heat exchangers with segmental and helical baffles. A.. and S0nju. Presented at Open Poster Forum at 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. 2..26 to 0. and S0nju. In its present form. accompanied by a reduction of pressure loss varying from 0.39 times that for ideal crossflow. A. The helically twisted. and to have tabulated the recommended smoothed data used in constructing these curves. as is done in the text. Lisbon. 3. 5. then one way to confirm 'goodness' of this design would be to measure the radial (and angular) exit temperature distribution on the tube-side.224 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The Helixchanger is now under design research and commercial development by ABB Lummus. direct-sizing seems to provide a reasonable method for arriving at the shell diameter. Existing design information on shell-side flow between the entry/exit nozzles and the end baffles needs to be assessed and incorporated into the design. Naess. One question which remains to be settled is whether heat-transfer (and flow friction) is consistent everywhere on the shell-side. References Austergard. A method of direct-sizing of RODbaffle exchangers has been proposed and results from one example of the approach have been compared with the design approach recommended by Gentry et al. O. New Developments . (1996) Three dimensional flow modelling of shell-side flow in a novel helical flow shell-and-tube heat exchanger.K. A. If flow mixing is good.60. It would be of considerable assistance in design to have dimensionless plots of baffle loss coefficient and heat-transfer correlation for each RODbaffle configuration. Naess. In New Developments in Heat Exchangers.

Hewitt). levlev. B. (1985) Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications. (1957) Row through annular orifices. Gordon & Breach. Afgan.V. In Proceedings .K. (1992) The role of analysis in the rate process.M.S.) Gnielinski. and Bergelin. The effect of internal leakages within segmentally baffled exchangers. PhD Thesis.P. and Ashmantas.. V.M. EJ.1 (Coordinating Ed. Heat Mass Transfer.L. Gentry. A. A Bar-Cohen.5. Churchill. Engng Chemistry.L. Dzyubenko. G. Hewitt. 48-57.V. Churchill. Engng Chemistry. (1977) Comprehensive correlating equations for heat. A.. Trans. University of Delaware.W. JJ.A. and Finnemore. (1982a) In-line and crossflow helical tube heat exchangers. and Small.. M. Carvalho. 8th edn. Mashinostroyeniye Moscow. Chen. Young. G.W. (1979) An explicit equation for friction factor in pipe. 109-115.H. J..A. pp.. 2nd edn. N. CRC Press. L. G.. S. Yu. Engng Prog. 16. V. (1955) Annular orifice coefficients with application to heat exchanger design. Ind. Daugherty. vol. (1988) A mechanistic model for heat transfer and pressure drop in rodbaffled heat exchangers. Munich.D. R..D. Ser. 84(263)...-VA. Shires. Yu. and D. IV. G. B. (1975) Mechanics of Fluids. 229-230.A. and Welkey.E. J. G. (1982) RODbaffle heat exchanger thermalhydraulic predictive methods. M. Bell. 6-10 September 1982. ASME. (1986) Teploobmen i gidrodinamika v kanalakh slozhonoy formy (Heat transfer and hydrodynamics in complex geometry channels). Res. Dreitser. USA. 271-292. J. 25(3). W. Thorn. E.M. (1958) Heat transfer and fluid friction during flow across banks of tubes. Fundamentals. G. K. B.F.. 80(19). 14-16 September 1988. Hesselgreaves. Hemisphere. Dzyubenko. Florida.. and Dreitser... O. Dreitser. 197-202. KJ. Duncan. W. A. (1996) Design and application of twisted-tube heat exchangers. D.. 317-323. Arnold. Churchill.V. 53-60. 204-205. (1990) Forced convection in ducts. Heat Transfer. ASME. O. Engng Chemistry. Washington. Ind. et al. (1982b) Heat transfer in the turbulent swirling flow in a channel of complex shape.. Hemisphere.K. (1988) The role of mathematics in heat transfer. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. 487-499.. levlev. and Vilemas. Hemisphere Handbook of Heat Exchanger Design.L. 80. Trans.J..L. Dzyubenko. G. Danilov. Dreitzer. Bell. (1990) Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in Helical Tube Bundles (Title refers to helically twisted flattened-tube heat exchangers). Section 3. McGraw-Hill. pp. N. Dzyubenko. 31(3). Bergelin. Int. Fundamentals. Paper C197/88.B. Ind. Gentry. Chem. Advances in Industrial Heat transfer. T. (1990) RODbaffle heat exchanger technology. New York. and Young. Franzini. V.W.. C. 643-658. Chapter 2. 86(7).C. 317-319.V. KJ. Butterworth. B. 79.R. pp.. University of Strathclyde. 1-13. 787-800. Bell. Kalinin. pp. (Data for ARA configuration. Danilov.J. New York pp. S. R.V. In Proceedings of the 7th International Heat Transfer Conference.. Guy. In 2nd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. and Leighton. Yu..P. AIChE Symp. Butterworth). 6. C. IChemE.. pp.R. mass and momentum transfer in fully developed flow in smooth tubes.. July.A. and Bott.. 593-601. 87-95.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 225 in Heat Exchangers (Eds.. S. Newark. pp.F.C.

pp. Symposium at Winter Annual Meeting of ASME. Smith. 65-68. (1990) Technical note on a novel high performance shell-and-tube heat exchanger. In Proceedings of the 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. (1986) Fluid Mechanics. January-March.M. E. White. ASME Nucleonics Heat Transfer Committee. July. 14-18 August 1994. Chem.) Bibliography . O. 1968. J.. (1994) Optimal tube bundle geometries. A. D. vol. 671-684. General papers. 567-581. 91(18).C. IChemE. 19-24. H. Phillips Petroleum Company. Harrington. Trondheim.helically baffled heat exchanger. Int. 55-65. pp.Laminar flows. 35(2). W. and D.M. ASME J. Texas. McGraw-Hill. Part II . Presented at Open Poster Forum at the 9th International Heat Transfer Conference. Munich. and Dominique. (1986) Process Heat Transfer. New York pp. The Industrial Sessions Papers. 389-409. and Small. A. (1968) Pressure drop performance of a rod bundle.E. P. The Industrial Sessions Papers. New York. Hemisphere. (1986) Design of helical-tube multi-start coil heat exchangers. Smith. (1973) Acoustic vibration in tubular exchangers. Kern.Transition and turbulent flows.F. Paper l/l-DES-4.K.W. C.M. E.M. K-13.M. D. Rugby. 262-267. Brighton. In Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles. Stehlik. Tong. 467-477. Gentry. L. M. 20-24 August 1990. McGraw-Hill. Anaheim. 2nd edn. and 890-896. California. In Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. R. Houston.. 3.S. and Nemcansky. ASME.T. J. K. 66. Afgan. Trans. McGraw-Hill. 14-18 August 1994. Jerusalem. (1984) Determining tube counts for shell-and-tube exchangers. pp. (1995) Experimental databases for RODbaffle geometries. J. In Advances in Heat Exchanger Design. Chem. Eilers. D. 3 April 1995. Gordon & Breach. W.L. ASME Winter Annual Meeting. (1993) Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for twisted-tape inserts in isothermal tubes. Chem. New Developments in Heat Exchangers (Eds. W. N. 115. Krai. E.F. (1973) Tube vibration in a thermosiphon reboiler. 95-104 (revised 3rd December 1994). Rehme. 69(7). Manglik. Kays. Nemcansky. pp. (Data for ARG configuration. Moody. 69(7). F.. September. L. Heat Transfer.. Brighton. and S0njy. New York. Heat Mass Transfer. Krai. 171-176. 14-18 September 1981.226 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers of the 7th International Heat Transfer Conference. 57-61. Phadke. and Swanson. and London. Part I .M. 2nd edn. Knusden. and Small. Bar-Cohen. (1981) The RODbaffle heat exchanger. Engng Prog. 7-12 December 1986. A. (1996) The Helixchanger . and Bergles. 62-68. Engng. ASME HTD-Vol..C.. (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers. E. (1994) Comparison of correction factors for shell-and-tube heat exchangers with segmental or helical baffles. Carvalho. November. L. 66. pp. (1992) The structure of turbulence in rod bundles and the implications on natural mixing between the sub-channels. Naess.A.M. 881-889. P. In Proceedings of the 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. G. D. Policy.Q. Institution of Chemical Engineers. Heat Transfer Engng 15(1). (1944) Friction factors in pipe flow. UK.S. (1994) Direct thermal sizing of plate-fin heat exchangers. Engng Prog.. UK. Available from Norweigian Institute of Technology. Private communication. Gentry C. J. Butterworth).

Miller. W. and Small.. G.K. IChemE. D. Sun. M. Heat Mass Transfer. J. Int. October-December.. Gentry. Comm.) Policy. 17-21 October 1982. (Chapter on shell-and-tube optimization. chapter on Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Costs. New York. 21-27. Young.K. and Policy.O. Heat Mass Transfer. 1984. 104-109.H. 226-234. and Young. and Small. 70(A). No. (1982) Conceptual RODbaffle nuclear steam generator design.M. Heat Transfer Engng. (1991) Rapid design algorithms for shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. W. Acapulco. 90-94. Y. 435-444. 3rd edn. Niagara Falls. October 1980. vol.. vol. Exp. W. 678-710. 69(A). C. (1980) The RODbaffle heat exchanger thermal-hydraulic performance. IEEE/ASME/ASCE 1982 Joint Power Generation Conference.M.-D. P. (1968) Calculation of rod-bundle pressure loss.M. November. September-October.. 2(3-4). 133-141. and Lee. Denver. Young. Sangster. (1958) Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. JJ. W. El Conference no. G. 81.S.. Heat Transfer. (1994) Effect of baffle/shell leakage flow on heat transfer in shell-and-tube heat exchangers. 80. (1985) RODbaffle exchanger thermal-hydraulic predictive models over expanded baffle spacing and Reynolds number ranges. (Triangular pitch only . R. M. (1993) Optimisation in calculation of shell and tube exchanger. Gentry.K. 20(5).C. Heat Transfer Engng. W. ASME Paper no.T. Byrnes. 8(1). R. . (1984) RODbaffled heat exchanger thermalhydraulic predictive methods for bare and low-finned tubes. (1981) Comparative assessment of RODbaffle shell-and-tube heat exchangers. (1956) Heat transfer to water flowing parallel to a rod bundle.M.M. 10-20. 36(15). McGraw-Hill. W. January. Int..C. 236.. In 20th National IMIQ/AIChE Conference. (1993) Experimental investigation of leakage in shell-and-tube heat exchangers with segmental baffles. 1(2). R. W. Jegede. J. Lu.Direct-Sizing of RODbaffle Exchangers 227 Gentry... 2(2).M. C.. S. March.K. January-June. Small. Panjeh Shahi. 68-WA/ HT-35. Young.D. AIChE.C.C. Gentry. C. (1979) The RODbaffle heat exchanger (design and operations). W. Roetzel.nuclear fuel elements. Trans.. Trans. Smyth. Roetzel.. IChemE. F.A. 02416. M. and Small.-Q. R.-Y. and Small.) Peters. and Yan. In 23rd National Heat Transfer Conference. (1992) Optimum heat exchanger design. 675-686. D.. K. 3765-3771. and Timmerhaus. C. 245. R. Thermal Fluid Sci. and Picon Nunez.T. In AIChE Symposium Series. C. AIChE Symposium Series No. pp. and Benforado.

Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. parallel flow. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . and in this sense it applies to all contraflow. step-wise rating. Pressure loss control ensures good flow distribution EXERGY LOSS 8. Exergy loss will be seen to depend on thermodynamic inlet and outlet conditions for any process. Eric M. while minimization of exergy loss produces a temperature pinch point at the cold end. and crossflow heat exchangers. Best temperature recovery is easy to understand. Where conceptual difficulties may arise. Exergy is a measure of the potential for work production at any stage of a thermodynamic process. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Internal or terminal fluid mixing situations existing in crossflow are considered part of exchanger design. minimization of entropy generation produces a temperature pinch point at the hot end.CHAPTER 8 Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss Exergy loss may define optimum temperature profiles. minimization of avoidable work requires more thought. these are due to any heat or fluid leakage.6] as parameter for characterizing the performance of heat exchangers. Ltd. Reaching particular temperature levels is important for best chemical reaction rates in chemical process plants. Reduction of avoidable work loss is important in cryogenic liquefaction plant and in power production plant. For contraflow.1 Objective There is a need for unambiguous standards for measuring the performance of heat exchangers. A case is made for adopting the exergy loss number [equation 8. especially in plant involving work production or work consumption. minimization of the exergy loss number corresponds exactly to achieving the Grassmann & Kopp optimum dimensionless local temperature ratio everywhere in the exchanger local temperature difference local hot (or cold) absolute temperature where a may be made as small as may be convenient. and transients. In contraflow.

Hesselgreaves (2001) selected as his dimensionless parameter where the cold inlet temperature (T\) was used to replace the dead-state temperature TO to ease subsequent analysis. Hesselgreaves also noted that only in the case of equal heat capacities could the value of Ns\ approach zero.230 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 8. in the limit the best exchanger is a fictitious exchanger. The limiting effectiveness for parallel flow is NC/(NC + N^). . A good way of assessing the above findings is to consider the combined plot of effectiveness (e) versus parameters involving number of transfer units (Nc — 7*4) for contraflow. These two parameters provide appropriate headings under which to assess previous work. at which point the temperature difference must approach zero. When the capacity rates were not equal. viz. Witte & Shamsunder (1983) chose a dimensionless efficiency expression in which the minimum entropy rate is present. namely when a hot-end pinch point existed. The presence of rate of entropy loss evident in his starting expression allows placement of Bejan' s analysis in this class. i. (Nc +Nh) for parallel flow (Fig.2 Historical development A number of authors have developed expressions describing heat exchanger performance. Hesselgreaves' findings about minimizing the rate of entropy creation Sgen required the hot fluid to have the maximum heat capacity.e. Some have studied minimum entropy creation.16). Minimum entropy generation • Bejan (1993) defined a dimensionless performance ratio Ns — (Sgen/mCp). 2. Only in the case of contraflow does effectiveness approach unity for every ratio of heat capacity rates (Nh/Nc). and developed a closed-form solution for the case of a balanced contraflow exchanger involving temperatures and pressures. They concluded that the highest efficiency was obtained when the heat capacity rates were equal (see Bejan above). better efficiency was obtained when the hot fluid had the largest capacity. others minimum exergy loss. He was only able to do this because balanced heat capacities reduced by one the number of unknowns in the analysis (effectiveness e replaced two outlet temperatures).

simply multiplying the dimensionless exergy loss number by thermal duty then gives the actual exergy loss of the component under investigation. but the expression obtained for exchanger heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities was where TWF is a temperature-weighting factor to be chosen by the analyst. The Grassmann & Kopp optimum temperature profile was found compatible with the expression for minimum exergy loss.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 231 Minimum exergy loss • London & Shah (1983) considered a number of different system applications in their paper. They noted that when TWF was put equal to the dead-state temperature TO the irreversibility expression reduced to the exergy loss expression (8. 8. Reference temperature London & Shah claimed that TO was a special case of TWF where the latter is a temperature weighting-factor to be specified by the analyst. and it would be inappropriate to apply such a value to most Earth-bound plant. In cryogenic plant design it is useful to keep to a single value of TO for all components.13) of the present chapter. In outer space. the value of TO may be 3 or 4 K. while (T — TO) is positive. In design of plant required to operate under both Arctic and Equatorial conditions. first because it arrives naturally in the exergy expression. the plant being required to come up to a different specification for both these duties. There is good reason for using TO.3 Exergy change for any flow process Consider a finite fluid source with temperature T and pressure p. Additionally. some types of leak could be accommodated analytically while others introduced conceptual difficulties. Heat (8q) is negative when taken from the fluid. and second because it should be specified by the analyst. Work (pd\i) is positive . Later in this chapter heat and fluid leaks are assessed. The author's approach was to minimize the dimensionless exergy loss number which expression includes the dead-state temperature TO quite naturally. The relative importance of each heat exchanger down towards liquefaction then becomes apparent. different values for TO can be specified for each region. London & Shah also mention heat and fluid leaks. giving non-fictitious design in all cases.

232 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers when taken from the fluid. For fluid (1) this is P\VI less the work expended on the surroundings PQV\. The exergy difference for a flow process thus eliminating dead-state pressure terms. viz. while (p — po) is positive. The specific available work is then By the First law (dq = de +p dv). For unit mass of fluid. . thus Integrating between state (1) and the reference (dead) state (0) the specific availability for state (1) becomes The specific exergy difference between an initial state (1) and a final state (2) is the difference between specific availabilities of the two states For a flow process. reversible abstraction of dq units of heat from the fluid will give (T — TQ/T)(—dq) units of work from a Carnot engine operating between Tand TQ . The opposite is true when heat is delivered to the finite fluid source. displacement work terms have to be added.

If evaluation of A^ is required it would need interpolation of thermodynamic properties in two dimensions. and discussion of this aspect is covered in a later section. The numerical magnitude of these terms is small in any case. 8. For a two-stream exchanger the dimensionless measure of performance (including a sign change to make the exergy loss positive) which simplifies to The exergy loss number is a function of the terminal conditions. The first part of the paper is restricted to discussion of the case for zero heat leakage. . unless ideal gases are involved.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 233 Kinetic energy (pure work) terms involving inlet and exit fluid velocities may be added In many engineering applications velocities at inlet and exit are nearly equal. and they are usually neglected. Total exergy change rate for exchanger is Total heat transfer rate for exchangers without heat leak Heat leakage usually cannot be evaluated until the exchanger has been sized. while the cold stream shows a gain in exergy. and in this respect is independent of temperature profiles and exchanger type. It is not quite independent of heat capacity rates as these affect temperature differences and thus enthalpy and entropy values. The loss is always greater than the gain.4 Exergy loss for any heat exchanger For any two-stream exchanger The hot stream suffers a loss of exergy.

11). Instantaneous exergy loss The differential form of equation (8. The equations for multi-stream exchangers should remain valid for fluids that have inlets or outlets somewhere along the length of the exchanger. then Carnot x Adjustmen The adjustment ratio reveals the dependence of exergy loss number on absolute temperature level. 8.10) and (8. and allows further extension to multi-stream exchangers. thus where the number of hot fluid flows (n) need not equal the number of cold fluid flows (m).8) and (8. First evaluate exergy loss for the hot fluid.5 Contraflow exchangers Consider the heat exchanger of Table 8. providing numerator and denominator receive the same treatment.1. but this situation has not been tested.234 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The expressions in plain brackets are independent of the order in which they are taken.9) rewritten .13) applies to differential length (i. Multi-stream exchangers The exergy loss number for multi-stream exchangers can be constructed by extending the fundamental equations (8. zero pressure loss) Maxwell's relationships (see Kestin 1978) allow the instantaneous exergy loss number to be expressed as T = (dh/ds)p. Pressure terms are absent from this instantaneous expression. parallel flow. always providing the following heat balance is correct.12) immediately applicable to all two-stream contraflow.e. and crossflow exchangers. This makes equation (8. and exergy gain for the cold fluid. Using equations (8.

K Cold mean specific heat.07 mc = 6.10000 Thi = 825. i. the only exergy gain involves the cold fluid temperature bracket. bar Cold fluid temperature.e. bar Hot fluid temperature.05600 Th2 = 564.0 Outlet ph2 = 1.9976 phi = 1.00000 Tc2= 475. The canonical exergy loss equation (8.13) for heat exchangers for ideal gases could be written Evaluating the undernoted expression shows a negative value of exergy change.1282 pc2 = 14. K Hot mean specific heat.74 Rh = 287.4 235 pci = 13.0 Cc = 1084. kg/s Cold fluid pressure. J/(kg K) Cold gas constant. J/(kg K) Cold mass flowrate. J/(kg K) Dead-state temperature.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss Table 8.97284 Tci = 776. J/(kg K) Hot gas constant.0 Ch = 1096.0 for ideal gases then As expected.07 T0 = 300. kg/s Hot fluid pressure. a loss of exergy .25 Rc = 287. K Inlet mh = 6.1 Terminal conditions for gas turbine recuperator Parameter Hot mass flowrate.

20) in which pressure losses are neglected.236 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Optimum temperature profiles We explore the effect of imposing optimum temperature profiles on the exchanger of Table 8. The Grassmann & Kopp (1957) condition for optimum temperature profiles (Chapter 2.188 K to keep the thermal duty constant.6 Dependence of exergy loss number on absolute temperature level For simplicity.048 370.052 192.048 370. . The exergy loss number for temperatures alone (zero pressure losses) is calculated from and by iteration the minimum exergy loss number for temperature alone was found to be Nx = 0. the temperature of operation of an exchanger will here be taken as the temperature of the cold fluid entering the exchanger. occurring at the Grassmann & Kopp ratio Thermal duty remained the same. to be compared with a minimum exergy loss number ofNx = 0. Section 2.155 02 to at minimum exergy loss Results would be slightly different if we had chosen to fix the hot fluid terminal temperatures. but the ratio of heat capacities for the original exchanger was changed from 1.1. the original exergy loss number was Nx = 0. as will be shown in the next section. but the operational temperature level can make a significant difference. Valid hot fluid terminal temperature pairs are found by inserting values of Th2 in the expression for log mean temperature difference to find Thi . We maintain the cold fluid terminal temperatures at Tc\ — 776 K and TC2 = 475 K. 8. To obtain a conceptual picture of what the absolute temperature level of operation does to the exergy loss number we shall use equation (8. while varying cold fluid terminal temperatures. Improvement is 7. For temperatures alone.32 per cent for a cold inlet temperature of 475 K. and the design log mean temperature difference at &OLM = 67.11 and Appendix F) leads to the following consistent expressions where a is a constant. but similar conclusions would be reached.

Then Keeping the cold fluid terminal temperatures and log mean temperature difference fixed.21). The data thus found are used to plot a single curve of heat capacity ratio against exergy loss number. the cryogenic region lies below 150 K. Fig. and calculate the corresponding values of Thi. For each value of T/. 8.1 is labelled with the cold fluid inlet temperature as parameter. Interpretation of diagram Each curve on the plot of Fig.Cy.8. With the dead state defined at 300 K.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 237 For an optimum contraflow exchanger governed by the results of the Grassmann & Kopp equation. we allow the values of T/. 2. The process is then repeated choosing a different value of the cold inlet temperature (TC2) for each new curve. and the heat capacity ratio (m/. and the heat pump/refrigerator region lies between 300 and 150 K (for these choices of temperature ranges see Fig.1) • choose a value for the cold fluid temperature inlet. say TC2 = 20 K.C/i)/(mcCc) required.2 to vary. 8.)/(mcCc) versus exergy loss number (A^) for contraflow exchangers with cold inlet temperature (TC2) as parameter . The results of following this process are shown in Fig. the following arbitrary choices are made: • fix a value for the cold fluid temperature rise (100 K) • fix a value for the constant (a = 0.1 Plot of heat capacity ratio (/w/.2 chosen we evaluate the exergy loss number (Nx).1.

1. The optimum contraflow exchanger condition is denoted by the horizontal dotted line (mhCh)/(mcCc) = 0. keeping the original value of a = 0. keeping the lowest value of Tc2 = 20 K and the value of a = 0.19) ensured that the log mean temperature difference (&BLM) increased with the absolute temperature of operation. The cold fluid temperature range (Tc\ — Tc2) was kept fixed at 100 K in Fig. Above 300 K the choice of heat capacity ratio did not affect the value of Nx over a wide range. However. • the need to match the compression ratio of the final multi-stage compressor. The choice of preceding compression ratios is directly . the use of cryo-expanders allows optimum temperature distributions to be achieved in contraflow heat exchangers. Suppose we now calculate the performance of the second half of the original exchanger. the exergy loss number is fundamental over the complete temperature range. Balancing the sequence of multi-stage compressors is not for optimal compression alone. then Note the increase in exergy loss number. but the associated increase in log mean temperature difference.: • reduction of the temperature rise of the heat exchanger to the point where approximately linear temperature profiles exist (step-wise design preferred). This result suggests that the value of a can be reduced as absolute temperatures rise. In the heat pump range 300-150 K the validity of Bejan's analysis becomes marginal.1. which is set out for typical monatomic and diatomic gases in Table 11. • the expansion limit imposed on cryo-expanders.1. 8.7 Performance of cryogenic plant In liquefaction plant. then Note the reduction in exergy loss number.90909.Cfc)/(racCc) = 1.000 is denoted by the horizontal solid line. Three prior constraints in choice of temperature span have to be considered. The constant value of a = 0.238 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The balanced contraflow exchanger condition (m/. The final compression ratio has to match the allowable expansion ratio of the cryo-expanders. viz.2 of Chapter 11.1 used in equations (8. Below 150 K it becomes essential to design for minimum Nx. Suppose we now half this to 50 K. 8.

minimization of total compression work being the major target. the log mean temperature difference. see Chapter 11.see Fig. Now let us consider relationships between the Grassmann & Kopp parameters. Braking work output is carefully insulated from the refrigeration and product streams of the liquefaction plant.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 239 related to the choice of Joule -Thompson expansion stages further down the liquefaction system . Also the log mean temperature difference (or the value of a) for each exchanger should be kept to as small a value as is practicable to minimize exergy loss. Work produced by cryo-expanders is small relative to the work required by the main compressors. and it is frequently dissipated using a small brake wheel [see Fig. 8. Differentiating Nx with respect to r The minimum value of r = Thi/Thi is unity. We have from Grassmann & Kopp (1957) the local temperature relationships From log mean temperature difference From exergy loss number noting that there remains a functional connection between the constant a and the log mean temperature difference A#LMSubstituting from equation (8. and slightly larger values reveal that the ratio of Th\/Thi (measure of duty) should be kept as small as practicable consistent with the three requirements for design of cryogenic plant given above. . and the exergy loss number.23).22) into equation (8. Thermal design of individual cryogenic exchangers needs be carried out in step-wise fashion to accommodate such temperature departures from the optimum profiles as may still remain.2.3. of Gosney (1982)]. then where r = Thi/Tf.5. 11.7.

It would also seem appropriate to compare such a value with that for the design non-leakage situation. Section 34-4) provides analytical treatments.8 Allowing for leakage Fluid leakage There exist at least four basic leakage modes for two-stream exchangers. allowance for longitudinal conduction has been treated in Section 3. For contraflow multi-stream exchangers.5. providing all inlet and outlet mass flowrates are known. Heat leakage For two-stream contraflow. and heat leakage at the two ends of the separating wall (longitudinal conduction) for steady-state heat transfer.11. For one-pass crossflow a similar treatment is presented in Section 3. For heat leakage from the outside shell to the environment.240 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 8.4. if heat leakage exists from the hot fluid to the surroundings. if heat leakage exists from the cold fluid to the surroundings then it would have to be calculated separately before it could appear in the exergy loss equation.2 (such solution not so far tested). • below the dead state. The situation gets more complicated if leakage is both to surroundings and to the other fluid. it should be possible to define exergy loss from first principles using only terminal values of thermodynamic properties. and the treatment of these is discussed in Section 11. For two-stream recuperators with fluid leakage. two heat balance equations could be written . Vol. Excepting the above constraints.8. Jakob (1957. cross-conduction effects can arise. then it would have to be calculated separately before it could appear in the exergy loss equation. appropriate terms could be included in the full set of seven simultaneous equations for transient performance which are set out in Appendix A. and that any mixing is complete. For transient contraflow. Fluid leakage in multi-stream exchangers leads to especially difficult assessment problems. viz. and frequently the block exchanger has to be scrapped.: • • • • leakage leakage leakage leakage of hot fluid to surroundings of cold fluid to surroundings of hot fluid to cold fluid of cold fluid to hot fluid The last two possibilities depend on which fluid has the greater pressure. Heat leakage in simple contraflow For a two-stream contraflow exchanger: • above the dead state.

The problem of placing a magnitude on heat leak can be straightforward with traditional shell-and-tube exchangers when above the dead state the colder fluid is the shell-side fluid. In compact plate -fin exchangers this distinction is absent. When there is imbalance in hot and cold thermal duties. the effect of heat leakage can be accommodated in the exergy loss number. and will take the difference between the heat leak temperature and the dead-state temperature into account. its commercial cost can be evaluated separately from assessment of exergy loss number. Above the dead state. the cold fluid is the fluid with coolth 'on offer'.21). 2. and Q = Qcoid • Consider the first case. The relative importance of any heat leak may be gauged by comparing the modulus of Carnot efficiency versus absolute temperature level in the range 0-1000 K (see Fig. then When Qhot — Qcoid the expression reduces to the simple form of equation (8. Below the dead state.13). Radiation shields and super-insulation may become appropriate. the hot fluid is the fluid with heat 'on offer'.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 241 If heat leakage is present. and reliance may have to be placed on measurement of inlet and outlet temperature and mass flowrate conditions from the exchanger. and below the dead state when the hotter fluid is the shell-side fluid. and it seems appropriate to use the heat flow 'on offer' as the appropriate value for Q in the exergy loss number. This correspondence indicates that equation (8. and Q = Qhot . The cold end of the exchanger column is often placed inside an evacuated 'cold-box' to minimize radiation losses. and the heat balance expressions including a heat leak term might be written Once the heat leak is identified. In the case of cryogenic exchangers the cost of heat leak is very high.27) should also be applicable to . terms will have different signs above and below the dead state.

Bejan. Kluwer Academic Publishers. and Moran. Full optimization of a single component of a complex energy system can only be achieved by including capital and running costs. (1982) Principles of Refrigeration. (1997) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. 8. Grassmann. The second case may be handled in a similar fashion. The absolute temperature level of operation has a strong effect on the value of exergy loss number obtained. 3. vol.. 69. Use of A^ in situations involving real fluids may require interpolation of thermodynamic properties in two or more dimensions. G. 8. (1999) Thermodynamic Optimisation of Complex Energy Systems. Bejan. The process of evaluating exergy loss reveals that thermal optimization can only be pursued so far. John Wiley. A.9 Commercial considerations The wider problem of exergy minimization for plant components operating under thermo-physical and thermo-physical-chemical change conditions involves cost analysis. p. For exchangers not subject to fluid leakage the dimensionless exergy loss number (A^) gives unambiguous indication of the specific performance of an individual exchanger. (1996). . 5. Sama's remark directly affects the choice of the Grassmann & Kopp constant (a). NATO Science Series 3.. Sama (1995) remarks '. High Technology.B. W. Bejan.. and this will in every case involve analysis of the complete system. A. (1993) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. There is a range of optimal temperature differences over which the annual cost is essentially the same. Cambridge. John Wiley. and Mamut. 2. but within which the distribution between cost of capital and the cost of energy is significantly different'. 306-308. Some heat leaks can be accommodated in the exergy loss number. M. P.10 Conclusions 1. 9(10). Bejan. (1957) Zur giinstigen Wahl der temperaturdifferenz und der Warmeubergangzahl in Warmeaustauchern. Gosney. A. Bejan et al. and Kopp. Cambridge University Press. John Wiley. Tsatsaronis. 597. J. Exergy loss references Pressure loss references are given at the end of this chapter. to use excessively large or excessively small values of A0o/ in design is a mistake. Bejan (1997). (1996) Thermal Design and Optimisation. and this is discussed more fully in the texts by Kotas (1985). It is only appropriate to compare the exergy loss number of exchangers operating over the same duty range. A. E. 4. and Bejan & Mamut (1999). Kaltetechnik. For good design.. and need only be multiplied by the thermal duty (0 to obtain the actual exergy loss required in complete plant analysis.242 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers parallel flow and crossflow exchangers.

D. Florida.F.. The prior assumptions in all these approaches was that mass flowrate across each inlet face of the exchanger is constant across the width of that face. the pressure loss will not be the same for every parallel flow path in the exchanger. (1982) A User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient use of Energy. PRESSURE LOSS 8.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 243 Hesselgreaves. then this too will affect performance. (1998) Gas Turbine Performance. (1985) The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis.. (1983) Handbook of Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases. Butterworths. and it was left to Baclic & Heggs (1985) to show that these different approaches were mathematically equivalent. Butterworths. D. Walsh.11 Control of flow distribution Objective Proper attention to the design of headers avoids poor flow distribution and hence less than anticipated design performance from the exchanger core. Should poor manufacturing techniques also produce significant variations in flow channel geometry. Blackwell Science. (1997) Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers. Energy Resources Tech. Since that time many other analytical solutions have appeared. (1959) Available Energy and the Second Law Analysis. Kotas. and Fletcher. and Marsland. Sama. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. 105. T. (1995) The use of second law of thermodynamics in process design. . Trans. P.M. Jakob. Trans. N. London. J. CRC Press. New York-Berlin.H. HemisphereSpringer.A. ASME. Witte. E. New York. Linhoff. B. Engng Power. Rugby. 199-203. 179-185. J. A. E. R.C. and the results of the computation are given in Figs 3. TJ. N.F.R. Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill. Shires. ASME. Boland. R. G. it only takes a glance at the temperature distributions to realize that once temperaturedependent physical properties are involved. D. Guy..A. 59-73. Hewitt. G. P.B..E. John Wiley. L.16 and 3. (1983) Cost of irreversbilities in heat exchanger design. UK. Vargaftik.W.R.. and Shah. II. G. B.L.P. London. Kestin.. 4(2). Heat Transfer Engng.A. John Wiley. vol.Selection. Oxford. (2001) Compact Heat Exchangers . However. Institution of Chemical Engineers. A.L. vols I and II. (1983) A thermodynamic efficiency concept for heat exchange devices.K. London. (1957) Heat Transfer. Temperature-dependent fluid properties The steady-state temperature fields for crossflow were first solved analytically by Nusselt (1911). Thomas. and Bott.E. (1978) A Course in Thermodynamics.. 117.17. J. April-June. Hewitt.. Bibliography Bruges. Chichester. J. Smith.. and Shamsunder. Pergamon Press. D n and Optimisation. The author solved the same steady-state problem numerically. Townsend. M.

The pressure drop due to friction losses in the flow though the pipe has to be exactly balanced by the pressure increase due to the deceleration of the flow in the pipe which necessarily occurs when part of the flow escapes through the ports . while static pressure increases due to diffusion.. viz. thus questioning some of the initial assumptions made in solving the temperature fields.: • inserting a tapered plug in the pipe • changing the diameter of the pipe • constructing the burner manifold according to a geometric design In developing a sound analytical basis for design he examined four cases: • • • • Case Case Case Case 1234laminar flow in the pipe turbulent flow in the pipe negligible friction in the pipe (/ = 0) manifold serving as infinite reservoir observing that only some commercial designs corresponded to Case 4.. While these effects may not be large. the mass flowrates will differ across the exchanger.) Dow noted that it was possible to control the pressure by adjusting the ratio of these two areas. the pressure loss due to friction is related to the surface area of the tube while the pressure gain due to deceleration is related to the cross-sectional area of the pipe'. they illustrate that it is pressure loss which controls the flow pattern in every heat exchanger.12 Header design Dow (1950) studied flow along a perforated pipe. as total pressure reduces due to friction. if the flow channels are interconnected there may be some migration of flow across the parallel flow paths. and he analysed the solution as follows: '. and he suggested three means of doing this. To illustrate Dow's approach.244 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers If the flow channels are not interconnected. the balance of linear momentum for unsteady flow gives thus steady-state flow along a header duct from the open end c be written . His problem was that of establishing the same mass flow through each perforation for a gas burner. (One referee noted that the above quote was not exact in modern terms. 8. . Worse. .

36) holds for any header cross-section. then also gvng where u = <£(y . Values for the frictional coefficient may be written • laminarflow.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 245 Fluid velocities through the exchanger flow channels must be equal to give uniform distribution./ = b/Re (b constant) • turbulentflow. thus (dp/dx) must be zero to give a level discharge across and into the core of the exchanger. Differentiating equation (8./ = b/Rea (a.31) Separating variables Equation (8. A). b constants) . remembering that p is constant Substituting in equation (8.34) with respect to y. giving If we now measure from the duct closed end making y = 0 at x = L Balance of mass at any cross-section of the header requires As rate of flow through the header must vary linearly from the inlet maximum (mo) to zero at the closed end.

and a schematic representation of the effect is shown in Fig. being high at inlet if the flowrate was small. but where an insert is used the calculation of pressure loss should also take into account the surface area of the tapered insert. 8.2b. requiring a change in header height z to satisfy equation (8. and showed that the flame height could vary along the length of the pipe. Treatment has to be numerical.36) to be his final result. which provides a preliminary indication of the area changes required. This can be integrated immediately to give For a tapering tube the changing diameter with length can now be determined. Readers are referred to the complete set of photographs in Dow's 1950 paper. Headers of varying rectangular section For heat exchangers. The solution he adopted was to fit a tapered insert into the pipe. header design normally requires one flat face of constant width of length L and breadth B.36) simplifies further to Expanding the Reynolds number the final expression within square brackets becomes independent of the variable D Writing equation (8.30). and high at the closed end if the flowrate was large. Further work (with experimental confirmation) is desirable to discover whether the changes in surface area due to the presence of many orifices along the duct length will change the empirical expressions for friction factor along the duct length.38) in simplified form subject to boundary conditions y = L at D = DQ .2.246 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers An explicit solution is available for a circular cross-section and laminar flow. 8. as equation (8. Only the first of these situations is shown in Fig. It seems that Dow took the expression (8. . Dow tested a single-pipe gas burner.

A does not vary linearly with y) Hydraulic radius Ffi ~~ area for flow wetted perimeter — — A P Reynolds number Friction factors* for laminar flow (b constant*) for turbulent flow (a.2 Gas burner using perforated pipe showing flow distribution: (a) without insert. all mass flowrates Combining Dow's equations (8. .36) At any section: Flow area ( .33) and (8. . b constants*) (*see under Discussion below) . (b) with insert.8.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 247 Fig. low mass flowrate.

or include many multi-stream paths. Hence the height of the duct (z) can be found. (1968) are less than ideal. it is suggested that the Shah & London data for laminar flow in plain ducts be used. Knowing duct breadth (/?) the required inlet area of the duct (A) can be found. Calculation proceeds as outlined earlier until y = o. The header designs developed by London et al. 8. Next duct section New duct length is y = y — Ay. This work is comprehensive and should be read. New mass flowrate is (m = thoy/L).40) can be solved for AA.rj) the perimeter (P) of the duct can be found. new flow area is A = A — AA. hence new perimeter is P — 2(B + z). Assuming that known duct length (L) has already been divided into a constant number of increments (Ay) then equation (8. Shah & London (1978) calculated values of/ x Re for plain rectangular ducts of different aspect ratios. The header is now optimum for one inlet flowrate only. This parasitic effect . say 2000. hence new Reynolds number and friction factor can be calculated. headers have to be made large enough to satisfy Case 4.248 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Inlet section At header inlet y = L choose a limiting Re number for laminar flow. Discussion Friction factors will change as the duct aspect ratio changes. Further theoretical and experimental investigation is indicated. For laminar flow. Cautionary notes Design uncertainties lie primarily in determining the wetted perimeter (P) for a duct with one perforated face. In particular we may expect to see ever smaller and shorter flow channels . A recent treatment of flow distribution and pressure loss in plate heat exchangers has been provided by Bassiouny & Martin (1984). miniaturization (without loss of throughput) will change the appearance of individual components such as heat exchangers.3). Experimentally proven friction factors for ducts with porous surfaces are required. When no special attention is paid to header design. In experiments Dow was able to vary gas flow at will and still maintain equal gas distribution. Until such results become available. as it is assumed that pressure losses exist in the headers.which implies increased longitudinal conduction. The analysis considers both Utype and Z-type headering arrangements (see Fig. and developing corresponding laminar and turbulent friction factor correlations. New duct height is (z = A/B). As exchangers become smaller and smaller. Knowing (rh. and is not restricted to headering arrangements only. Exchanger aspect ratios As chemical plant moves towards process intensification. it may become necessary to consider Dow's approach. This work was aimed at developing understanding of flow in the channels of compact heat exchangers.

including design of distributor sections within the core block. U-type headering was preferred when transients were involved as faster temperature response was then obtained.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 249 Fig. With careful design. Compact flow distributors Haseler & Fox (1965) have examined the problem of flow distribution in multistream block heat exchangers used in cryogenics. In certain two-stream contraflow heat exchangers. Additional heat-transfer surface then exists in the distribution headers. Directional headers Das & Roetzel (1995) analysed the merits of Z-type and U-type header patterns for a contraflow exchanger. Haseler & Fox (1965) provide information on methods of evaluating pressure losses for seven basic types of distributor. . Care to achieve even flow distribution may also require a rethink of header design. and it does not deal with design of the header itself. This is primarily a method of directing injected streams to an appropriate part of the main exchanger. it is possible that distribution headers for one stream may lie completely in contact within the other flow stream. which will affect assumed entry and exit conditions for the true contraflow 'core'. With tapering headers even better results can be expected when the U-type is used in symmetrical fashion (Fig. Headers of finite and constant cross-section gave better results in both steady and unsteady flow conditions with the U-type configuration.8. Solutions to this problem do not seem to have reached the open literature yet. proper allowance can be made for additional pressure losses.3 Z-type and U-type headering can be kept under control. as outlined in Chapter 4.3). 8.

However.8. It also suggests how individual plates may be configured at inlet and outlet of the exchanger so as to ease the headering problem. 8. 8. or in accommodating headers.4(c)]. and vice-versa. and suggests significant potential gains through the use of printed. going progressively from end configuration [Fig.4(b)] to the main heat exchanger surface [Fig. 8.13 Minimizing effects of flow maldistribution Cowans (1978) studied maldistribution of flow in parallel channels in a counterflow exchanger. recourse to testing model heat exchangers may be desirable. 8.11 in Chapter 4. His solution was to shape the passages differently in the two sides of the exchanger so that the shift in temperature in the middle of the exchanger strongly affected the hot flow only. There is more satisfaction in Cowan's development of the primary surface exchanger shown in Fig. however. There is no difficulty in fitting end bars between plates.4 Primary surface heat exchanger development .4. using test cores of different lengths to Fig. 4.250 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 8. his theoretical analysis seems incomplete. This is a stabilizing heat exchanger arrangement when maldistribution of flow is anticipated. Flat plates may be progressively deformed to create a simple regular heat exchanger pattern in which each hot flow channel is surrounded by four cold flow channels. see right hand-side of Fig. His approach worked well in practice. To evaluate transient thermal performance of such cores. Hot channels were narrowed mid-way along their length and cold channels were made correspondingly wider. a better channel aspect ratio may be rectangular rather than square. and found a simple method for compensating automatically for the maldistribution. and diffusion bonded methods of building heat exchanger cores.4(a)] through the intermediate stage [Fig. etched.

and Chapter 7 showed that direct-sizing could also be applied to the RODbaffle shell-and-tube design.that of cross-conduction ( example being that of cryogenic plant discussed in Chapter 11.8. a method of sizing the exchanger for minimum volume was found. Only in a few special applications does it become possible to employ the near-perfect exchanger . Chapter 5 described an approach to direct-sizing of helical-tube. multi-start coil exchangers. Practical applications are not like this. . where the arrangement of expansion turbines would allow adjustment of the cooling mass flowrate to obtain the optimized temperature profiles for a two-stream exchanger. 8. All of the above considered the exchanger in isolation. 8.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 251 Fig. Chapter 4 described the direct-sizing of compact plate-fin heat exchangers in which the temperature profiles were not optimum but. But even here the commercial attraction of building multi-stream block exchangers can introduce a further complication . with optimized pressure losses and optimized for minimum core volume. which are often used in cryogenic plant. This would have to be supported by analytical solution of the laminar flow performance of individual cells. A possible transient test-rig is shown in Fig. etc. and from the above it would clearly be possible to design an exchanger with optimum temperature profiles. through varying local surface geometry.14 Embedded heat exchangers In Chapter 2 attention was paid to optimized temperature differences and optimization of pressure losses.5.5 Test-rig for transients in model heat exchanger separate out end-effects from core performance. 1983 and Chapter 11). however.

2.0 N/m 2 Pc2 = 10.2 Contraflow exchanger parameters mh = lOl. The resulting normalized profiles are shown in Fig. the terminal temperatures that follow from assuming full load effectiveness of 0. 2. 8. Using the data in Table 8.6.0 kg/s Cc= 1.22 .005kJ/(kgK) TM Tta Tci Tc2 =825.5 K = 782.4 K phi = 1.0 N/m 2 Allowing for streams to be 'by-passed' inside the multi-stream exchanger.0662 bar A/7.765 bar A/JC = 32 300. OK = 554. The reader may compare these profiles against those of the thermally optimized exchanger given in Fig.= 4260.8) derived in Chapter 3 may now be used to obtain the temperature profiles.88 are given in Table 8.lkg/s Ch = 1. or even introduced or extracted from the block exchanger may be sufficient to disturb the design away from optimum conditions.: • • • • Linde air liquefaction plant sulphuric acid plant gas turbine plant refrigeration plant where such compromises can be seen. The extent of the compromise required may be seen from recuperator design for a gas turbine plant outlined by Walsh & Fletcher (1998).150kJ/(kgK) mc = 100. viz. viz.3 K = 469. Temperature profiles across the exchanger may have to be constrained to achieve least exergy loss for the whole plant.2 the following parameters may be calculated Expression (3.252 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 8.. Kotas (1985) provides examples of exergy analysis for four different plants.

2.8.6. . If this is not done. and procurement of the heat exchanger (or indeed any other single component of the plant) proceeds in isolation.15 Pumping power The steady flow energy equation for each fluid may be written as The heat flow (0 is positive when inwards to the fluid. 8. This results in a different profile curvature from the optimum seen in Fig.6 Normalized temperature profiles for embedded exchanger to see how much temperatures depart from the optimum profile given by (A0/7). and the shaft work (W) is positive when outwards from the fluid. thus W is zero in the thermodynamics of heat exchanger design. No shafts exist for a heat exchanger. the complete thermodynamic process should be optimized first before specifying design parameters for the heat exchanger. then there is danger of serious mis-match and poor overall plant performance.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 253 Fig. As all heat exchangers have to be embedded in a complete plant.3. We cannot find pumping power by analysing components of the steady-flow equation for the heat exchanger alone.) = const. 8. Apart from the wider temperature difference in Fig. it is also evident that the temperature difference at the hot end of the exchanger is smaller than the temperature difference at the cold end.

Dow. (1950) The uniform distribution of a fluid flowing through a perforated pipe.J.. and Roetzel. is for incompressible flow only.K. McGraw-Hill. Baclic. Cowans. 1965-1976. Afgan). (1985) On the search for new solutions of the single-pass crossflow heat exchanger problem. Engng Power.10. p. (1983) Performance calculation methods for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. TJ. Mech. and Fletcher.K. Hemisphere. pp. July.U-type arrangement. Heat Mass Transfer. Blackwell Science. Haseler.L. (1985) The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis. 2021-2024. 28(10). Manchester. December. (1968) Oblique flow headers for heat exchangers. G. W. Heat Exchangers: Theory and Practice (Eds. A. Appl. Haseler. J. S. 1127-1140. Butterworths. ASME. (1978) Laminar Flow Convection in Ducts.K. and Fox. pp. In 4th UK National Heat Transfer Conference.W. Trans.W. Taborek. Hewitt. New York.P. Bassiouny. (1995) Dynamic analysis of plate exchangers with dispersion in both fluids. P. and Heggs. K.E. G. 431-438. A. (1998) Gas Turbine Performance. H. R. The compressor inlet temperature (T) may be taken as the heat exchanger outlet temperature as the pressure rise across the compressor is small.E. and Wolf. L. Zeitschrift des vereines deutscher Ingenieur. 323-325. (1978) A countercurrent heat exchanger that compensates automatically for maldistribution of flow in parallel channels. M. M.. J. W. Ap = piniet — poutiet . Trans. Das. 55.. 296. Pumping power for compressible gas may be found from the single-stage compressor equation where the inlet and outlet pressure values are for the heat exchanger. Chem.F. T. Part 1 . London. Cryogenic Engng. Walsh. and N. Int. pp. the following simple expression holds Pressure loss references Exergy loss references are given after Section 8. London. ASME. 19. J. New York. 271-286. 39(4). (1911) Der Warmeubergang im Kreuzstrom. Note that the isentropic efficiency of the compressor rjs = (Ws/Wreai) may also need to be known where component mechanical power is required. S. Shah.Z-type arrangement. 449-456. Kotas. Klopfer. (1984) Flow distribution and pressure drop in plate heat exchangers.L. Heat Mass Transfer. 26-27 September 1995. Engng Sci. L.S. B. P. and London. P. (1965) Distributor models for plate-fin heat exchangers. J. Where pressure loss. and Martin. Oxford. Int.254 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Pumping power is to be calculated for a pump which produces a pressure rise equal to the pressure loss found for each fluid in the heat exchanger. 437-444. . 495-506. 693-700 and 701-704. Supplement 1 to Advances in Heat Transfer. Adv. J. Academic Press. Part 2 . Nusselt.. 36(6).

and Bott. A.. E. Ser. AIChE J. Engng Res. Engng Sci.. Shires. Design.E. Hewitt. Engng Sci. Lalot.. Linnhoff. A. 167-170. G.. 745-763.R. 1635-1636.. Soc. (1978) Synthesis of heat exchanger networks. Institution of Chemical Engineers. CRC Press. May. Boland. 38(5). 61(4). B.... Appl.. (1933) Graphical computation of logarithmic mean temperature difference. 24. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. 207-223.Exergy Loss and Pressure Loss 255 Bibliography Hewitt. W. G. 841-855... Thomas. July. pp. Part 2 . UK. D. Linnhoff.H.R.R.. B. 847-863. Chapter 26. Proc. T. R. B. 386 (1790). S.E. D. Paterson. 633-642 and 642-654. (1999) Flow maldistribution in heat exchangers.A. B. (Also in Chem.F. B. 1-33.. . S. Chem. Chem. Guy. Florent.. 8 March 1983. Chem.F.R.) Linnhoff.. (1983) The pinch design method for heat exchanger networks.. AJ.. Lang. P. (1983) New concepts in thermodynamics for better chemical process design. 19.L. Florida. (1982) A User Guide on Process Integration for the Efficient Use of Energy. and Flower. Thermal Engng. Townsend. R. and Marsland. J. A. and Hindmarsh.W. 39(11). Linnhoff. Underwood.V. The Ind.K. Rugby. G. (1984) A replacement for the logarithmic mean. and Bergles. Part 1 systematic generation of energy optimal networks.evolutionary generation of networks with various criteria of optimality.

Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. at the very least for the mass and momentum equations. A description of the method by Ontko (1989) includes computer source listings which use the modified MacCormack algorithm.. Eric M.contraflow Three main approaches to solution of the simultaneous equations for transients exist.. Direct solution Solution by direct finite-difference methods has been tackled by several workers.CHAPTER 9 Transients in Heat Exchangers Partial differential equations 9.1 Review of solution methods . viz. there is some justification for operating with finite differences on the original equations without reducing them to characteristic form'. A better approach may be to use the method of lines with Runge-Kutta. step-wise rating. but longitudinal conduction was neglected. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. employing a variety of solution methods. Finite differences This approach is to work with the original set of partial differential equations and the original initial and boundary conditions. Their partial differential equations did not include the second-order terms for longitudinal conduction. and transients.: •finitedifferences • method of characteristics • Laplace transformation No method is without problems. Sharifi et al. but the finite-difference approach probably allows best understanding of the physical situation. Ames (1965) comments that '. Ltd. Partial differential equations are converted into finite-difference form. MacCormack's method Ontko (1989) and Ontko & Harris (1990) have presented a numerical method using a modified MacCormack predictor-corrector solution algorithm. (1995) have presented results for solution by the fully implicit but unconditionally stable Crank-Nicholson scheme. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . but with constant physical properties. Thermal storage in the wall is included. providing results for both imposed temperatures and imposed mass flowrate steps.

The problem then grows to finding the curved characteristics. The transient solution involved solving a one-dimensional energy equation by the method of characteristics and two Cauchy problems. and transient discontinuities pass through the exchanger travelling along the characteristics . finding the unknown temperatures corresponds to integrating along the characteristics. Because the boundary conditions (i. The ordinary differential equations are then solved by finite differences. The method is to transform the partial differential equations plus initial conditions and boundary conditions. but as the wall equation plays a major role in provision of thermal storage. and evaluating different time marching schemes. and mass flowrates change. lines representing the (x. transients) may not be recognizable mathematical functions. Method of characteristics This involves finding the characteristics of the problem. and the results are then inverted numerically back into real time using fastFourier transforms. Some simplifications were necessary to obtain a solution. Laplace transforms with numerical inversion Laplace transformation follows a hybrid approach. as these affect directly the transit times through the exchanger. They assumed constant physical properties and that the wall equation could be neglected. f) trajectories of fluid particles as they pass through the exchanger. the effect is more pronounced.only providing the characteristics can be found. in which the full set of energy and momentum equations were first set out. When account is taken of significant temperature variations in physical properties at points throughout the exchanger. which is not a simple task. Appropriate mathematical schemes can be developed for numerical solution. this can require Fourier representation of the disturbances. (1990) completed a thorough study on the flattened and helically twisted tube design of exchanger. All these factors lead to a change in direction of the characteristics which then become curved. transit times change. which are the 'natural coordinates' of the system. With variable mass flowrates. particularly for handling shock waves but the method has not so far been developed satisfactorily for dealing with transients in heat exchangers. (1995) solved the governing partial differential equations using a number of numerical techniques. the density of the fluids change.e. The method provides good physical insight into the problem. 1990) claimed that their 'cinematic' model requires the least amount of computation to provide fast and accurate results. and of establishing a numerical scheme for calculating points along the exchanger. Lakshmann & Potter (1984. Much effort has gone into solving problems in fluid dynamics using the method of characteristics. but with some difficulties. using backward differencing for the convection term. . Dzyubenko et al. into ordinary differential equations containing the initial conditions plus transformed boundary conditions. then heat-transfer coefficients change. the solution is less than satisfactory.258 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Other approaches Sharifi et al.

b. viz.Transients in Heat Exchangers 259 The mathematical approach accommodates longitudinal conduction effects. and other more important considerations need attention.d). Rotzel et al (1994).g. The Fourier series approximation was preferred in handling oscillations. For a solution in real time. A number of workers in heat transfer have gone down this route. They can be expressed in terms of combinations of functions that can be transformed..c.c.I) in Appendix A. 1976. exponential. 9. real transients in heat exchangers tend to be mathematically smooth. but requires a significant amount of computing power. the overshoot remaining finite at 18 per cent at each change of amplitude.I. inversion of the Laplace transform solution requires either the Gaver-Stehfest algorithm (Jacquot et al. e.g. The fundamental paper is that of Roetzel & Xuan (1992a) which examined transient response of simple exchangers excluding axial dispersion terms. or the Fourier series approximation (Ichikawa & Kishima. Press et al. 1992). 1993a. 1970). and conventional shell-and-tube exchangers. Care in selecting the appropriate solution method may be necessary. Since that time the main thrust has included plate-and-frame exchangers. and some important solutions have been obtained by Roetzel & Xuan (1991. 1992a.b. These are derived from the fundamental equations of continuum mechanics. Roetzel & Lee (1993) confirmed that for values of Pe > 40 computed results are virtually identical with those for plug flow which is usually the assumption. summation of infinite Fourier series does not represent square waveforms accurately. Some manipulation is . all of which types included consideration of axial dispersion in the momentum equation for design-critical applications. step. In examining the continuum equations governing transient flow the author felt that the Rayleigh dissipation function in the energy equations for the fluids was possibly a better expression to use when thermal transients were involved. sine. In all cases the mathematical effort involved in producing a solution to a real problem is considerable. as can be seen from papers listed in the References. Roetzel & Lee (1993). but convergence was slow. This may be speeded-up by using the fast-Fourier transform (Crump. both effects are small. Gibb's phenomenon (Mathews & Walker. However.2 Contraflow with finite differences Preliminary considerations Transient equations for compressible flow with temperature-dependent physical properties are presented as equations (A. Temperature dependence of physical properties seems most difficult to incorporate in a solution. serpentine tube panels. but was not suitable for handling disturbances containing rapid oscillatory components. 1972). e. ramp. 1983). The Laplace transform method works with linear differential equations. see Taylor (1954) and the several papers by Roetzel and others which include axial dispersion terms for the fluids as a means of representing fine detail in the flow. however. Boundary conditions are required as functions of dimensionless time. Roetzel and coworkers found that the Gaver-Stehfest inversion took very little computational time.

Results of the computation shown later (Figs 9. The introduction of pressure-field equations generates additional coupling of transients in density. Along the way. Selection of time intervals For transient computation.260 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers necessary to bring the equations into computable form. The idea is to keep disturbances in one space interval from reaching the next space interval. Symbols used on the first curve for each parameter are as follows: O.1 Response from disturbance of 15 per cent increase in inlet mass flowrate with heat transfer to duct wall (wall mass/100 and wall thermal conductivity x 100). the Rayleigh dissipation function (<f>) is neglected as its contribution was small. The CFL condition depends on the local speed of sound in the fluid. density (kg/m3) .g. see e. pressure loss (N/m2). temperature (K). Y. and is given as where for a perfect gas c = -^/yRT. The cause of any new instability in computation can then be more closely identified.1-9.2. and the four stages of development are presented in Appendix A. mass flowrate (kg/s). Mechanical (pressure) disturbances travel at the speed of sound in a fluid. selection of time intervals is constrained by the CourantFriedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability condition. In the final set of equations the 'pressure-field' equations were dropped to allow stability of the numerical solution to be assessed as a first step. X. With the CFL condition in Fig. Once computational stability is confirmed. #. the pressure-field equations for a perfect gas are developed and their straightforward incorporation in the finite-difference algorithms is explained. equations for a particular fluid can be incorporated. velocity (m/s).9. +. Fletcher (1991). and temperature parameters.3) are for this first stage only. Thermal disturbances travel much slower. In the supplement to Appendix B. velocity.

For symbols see Fig. For every time interval. with heat transfer to duct wall (wall mass/100 and wall thermal conductivity x 100).9. the CFL condition has to be evaluated for every space interval in the computation.9.3 Response from combined disturbance of 15 per cent increase in inlet mass flowrate and 25 per cent increase in inlet fluid temperature. For symbols see Fig.Transients in Heat Exchangers 261 Fig.2 Response from disturbance of 25 per cent increase in inlet fluid temperature with heat transfer to duct wall (wall mass/100 and wall thermal conductivity x 100).1 caption .1 caption mind the author used where u was the local velocity of the fluid.9. and the smallest value of Af is taken for the next time Fig.9.

the solution becomes unique for a particular case. however pressure transients can travel both forwards and backwards in one space dimension. or the method of lines with Runge-Kutta. it may be desirable to multiply the time interval by.3 and B.8. say. Any flow acceleration/ deceleration will be computed automatically. plus the friction factor versus Reynolds number correlation for the channel under consideration.262 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers interval. are inserted into the above expression. viz. Shell heat leakage An analysis of losses from the exchanger shell surface has been made by Nesselman (1928). but the definition of equation (9.3) should ensure that a gap exists between the end of the pre-selected value (Ax/2) and the x. Pressure gradients at flow entry and exit should be made zero.3 and Appendix B. These effects were not considered . The interesting question is whether there may exist reasonable means for adjusting for mesh drift when using the stable Crank -Nicholson algorithm. e. followed by validation or rejection. and seems to require investigation plus development. with further treatment by Hausen (1950).value at the end of vectors (+u + c) and (+u — c).95 as velocity values for the next interval are not yet known. 0. the MacCormack predictor-corrector algorithm. Allowance for convective mesh drift All convected transient equations contain a convected term on the left-hand side.8 contain further discussion of this concept which has never been applied by the author due to computational restrictions. No instabilities were observed in computation. When the equation of state for pressure. The necessary procedures for incorporating pressure terms into the CrankNicholson algorithms for a perfect gas are explained in Appendix A. Further.g. Pressure terms Pressure terms involve both pressure gradient and pressure loss due to flow friction. consider Algorithms do exist for correcting convective mesh drift. and be replaced by numerical values of losses due to entrance and exit effects. and in future computations the author would use Events during the next time step are not yet known. Appendices A.

and thermal conductivity (A). Reynolds and Prandtl numbers (Re. In steady-state analysis it is straightforward to incorporate the thermal resistance of the wall. there was no attempt to distinguish between boundary layer and bulk flow. Pr) may be required to evaluate . In transients. but in transient analysis thermal capacity of the wall itself may be more significant. pressures.e. Approximations remaining In generating the simultaneous partial differential equations for transients in contraflow it is assumed that there was no temperature difference across the solid wall of the exchanger. and pressure transients: • in heat exchangers. Physical properties Temperature dependence of physical properties is most conveniently represented by interpolating cubic spline-fit. Allowance for any transverse flow would involve the Rayleigh dissipation function. For liquid metals terms for longitudinal conduction in the fluids themselves may become necessary. Zero flow ('choking') or reversal of flow direction might be encountered even though the steady-state Mach number is a long way from sonic value • temperature transients change some fluid densities (e. and mass flowrates will be felt by a compressible fluid. the study of this effect is not usually a first priority. One-dimensional plug flow is assumed in both fluids. however transient temperatures. absolute viscosity (17). mass flow transients. viz. Three basic forms of transient inlet disturbances exist for each fluid. reduced to suit the number of dimensions involved. When an additional pressure shell is used the effect of longitudinal conduction in the shell may also need consideration if the pressure shell is thick. Where such properties are not primary unknowns in the differential equations they may need to be determined using interpolating cubic spline-fits for each finite-difference station along the exchanger. Longitudinal conduction A term for longitudinal conduction in the separating walls is present in the full set of transient energy equations. Some physical constants acting as coefficients in the differential equations may need to be evaluated at each time interval and for each space interval during the computation. gases) and also affect physical properties in each fluid and in the wall. General remarks Transient solutions that do not include the solid wall equation are of little practical value. Fluid parameters involved may be specific heat at constant pressure (C).g.05. This is because energy storage in the wall is always significant. i. Mach numbers are usually less than 0.Transients in Heat Exchangers 263 in steady-state treatments because modern insulating materials can minimize the effect. This is also true for heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations where high accuracy is required. temperature transients.

Search for the maximum value of fluid velocity in both hot and cold fluids and calculate the magnitude of the next time interval. viz: • solution of the velocity field for the hot fluid • solution of the velocity field for the cold fluid • solution of the coupled temperature fields for both fluids and the solid wall Fluid (density) and density x velocity equations are solved independently. The above considerations indicate that the study of transients should either involve mass flow transients under isothermal conditions. over any desired duration of disturbance. Solid parameters such as thermal conductivity (A) and density (p) are required • mass flow transients change fluid velocities • pressure transients change densities. and to reverse re-number the solutions at output. Step 2. so that all necessary physical constants are available to get the solution started. the chosen disturbance. and departure from. The sine curve was chosen to give a smooth approach to. . and this multiplier is applied to any increase or decrease in mass flowrate or temperature. Use temperatures to update physical properties along the exchanger using interpolating spline-fits. The disturbances. The cold fluid can use algorithms for the hot fluid provided only that care is taken to renumber the finite-difference equations at input. viz. A step change (and especially a shock wave) would introduce additional computational problems. The normalized disturbance is in the range 0 < form <1. Shape of disturbances The disturbances used were in the form of a modified sine curve. as the two effects then cannot be separated. The momentum equation additionally involves pressure terms. Solution of the transient problem separates into three distinct problems. were not initiated at time zero. which particularizes a given design solution.264 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers heat-transfer coefficients (a) and flow-friction coefficients (/) locally. Step 1. FROM FORM FROM where A is the time at start of disturbance and B is the time at the end of disturbance. and thus velocities. Order of solution The solution must proceed from some isothermal steady state. Development of numerical algorithms for mass flow and momentum equations is only necessary for the hot fluid. This was to provide time for the steady solution to settle down. but require knowledge of the imposed temperature field. or involve both mass flow transients and temperature transients together. although brief.

At fluid exits from the exchanger core. Reverse re-number the solution.2) suggested a first computation with the simplified equations to test stability of computation (flow-friction pressure losses were estimated later). Obtain flow-friction coefficients from correlations. cross-conduction. Should instability appear with the full set of equations it is suggested that the advection terms be replaced with upwind differences for time and downwind differences for space (Fletcher. Solve the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations for the hot fluid sequentially. In all computations. Step 6.2).1. From new values of p and pu obtain new values of velocity (M) required in solution of the simultaneous energy equations. the mass of the exchanger was reduced by two orders of magnitude to obtain response curves that show trends. 9. For the cold fluid. The energy equations provide the only link between the two fluids.the addition of a diffusion term may cure the problem.3 Further considerations Phase lag. Step 4. 1991. Alternatively or additionally . and boundary conditions Das & Roetzel (1995) solved the equations for a plate heat exchanger with phase lag in the fluid entry temperatures (Z-type headering system). Results of computation (without pressure-field equations) When pressure terms are omitted from the momentum equations. This problem arises because of the time taken to transit the headering system. . Solve the energy equations simultaneously for new temperatures for each fluid and for the wall. reverse number stations along the exchanger and use the same algorithms developed for the hot fluid to obtain new values of velocity («). Thermal storage terms retained in the solid wall equation are still sufficient to delay outlet response to an input disturbance to the order of minutes (or tens of minutes) in the case of the contraflow example given by Campbell & Rohsenow (1992). Das & Roetzel et al. This is because the calculations were done on an 8 MHz computer with 1 MByte of RAM and without a hard disk. Step 7. However the optimized header design discussed in Chapter 8 was not in use. Return to Step 1 and repeat the process.Transients in Heat Exchangers 265 Step 3. Obtain heat-transfer coefficients from correlations.2). symmetry of the mass and momentum equations (Appendix A. Step 5. Section 9. and investigation of phase-lag effects for headers with inserts of tapering cross-section is a further area for research. assumed zero temperature gradients. Probably the most interesting feature to be seen is the mass flowrate disturbance caused by temperature alone (Fig. Step 8. 9.

With plate-fin exchangers. Shell-and-tube exchangers with small tube inclinations Serpentine tube bundles and helical-coil tube bundles fall into the class of exchangers that may be directly sized as parallel or contraflow exchangers having crossflow heat-transfer coefficients. A plate-and-frame design derivative operating in contraflow has been developed (Crisalli & Parker.5 million per annum (Cownie. Das & Roetzel (1995) found U-type headering gave a quicker response than Z-type headering. p. and the internal flow channels which transfer heat to or receive heat from two surfaces.88 at full power. See header design discussed in Chapter 8. The fundamental differential equations for plate-and-frame exchangers can be rewritten to distinguish between flow in the end channels.1 to 9. These units operate with an effectiveness of over 0. 1983) derived expressions for steady-state temperature distributions. The solution scheme adopted by Das & Roetzel (1995) did not allow for the important crossconduction effect analyzed by Haseler (1983) which is discussed in Chapter 11. 9. For a small number of tube passes (less than ten say) Hausen (1950. For such serpentine tube bundles. Typical equations are presented by Sharifi et al (1995). 1995). extra design flexibility is available by fitting half-height channels at each end of the block. Apart from this. 249. multiple units are desirable. the approach seems well developed and powerful and it has been applied to several exchanger configurations. Roetzel & Xuan (1991) found the dispersion model to be effective at modelling flow maldistributions in the steady-state.contraflow A recuperative gas-turbine propulsion system applied to a ship can produce very significant fuel savings of the order of 30 per cent. however phase-lag effects seem likely to be exacerbated by the use of headers with constant cross-sectional area. for maintenance. Crisalli & Parker. Phase lag leads to cross-conduction effects in plate-fin exchangers.266 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers With phase lag it becomes necessary to treat each flow channel separately because no two channels have the same entry condition. Extension of the dispersion model to transient conditions in serpentine exchangers was also reported by Roetzel & Xuan (1992b.95 at low power. Dispersion may be more appropriate for isothermal flows. Valenti. providing that a sufficient number of tube passes exist. and over 0. Water-cooled compact . and will not behave in the same way.c). see analysis of plate-and-frame exchangers by Das & Roetzel (1995). 1993). 1993. 1993. Due to manufacturing constraints. while the Rayleigh dissipation function may be preferable for non-isothermal flows. Whether Dow's tapered inserts (Chapter 8) would further improve the gas-gas situation of Figs 9. U-type headering arrangements have been adopted for fast response. leading to cost savings of $1. and for damage control. which only transfer heat to or receive heat from a single surface.3 is a matter for future investigation.4 Engineering applications . For fast transients. Under high-speed manoeuvring conditions control of the gas turbine must take into account thermal storage effects in the heat exchanger.

The most closely mathematically defined configuration for crossflow is that of one-pass unmixed-unmixed flow. Such constraints are not . Spiga & Spiga have published two solutions to the unmixed-unmixed problem for arbitrary inlet temperature disturbances only. these units are manufactured in segments. The wall equation was not included. (1967) developed an approximate integral solution for the associated problems of crossflow. 9.5 Review of solution methods . it was necessary to neglect fluid thermal capacity terms. restricting their solution to gas-gas (unmixed-unmixed) heat exchangers. and less satisfactory solutions are available for crossflow than for contraflow. and the solutions obtained are mostly in the form of infinite series. 1993. and each channel will thus require its own treatment to determine the mass flowrate fields.. and fluid velocities are assumed to remain constant. In 1963 Evans & Smith published a classic but heavily analytical solution for transients in crossflow. but fewer. different. and fluid thermal capacity terms are neglected. 1994). Myers et al. The first paper (1987) is on gas-gas crossflow.crossflow Summary of past work A number of published solutions of the crossflow problem exist. The second paper (1992) includes fluid thermal capacity terms. the constraint of having equal pressure loss through each channel on each side requires each channel to have a different mass flowrate. Romie (1983) solved the transient response problem for gas-gas crossflow exchangers. Even with this simple configuration. In both cases the solution approach required three-fold Laplace transformation. (1978) for one-pass crossflow with both fluids unmixed. Myers et al. In a further paper. Chen & Chen (1991) also neglect fluid thermal capacity terms. with neither gas mixed. Only a step change in temperature is considered. Fig.16.Transients in Heat Exchangers 267 plate-fin heat exchangers have been developed as intercoolers (Crisalli & Parker. evaporation. Gvozdenac (1986) provides the characteristics which are developed later. but he then simplified the equations to obtain an analytical solution. (1970) provide a solution for evaporation or condensation based on the method of characteristics. There are similarities and some important differences between solution of transients for cross-flow compared with contraflow. Kou & Yuan (1994) have studied the effects of conduction in the separator sheet during transient response with neither gas mixed. 3. it can be seen that individual channels have differing temperature profiles. however. Bannister et al. Even in the steady state. and compare this with Rizika's (1956) exact solution. using a single Laplace transform. and condensing in which one fluid is mixed. In both cases it is not possible to separate temperature transients from mass flow (velocity) transients because temperatureinduced changes in physical properties alone will result in changes in mass flowrate. A finite-difference solution is due to Yamashita et al.

This problem is. The Lax-Wendroff method in two space dimensions may offer an alternative approach to straightforward finite differences. any transient solution might require channelby-channel solutions.4 Schematic symmetric three-pass crossflow usually considered in steady-state analysis. Without header separators one solution would appear to be to adopt a symmetric three-pass arrangement as shown in Fig. followed by solution of the coupled temperature equations.I. Mitchell & Griffiths (1980) indicate that while the Lax-Wendroff method attains the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy limit for stability in one space dimension. however. of some importance in designing two-pass compact crossflow heat exchangers for vehicle propulsion. 9.crossflow The problem of transients in two-pass unmixed-unmixed crossflow is more difficult. Solutions of the mass and momentum equations would be obtained first.9.268 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.4. However. For two-pass unmixed-unmixed crossflow. The problem of solving transients in single-pass crossflow involving changing mass flowrates with changing temperatures is more complex than solving comparable transients in contraflow. mass flowrate differences would also require that no mixing takes place in the end headers. Such separation will introduce extra pressure loss. the limit for stability in two space dimensions is much more severe. Solution methods A finite-difference solution would use equations similar to those outlined for contraflow in Appendix A. as the paper by Ward & Holman (1992) shows. Each half of the exchanger has to be iterated in turn at each time interval until matching intermediate temperatures are obtained.6 Engineering applications . as each channel of a crossflow exchanger is likely to have a different temperature profile under steady-state conditions. The MacCormack algorithm is a development of Lax-Wendroff. 9. and may become more severe under transient conditions. A first step might be to solve the problem of steady . However. There probably is little point in going to a greater number of passes as steady-state performance of a four-pass arrangement closely approaches that of simple contraflow.

Heat Mass Transfer. 1988. Phys. 23(1). A. March. and textbooks Contraflow Acrivos. J. (1994) Turbines for the turn of the century. 6(11). Ass. Carver. Beckman.W.J. Chester.S.L. Hewitt. 2013-2015. Bailey. Rev. (1980a) Pseudo characteristic method of lines solution of the conservation equations. References and further reading Collected under: contraflow. pp. Int. (1970) Berechnung der Warmeiibertragung in Regeneratoren bei zeitlische veranderlichem Mengenstrom. 60(7). (1956) Method of characteristics technique. vol. (1992) Gas turbine regenerators: a method for selecting the optimum plate-finned surface pair for minimum core volume. . G. Prof. 1127-1140. (1980b) Pseudo characteristic method of lines solution of first order hyperbolic equation systems. 17-19. 598-604..L. 1-13. J. L. Comp.. (1988) The role of mathematics in heat transfer. 263. 48(4). Gvozdenac. and von Rosenberg. June. AI-Nimr.S. 1753-1766. 3441 -3450. Comp. Haseler. (1983) Performance calculation methods for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. Comp. March..V. Heat Mass Transfer. Ind.A. J..A. H. D. 19(1).. and Rohsenow. Heat Mass Transfer.. Int. 495-506. J.. Engng Chem. J. Das. 131. 36(4). Campbell. Little. New York. Cheruvu. (1990) Transient response of the parallel flow heat exchanger with finite wall capacitance. 116(6). R. 35(12). J. J. April. Simulation. 703-710. In AIChE Symposium Series No. application to heat and mass transfer problems. Math. April. Afgan). 84. L. Physics.K. Ohio. Taborek. Churchill. (1976) Numerical inversion of Laplace transforms using a Fourier series approximation. 42-52. Ingenieur-Archive (Archive of Applied Mechanics). Carver. 89-96. 481-490. pp. 57-76. J. N. (1998) Transient response of finite-wall capacitance heat exchanger with phase change. AIChE J. Heat Transfer.D. Heat Exchangers: Theory and Practice (Eds. 24-27 May 1993. The above difficulties might make choice of crossflow less attractive for critical applications. Hausen. (1993) Overview of the WR-21 intercooled recuperated gas turbine engine system. December. Crump.. In International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition. 68-75.M. M.E. and McQuiggan.Transients in Heat Exchangers 269 unmixed-unmixed crossflow with temperature-dependent fluid properties to determine how mass flowrates may vary across the width of the exchanger section for each fluid. Heat Transfer Engng. and Roetzel. K. 38(6). Mech. (1990) Axial dispersion for turbulent flow with a large radial heat flux. Mach. Crisalli.. M. Int. M. W.U. 30-35. S.B. D. D. S. Cincinnati. ASME Paper 93-GT-231. W. V. but there may be less reflection of disturbances in crossflow. Law. crossflow.B.F. (1993) Aerospace R & D 90 years on.. (1963) Second sound in solids. A modern engine for a modern fleet. and Parker. Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill. Engng. 13. Cownie. (1995) Dynamic analysis of plate exchangers with dispersion in both fluids. M. Bannister. and N. Engng. R.J.F. Houston. 35(1). M. 22(1). G. A. ASME.

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Taylor. and Chen.. J. and Roetzel. Tan.. J. Numerical Heat Trans. Heat Mass Transfer. H. J. 1105-1116.-T. R.see Section 9.H. B. 117(9). 24(11). H. N. Int. Proc. Xuan. J. (1954) The dispersion of matter in turbulent flow through a pipe. J. Evans. R. M. September. and Chen. (1993a) Dynamics of shell-and-tube heat exchangers to arbitrary temperature and step flow variations. (1991) Thermal analysis of shell and tube exchangers with divided flow pattern. (1997) Transient response of a serpentine finned-tube crossflow heat exchanger to a step change in temperature. and Rhodine. 26. AIChEJ.J. Ser.D. 4-8. (1983) The Gavir-Stehfest algorithm for approximate inversion of Laplace transforms. (1993b) Stationary and dynamic simulation of multipass shell and tube heat exchangers with the dispersion model for both fluids (serpentine tubes). Jacquot. (1968b) Simulation of a thermal regenerator under conditions of variable mass flow. J. and Spinner.272 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers numerical methods and algorithms.technical note. 25.J.-C. 223-236. 752-755. and Roetzel. 16(3). 108. (1969) The regenerative heat exchanger computer representation. Willmott. ASME J. 30. and Smith. K. Comm. 241-269. (1968a) Operation of Cowper stoves under conditions of variable flow. Soc. 39(3). Ind. Willmott. Engng. 18(3). A. and Roetzel. A. Kou. Heat Transfer. Int.. Y. Int. 11. J. ASME. 207-212.N. (1964) General solution of the equations for parallel flow multichannel heat exchangers. Mech. Int. S. Pan A.. Heat Mass Transfer. 70-73. A. 34(3). Steadman. AIChE J. 5(1). Cross flow (with reservations . Heat Transfer.I. November.-C. W. Wolf. S.S.. 325-334. W. Chen. Xuan. G. W. Soc..C. (1989) Transient response of a double-pipe condenser to change in coolant flow rate. Heat Mass Transfer. (1986) Analytical solution of the transient response of gas-to-gas crossflow heat exchanger with both fluids unmixed. Y. P.. Warme-und Stoffubertragung. 33-38. (1995) A turbine for tomorrow's Navy.-T. Heat Mass Transfer. ASME J. Heat Mass Transfer. Xuan. 901-919. 1639-1646.. Heat Mass Transfer. J. Int. A.D. 51-60. 722-727 Gvozdenac. September. 997-1014. (1991) Dynamic response of the crossflow heat exchanger with finite wall capacitance. 36(7). W. 30(5). Part II . Engng Chemistry Res.. I. Iron Steel Inst. 12. May-June. Heat Mass Transfer. 4221-4231. and Yuan. Heat Transfer Engng. Int. 446-468. Wang. 272. (1963) Cross-current transfer processes in the non-steady state. H.W. 114(3). D. and Liao. Int. Willmott. A.S.5) Abdallah. 413-421. D. 223.S. and Rooke.Application of numerical methods. (1992) Transient response of crossflow heat exchangers with finite wall capacitance . R. 770-779 and 780-786. Valenti. (1991) Simple method for transient response of gas-to-gas crossflow heat exchangers with neither gas mixed. (1994) Effect of longitudinal separator sheet conduction on the transient thermal response of crossflow heat exchangers with neither gas mixed. 206. Chen. K. 7. C. F. Proc. Ser.J. K. March. 853-861. Y. Spang. August. J. 2891-2898.G. Gvodzenac. (1991) Approximate solutions for transient response of a shell and tube heat exchanger. C. IEEE Circuits System Mgmt. .

(1984) Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. J.H. August. Yamashita.. L. (1994) Transient response of crossflow heat exchangers with zero core thermal capacitance. March. and Ashmantas. Vol. (1967) The transient response of crossflow heat exchangers. 599. 78.E. and Vetterling. The Numerical Treatment of Differential Equations... M. 75-80. G. J. Section 7. Romie. Teukolsky. 92. New York. Hemisphere. 479-485. 559-565.A. M. Rizika. 563-570. pp. R. J.E. Collatz.W.E. H. M. Paper No. J. 116. J. 49-53. 153-16. Society of Automotive Engineers International Congress and Exposition. Springer. (1988) Transient temperature fields in crossflow heat exchangers with finite wall capacitance. evaporators). p. L. Michigan. R.C. F. 775-777. SAE Paper 920150. Mitchell. Supplement 1 to Advances in Heat Transfer. W. Academic Press. Ames. S.A..F. and Lockett. Dreitser. L. Heat Transfer. 633-643.T. G.A. (1989) Numerical Recipies in Pascal. vol.P. 21(153). Heat Transfer. and condensers. Mitchell. S. 105.V. and Hilbert. 281-286.. R.F.-Y. F. February. (1965) Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Engineering. Nelson. and Yamaguchi..A. Section 4-14. Detroit. American Elsevier.W.. John Wiley. B.Transients in Heat Exchangers 273 Myers.F. ASME.. and Spiga. A. 110. Ward. pp. R. II. Hartnett) Chapter XVI1. B. Dzyubenko. Hemisphere.1. R.. Anderson. D. Irvine and J. I.. ASME J. New York. 406-407. 24-28 February 1992. ASME Paper 66-WA/HT-34. Romie.. Press. Heat Transfer. C.E. (Eds T. G. Flannery. Jr (1970) The transient response of heat exchangers having an infinite capacitance rate fluid (condensers. Int. Chapter 15. and Lindeman. Spiga. (1953. R. Courant. Bellman. (1978) Laminar flow forced convection in ducts. (1969) Numerical Methods for Partial Differential Equations. G. G. (1990) Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in Helical Tube Bundles (helically twisted tubes in a shell-and-tube exchanger).E. and Spiga. Trans. (1966) Numerical Inversion of the Laplace Transform. Ordinary Differential Equations.F. 269-275. D.1962) Methods of Mathematical Physics. New York. ASME J. Heat Transfer. ASME J. Tannehill. February. and Norman. W.A. (On the transient response to a step change in the inlet temperature. pp.L.. J. J. G. W.25 onwards. (1983) Transient response of gas-to-gas crossflow heat exchangers with neither gas mixed. Cambridge University Press.) Bulletin of the JSME. 89. Kalaba. (1992) Step response of the crossflow heat exchanger with finite wall capacitance.W.P..E. W. Heat Mass Transfer. New York. and Spiga.H.K.. Int. 109. August. R. Textbooks Ames. evaporators. Izumi. Heat Transfer. Spiga. M. 36(3). Cambridge. (1987) Two dimensional transient solutions for crossflow heat exchangers with neither gas mixed. Shah. and Holman. 1407-1413. San. Partial Differential Equations. New York. ASME J. ASME J. . (1956) Thermal lags in flowing incompressible fluid systems containing heat capacitors.-V. May. ASME J. and Fletcher. Heat Mass Transfer. Berlin. (1993) Heat and mass transfer in a two-dimensional crossflow regenerator with a solid conduction effect.. Spiga. 35(2). May. Heat Transfer.F. (1978) Analysis of the dynamic characteristics of crossflow heat exchangers with both fluids unmixed. (1992) Primary surface recuperator for high performance prime movers. J. and London. Myers. Academic Press.

AddisonWesley. 98-99. Fletcher. New York. Me Adams.Finite-difference methods for hyperbolic equations. Cambridge University Press. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. 366-377. L. and BASIC). W.L..P. Peyret. and Taniuti. (1980) The Finite Difference Method in Partial Differential Equations. pp. Fox. (1962) Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. (1950) Wdrmeiibertragung im Gegenstrom. and Peric. Academic Press. Berlin. Chichester. 213-229. 205-217. Springer. 2nd edn. Springer. C. H. Berlin.J. H. New York.Characteristics in three independent variables. pp. Cambridge.T. (1999) Dynamic Behaviour of Heat Exchangers. 963. (1992) Numerical Recipies in FORTRAN. Chapter 28 . Springer. W.Hyperbolic equations and characteristics. Mitchell.A. J. Roetzel. 3rd edn. vols 1 and 2. R. and Griffiths. (1996) Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics. Pascal. (1954) Heat Transmission. 2nd English edn. Hausen. vol. McGraw-Hill. (1964) Non-linear Wave Propagation with Applications to Physics and Magnetohydrodynamics.H. Jeffrey. and Xuan. John Wiley. Teukolsky. p.. Parallel Flow and Crossflow. (1983) Heat Transfer in Counter/low. J. (1982) Computational Methods for Fluid Flow. (1991) Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics.R. Y. 75-80. Springer.A. B. Press.H. 1976). D. (1964) Partial Differential Equations. Berlin. 3. Vetterling. 218-229. Hausen.. B.F. S. W. (1970) Mathematical Methods of Physics. Pergamon Press. Chapter 18 . Mathews. and Flannery. . Developments in Heat Transfer. M. Chapter 17 .274 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Ferziger. McGraw-Hill.D. 2nd edn. R. A. Berlin. Garabedian. pp. T. A. Southampton. John Wiley. pp. T. and Taylor. (2nd edn. P. WIT Press. 2nd edn (similar volumes available for C. and Walker.

The two essentials in single-blow testing are: (a) a state-of-the-art experimental test-rig with measuring equipment of the highest accuracy (b) theoretical modelling of the transient process. The open cycle rig comprised the following items starting at the flow inlet: • flared inlet section 457mm (18 in) square to eliminate flow separation • honeycomb flow straightener to minimize swirl • contraction section designed to National Physical Laboratory pattern to further decrease longitudinal component of turbulence • wire-mesh screen at contraction outlet to flatten the velocity profile • auxiliary in-plane heater to correct for variation in ambient temperature • rapid-response in-plane heater controlled by thyristors (giving around 6 K temperature rise) • inlet pressure tappings in duct wall • inlet platinum resistance thermometer of 0.025 mm diameter wire • use of Rosemount d. Ltd.CHAPTER 10 Single-Blow Test Methods Single-blow testing is for correlations on one side of an exchanger at a time 10. to match the real process Experimental test-rig The test equipment developed in the engineering laboratories at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne is fully described in the thesis by Coombs (1970).c. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.1 Features of the test method This test method is used to obtain heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for one side of a heat exchanger at a time.5. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . Eric M. It is not suitable for testing real exchangers a possible test-rig for this purpose is illustrated in Fig.025 mm diameter wire • test section (150 mm square x 240 mm long) in Tufnol sheet (6 mm thick) to receive model surfaces • outlet platinum resistance thermometer of 0. resistance bridges to measure temperature • pressure recovery section with a series of outlet pressure tappings to allow search for the point of maximum pressure recovery Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. 8. and transients. step-wise rating.

2 Choice of theoretical model Two approaches to modelling the transient may be used. .g. and a single point for the pressure-loss correlation. When an arbitrary inlet temperature disturbance is used then the theoretical model must be capable of matching the disturbance. making it unnecessary to include solution of the balance of mass (density field) and balance of linear momentum (density x velocity field) equations. or a full numerical method can be used to produce temperature/length plots with time as parameter (Fig. 10. or the assumption of steady mass flowrate no longer holds. The 6 K temperature rise is so limited to allow the assumption of constant physical properties. The shape of the experimental time/temperature inlet temperature disturbance needs to be measured accurately. The experimental set-up and the theoretical model need to be considered together to achieve best results. One test run produces a single point for the heat-transfer correlation.276 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers • use of a Betz manometer to measure pressure loss across the test section • transition section from 150 mm square to 100 mm round • long circular tube 100 mm (4 in) diameter carrying a British Standard orifice plate with pressure tappings to BS 1042 • flow control valve. Best results are obtained by matching complete experimental curves with the theoretical model using a 'least-squares' method. 9. leading to compressor suction Theoretical modelling The requirement is that theoretical modelling should match the experimental technique as closely as possible. and when this can be made to correspond to an exponential temperature rise. the Laplace transform method produces the necessary temperature/time curves at the desired stations. This is done by progressively changing the theoretical value of Ntu until a best match between response curves is obtained. This permits assumption of steady-flow conditions. The theoretical method is to model the inlet temperature disturbance and look at the predicted outlet temperature response. The test method is to create a known temperature disturbance in the steady inlet flow to the test section and measure the resulting temperature response at outlet from the test section. Ambient air is usually the test medium. the task is to use the theoretical model to predict the outlet experimental response curve. e. When the change in physical properties becomes significant. theoretical modelling by Laplace transforms is greatly simplified. Once an inlet experimental disturbance curve has been matched. then a more comprehensive transient model is required.2) from which the necessary temperature/time curves at desired stations can be obtained. leaving only the balance of energy (temperature field) equations for solution.

While it is certainly possible to generate a good exponential inlet temperature/ time disturbances by careful control of the power input to the fast response heater. Schumann (1929). and Hausen (1929).3 Analytical and physical assumptions Since the pioneer work of Anzelius (1926). For the fast-response heater. and some time to find the correct settings. Howard & Piersall Close Coombs Liang & Yang Elliott & Rapley Year 277 Input disturbance Sine wave Sine wave Sine wave Step Step Square wave Exponential Exponential Exponential 1949 1962 1965 1961 1967 1965 1970 1975 1988 Inlet disturbances In testing it is essential that initial conditions in the rig are isothermal. This requires adjustment of thyristor settings for the fast-response heater. The experimental procedure becomes much simpler if the theoretical model can accept any reasonable arbitrary shape of inlet disturbance. it is to be remembered that each data point pair for heat transfer and flow friction implies a change in Reynolds number.1 have used a variety of methods to produce the inlet disturbance. Ambient temperatures must therefore be measured during the tests. . the latest being Adams et al. This allowed the electrical resistance to be made high enough to allow shaping of the temperature disturbance through input power control by thyristors. 10. a variety of theoretical solutions for thermal response of an initially isothermal matrix subject to specific forms of inlet fluid temperature disturbances have been formulated. as this is generally the assumption in the theoretical model. Other researchers listed in Table 10. Coombs (1970) used tightly wound coils of nichrome wire supported on elliptical alumina ceramic rods with the longest axis of the ellipse set parallel with the flow stream. The resistance wires were then almost totally in the free air stream. (2003) who employed a heater mesh arrangement.1 Experimental papers Representative experimental papers Bell & Katz Meek Hart & Szomanski Mondt Pucci. touching the ceramic rods only at two points. Nusselt (1927).Single-Blow Test Methods Table 10. and hence a new setting of mass flowrate.

the single-blow transient test method may be used to determine heat transfer in crushed rock beds. When longitudinal conduction is present. i. Thermal and physical properties of the gas and matrix are independent of temperature (implying that the temperature change of inlet disturbance is small compared with the absolute temperature of the gas). Some desirable physical requirements are listed below: 1. This means that gas velocity (ug) can be assumed constant. implying nearambient test conditions.g. 4. and solution of both balance of mass and balance of linear equations is not required. Thermal conductivity of the matrix material is infinitely large in the direction normal to the flow. 2.g. Surface temperatures and bulk temperatures for the solid matrix during thermal transients are indistinguishable (implying Biot number. It seems useful to bring these together in a single general solution capable of accepting the range of input disturbances listed in Table 10. 5. 10. compact-fin surfaces and RODbaffle tubes. In this case the bulk temperature within the solid may have to be related to surface temperatures and longitudinal diffusion within the gas may become significant. Additional terms in the equations will then be required. 3. implying air as test fluid. plate-fin heat exchanger cores. e. internal conduction in the solid also exists. The analysis given is for initially isothermal conditions in the absence of longitudinal conduction. Thus two . Corrections can be applied for heat loss from the test matrix casings. e. etc. a variety of mathematical attacks on the transient test technique have been published for different input disturbances. copper for test matrix). tube banks.4 Simple theory Coupled fluid and solid equations Although the single-blow technique is for obtaining the heat-transfer coefficient between fluid and solid.g.e. Thermal capacity of the gas in the matrix at any instant (mg) is small compared with the thermal capacity of the matrix itself (Mb) (e. solid must be thin. Theoretical and experimental aspects are discussed further in Appendix E. This could simplify the experimental side of single-blow testing. the requirement to test at much higher temperatures may introduce heat loss from the matrix surface and therefore transverse temperature gradients within the test matrix and the gas. with a small axial conduction path within the matrix itself). a theoretical model including this condition is required. sphere beds. and infinitely small in the direction parallel to the flow (implying negligible heat loss from the test matrix casing. and/or have high thermal conductivity). Circumstances may require departure from the above conditions. Initial test conditions should be isothermal. Bi ->• 0. There is no a priori reason why a finite-difference approach cannot be used for single-blow testing to accommodate arbitrary inlet temperature disturbances.278 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers With zero longitudinal conduction.1. For the physical assumptions specified.

Energy balance Equations for one fluid only solid matrix For transient solutions. 6 = T — Tref is used for temperature where the reference temperature is measured at the time of testing. Non-dimensional scaling of length. In the overall notation scheme X and T would normally be used. and the subscript g is used for the fluid. The local value of Ntu = ng is the only value of Ntu in this solution.perfect gas Solid Without longitudinal conduction the solution is further simplified. £ = Ntu(x/L) and non-dimensional modification and scaling of time. we shall instead work with the right-hand expressions of these equations. which simplifies the solution considerably. The fluid residence time (rg = L/ug) will not be used in this analysis.Single-Blow Test Methods 279 subscripts are involved in describing the solid: b for bulk properties and s for surface properties. The fluid is best chosen to be a perfect gas. Defining residence mass fng = mg(L/ug} and parameter Rbg = MbCb/(mgCg) When we can assume thin sections with high thermal conductivity the surface temperature (6S) can be taken as equal to bulk temperature (0b). The next step is non-dimensionalization and scaling. . Fluid . but this would take the notation away from that normally favoured by workers in Laplace transforms and it was considered preferable to use £ and r. from which the heat-transfer correlation would eventually be constructed.

but when temperature-dependent physical properties are encountered numerical methods may be easier to implement.6) to obtain fluid temperatures which has the solution where A is to be determined from the boundary conditions. 0) is the initial temperature distribution in the matrix.2) become Solution of basic equations Analytical solutions by Laplace transforms or by fast-Fourier transforms are available. then Fluid Solid Combining equations (10.1) and (10. equations (10. Taking Laplace transforms Term B(£.280 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers then as Bi -» 0 we may put 9S —>• 0^.g. Boundary conditions At inlet . which keeps the solution simple. 0) = 0.5) and (10. Kohlmayr (1968a). With temperature excesses B = 9b — QI and G = 6g — Oi over some initial value 0(. For isothermal conditions at the start of blow B(g. see e.

Single-Blow Test Methods 281 where g(s) is defined as the Laplace transform of the inlet fluid disturbance.6) and (10.7) . then where With non-dimensional inlet disturbances (D) given in Table 10. Thus At outlet Inverse transforms Applying inverse Laplace transforms to outlet fluid temperature response where the Dirac 6-function has the property of 'sifting out' the value of another integrand at time zero.2 the general solution for outlet fluid temperature response becomes When solid temperatures are required. combining equations (10.

10) or by using fictitious values for L.I.8) and (10.2 Inlet disturbance Inlet disturbance Step Exponential First harmonic Non-dimensional D(T) Atx = 0^1 T/T* = t/t* (u>r) = a)t 1 1 — &exp(— T/T*) + aicos(a)T) + b\sin((i)T) At outlet Tables E. E.3 of Laplace transforms given in Appendix E include inversions which were not to be found in the mathematical literature. Applying inverse Laplace transforms to the outlet matrix temperature response where P(cr) = With non-dimensional inlet disturbances D given in Table 10.2. For the step input disturbance it is easily shown that the temperature difference (gas -solid) at outlet is and that the slope of the outlet response at any point is .282 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 10. the general solution for outlet matrix temperature response becomes Temperatures elsewhere in the matrix may be found by inserting other values for £ in equations (10.2 and E.

10.10. locus of maximum slope 283 is given by subject to 2 < Ntu < oo with Ntu = (a2/4t) and j3 = (r/Ntu).1. This last relationship was obtained in more complicated form by Kohlmayer (1968b). Instead the position of maximum slope was determined numerically during evaluation of G*. and the results are plotted in Fig.1. Attempts to obtain a similar expression for the locus of maximum slope of the outlet response for exponential input disturbance leads to the condition Evaluation of this expression was not carried out. Fig.1 Locus of maximum slope for exponential input . both expressions giving the same shaded curve in Fig.Single-Blow Test Methods and that in terms of an independent parameter (a). 10.

5 Relative accuracy of outlet response curves in experimentation Comparison of methods The Ntu value corresponding to a given experimental outlet response curve is determined through seeking the mathematical outlet response prediction which has the identical shape. and the maximum slope method used only with knowledge of T*. or alternatively from measurement of the phase lag between inlet and outlet fluid temperature variations. new Ntu versus locus of maximum slope curves are shown in Fig. 1971. Figure 10.b\ =0. e. 1970. A separate theoretical analysis may be used when steady-cyclic conditions have been attained. and Shearer (1962) who considered finite radial conductivity within the solid. 1965. 1962. and although output response curves for step and exponential input (T* = 0.0) dimensionless response curves for zero longitudinal conduction calculated using equation (10.0) an almost linear relationship between Ntu and r^^ siope may be obtained. No heater has been devised that will produce a perfect step input (Kramers & Alberda.8). and a) = 1. Figures 10. The initial rise technique proposed by Mondt & Siegla (1972) makes use of the fact that the intercept of the response to a step input at T = 0 has the value exp(—Ntu) from analytical solutions for both zero and infinite longitudinal conduction in the matrix (Mondt.0) illustrates initial stages of steady-cyclic methods of testing. The complete curve matching technique is the safest. and Stang & Bush (1972) who examined the case of longitudinal conduction within the matrix. Coombs.4 for first harmonic responses (with OQ = I .0 it is clear that the initial rise method should be avoided completely. it being postulated that the same result will hold for intermediate values. Maximum slope has been used by Locke (1950) and later by Howard (1964) with step inputs for the case of longitudinal conduction in the matrix. 1961). Parkingson & Hutchinson. and additionally it becomes possible to evaluate experimentally (with some resolution) values of Ntu down to about 1. Kohlmayer. in which values of Ntu may be calculated either from the measurements of the ratio of amplitude of the varying fluid temperature at outlet to that of inlet.3 illustrate both step and exponential (T* = 2. For exponential input with zero longitudinal conduction. a\ = —\.0.g. 1972). Four techniques of comparison have been proposed. . Practicable fast-response heaters have exponential time constants around r* = 0. By choosing an inlet disturbance constant (i* — 2.1. Bell & Katz (1949).2) are virtually identical down to Ntu values of about 5. 10. Nelder & Meade. namely: • • • • complete curve matching maximum slope initial rise phase angle and amplitude Complete curve matching for both step and exponential inlet disturbances may be by least-squares fit or by using a direct optimization simplex method (Spendley et al. Meek (1961).2 and 10. 1953).284 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 10.2 giving a locus of maximum slope curve close to that for a step response.

Single-Blow Test Methods 285 Fig.3 Response from exponential input disturbances . 10.2 Response from step input disturbances Fig.10.

Generating theoretical response curves In obtaining theoretical response curves.10.4 it seems that there would be less difficulty in resolving exponential response curves using complete curve matching in the single-blow technique. and they recommend cyclic methods for values of Ntu for the difficult range (0.4 Response from harmonic input disturbances On the precision of the cyclic method. and by other workers in an early form. 1970). Stang & Bush (1972) showed that one frequency exists at which best test results are produced for a given uncertainty in temperature measurement. by Howard (1964). With powerful computers arbitrary shapes of input disturbance can now be handled. and presently this is the preferred approach. An alternative design of fast-response heater has been developed by Adams et al. (2003).2 < Ntu < 5. Meek (1962) observed some apparent variation in measured heat-transfer values against frequency.0). 10. from Fig. two methods are available to the investigator: • direct application of numerical procedures to the physical problem • mathematical derivation of integral expressions which are subsequently evaluated numerically The direct method starting from the basic differential equations was favoured by Dusinberre (discussion to Coppage & London. 1953). In all these methods involving use of Laplace transforms the experimental input disturbance must follow as near as practicable the form of the mathematical input disturbance. However. In single-blow testing this can be arranged using thyristor control of the fast-response electrical heater generating the input disturbance (Coombs. which he attributed to inaccuracies associated with very small downstream temperature amplitudes.286 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. . Bell & Katz (1949) advised ten heating cycles before measurement of amplitude and phase angle are taken. For a given Ntu. It has also been employed by Johnson (1948).

Appendix E. Practical complications exist with the 'periodic method' in that Fourier analysis is required in order to extract the first harmonic from inlet and outlet temperature waves. 1972) axial and longitudinal diffusion in the fluid (Amundson. and the method of characteristics can accommodate arbitrary inlet disturbances close to the exponential form. 1959. as hollow sections can be used. without which there would be no benchmark to compare the completely numerical method. 1956) surface losses from the matrix exterior (Dabora. Both inlet disturbance and outlet response curves have to be measured accurately whether a fully numerical or an analytical/numerical method is used.6 Conclusions on test methods 1. 1961. 1959) internal heat generation (Brinkley. 1947. 1972) The most important of these is longitudinal conduction in the solid. 1957. Conduction into the solid interior is less important. .. Dabora et al.2 provides a convenient method for dealing with the integration. 1961.0. used only the simplified coupled equations (10.1) and (10. 3. In practice. Chiou & El-Wakil. directed at selection of the best method of testing. Single-blow testing with 'complete curve matching' by computer is recommended. 5. and should be used with caution when determining values of Ntu < 5. 1964. Clark etal. 2. 10. 10. 1957. Both the direct finitedifference method. The 'maximum slope' method requires accurate knowledge of heater exponential response time constant 7*. Smith & Coombs. Stang & Bush. because high thermal conductivity in the solid matrix is desirable for accurate results. Smith & Coombs (1972) found that little difference could be detected replacing solid copper rods with hollow copper rods. A fully numerical approach is desirable to eliminate 'tuning' of the electrical input heater to deliver exponential input disturbances. 1966) • conduction into the solid interior (Meek. providing the obvious adjustment is made in calculating mass of the matrix. Additional effects which would complicate the canonical solution provided in this paper include: • • • • longitudinal conduction in the solid (Howard.2).7 Practical considerations Earlier sections. 4.Single-Blow Test Methods 287 A general solution for the second of the above options has been presented in this chapter in more analytical form to allow comparison of different experimental techniques. The 'initial rise' method of determining Ntu is invalid for any practicable heater.

while the surface temperature equation selects one solid temperature. When the solid material has significant thermal gradients within its mass.x.e. to obtain physical properties best matching the mathematical assumptions made in the theory. In determining mean heat-transfer coefficients in tube bundles the choice was of materials of construction (copper rods) for the matrix and Tufnol for the test section.g. surface temperature. The governing equations for the case including longitudinal conduction were given earlier as equations (10. For matrices that are connected in the longitudinal direction. 5-10 K) so as not to change bulk physical properties of the gas. Don't go down this route if at all possible.2). The fuller equations describing the single-blow process for a tube-bundle matrix in crossflow are fLUID sOLID Transient conduction Surface temperature Bulk temperature The solid equation relates the bulk temperature (0&) to the surface temperature (9S).t)The fuller set of equations is required when poor thermal conductivity in the solid causes bulk temperature to be different from surface temperature (i. the small temperature rise also helps minimize longitudinal conduction effects.288 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Experimental testing requires some additional consideration of physical assumptions made in the analysis. from all possible solid temperatures (Oa. slow thermal transients in the solid). and the temperature rise introduced into the flow during testing was kept small (e.1) and (10. The test fluid (ambient air) is close to a perfect gas. then additional equations are required to represent Longitudinal conduction . the bulk temperature equation defines (Ob) itself.

. allowing replacement of (Of. The equations may be further simplified by normalizing jc and scaling t from where where Fo = K( -4) is Fourier number Solution by Laplace transforms does not include allowance for temperaturedependent physical properties.Single-Blow Test Methods 289 bulk and surface temperatures Usually wall sections are thin. Full computation Subset of the equations for transient response of contraflow heat exchanger Hot mass flow density x velocity . 10. The equations use a slightly different notation to that used in the Laplace transform approach which is looking for Ntu values (and includes physical properties) whereas the finite-difference approach is looking for heat-transfer coefficients alone.2. 0S) with the wall temperature (Ow).8 Solution by finite differences The more general finite-difference solution approach is capable of handling: arbitrary inlet disturbances (in both temperature and mass flowrate) temperature-dependent physical properties longitudinal conduction terms changes in fluid velocity and density (if required) direct evaluation of the heat-transfer coefficient (a) The single-blow equations given below are a subset of the transient contraflow equations described in Appendix A.

or two matrices can be provided. and may flow in opposite or in the same directions. The matrix prism can be stationary. The matrix can be a slowly rotating disc.290 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Temperatures Simplification With constant mass flowrate. with hot fluid flowing steadily through one sector.8). Regenerator theory is related to single-blow theory. the matrix acting as a temporary store for the energy. but possesses its own attributes. The sectors may not be equal. When this error level is acceptable. while the cold fluid flows steadily through the other sector. or in crossflow. The fluids occupy the same porous space in the matrix alternately. Hausen's classic (1950) text . and to the crossflow recuperator problem. Bejan (1988). the longitudinal conduction term vanishes. Neglecting longitudinal conduction When working with tube banks in crossflow. A regenerator is a porous matrix through which hot and cold fluids flow alternately. or the method of lines with Runge-Kutta (see Appendix B. Other solutions may use the MacCormack's finite-difference algorithm. An alternative route followed by Elliott (1985) in his PhD thesis on single-blow testing was to use forward differences for the fluid flow equations and Crank-Nicholson for the temperature equations. the equations to be solved can be reduced to the set for temperatures alone. this would imply a variation of ± 1 per cent about the mean for change in density (p = pRT) and hence a variation of +1 per cent in velocity (m = pAu). allowing the hot and cold fluids to flow continuously and be directed by rotary valves. then Temperatures • Solution of any of the above sets of equations is by a subset of the Crank-Nicholson finite-difference equations set out in Appendix A.9 Regenerators A brief discussion of the regenerator problem is appropriate at this point. 10. in which case the hot and cold fluid flows are intermittent. the objective being to transfer thermal energy from one fluid to the other. The procedures adopted are further described by Elliott & Rapley (1988). or rather as a temporary store for exergy. if the temperature disturbance is limited to say 6 K compared with ambient at 300 K.

1997) books and other papers are representative. Willmott & Duggan (1980). 1991). 1992. while Shen & Worek (1993) have optimized the performance of a rotary regenerator considering both heat transfer and pressure loss.: allowing for residual fluid in the stationary matrix at the end of a blow. 1993. Hill & Willmott (1989). and both 17 and £ are defined below.and three-dimensional effects in the matrix allowing for the disturbance not 'breaking-through' the matrix under short cycle times. and more recent papers include those of Evans & Probert (1987). reduced time variable reduced length variable The analytical problem may be complicated by a number of factors. Interest in the Stirling cycle has produced quite a number of papers on regenerators under short-cycle conditions. Schmidt & Willmott published a textbook on regenerators in 1981. The fundamental regenerator equations in canonical form are where dg is dimensionless gas temperature and 6b is dimensionless solid temperature. or allowing for carry-over in the case of a rotary matrix allowing for longitudinal conduction in a matrix allowing for the shape of real disturbances allowing for two. Van den Bulck (1991) and San (1993) have both considered optimal control and performance of crossflow regenerators.g. Organ. Romie (1990. and Foumeny & Pahlevanzadeh (1994). 1994). . of which Organ's (1992. Excellent reviews of the regenerator problem were prepared by Hausen (1979) and separately by Razelos (1979) in papers which appeared in the same publication. and to assess whether a full solution by finite differences may be practicable (see e. and the later finite-difference work by Willmott (1964) serves to confirm the accuracy of Hausen's original work.Single-Blow Test Methods 291 contains analytical solutions. viz. or partially breaking through (Stirling cycle applications) The reader is encouraged to set up the fundamental regenerator equations (prior to canonical reduction) to see what terms might have been neglected.

E.. Dabora. R. (Also ASME Paper 58-SA-29. Elliott. ASME. and Pahlevanzadeh.K. 58-SA-39. DJ. January. 612.T. Physics. Engrs.R.. pp. May. Coppage. Edn. (1970) A transient test technique for evaluating the thermal performance of cross-inclined tube bundles. K. and Probert. 79-84. S. and 1 read well. Close. MC1(1). Phillips.) Dabora..Fixed beds with small particles. ASME J. 57-SA-14. vol.Fixed beds with large particles. Chem.. Chicago 1958.A.S. Inst. Zeitschrift angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik.292 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers References Adams. Chiou. E. (1966) Heat transfer and flow characteristics of porous matrices with radiation as a heat source. Chem. Australia. Ireland. May 1. J.M. E. MC1(1). (1957) Regenerative heat exchanger with heat-loss consideration. M. 291-294. Arpaci. Heat Recovery Systems and CHP. J. August 1961. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Ind. Australia. (1956) Solid-fluid interactions in fixed and moving beds. 11-22. June. E. Engng Trans. (1949) A method for measuring surface heat transfer using cyclic temperature variations. No. Ind. 582-585.) Elliott.. In Proceedings of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute. Part I. 1959. J. Clark. Trans.C. J. Inst. ASME.F. (Paper from: 2nd National AIChE-ASME Heat Transfer Conference. P. Mech. and Szomanski. Trans. and Jackson. Mech. p. November 1959. 2. R. p. AFOSR Technical Note 57-613. 29. (2003) A detailed investigation of a perforated heat transfer surface applied to gas turbine recuperators. Engrs. M.. Trans. 9-46. (1926) Uber erwarmung vermittels durchstromender Medien. University of Strathclyde. (1985) The singleblow transient heat transfer technique. Coombs. Paper C155/88.a summary of design theory. 57-HT-6. pp. 253. Amundson. Bell. 625.W. J. p.E.P. and Katz. (1965) Rock pile thermal storage for comfort air conditioning. 1-10. 69-76. 55. Heat Transfer. Cerza. (1987) Thermal performance of counterflow regenerators: a non-iterative method of prediction. H. Evans. M. 779-787. Part III. Foumeny. . (1965) Development of the cyclic method of heat transfer measurement at Lucas Heights. ASME Paper 2003-38740. Appl. A. Hart.. (1994) Performance evaluation of thermal regenerators. J.K. John Wiley. M. pp. M. 243-254.L.P. Anzelius. Trans.A.. V. . PhD Thesis.. 88. PhD Thesis. S. 1623-1634. (1988) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Energy.C. vol.P. 75. Trans. Nicholls. and Oswald. August. J.. p. C. N. E. II . Appl. Air Force Office of Scientific Research. In Proceedings of the 2nd UK Heat Transfer Conference. Part IV. In AIChE Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series. 18. (1988) The effect of solid conduction on the singleblow experimental method. 60-WA-127. University of Sunderland. and El-Wakil..D.P. 24-43. (1953) The periodic flow regenerator . B. 26(1).A. Heat Transfer.M. A. (1947) Heat transfer between a fluid and a porous solid generating heat. Trans. ASME. Engng Trans.A. 21-28. Part II. and Rapley. ASME. ASME. 48(1). January. J. 1961) Dynamic response of heat exchangers having internal heat sources. 6(4). Bejan. P. J.L. 321.. 22-24 June 1949. A. (1959) Description and experimental results of two regenerative heat exchangers. UK. Brinkley. Moyle. 14(1). and London. Engng Chem. February. I . (1957.

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Academic Press. Bibliography Baclic. 205-220. J. W. Heat Transfer. Shearer. A liquid flowing through a porous prism. Compact Heat Exchangers .F. Roetzel. 10. Franklin Inst. A. F.K. B. January. J. ASME J.E. National Engineering Laboratory.A. W. (1991) Treatment of transverse and longitudinal heat conduction in regenerators. Heat Transfer. Romie. 27 February-1 March 1991. Ser. Brown. (1990) Response of rotary regenerators to step changes in mass rates. F. A. J. Shah. A.E. C. 247-249. San. New York. ASMEJ. J. Adv. ASME Paper 72-WA/HT-57. Durham. Institution of Mechanical Engineers.J. J. C. (1993) Heat and mass transfer in a two-dimensional crossflow regenerator with a solid conduction effect. (1990) Unified regenerator theory and re-examination of the unidirectional regenerator performance. 655-662. W.. February. (1964) Digital computer simulation of a thermal regenerator. ASME J. Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Group.M. 89(1). Razelos. A. 112(1). Heat Mass Transfer. 157-163. and Piersall. (1993) Second-law optimisation of regenerative heat exchangers including the effect of matrix heat conduction. and C.J. J.History. E. pp. C. 14(3). /. Lootsma). (1962) Measurement of heat transfer coefficients in low conductivity packed beds by the cyclic method. and Worek. Romie. G. and Coombs. NEL Report No. Technometrics.P. B.. and D. (1972) Thermal performance of cross-inclined tube bundles measured by a transient method. Energy. R. Proceedings of the EUROTHERM Seminar No. Howard. McDonald. Heat Transfer. Washington. Schumann. Shen. 133-179.R. P. E. Technological and Mechanical Design Problems.-Y. F. Butterworth)...P. Pucci. Heat Mass Transfer.R. Int.of variants on the Simplex method. J. April.E.P. (Eds.J. 4.J. 6-8 April 1976. Mech. pp.. Parkingson. Int.S.M.M. Hamburg (Eds.J. UK. (1981) Thermal Energy Storage and Regeneration. A. Paper 57/76. September.C.!. (1976) Melting and freezing processes as a means of storing heat. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Van den Bulck. T. Stang. A. Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers. 55. (1991) Optimal thermal control of regenerator heat exchangers. 43-48. ASME Publication HTD-Vol. C. 29-40. (1979) History and advancement of regenerator thermal design theory. Willmott. P. and Duggan. R. Howard).. London.E.J. (1972) The periodic method for testing heat exchanger surfaces.294 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Organ.M. Hext. Engng Power. and Willmott. (1962) Sequential application of Simplex design in optimisation and evolutionary optimisation. 18. and Down. D. W. P. 23. (1980) Refined closed methods for the contraflow thermal regenerator problem. Engng Sci. February.F. F. pp. 36(3). 441-461. and Heggs. Willmott. (1997) The Regenerator and the Stirling Engine. Schmidt.S. 355-363.W. Spendley. Heggs. East Kilbride. (1967) The single-blow transient test technique for compact heat exchanger surfaces. Numerical Methods for Non-Linear Optimisation (Ed. and Hutchinson.J. 91-100. . P. (1972) An investigation into the efficiency. 20. 113. and Bush.W. 633-643. 295-304. J. 405-416. Hemisphere.H. In 6th Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics Conference.H. Heat Mass Transfer. and Hinsworth. 18(4). Int. C. (1929) Heat transfer. 1291-1302. Smith. F.

W. . March.N. pp> 867-873. July.C. Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms. Jacquot. Edn. Organ. C. Smith. E. A.II. 13(1).G. C. (1979) General integral solution of the regenerator transient test equations for zero longitudinal conduction. Int. J. J. P. Davids. AJ.C. C.H. and Scott. pp.Experimental investigation. 47-49. DeGregoria. Paper HX-3. 37. Proc. Heat Fluid Flow. P. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. (1987) Untersuchung zum Einfrieren von RegeneraturWarmeiibertragern (Investigation of freezing-up in regenerative heat exchangers). 19. and Heggs. (1983) The Gaver-Stehfest algorithm for approximate inversion of Laplace transforms. 185-189.. (1954) Table of the zeros of the Legendre polynomials of order 1-16 and the weight coefficients for Gauss mechanical quadrature formula. Chapter 26. S. Heggs.W. A. Hausen. 7-11 August 1978. Part 2 . Furnas.N.. J.J.Fundamentals. (1930) Heat transfer from a gas stream to a bed of broken solids . D. and Webb.J.F. D. Toronto.M. Rapley.M. HMSO.W. R. (1978) Thermal performance of further cross-inclined in-line and staggered tube banks. 445-458. January. Int. D. Heat Mass Transfer. vol. 23(1). In Proceedings of the 1991 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. 5. 62-67. 9. (1969) Effect of thermal conductivity of the material on transient heat transfer in a fixed bed. (1970) Algorithm 368. D. 207(2).. Willmott. and King. (1962) Chebyshev series for mathematical functions. Part B. and Rhodine. Handley.. 12.. Ind. Ki Klima Kalte Heizung. Engng Chemistry. 805-814. Pan B . IEEE Circuits Systems Mag. Int. (1962) Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. Comm. 243-252. pp. H. Beiheft "Verfahrenstechnik". ACM. A. Rapley. Int. Part C. Smith. Heat Mass Transfer. 71-75.M. October. 201-206. N. (1966) Exact maximum slopes for transient matrix heat transfer testing. vol. J. E.I. Tables of Functions and Zeros of Functions. 22(7). 549-570. vol. Paper HX-14. A. In 6th International Heat Transfer Conference. Steadman. (1986) Single-blow experimental prediction of heat transfer coefficients: a comparison of four commonly used techniques. Int. 4-8. Mech. Toronto. Mathematical Tables. (1993) Matrix formulation of linear simulation of the operation of thermal regenerators. and Levinson. Numerical Heat Transfer. and Rix. C. Stehfest. (1937) Feuchitgkeitsablagerung in Regenatoren. Heat Mass Transfer. Vol. (1993) Flow in the Stirling regenerator characterised in terms of complex conditions. Willmott. Hamming. R. Kohlmayer.J. H.L. J. H. Heat Mass Transfer. 721 -731. No. 43-65. January-February. and Huebner. Plenum Press. 449-452. 2nd edn. pp. In 6th International Heat Transfer Conference. 5(1).Single-Blow Test Methods 295 Clenshaw.W. (1976) The effect of heat storage upon the performance of the thermal regenerator. J. Engrs. 1(3). 1(2). (1991) Modelling the active magnetic regenerator. 671-680. (1983) Heat transfer performance of ceramic regenerator matrices with sine-duct shaped passages. (1978) Regenerator matrices for automotive gas turbines.W. McGraw-Hill. Thermal Fluid Sci. Pfeiffer. 37. Zeitschrift des Verein deutscher Ingenieures. NBS Applied Mathematics Series. 26(6). C. Canada. J. and Burns. AJ. Inst.. G. Ind. 4. National Physical Laboratory. Lowan. 15(10). 2. 821-826. C. 4. Exp. 127-139. New York. and Hinchcliffe. A.

Eric M. and with many examples of complete plants given in these texts and elsewhere. e. but to illustrate the concept we will assume the dead-state temperature to be 300 K. and the difference between desirable and practical approaches will be discussed where appropriate.0 as temperature increases. While several textbooks exist on the subject of cryogenics. and what follows is a distillation of some of the results of these investigations. Below 150K we have the true 'cryogenic' region where more work is required to shift energy than the energy itself.75 times the cooling produced.g. Between 300 and 150K exists the 'heat-pump' region in which it is possible to take energy from one temperature level and reject it at a higher temperature level while doing less work that the energy being shifted. before examining the design of the heat exchangers themselves. step-wise rating. If a slightly different 'dead-state' temperature is chosen then the lower tempe ture limit for the 'heatpump' region changes accordingly. and in this region thermal energy may be partially converted to work. This temperature will vary from place to place on the Earth's surface as it is related to local ambient temperature. At 20 K close to liquid hydrogen (LH2) saturation temperature Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. simplicity.1 Background Before discussing step-wise rating of cryogenic heat exchangers it is desirable to understand the procedure employed in arriving at the layout of liquefaction plant. they lack specific instruction as to how to go about designing liquefaction plant starting from a blank sheet of paper. Barron (1985). Ltd. Begin by considering Fig. The author proceeded to investigate the thermodynamics of the process on his own account. Haselden (1971).1 which is a representation of Carnot efficiency above and below the 'dead-state' temperature at which all heat may be rejected without any possibility of generating further work. The Carnot efficiency tends to the asymptote of 1. The limit of 150 K is where exactly the same amount of energy is shifted as work is done. Scott (1959). and performance. At 80 K (just above liquid nitrogen (LN2) saturation temperature at Ibar) the Carnot work required is 2. Early sections in this chapter will discuss a number of basic considerations as they affect plant design. and transients. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . In cryogenic plant emphasis is placed on feasibility. The 'engine' region exists above 300 K. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.CHAPTER 11 Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant System development and heat exchanger sizing 11. 11.

In the region (300 K-150 K) it is appropriate to consider 'conventional' refrigeration plant using evaporators and condensers as this is the most work-efficient method of cooling available. The first involves expansion of high-pressure refrigerating gas in a cryo-turbine with very low frictional losses. and this is what will be considered.1 lists primary cryogens of interest as possible cooling streams. Below 150K two principal means are available for cooling a refrigerating gas.2 Liquefaction concepts and components Liquefaction involves cooling a gas below its critical point and in large plant this implies using gas as the refrigerant flowing in contraflow to the product stream. The second method involves the use of thermo-magnetic regenerators whose matrix temperature may be changed by application and removal of strong magnetic fields. and there have been attempts to extend the method to regions of higher temperature. thus cooling the refrigerating gas at constant pressure. Table 11. Most commercial plants employ the cryo-turbine method.1 Carnot efficiency above and below the dead state at 1 bar. There is thus every reason to seek the most efficient thermodynamic means for liquefying gases. By this means.298 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. Peschka (1992) provides a theoretical treatment. compression work is known to be a principal barrier to improvement in liquefaction performance. the Carnot work required is 14 times the cooling produced. 11. .11. Thermo-magnetic methods can be used with effect at and below liquid helium temperatures.

2082 0. 1990).662 0.3 159.76 2.1.9 50. While establishing the design procedure. This means that some calculation is required to obtain the properties of equilibrium hydrogen at any temperature level as follows.0bar (K) 90.54 12.0 21.25 Saturation temp. which differ in the spins of their protons (Fig. nitrogenmethane-ethane) have produced significant improvements in cooling (Alfeev et ai. each temperature level has an equilibrium concentration ratio as shown in Fig.98 5. When consulting data books it might be anticipated that properties would be listed for both ortho.0 Gas constant (kJ/kgK) Ratio Cp/Cv (300 K) 1.35 27. and the fluid doing the cooling will be referred to as the 'refrigerating' stream. 11.396 1. In laboratory-scale testing. Below 300 K.86 126.670 1.1 434.2968 0. As the desired final liquefaction state is 100 per cent para-hydrogen.410 1. Little (1984) confirmed Russian claims that cool-down times were reduced from 18 to 2min and that lower temperatures could be attained with mixtures than by using nitrogen alone.27 4.2 Latent heat (kJ/kg) 212. ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen.77 150.640 1.404 1.075 Mixtures of gases with high Joule-Thompson coefficients (e. i. to achieving equilibrium concentration ratio at each temperature level. @1. we shall restrict ourselves to the gases in Table 11.0 33.e.2598 0.40 32. It may come as a mild surprise to find that only normal-hydrogen and para-hydrogen properties are listed. 1971).157 2. This corresponds to removing the maximum amount of heat at the highest possible temperature levels.09 20. 11. Further work is underway at Stanford University (Paugh.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 299 Table 11. These two forms are not isotopes.4117 4. From these remarks the reader will appreciate that the two forms of hydrogen have different thermodynamic properties. during cooling of the process stream the objective is to achieve the greatest para concentration at each temperature level.25 44. the ortho: para concentration ratio remains constant at 75:25 and this is known as 'normal' hydrogen.and para-forms.2). Any gas to be liquefied (sometimes a hydrocarbon) will henceforth be referred to as the 'product' stream.29 77.6 197. (K) 154.3.96 26.18 87.3 Fluid Oxygen Argon Nitrogen Neon Hydrogen Helium Critical temp. The enthalpy of normal hydrogen is given by . Forms of hydrogen Hydrogen has two forms.6 86. Above 300 K.1 Candidate refrigerant fluids Critical pressure (bar) 50.g.

3 Para content versus temperature (K) Let x be the concentration of para-hydrogen at the desired temperature. and 50 bar. The minimum work of liquefaction of equilibrium hydrogen from 300 K will be compared at different pressure levels of 1. the amount of heat removed is 8Q = C8T where C is the specific heat at constant pressure. the corresponding equilibrium enthalpy is then given by Substituting for the enthalpy of ortho-hydrogen from equation (11. 11.300 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. which is a more complicated case than will be encountered with other gases. 15. In isobaric cooling through 8T.2 Hydrogen molecule configurations Fig. These were obtained by cubic spline-fitting enthalpy data. and 50 bar are shown in Fig. but the principles remain the same. 35. The minimum work of liquefaction is evaluated as follows. 35.1). 15. the enthalpy of equilibrium hydrogen is obtained as Minimum work of liquefaction This will be illustrated with reference to hydrogen. and then differentiating once to obtain specific heat The results for four pressure levels at 1. . To make this assessment it is necessary to have values of specific heat at constant pressure.4.11.11.

35. the difficulty of fitting polynomials to the separate curves of Fig. If C is constant over a small range Ta — Tb. and an alternative method was developed.4 Specific heat of equilibrium hydrogen at 1. 11.5 is evident.15.4) becomes possible. then and it is possible to evaluate Wmin = XIA Wmi.11. then direct integration of equation (11. over an extended cooling range (Ti to TI) where the mean values of specific heat are taken over 5 K intervals for 300-150 K 2 K intervals for 150-50 K 1 K intervals for 50-20 K . and 50 bar The Carnot efficiency is Minimum work is then given by When specific heat (C) is known as a simple mathematical function of temperature (7). However. where the subscripts refer to initial and final states.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 301 Fig.

and the conversion ratio can be made rapid enough only by using a catalyst. 35.302 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.5 which is a T-W diagram. While least energy expenditure is achieved by cooling at 1 bar. The results are shown in Fig. but catalysts can become contaminated. and 50bar pressure levels. In practice this means that new thermodynamic properties have to be calculated for the constant ortho : para condition between catalyst pots. on the basis that any contamination would be caught earlier).e.11. Ideally the catalyst should be placed inside the heat exchangers used in the cooling. A quick look at Fig. for the 15.5 Minimum work of liquefaction of hydrogen For the 1 bar pressure level. 11. where r is the compression ratio. 11.(one manufacturer has been brave enough to place catalyst inside the last exchanger. and the two vertical lines shown at the bottom left of the figure represent the maximum and minimum work requirements to liquefy. there is very little difference in work expenditure if the hydrogen is first isothermally compressed to 35 bar and then cooled. resembling a T-s diagram. Thus in most liquefaction arrangements the product stream is first compressed to supercritical pressure before cooling commences. an isothermal work term — RT\ ln(r) is added to W^n. i. Catalysts and continuous conversion During cooling hydrogen tends to maintain its initial ortho: para ratio. This is straightforward. a latent heat term is added to Wmin.1 confirms that any inefficiency in lifting a large amount of latent heat at 1 bar will completely negate the advantage of cooling at 1 bar. . It is presently the practice to provide separate catalyst pots so that the catalyst can be changed if required .

and an arrangement of separate heat exchange and catalytic conversion equipment approximating to this process has been described by Newton (1967a). Schmauch & Singleton (1964) and by Keeler & Timmerhaus (1960). This is relevant to recovery of maximum cooling effect from the LH2-vapour return line from the final product storage tank. Catalysts for ortho-para conversion have been described by Newton (1967a. and final delivery at Pk+i with intercooling to T2. This avoids having to guess a value for the polytropic index of compression (ri). and the paper provides a list of some 20 candidate catalysts. Compressors . and the isentropic index y = (CP/CV) can be used in its place. Rotary compressors with fastmoving parts may safely be used for inert gases. then the expression for minimum work for k stages of compression can be found by standard methods. Substantial amounts of vapour may return via the storage tank while chilling and rilling of road-tankers takes place. Assuming k stages of compression with suction at (p\. There is no problem in compressing such gases as oxygen and hydrogen using relatively slow moving reciprocating compressors. For comparison of prospective compressor arrangements it is practicable to employ an isentropic index of compression to compute the work. = (Ws/Wreai) can be used to relate actual performance to the computed value.b). Experiments on continuous conversion have been made by Lipman et al. Refrigerating streams have also to be compressed to suitable pressures. The product stream must be compressed to supercritical pressure so that cooling may proceed towards the liquid side of the saturation line in the T-s diagram. For other gases. Barrick et al (1965).Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 303 once the appropriate scheme for calculating thermodynamic properties has been set up. T\). (1963). and may also be used for some hydrocarbons if sufficient care is taken to avoid a high-temperature rub between impellers and casings.. When actual machines are constructed then an isentropic efficiency expression 17. (1963). the complication of different molecular forms does not exist. The reverse process of para-ortho conversion has also been discussed by Schmauch et al.

and the most suitable turbine is the single-stage inward radial flow machine. For an isentropic efficiency 17^. 0 nozzle throat.6 for an inward radial flow machine having a rotor tip speed U\. A relatively crude analysis permits evaluation of comparative pressure expansion ratios for different refrigerant gases. For perfect gases: With the following subscript notation: nozzle inlet. and plant design may be configured accordingly. 1 1. using Fig. then (see Fig.6. and equal gas velocities before the nozzle and after the diffuser such that entering and leaving losses are the same. a gas inlet angle a\. 11. 1 rotor exhaust.6). 2 sonic velocity at the throat of the nozzle (ci) may be expressed as On Fig. This suffices for feasibility study of the overall liquefaction system.304 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Whenever possible a single-stage compressor is to be preferred (implying restriction of the compression ratio). The limitation on expansion ratio has then to be explored. 11. Cryo-expanders It is not easy to arrange for multi-staging in a single expansion turbine. the pressure expansion ratio is given by and the outlet temperature is given by .

6 Inward radial flow turbine .11.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 305 Fig.

The design of radial inward flow turbines is discussed in the text by Whitfield & Baines (1990). 11.0. For the purpose of comparison. the monatomic group with expansion ratios of about 10/1.145 9.404 .6700 0.5 or less.5298 0. temperatures will fall in reducing geometric progression. Table 11. which are reported briefly at the end of the paper by Grassmann & Kopp (1957). It is desirable to stay away from shock-wave losses whenever possible.2 in descending order of the ratio CP/CV. but the later paper by Whitfield (1990) examines cryogenic turbines in more detail.410 1. For sequential expansions this gives the optimum expansion ratios for minimization of exergy loss found by Nesselman. Table 11.5133 0.670 1.349 10. Results for the expansion of five candidate refrigerant gases are presented in Table 11.306 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers With substitution it is quickly shown that and both these relationships depend only on y and the inlet angle a\. but oxygen is still a possible refrigerant gas as vapour return from the final stages of liquefaction.640 1.662 1.6740 Gas Argon Helium Neon Hydrogen Nitrogen 1.2 Cryo-expansion fluids (CP/CV) (T2/T0) 10. and some mixtures have been found capable of reaching lower temperatures than those achieved using a single component. The first group achieves the greatest amount of single-stage cooling. and the diatomic group with expansion ratios of about 6/1.6) will be assumed. an isentropic efficiency of 0. a better choice being 2.2 also indicates why there is current interest in mixed refrigerants. and inward radial flow rotor design is eased when incompressible conditions are achieved at below approximately one-third of sonic velocity.164 0. In maintaining the expansion ratio constant. Most practical plants try to keep expansion ratios below 3. The gases clearly fall into two groups. Oxygen is not there because of the very great risk of fire should a high-speed turbine rotor come into contact with its casing.8 and an inlet angle of a\ = 80° (see Fig.5176 0. Cryoexpansion problems are eased.688 6.228 6.

To do this examine the h-T diagram for nitrogen (Fig. The reader should consider the T-s diagram for nitrogen in her/his mind. Finding break points that produce linear segments is a necessary but not sufficient condition for successful Fig. It does not have the properties of a monatomic molecule. and notice that it is possible to construct 'break points' on the h-T curve such that straight lines joining these points provide a near approximation to the curve itself. 11.7 Break points on the nitrogen h-T diagram . The present example of a liquefaction plant to produce LN2 has been chosen so as to illustrate some features of a typical system. and low critical pressure.7).11. In one respect only is the example not typical. and thus we seek the lowest practicable pressure level.3 Liquefaction of nitrogen Nitrogen is almost always a first candidate for a refrigerating stream in liquefaction plant because of its abundance.7. inertness. for it is possible to mix product and refrigerating streams without affecting the product. What pressure level should be chosen for the product stream? What governs its selection? Low-compression work is an important consideration. The existence of these straight segments means that the temperature distributions in the heat exchangers will also be nearly linear. but this disadvantage could be mitigated by mixing it with argon. but in practice many curves need to be examined. as the choice of pressure level changes the position and spacing of the break points on the product stream curve.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 307 11. 11. We have already decided to compress the product stream to supercritical pressure so that cooling can follow the liquid side of the saturation curve and get close to the final condition before throttling to produce liquid at near ambient pressure. Only one supercritical curve is shown in Fig.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

liquefaction, for consideration has also to be given to expansion ratio and the temperature reduction achievable by cryo-turbines feeding the refrigeration streams. When the product stream and the refrigeration stream are different gases, there is less incentive to match pressure levels elsewhere in the system. For nitrogen liquefaction using nitrogen as the refrigerant it makes some sense to try to match pressure levels. This matching process is the art of engineering cryogenic plant. Figure 11.8 shows the T-s diagram for the plant and Fig. 11.9 shows the layout selected. All compressors shown are assumed to include aftercooling to 300 K. If throttling from station 9 had been directly to 3 bar at station 12, exactly the same fraction of liquid would have been produced. However the much greater gaseous return flow at station 23, would increase the compression work required.


T-s diagram for nitrogen liquefaction plant

Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant


Fig.11.9 Configuration of liquefaction plant to produce LN2


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Essentially the product stream is compressed from Ibar at around 300 K to 35bar-300K, and is then cooled isobarically to (35 bar-123 K). Compression was required to get the product stream to the left-hand side of the saturation line, but the work input has not yet produced any cooling in its own right. To remedy this, a succession of throttling steps are introduced which allow most of the product stream to 'walk-down' the liquid saturation line (Marshall & Oakey, 1985). Any cold vapour produced by throttling the product stream is made to return in parallel with the refrigerating streams. Here careful selection of pressure levels has allowed these return streams to be combined with the refrigerating streams, thus reducing the number of independent streams in the multi-stream heat exchangers - an important simplification. The product stream is not expanded all the way to 1 bar, as it is better to maintain the product liquid slightly above atmospheric pressure, any leakage then being outwards. However, the liquid product is undercooled as far as is practicable, making use of the last expansion stage for that purpose. This helps counteract 'heat-leak' from the insulated storage tanks. The first refrigeration stage in cooling the product stream is not shown, and this can be a series of cascaded conventional refrigeration plants, using appropriate working fluids, see e.g. Barron (1985). Some refrigerating fluids would be inappropriate for oxygen as a product stream. For common product and refrigerant streams it makes sense to select compressor pressure levels for the refrigerating system that match those generated by the product system. But which pairs should they be, 1-3 bar, 3-8 bar, 8-20bar, or 20-45 bar? Returning to the h-Tdiagram (Fig. 11.7), the 20-bar isobar has a small curvature which matches the 45-bar product stream slightly better than the isobars at 8, 3, or 1 bar. There is no a priori reason why suction should not be at 20 bar providing the system is pressure-tight, and if necessary canned compressors can be used. The primary refrigeration compressor is smaller as a consequence of higher gas densities. Product return streams are not considered at this stage because these make much smaller lesser contributions to the cooling required. Figure 11.9 shows the final plant configuration with four compressors, a cascaded refrigeration system, two cryo-turbines, and three throttling stages. The function of the lowest heat exchanger is simply to equalize the temperatures of the returning product vapour streams before serious cooling begins. There have been attempts in the industry to develop liquid expansion machines as a replacement for throttles, but absence of moving parts at cryogenic temperatures leads to plant reliability. It is possible to introduce another throttling stage at 20 bar, but whether this is worthwhile is a matter of economics in plant build. The way the system is shown, there is little opportunity for refrigerating fluid to flow in the wrong direction. In arriving at temperatures for the above configuration, the procedure is from the top-down, finding break points that produce linear segments in the h-T curve, matching cryo-turbine expansion ratios with the required break points, matching tern-

Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant


perature levels at entry and exit to the heat exchangers, and matching temperatures so that mixing losses do not occur, or are minimized. Grassmann & Kopp temperature profiles are applied in each exchanger to ensure minimum exergy loss - because the compression work penalty is very high in liquefaction systems - consider Fig. 11.1. Cryo-turbine performance is determined by a simple calculation in which the isothermal efficiency is assumed to be 0.80, and a T-s diagram is used to check that the expansion is in the right position (Fig. 11.10). Throttle performance is assessed similarly (Fig. 11.11). In the multi-stream heat exchangers, cooling performance of each return stream is assessed individually, individual component performance allowing mass flow ratios to be determined. Assessment of heat exchanger performance at this stage is restricted to piecewise checking of the enthalpy balance along the exchanger, fixing appropriate low-pressure fluid cold inlet and outlet temperatures, and fixing an appropriate high-pressure fluid warm inlet temperature. Thermodynamic properties of both fluids are obtained from interpolating spline-fits. An appropriate value of pinch point (temperature difference at point of closest approach) is chosen, the mass flow-rate of the cold fluid is set to 1.0 kg/s and the calculation iterated until the pinch point is achieved somewhere in the exchanger. This calculation provides five important items of design information along the exchanger (Figs 11.12 and 11.13), viz. • shape of A7\ T-h profiles • shape of the h-T profiles • high-pressure warm fluid outlet temperature


Cryo-turbine performance


Throttle performance


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Fig.l 1.12

Exchanger h-T profiles

Fig.11.13 Exchanger AT, T-h

• mass flowrate of warm fluid for l.Okg/s of cold fluid • position of the temperature pinch point If the outlet temperature of the high-pressure warm fluid is not the value desired (often a value corresponding to that of another 'mixing' stream, to avoid detrimental mixing losses), then the pinch-point temperature can be adjusted to achieve an outlet temperature match. If no suitable value of outlet temperature becomes available, then it may be necessary to choose new temperature break points (Fig. 11.7), or to reconfigure the plant. Where more than two fluids are present in an exchanger, then several such calculations have to be made for each possible pair of fluids to determine the best possible combination of energy exchange balances. Results for one such calculation for the two main fluids in the critical heat exchanger of the nitrogen liquefaction plant are presented in Table 11.3. That this is the critical exchanger can be confirmed by examining corresponding mass flow rates in Table 11.4, but generally it is the exchanger which straddles the critical temperature and most closely approaches the critical point of the fluid being cooled which turns out to be the 'critical' exchanger. Once correct mass flow ratios for each exchanger have been determined, true mass flowrates for the whole plant system can be found starting from the bottomup (Fig. 11.9). This begins with free choice of the desired amount of undercooling of the product stream at 3 bar (noting that it is not possible to cool below the saturation temperature at 1 bar). In working back up a cryogenic system only arithmetic is required, except in a few cases when simple simultaneous algebraic equations may sometimes be needed to determine flowrates. Completion of Table 11.4 is necessary before the design of actual exchangers can proceed.

Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant Table 11.3 Temperature profiles from enthalpy balance
20 bar, T (K) 20 bar, h (kJ/kg) 20 bar, A/i (kJ/kg) — 3.22 — 3.30 — 3.44 — 3.57 — 3.68 — 3.82 — 4.02 — 4.28 — 4.68 — 5.12 — 45 bar, A/z x Rm (kJ/kg) — 9.78 — 10.03 — 10.46 — 10.86 — 11.18 — 11.62 — 12.21 — 13.00 — 14.24 — 15.57 — 45 bar, h (kJ/kg) 45 bar, T (K)


Temp, difference, &I(K)

140.0 137.7 135.4 133.1 130.8 128.5 126.2 123.9 121.6 119.3 117.0

123.6 120.4 117.1 113.6 110.1 106.4 102.6


147.0 143.7 140.7 138.1 136.0 134.2 132.7 131.1 129.2 126.5 123.0

5.958 5.286 5.030 5.160 5.678 6.459 7.230 7.606 7.196 5.996 Mean 6.236
r I '^45 bar) = 3.0407.

92.1 81.7 71.1 60.2 48.7 37.2 25.4 12.2 -2.0

98.6 94.3 89.6 84.5

20-45 bar section of multi-stream heat exchanger with mass flow ratio Rm —


Hydrogen liquefaction plant

The same procedures are used in designing other liquefaction plant, except that in the case of hydrogen, care has to be taken to use 'equilibrium' thermodynamic properties where appropriate. In the very recent industrial-scale hydrogen liquefaction plant described by Bracha et al. (1994), liquid nitrogen is used to effect the first ortho: para hydrogen conversion, and the cold gaseous nitrogen is then used to refrigerate the incoming hydrogen streams. The refrigerating nitrogen stream in this plant is not recycled, but is continuously extracted from the air and discharged to atmosphere. The paper by Bracha et al. (1994) provides a good description of a real hydrogen liquefaction system. Syed et al. (1998) prepared an economic analysis of three largescale hydrogen liquefaction systems in which closed-cycle nitrogen precooling is used. They employ the earlier work of Dini & Martorano (1980) for enthalpies at inlet and outlet of heat exchangers.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 11.4 Thermodynamic and flow analysis of an LN2 plant. Data are generated using Vargaftik (1975), except for a value of liquid specific heat which was obtained from Touloukian & Makita (1970) Station Pressure (bar) Temperature (K) 300.0 173.0 173.0 173.0 147.0 147.0 147.0 123.0 120.0 100.4 sat. 87.9 sat. 82.0 100.4 sat. 117.0 140.0 165.0 285.0 87.9 sat. 117.0 140.0 165.0 285.0 77.4 sat. 117.0 140.0 165.0 285.0 117.0 140.0 140.0 140.0 165.0 285.0 Mass flow (kg/s) 7.2482 7.2482 2.9726 4.2756 4.2756 2.5357 1.7399 1.7399 1.7399 1.2480 1.0697 1.0000* 0.4919 0.4919 0.4919 0.4919 0.4919 0.1783 0.1783 0.1783 0.1783 0.1783 0.0697 0.0697 0.0697 0.0697 0.0697 2.5357 2.5357 2.9726 5.5083 5.5083 5.5083 Enthalpy (U/kg) 302.0 148.5 148.5 148.5 99.51 99.51 99.51 -25.44 -28.00 -73.60 wet -99.87 wet liq. 87.70 110.92 137.3 165.45 293.88 83.96 dry 118.3 142.3 169.0 295.10 76.80 dry 120.98 144.2 170.45 295.60 96.94 123.6 123.6 123.6 156.55 291.05

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 8.0 3.0 3.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0

* Indicates the product stream, sat., saturation;, undercool.

11.5 Preliminary direct-sizing of multi-stream heat exchangers
Preliminary sizing of exchangers provides a best estimate for the exchanger crosssections, e.g. edge length in plate-fin designs, and number of tubes and tube spacing

Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant


in shell-and-tube exchangers. Step-wise rating becomes necessary when the assumption of constant thermophysical properties along the exchanger no longer holds. It is worth summarizing the procedure for a two-stream exchanger, which is in several stages. The most awkward exchanger of the cryogenic plant in Fig. 11.9 is likely to be the multi-stream exchanger associated with the lowest cryo-turbine because conditions for the 20-bar cooling stream and the 45-bar product stream are nearest to the critical point of nitrogen. Stage one Table 11.3 is constructed to obtain a first estimate of mean temperature difference. Inlet and outlet temperatures of both fluids are chosen to meet the Grassman & Kopp requirement that AT = T/20. A suitable number of intermediate stations is chosen along the temperature span of the cold fluid (usually 20, but 10 is used in Table 11.3 for compactness). Spline-fitted temperature/enthalpy curves for both fluids are then used to calculate and match enthalpy increments on both sides of the exchanger, from which the corresponding temperature increments on the warm side can be found. The calculation requires knowledge of mass flowrates on both sides of the exchanger. It is convenient to set the cold mass flowrate to l.OOkg/s and the warm fluid mass flowrate is iterated until the desired outlet temperature of the warm fluid is matched. Usually a match is not obtained at the first trial, and the value of AT1 is then changed until the desired value of the warm fluid outlet temperature is obtained. The mean temperature difference for the exchanger is calculated as the average of the local temperature differences at stations along the exchanger, and this will be different from AT. We now also have the ratio of the mass flowrates, and when this procedure is followed for the whole cryogenic plant, then actual mass flowrates can be calculated. Stage two The mean temperature difference of 6.236 K from Table 11.3 is used in direct-sizing, together with actual mass flowrates, and the assumption of mean thermophysical properties. This procedure is covered in Chapter 4, and includes an adjustment of the mean temperature difference to allow for longitudinal conduction. In this case the adjustment was 0.975, making the mean temperature difference 6.080 K. Direct-sizing (Fig. 11.14) is carried out for three reasons, first to ensure that the pressure losses are as desired, second to optimize local surface geometries and approach the desired optimum exchanger, and third to obtain the edge length (£) and length (L) of the exchanger. This is done for each combination-pair of two flow streams in the multi-stream block, and for each combination-pair the design point is chosen at the upper lefthand end of the heat-transfer curve corresponding to the maximum length (L) of that exchanger. If more than one stream is being cooled in the multi-stream block, then more than one selection of sets of combination-pairs will prove possible, and an appropriate selection can be made at this stage.


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Fig.11.14 Direct-sizing of the two-stream exchanger of Table 11.3 to determine maximum length

Edge lengths (E) have to be whole multiples of block width in the multi-stream exchanger, and a suitable choice is made at this stage. The smallest value of L from the final set of combination-pairs may also be selected as the block length of the multi-stream exchanger. All selected combination-pairs can now be recalculated to determine new pressure losses for the selected E and L values. It is desirable to use the same surface geometry for any stream that is split and serves more than one combination-pair. Stage three Stepwise rating of a single combination-pair begins with assembling the necessary thermophysical data against temperature, either as tables or as interpolating splinefits. When a suitable number of stations are taken along the length of the exchanger in which the enthalpy balances are assured, then each small section of the exchanger can be dealt with as an individual exchanger. The LMTD of individual sections can be calculated, together with the mean bulk temperatures of both fluids, and corresponding thermophysical properties can be found. Soyars (1991) did not find the e-Ntu method accurate for this purpose. Given the edge length E, heat transfer and pressure losses may be determined for each section, and the required length and pressure loss for each section found. The calculation may be checked using the summed values of length and pressure loss for each section; they should be close to those obtained in the previous direct-sizing step. This produces the actual temperature/length profile for the exchanger of Table 11.3 which is shown in Fig. 11.15.

Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant


Fig.11.15 Temperature profiles of the two-stream exchanger obtained using stepwise rating

Obviously, each section of the multi-stream exchanger is likely to produce temperature profiles differing slightly from those shown in Fig. 11.15. This introduces further considerations, viz.: (a) the desirability of using the same surface geometry in each section for the stream that is split (b) the need to allow for cross-conduction effects (c) appropriate choice of stacking pattern

11.6 Step-wise rating of multi-stream heat exchangers
For multi-stream exchangers, temperatures of either the hot streams or the cold streams are not usually constant over each cross-section of the exchanger. Then cross-conduction effects between adjacent streams may significantly affect the performance. Haseler (1983) analysed this problem for the plate-fin design, using simple fin theory to evaluate cross-conduction effects, and he further showed how to incorporate an allowance for cross-conduction in the design process. The algebra in Haseler's approach is compact and some assistance in getting quickly into his elegant solution seems appropriate. The differential equation governing heat conduction in a fin is

mid-way between two plates with spacing b = 2a.6) becomes where // is fin thickness Putting Of = T for which the solution is Taking the origin at the centre of the fin. equation (11.318 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers where Tf = fin temperature a = heat-transfer coefficient P = fin perimeter/unit length A = fin thermal conductivity A = fin area for conduction For a rectangular offset strip fin. consider the expansion of which allows the solution for fin temperature to be written . the boundary conditions become from which and the solution for fin temperature becomes Digressing at this point.

7) and substituting in equation (11. where Si = primary surface per unit length along the exchanger N = number of fins across the exchanger $2 = 2aN. is secondary surface per unit length along the exchanger Differentiating equation (11.8) The standard expression for fin efficiency is Haseler defines fin 'by-pass' efficiency as then Haseler's equations become where QLT = total heat flow from left-hand wall per unit length QL = heat flow from left wall to or from fluid stream per unit length QB = by-pass heat flow per unit length .Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 319 Haseler writes heat transfer from the first wall in the y-direction as the sum of direct heat transfer and fin conduction. viz.

11. Fig. Haseler prefers to start the computation from the end at which only one stream temperature may be the true unknown. and then working a step-wise rating design. e. Stacking pattern is often repeated in an exchanger. Mollekopf & Ringer (1987) indicate that Linde AG has developed an exact solution of the set of governing differential equations. and all papers listed in this Section 11. Designing a multi-stream exchanger is not a fully explicit process. and solution of the simultaneous equations may then require a considerable amount of computational work. the principal requirement being access to a large computer. The full design process involves multi-passage analysis (or perhaps multi-plate analysis). Prasad & Gurukul prefer to start the computation from the end where the temperature differential between hot and cold fluids is greatest. assuming that hot fluid and cold fluid temperatures in any cross-section . Feasiblity studies A reasonable approximation to the final design can be achieved by adopting the stacking pattern of Suessman & Mansour. as otherwise he found that instabilities may arise in the calculation. Suessman & Mansour (1979) provided a simple method for arriving at a good stacking pattern in the arrangement of individual flow passages.4. but more importantly it focuses attention on the initial plant configuration stage where there is opportunity to design-out mixing losses and unacceptable temperature profiles. which is sufficient to allow computation of stacking patterns which deviate from the common wall temperature assumption. This scheme assumes constant properties and is valid for incremental steps only. Different philosophies are suggested by Haseler (1983) and by Prasad & Gurukul (1992) for carrying out the step-wise rating process for multi-stream exchangers. Papers by Prasad & Gurukul (1987). 1996) extend this work.6 are recommended reading. and this can minimize the amount of computational work required by Haseler's method.g. viz where QRT = total heat flow from right-hand wall per unit length QR = heat flow from right wall to or from fluid stream per unit length QB = by-pass heat flow per unit length The remainder of the analysis is straightforward. In an important paper. Paffenbarger (1990) and Prasad (1993. Hasler's analysis highlights the importance of considering individual channel passages rather than the number of separate streams in design of multi-stream exchangers. rather than multi-stream analysis.320 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers A similar set of equations exists for the right-hand wall.9 and Table 11.

perforated. 1994).. particularly in cryogenics.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 321 are reasonably constant. The classic Kays & London (1984) text is referenced. While liquid hydrogen systems have also been developed these may be technically too complex for general public use. .g. Optimization of multi-stream exchangers A definitive paper describing optimization of multi-stream exchangers using mathematical techniques of non-linear programming (NLP). including superconducting power generators and electricity storage in superconducting coils. and it is possible that the new energy resource fields will be found in those areas of the world where massive hydropower and geothermal resources exist. Liquid nitrogen is a convenient. It is also the essential refrigerating cryogen in the technology of hydrogen liquefaction (Bracha et al. e. Electricity and hydrogen are the energy vectors of the future. methanol (CH3OH). and are now being spun in lengths of 1000m (Stansell. This should provide a first approximation on which to base cost estimates. (2000). Ceramic superconductors embedded in silver have been found which exhibit superconductivity up to 135K. and serrated fins counterflow re-distribution of streams duplex. and that bulk liquid hydrogen will then be shipped in sealed tanks mounted on skids to where the energy is required (Petersen et al. It is already projected that hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water will be liquefied.7 Future commercial applications The thrust of the present work is towards new engineering developments. triplex streams design of distributor sections Either published or proprietary experimental correlations for flow friction and heat transfer of compact surfaces may be used. Interest in liquid nitrogen is set to increase as its applications grow in importance. safe. with steam reforming to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide more locally. Pressurized hydrogen gas stored in stainless steel bottles at ambient temperatures is a possible candidate for road vehicles.. 11. 1994). 1994). especially successive quadratic programming is presented by Reneaume et al. It is also possible that future transport arrangements will be based on liquid hydrocarbons containing the least amount of carbon. Then conventional tankers can be used for bulk transport. These have a current-carrying capacity greater than 106 amps/cm2. The design tool is capable of handling the undernoted configurations: multi-stream heat exchangers multi-phase streams plain. and inexpensive cryogen at 77 K. Carbon can be regarded simply as a 'carrier' for hydrogen atoms.

This is an essential preliminary stage in obtaining parameters for heat exchanger design. (1994) Large-scale hydrogen liquefaction in Germany. Adv.. (1994) and Syed et al. and Hutchinson.D.. 181. R. 53-59. (1965) Improved ferric oxide gel catalysts for ortho-para hydrogen conversion. Florida.. 19(1). 4. (1998).F. 5.. and Wanner. and an excellent example of such a plant is to be found in the papers by Bracha et al.F. Published 14 November 1973. D. 3. Brodyansky. Liquid hydrogen is likely to find its first commercial application as a replacement fuel in aircraft propulsion (Brewer. coiled-tube heat exchangers have been used in sections in which evaporation of a liquid is employed for ortho: para hydrogen conversion. The wings can be smaller. 4. Oxford. pp. L. Hydrogen Energy Progress III. (1985) Cryogenic Systems.. G. M. V. Barren. Patzelt. Yagodin. 11. Barrick. M. These 'knock-on' advantages do not exist for landbased or sea-based applications. Int. 2393-2421. British Patent 1336892. V. Papers on step-wise rating of multi-stream exchangers have been indicated. Factors affecting layout of a hydrogen liquefaction plant have been discussed. Proceedings of the Third World Hydrogen Energy Conference... Cryogenic Engng. Brewer.V. (1993) Hydrogen Aircraft Technology. CRC Press. Brown. Multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers are preferred for heat exchange between single-phase gaseous fluids. Nikolsky. H.M. In the hydrogen liquefaction plant.L.. A. resulting in a reduction in gross take-off weigh of 30 per cent. A significant number of alternative propulsion systems are currently being explored by large international companies and the eventual winner may take some time to emerge. 1993). Hydrogen Energy. 2nd edn.78 times that of conventional jet fuel) are considerable in the case of aircraft.M.N. This allows the evaporating shell-side fluid to equalize across the tube bundle. L.L. The technical advantages of having a fuel with an energy content of 118. P.6 MJ/kg (which is 2. and Ivantsov. 2. 10. . vol. Tokyo. J. (1971) Refrigerant for a cryogenic throttling unit. A. V. References Alfeev. A method of arriving at a first estimate of the cross-section of multi-stream exchangers by direct-sizing has been outlined. V. (1980) Design of optimised large and small hydrogen liquefaction plants. Considerations underlying the layout and design of a nitrogen liquefaction plant have been set out. Bracha. and of allowance for cross-conduction effects.322 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fuel cells will ultimately be used for generation of on-board electricity for propulsion. and Martorano. including important aspects of selection of stacking pattern.8 Conclusions 1. less-powerful engines are required.A. the landing gear lighter. R. Dini.. Lorenz.

E. Bougard and N.H.S. (1990) New class of microminiature Joule-Thompson refrigerator and vacuum package.L. Chem. R. Wursig. and Singleton. W. 0-171-952. New York. H. (1967b) Hydrogen production. New York. and Guriikul. Shah.. (1987) Multistream heat exchangers . Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill. Heat Exchangers: Theory and Practice. December. B'. Engng Prog. (1990) General computer analysis of multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. Kucirka. 296. K. pp. Little. 20. (1963) Continuous conversion hydrogen liquefaction. Publication no.D. Kays. 4. Paffenbarger.Heat Exchangers in Cryogenic Plant 323 Grassmann. J. Process Engng.S. Lipman. Cryogenics. R. (1983) Performance calculation methods for multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. Chem. 9(10). Cryogenics. (2000) Optimisation of plate fin heat exchangers . (1957) Zur giinstigen Wahl der temperaturdifferenz und der Warmeuberganszahl in Warmeaustauschern. Prasad.E.a festschrift for A. Part 1. Reneaume. A. Schmauch G. (1960) Poisioning and reactivation of ortho-para hydrogen converson catalyst. 495-506.41-49.. 59. Chem. Newton. Hemisphere/Springer Verlag. Taborek. R... New York.K. Newton.D. and Roberts. 19(7). Prasad. and Ringer. G. M.V. (1967a) Hydrogen production and liquefaction. 51-58. Prasad. and N. (1994) Design and safety considrations for largescale sea borne hydrogen transport. J. 661-680.D.U. Cryogenic Engng News. 727-746. S. (1964) Technical aspects of ortho-para hydrogen conversion. Haseler. G. Van Nostrand. and Niclout.M. Cheung. J. B. Hewitt. vol. Petersen. 17(3). Scott. Heat Transfer Engng. J. Trans. W. August. September. L..8.types. B. (1987) Differential methods for sizing multistream plate fin heat exchangers. International Classification F25 J 1/02. (1959) Cryogenic Engineering. 56. 597-604.S. (1985) Gas refrigeration method.a continuous formulation. N. R. (1992) Differential methods for the performance prediction of multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers. (1984) Microminiature refrigeration. Springer-Verlag. 12(4). Kraus. Engng Chemistry. and Oakey. Prasad. W. . H. 85305248. IChemE.. (1996) The sizing and passage arrangement of multistream plate-fin heat exchangers. Kdltetechnik.M. McGraw-Hill.L. 78(A). C. G. J. Int. 55-60.. 59. 1079-1083. p. P. Heat Transfer.A.F. Peschka.E. (Eds. liquefaction and use.M.S. J.K.A. Metzger). Ind. capabilities and limits of design.V. (1993) The performance prediction of multi-stream plate-fin heat exchangers based on stacking pattern. U. Part 2. A. (1992) Liquid Hydrogen: Fuel of the Future.L. 3rd edn.A. September. pp. R. Marshall. Sclent.M. Pingaud. Heat Transfer Engng. J. Plenum Press. 27. S. and D. 257-262.. D. Haselden. and Clark. C.. August. R. (1971) Cryogenic Fundamentals.V. 49-54. 24-30. Paugh. 306-308.G. Mollekopf. J. J. December. J. (1984) Compact Heat Exchangers.B.L. 50-60. and Timmerhaus. and London. 114. 849-859.F. Academic Press.S. Hemisphere. G. Trans. August. (1963) Activity data on improved paraortho conversion catalysts. 35-43. European Patent Application no. New York. ASME. Afgan). Rev. lustrum.. 30.G. 537-546. London (Eds. pp. O.N. Engng Prog. 58-70. 55(5). Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. Keeler.K. Hydrogen Energy. and Krapp.V. A.. N. and Gurukul. May. Afgan).P. Schmauch. and Kopp. New York. May. Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration and Cryogenics (Eds. Compact Heat Exchangers .L. B.

New York. A. J. J. 565-576. 3rd April 1994. Whitfield. Int. 217-223. (1984) A possible method for improving energy efficient para-LH2 production. Trans.C. Paper B-2.M. Smith. and Mansour. R. Hydrogen Energy. Int. Syed. Mochizuki. Thermophysical Properties of Matter. Hemisphere/Springer. Turbomachinery. Sherif.M.N. (1975) Tables on the Thermophysical Properties of Liquids and Gases. Maurice. 10. Vargaftik. In Proceedings of the 1972 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. pp. J.A. A. Int. 14(11). . and Hartzog. T. Hemisphere/Wiley. Part A. p. pp. 831-837. Bibliography Bougard. pp. L. E. Plenum Press. KJ.324 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Soyars. N. (1972) Effect of maldistribution on the performance of multistream multipassage heat exchangers. Smith. Veziroglu. vol. Suessman. E. (1989b) Liquid oxygen for aerospace applications. N.M. 18. J. vol. 201-211. J.F. R. (1990) Design of Radial Turbomachines. ASME. Begell House Inc. N. vol. Hydrogen Energy. Touloukian. Stansell J. New York. (1996) Airbreathing space boosters using in-flight oxidiser collection. pp. D.V. (1979) Passage arrangement in plate-fin exchangers. (1998) An economic analysis of three hydrogen liquefaction systems. 23(7).. Bell. E. March-April. Int. 112. J. 421-429.G. 52-64. 9(11). Utah. 12(2). Venice. (1990) The preliminary design of radial inflow turbines. New York. J. Compact Heat Exchangers for the Process Industries (Eds. and V.Nonmetallic Liquids and Gases. Plenum Press. January. T.. (1991) The applicability of constant property analyses in cryogenic helium heat exchangers. 50-57. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. 14(3). Plenum Press. Weimer. 6. New York.B. 201-213. J.Q. In Proceedings of the XV International Congress of Refrigeration. W..M. Smith.S. Business Section 3. Proceedings of the International Conference. (1987) Heat and Mass Transfer in Refrigeration and Cryogenics. S.L. S. Whitfield.. Y. Smith.W. Wadekar).. and Afgan. Snowbird. 1.. and Carreiro. J. L. A. Hydogen Energy.M.T.K. and Baines. Propulsion Power. Shah. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering. 22-27 June 1997. 913-919. and Sheffield. (1989a) Slush hydrogen for aerospace applications. M. 37. E. vol. New York. 315-321. In Proceedings of the 1991 Cryogenic Engineering Conference. Leingang. W. and Makita. Longmans.R. (1997) Direct-sizing and step-wise rating of compact heat exchangers. (1970) Specific Heat . Hydrogen Energy. (1994) Sunday Times.

1983).1 With and without phase change Real heat exchangers do not have constant heat-transfer coefficients. Most of the earlier material in this text is relevant to designing single-phase heat exchangers by step-wise methods.CHAPTER 12 Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow This chapter provides only an introduction to problems in obtaining and using heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations in two-phase flow 12. the cryogenic exchanger discussed in Chapter 11. it is straightforward to proceed to the more complicated design of heat exchangers involving two-phase flow. Eric M. but some may not. and hence the Nusselt number and ultimately the overall heat-transfer coefficient along the length of the heat exchanger. Second. 1965. Some may approximate to the assumption of constant properties. and calculate each increment as if it were a small exchanger itself. because of temperature dependence of thermophysical properties.g. there is a need to understand the several forms of two-phase flow which will exist in the design so that appropriate Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. Hausen. Once it has been accepted that step-wise design by compute* is the most accurate way to go. Attempts have been made to adjust the expression for overall heat-transfer coefficient (IT) allowing for assumed mathematical variation of the overall coefficient along the exchanger (Schack. e. For single-phase design it is possible to size an exchanger incrementally. 1950. but first the method of calculating pressure loss in two-phase flow has to be considered. In single-phase designs the temperature dependence of physical properties is enough to change the values of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. but these analytical methods have less relevance now that computers are generally available. Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . using spline-fits to represent the physical properties involved. step-wise rating. even in singlephase designs. In fact it is necessary to design the exchanger first in order to obtain the variation of U along the length of the exchanger. The approach is no longer that of direct-sizing but direct-sizing can still be used to obtain a good initial feel for the final size of the unit. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. and transients.

In a normal heat exchanger this is simply a condition to evaluate. 12. and mist flow itself. Nucleate flow occurs for an extremely short length of tube when vapour bubbles appear as liquid first reaches saturation temperature. .. and in the Handbook of Multiphase Systems (Hestroni. The wise reader will read more widely on two-phase flow and consult the several excellent texts now available before proceeding to his/her own design application. Here we shall be concerned only with forced-flow evaporation in a horizontal tube. in Hewitt et al.' Flow pattern maps for various tube geometries are to be found.g.. maldistribution and instability of flow in plate-fin and other exchangers has to be designed out if possible. 'Knowing the flow patterns of a two-phase flow is as important as knowing whether the flow is laminar or turbulent in single-phase flow. Third. and Hewitt et al. After a period of annular flow there is a sudden drop in heat-transfer coefficient with a change to mist flow. There are also good articles in the Handbook of Heat Transfer Fundamentals (Rohsenow et al. sometimes without mist) flow.g. (1994). Collier (1972). Mist flow then continues until all liquid has evaporated. 1985). Good starting points are the texts by Wallis (1969). annular (sometimes with mist. sometimes liquid waves appear. Carey (1992). and the location of transition seems to be controlled principally by the Weber number. Hewitt & Hall-Taylor (1970). stratified (sometimes slug or wavy) flow. Chisholm (1983). electrical or nuclear heating) and is not reduced immediately.. 1982). Rhee found for refrigerant 12 that with horizontal tubes the general description of flow pattern in order of increasing vapour quality was nucleate (or bubbly) flow. and the reader is encouraged to use all journal and database sources to trace other authors and papers. Smith (1986). Bergles et al (1981). e.2 Two-phase flow regimes With extreme clarity Rhee (1972) states that. This causes a jump in the temperature of the tube wall and is associated with the potentially dangerous condition of 'burnout' which will arise when the heat flux is being produced by external means (e.326 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers correlations may be employed. The excellent work of Wadekar (2002) on phase change in compact heat exchangers shows the extent of scatter in predicting heat-transfer coefficients (50 references). and will use the relatively early work of Rhee (1972) simply to illustrate the computational approach to the problem. quickly changing to stratified flow as more vapour appears with separate streams of liquid and vapour flowing in the tube. At a later stage in the evaporation there is a transition from stratified flow to annular flow. Sometimes liquid slugs form during this stage of evaporation. The author has been highly selective in the material which follows as the objective is simply to introduce the reader to the computer design approach. (1994). This seems to occur when a higher heat-transfer coefficient would result for annular flow than for stratified flow.

g. Rhee found that there was one other condition to be noted which is related to mass velocity. Other flow situations Obviously there are many other possible two-phase flow design situations. As saturation temperature is dependent on saturation pressure it follows that incremental pressure loss along the exchanger must be evaluated along the exchanger so that correct values of physical properties are obtained.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 327 For his test fluid refrigerant 12. Collier (1972). and they recommend the Friedel (1979) correlation for calculating pressure loss. Friedel (1979). 12.3 Two-phase pressure loss It is necessary to know the saturation temperature at any point along a heat exchanger in order to calculate physical properties. According to Chisholm (1983) the Armand method is the most elegant.1. Rhee observed that as pressure loss in two-phase flow was small it did not seem to matter much which model was used. and the Lockhart-Martinelli (1949) approach is the most easily applied as it does not explicitly consider flow pattern. (1981). Several different models have been proposed for calculating pressure loss in twophase flow. A .: internal forced-flow condensation in a tube external longitudinal forced-flow evaporation on a tube external transverse forced-flow evaporation on a tube external longitudinal forced-flow condensation on a tube annular forced flow between tubes flow in plate-fin surfaces permanent dropwise condensation on a surface The reader is encouraged to seek modern methods of design for these other flow situations in the references cited at the end of Section 12. We shall stay with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation so as not to depart from Rhee's calculations. see e. These last two approaches are probably now to be preferred and the reader should seek to apply these methods. Wallis (1969). Hewitt et al (1994) recommend that the method of Taitel & Dukler (1976) should be used for prediction of the flow pattern on horizontal flow.g. In his 1972 application. e. • Above a critical mass velocity the flow pattern being followed is: Nucleate flow => Stratified flow =>• Annular mist flow =>• Mist flow • Below the critical mass velocity the flow pattern is: Nucleate flow =$• Stratified flow =$• Annular (no mist) flow The critical mass velocity is a parameter which needs to be evaluated before or during the computation so that the correct flow pattern may be computed. Bergles et al. and Chisholm (1983). and he therefore used a simple linear fit of the Lockhart-Martinelli data.

then Similarly for the liquid fraction. Defining X where then X2 provides a measure of the degree to which the two-phase mixture behaves like the liquid rather than like the gas. and Collier (1972). Using the Lockhart-Martinelli model and defining quality of the vapour as x then Using frictional pressure loss only (neglecting acceleration loss. alone occupied the pipe of diameter d. Chisholm (1967).328 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers better curved fit for the Lockhart-Martinelli approach was developed by Chisholm & Laird (1958). . and with zero static head loss for a horizontal tube) and with If the vapour fraction actually flowing.

12. which are represented in Fig.1. Collier (1972). ^. and 4>vv versus x .Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 329 Introducing the two-phase multipliers relating the pressure loss in each component flow to the same two-phase pressure loss Thus Lockhart & Martinelli prepared empirical correlations from experimental data to relate (<f>g.. Chisholm & Laird (1958).1 Adiabatic friction multipliers for all fluids: <j>tt. Fig. and Chisholm (1983) report that these curves may be approximated graphically by the following expressions.X).(f>f. </>v.12.

1983) C Ref Reg Liquid-vapour Turbulent. two-phase pressure losses may (approximately) be determined. For the problem In question The Lockhart & Martinelli approach provides For 100 per cent vapour flowing turbulently in a tube The Blasius correlation gives from which n = 0.1 Values of constant C (Chisholm. By the above means.turbulent (tt) Viscous -turbulent (vt) Turbulent. 21* 12 10 5 >2000 >2000 <1000 <1000 >2000 <1000 >2000 <1000 The constant C is to be found from Table 12. Thus (Ap/A£)fp can be found. .330 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table 12. thus and the two-phase multiplier for turbulent-turbulent flow is where C = 21 for < Xtt < 10.1 for the two possible flow conditions in liquid and vapour streams.viscous (tv) Viscous -viscous (vv) *Some authors may use C = 20. The turbulent-viscous case is not often encountered.

There is a difficulty in evaluating the correlation as the thermal Reynolds number contains the same heat-transfer coefficient as the Nusselt number on the left-hand side. The nucleate flow heat-transfer coefficient is obtained from Nu. Rhee & Young (1974) are to be congratulated for seeking to find the solution to a real engineering problem. These correlations are valid for very small values of vapour quality. An iterative approach is required. Stratified flow The two-phase heat-transfer coefficient (atp) is obtained from . Rhee followed a systematic programme of experimentation on a purpose-built test-rig which permitted adjustment of the two-phase inlet condition to any desired vapour quality. but this is not a serious impediment to solution as only one value of vapour quality is involved. and Shah (1976) considered that most correlations were not reliable beyond the range of data for which they were applicable (see Smith.4 Two-phase heat-transfer correlations Correlations presented in this section are those recommended by Rhee for calculating the performance of a double-tube exchanger with refrigerant 12 flowing in the central tube and water in contraflow in the annulus. and for not being satisfied with exploring just one small part of the phenomenon of two-phase flow. and he was thus able to explore each two-phase flow region with some precision and obtain extensive test results on which his correlations are based. 1986). The correlations themselves were developed after examining and assessing those of many other workers in the field of two-phase flow.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 331 12. Hewitt et al. and a is the surface tension. say x < 0. following a suggestion by Rohsenow that the two effects could be combined.01. (1994) observe that the recommended Chen (1966) correlation was found to be seriously in error for refrigerant 12. Nucleate boiling This combines a Dittus-Boelter forced convection correlation with a McNelly pool boiling correlation.

023(Re)°-8x (Pr)°-4. The Weber number is obtained using a velocity profile near the wall defined by the Prandtl universal profile. Mist flow Fl — and a/ is obtained from where x is the vapour quality. There will be a numerical problem if attempts are made to evaluate the correlation at very high values of vapour quality (x) However. with the Blasius equation for . Transition from annular-mist flow to mist flow This depends on the Weber number obtained from the undernoted correlation The form of the Weber number below was derived by Groothuis & Hendal (1959) for the case of heat addition to fluid flowing in a tube.332 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers where the heat flux is Fl = Gafg/q^ and a/ is obtained from Nu/ = 0. in design computation it is not necessary to approach the value jc = 1 too closely. when annular flow breaks down into mist flow.023(Re)°-8x (Pr)°-4.023(Re)a8x (Pr)°-4. Fl = and a/ is obtained from Annular (no mist) flow The two-phase heat-transfer coefficient (cttp) is obtained from where the heat flux is Nu/ = 0. Annular-mist flow The two-phase heat-transfer coefficient (atp) is obtained from where the heat flux is Nu/ = 0. so the difficulty is avoided.

Tube parameters Inner tube bore. = 386..67 . Demarcation mass velocity Evaporation of refrigerant 12 in a horizontal tube proceeds in different ways depending on a critical mass velocity (Gcn/): • above Gcnf the flow regimes being followed to 100 per cent dry vapour are: Nucleate =>• Stratified =>• Annular (Mist) =>• Mist • below Gcrit the flow regimes being followed to 100 per cent dry vapour are: Nucleate =>> Stratified =>• Annular (no mist) Rhee found that the log-linear correlation Gcn. K df = 0. and should not be used in any other circumstances without first checking their validity. 12.943 625 mw = 0. from which x can be determined. = B exp (mTtp + c) based on boiling temperature Ttp provided a good fit for refrigerant 12.012 700 A. bar Outlet pressure of refrigerant. bar Water Mass flow rate of water. K Outlet temperature of water.40 kg/(m2 s). being heated in contraflow by water flowing in the annulus.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 333 wall friction.5 Two-phase design of a double-tube exchanger The design exercise tackled was that of a double-tube heat exchanger with refrigerant 12 evaporating in the central tube.102 21 pi = 3. J/(m s K) Outer tube bore.024 570 p\ = 4. For Ttp in K and Gcrit in kg/ (m2s) the constants take the following values All the above correlations are for forced-flow evaporation of refrigerant 12 in a horizontal tube.011 887 d = 0.653 94 TI = 287. m Inner tube wall thermal conductivity. kg/s Inlet pressure of refrigerant. The underaoted flow parameters are for mass velocity G = 221.019 050 mr = 0.0 D = 0. kg/s Inlet temperature of water.d. m Refrigerant 12 Mass rate of flow of refrigerant.37 T2 = 288. m Inner tube o.

It is convenient to stop short of reaching 100 per cent dryness as this does not affect the computation. A good approximation to this is obtained using the latent heat of refrigerant 12 at the inlet condition. say 0. annular-mist flow and annular (no mist) flow. All other correlations are to be evaluated separately for dryness increments of 0. however. After a first design pass the mass flowrate of water can be adjusted proportionately until the thermal duty on both sides becomes the same. thus the results presented here may differ somewhat from those of the original work by Rhee.0001. and it is recommended that not less than 100 increments be used so that dryness increments in steps of 0. The first task is to determine the evaporative duty of the exchanger. is not the correct duty because pressure loss due to friction and acceleration produces a different saturation condition at exit. A good approximation to the other end conditions of both fluids is now available and the design can proceed. as the end of this two-phase flow region is extremely short. Each two-phase flow correlation and its associated Lockhart-Martinelli pressure loss correlation is placed inside a separate 'procedure body' together with the heat-transfer and pressure loss correlations for flow of water in the annulus. .3).01 over as much of the range as seems necessary. The correlation for nucleate flow is evaluated for only one very small increment of dryness. This. In this exercise it was found that some of the data-fits used by Rhee were not adequate and new data-fits were produced. In each procedure body the dryness increment is used to calculate the following parameters starting from the inlet end for refrigerant 12: heat transferred in length increment dt heat flux in length increment dt overall heat-transfer coefficient in length increment dt pressure loss in length increment dt pressure in refrigerant 12 at exit from length increment dt water inlet temperature to length increment dt cumulative length of tube Thus different curves can be produced over almost the whole length of the exchanger showing how the two-phase heat-transfer coefficient changes for each flow regime during evaporation (Figs 12. First design pass The numerical procedure is by increments of vapour dryness fraction (x). In repeating the exercise the author converted all data to SI units before proceeding. It may be more accurate to evaluate Gcrit at the end of stratified flow but this is more easily done in a second design pass. remembering that there is a numerical restriction in evaluating the term (1 +*)/(! — x) which appears in stratified flow.01.2 and 12.334 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers All physical properties were obtained from polynomial fits of data in a region close to the design conditions. Design proceeds by first evaluating Gcn> to determine which correlations are to be used after stratified flow.

3 Individual curves for twophase flow below GCrit to base of dryness x This information can be used to construct actual behaviour of the evaporating fluid. to base of dryness x Fig. 12.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 335 Fig.2 Individual curves for twophase flow above Gcru to base of dryness x Fig.12. If refrigerant 12 mass velocity is below Gcrit then annular (no mist) flow continues Fig.4 Composite curve for twophase flow above Gcri.12.12.5 Composite curve for twophase flow below Gent to base of dryness x . Nucleate flow is the first point on the curve at x = 0. Stratified flow proceeds until its heat-transfer coefficient is exceeded by either annular-mist flow or annular (no mist) flow.

2-12. the curves in Figs 12. and after that point. Rhee's data-fits were not used. and in consequence the author's computations cannot be compared exactly with those of Rhee.6 Composite curve for twophase flow above Gcrit to base of length I Fig. instead the best available data were refitted by polynomials. In this light it cannot be certain that the computational predictions of Rhee are absolutely correct. This is really not a serious problem as world-wide production of refrigerant 12 has now ceased because of damage to the ozone layer.7 Composite curve for twophase flow below Gent to base of length I to 100 per cent dryness. .336 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig.12. following guidelines provided by Rhee. mist flow continues to 100 per cent dryness (Figs 12.4-12. Rhee used Du Pont data for Freon 12.7 correspond very well in form to the test results obtained by Rhee (1972) and also to the independent experimental data of Chawla (1967) on refrigerant 11 boiling. while the author used ICI data for Arcton 12. 12. Rhee admitted that there were disturbing inconsistencies with the Freon 12 data. However.6 Discussion The software was written from scratch in SI units by the author. If refrigerant mass velocity is above Gcril then annular-mist flow continues to the dryness value determined by the Weber number.7). and the above results are not likely to be used in anger. and in the process some serious discrepancies were found in the two representations of refrigerant 12. The physical properties were not spline-fitted which is the recommended procedure but were included as polynomial fits of data so as to follow as closely as possible the method used by Rhee.12.

There is little point . '. However. but that its explanation is straightforward.. but this could be the result of other effects such as longitudinal thermal conduction in the tube wall affecting experimental results. liquid adheres to the tube wall because its higher viscosity allows a better match of slow-moving fluid to the stationary tube wall. lowering the value of the heat-transfer coefficient in the upper part of the tube to that close to the heat-transfer coefficient of the pure vapour. This makes it easier for a slight change in operating conditions to perhaps move one fluid partially out of a short exchanger as regards two-phase flow conditions. the larger the area covered by the vapour until it reaches the point where annular flow develops and the tube wall is again wetted with liquid. 1967. In the core. volume of the vapour on the top of the tube increases. It is clear that the much lower heat-transfer coefficient on the water-side is controlling this design during existence of the very high two-phase heat-transfer coefficients.' It might be further remarked that as annular-mist flow develops. Rhee reports that this effect was also experimentally noticed by other investigators in low mass flowrate studies (Chawla. For those who may be despairing that no correlations yet exist for the two-phase fluid and horizontal surface geometry of their interest. The more vapour generation. The 'dryout' transition in two-phase heat-transfer coefficient going from annularmist flow to mist flow is not so sharp in the experimental data of Chawla (1967).4-12. The computational problem becomes more complex. but when mist flow occurs there is closer correspondence with the heat-transfer coefficients for water and refrigerant 12.. Where the problem may become more difficult is when both fluids in the exchanger change phase together. it may be worth first trying to establish the Weber number that provides the transition between high and low overall heat-transfer coefficients. viz.7 how the last small increment in dryness fraction requires a disproportionate length of the exchanger. the work of Rhee and Young is a valuable contribution to design for two-phase flow. the still higher speed vapour is happier to match speed with the faster-moving liquid interface on its perimeter. 1964). Caution is necessary as this is a situation to be avoided. Zahn. As the stratified flow develops. there is scope for reworking Rhee's data using the later paper of Friedel (1979) which provides the two-phase pressure loss correlations. and the final heat exchanger will undoubtedly be short.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 337 It will be noticed that the two-phase heat-transfer coefficient in stratified flow always decreases as vapour dryness increases. for it established a methodology of experimentation and also of heat exchanger design procedures on which future work may be based. This will ease design as an inaccurate value for two-phase flow heat-transfer coefficient before transition will not much affect design of the exchanger. In particular it is worth noting in Figs 12. In general.

or the Moody ('64/Re') definitions for friction factor will do. where g is acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) .fg). and determine the friction factors (ff. Either the Fanning ('16/Re'). Evaluate Reynolds numbers for flow with full mass velocity G = (m/A) Reynolds number for liquid only.338 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers in applying the Taitel & Dukler (1976) two-phase flow pattern map because Rhee's experimental technique has already identified each flow regime. as the ratio will subsequently be taken of the two values. Reynolds number for gas only. Froude number. Friedel two-phase pressure-loss correlation This is based on evaluating friction factors for the pipe either totally filled with liquid (quality x = 0) or totally filled with dry vapour (quality x = 1). The Friedel two-phase friction correlation is where two-phase density.

and Collier (1972). (1981). extends well into nucleate boiling. For refrigerant 22. Of the five flow evaporation and five flow condensation correlations tested. where a is surface tension (N/m) 339 The two-phase pressure gradient is determined with the same expression as used in the Martinelli treatment. This is encouraging. McNaught (1982. a region which was not covered by Rhee's experimental work. New analytical correlations are thus awaited with some interest. Chen et al. except that chlorofluorocarbon and hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerants are being phased out in favour of hydrofluorocarbons and natural CC>2. 12. (1994). the Jung & Radermacher correlation produced a smooth curve without discontinuities resembling the general form shown in Fig.4 for refrigerant 12. 1985). Judge & Radermacher (1997) examined ten different heat-transfer correlations for condensation and evaporation and compared their predictions with experimental data. (1994). Bergles et al. where the liquid-only pressure gradient (Fanning definition) is A full numerical example is to be found in Hewitt et al.Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow Weber number. (1981) have also studied boiling in plate-fin exchangers. The data of Kandlbinder et al. Readers with an interest in condensation should consult Chu & McNaught (1992). and further examination of these correlations would be appropriate. Clarke & Robertson (1984) investigated convective boiling of liquid nitrogen in plate-fin heat exchanger passages and found that there were regions of superheated . viz. the best evaporation correlation was due to Jung & Radermacher (1989). Later supporting work New experimental results for two-phase boiling of n-pentane published by Kandlbinder et al (1997) exhibit very similar heat-transfer coefficient trends to those predicted by Rhee. and the best boiling correlation was due to Dobson et al. with earlier work on cyclohexane. Plate-fin surfaces Recent two-phase work with plate-fin surfaces is to be found in the paper by Wadekar (1991) who considers vertical flow boiling of heptane.

McNaught (1982. 1985). Related work is reported by Kondepudi & O'Neal (1989. It seems desirable that compact plate-fin exchangers should also be configured to interconnect evaporating or condensing passages. 1993). 12. (1989). and air conditioning. and Collier (1972). and some of his other papers are listed in the Bibliography. This last concept will require reworking of the manufacturing process. and Threlkeld (1970) are good textual references on heating. This effect may have similarities to that of 'roll-over' in cryogenic tanks where the temperature of liquid at the bottom of the tank may be higher than saturation at the evaporating surface. ventilating. This produced a considerable length of exchanger in which very low heat flux conditions existed and little heat transfer took place. (1993). In vertical boiling in a channel the column of liquid may exert sufficient pressure to suppress evaporation until explosive evaporation takes place. Each block is then analysed as a separate heat exchanger. Condensation . It may not yet be well understood in multi-stream plate-fin exchangers. Bergles et al. and by Machielson & Kershbaumer (1989). (1997). With vertical boiling it seems that the presence of gravitational forces in theoretical correlations may be anticipated. Readers with an interest in condensation should consult Chu & McNaught (1992). Vardhan & Dhar (1998) describe an approach to design of air conditioning tubeand-fin coiled heat exchangers in which the finned coil is split into equal geometric blocks each of which 'contains' a single section of coolant tube.340 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers liquid in the exchanger where boiling would have been expected but the onset of boiling was delayed. McQuiston & Parker (1994). and presently multi-start coil helical-tube heat exchangers might still be preferred for commercial evaporating service. (1981). plus transverse interconnection between all identical channels in the exchanger to equalize pressures in the evaporating or condensing stream. by Thonon et al. Jones (1985). It is further remarked by Clarke & Robertson that the point of onset of evaporation appears to be affected by the method by which the desired operating conditions were achieved. Two-phase flow in compact heat exchangers is becoming better understood through work by Kew & Cornwell (1997).7 Aspects of air conditioning Air conditioning Air dehumidification using plate-fin and tube heat exchangers is discussed by Seshimo et al. This may involve the use of surface geometries like the rectangular offset strip-fin configuration which is everywhere connected. and that both stable and meta-stable onset conditions are possible. Further experimental work is necessary on compact plate-fin exchangers to resolve the situation and demonstrate stability in two-phase operation. The international Keynote lectures of Rose (1997 to date) may be traced on the Internet. because the shell-side is fully interconnected. and by a good number of other workers referenced in these two papers. with extension to frosting conditions by Ogawa et al.

Full thermal design of tube-and-fin heat exchangers may require the approach developed by Vardhan & Dhar (1998). (1996) report important work on the attachment of plain aluminium fins to tube coils.. Plain fin-and-tube surfaces Wang et al. (1999) provides universal heat-transfer and pressure loss correlations for the fin-side of staggered tube arrangements (in-line configurations are not recommended).Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 341 Contact resistance Critoph et al. The traditional pressed fit was found to be less satisfactory than aluminium brazed fins using a commercial process. 1989). When ice formation is likely.d . An exchanger with some flow depth in the tube bank may have three or more hairpin tubes to be traversed by the air flow. (1996) tested 15 plate fin-and-tube surfaces. The recommended correlations for flow friction and heat transfer in the range 800 < Re where Dc — fin collar outside diameter (m) Fp = fin pitch (m) N = number of tube row t = fin thickness (m) The y-correlation could describe 97 per cent of the experimental data within 10 per cent The/-correlation could describe 88 per cent of the experimental data within 10 per cent The tube size was given as 9. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers Such crossflow exchangers are frequently used as condensers and evaporators in refrigeration or air conditioning plant. and this was almost completely eliminated by use of brazing (see also Sheffield et al. brazed fins would seem to offer less likelihood of water freezing and ice expanding between tubes and fins. and found good agreement with the heat-transfer correlations of Gray & Webb (1986). The definitive paper by Kim et al.52 mm o. and they require their own design procedures. Heat transfer with pressed fins was found to be around 12 per cent of the air-side resistance.

Modelling of frost formation on a flat plate has been presented by Sherif et al. making the numerical problem more difficult (Date. Ice harvesting Off-peak operation of gas turbine plant has been used to make ice used later during peak power operation to cool compressor inlet air. With icing.52 mm i. it may also be advantageous to omit every second fin in the bank for the first tube hairpin. With air conditioning equipment the best philosophy is probably to 'burn off the frost before it gets too thick. The correlations are more complicated than those for plain fins and readers are referred to the paper. so that a new fin leading edge becomes available for ice formation deeper into the exchanger (Ogawa et al. (1993). before expansion An inconsistency appears to exist about whether tube diameter is for inside or outside surfaces between plain. Heat transfer during icing becomes complex for air flow over iced surfaces when simple geometries can become modified by selective ablation. The same principle can be used for air conditioning of buildings. 1996). A considerable 'reference' collection of other sources is to be found in the two papers published by Wang et al. the attachment of fins to tubes may also require brazing instead of press-fitting to ensure maintenance of good thermal contact (Critoph et al.. 1993). When icing may be encountered.342 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Slit fin-and-tube surfaces Wang et al. The formation of ice under a bad press-fit simply makes a bad fit more loose. One of the best ways of defrosting an evaporator is to use hot gas directly from the compressor discharge. including correlations for wavy-fin and convex louvre-fin surfaces. but this should hardly affect the correlations.d. (1999) further investigated the performance of slit-fin surfaces. More thorough analysis of heat transfer during frost formation on circular cylinders is contained in the papers by Raju & Sherif (1993) and by Ismail et al.. (1997). The j-correlation could describe 83 per cent of the experimental data within 10 per cent The /-correlation could describe 93 per cent of the experimental data within 10 per cent The tube size was given as 9. (1995). which regenerate the boundary layer at each new leading edge.and slip-fin surfaces. . and to fit a throttle to the hot-gas by-pass line to prevent loss of compressor head pressure. A paper on defrosting of evaporators has been presented by Radenco et al. This is one way of increasing system capacity without increasing system operating costs. Frosting and defrosting Heat transfer involving the growth of ice on refrigerated surfaces is a moving boundary or Stefan problem discussed in the text edited by Ockendon & Hodgkins (1975). It may be necessary to control the short time duration of defrost. 1991).

December. (1981) Prediction of boiling heat transfer duty in a compact plate-fin heat exchanger using the improved local assumption. (Local heat transfer and pressure drop for refrigerants evaporating in horizontal tubes. 643-658. February. A.W. Chisholm. and Mayinger. J. 129. It was never the intention to cover this topic fully. 24(12).W. Transient modelling of an ice-bank system has been presented by Finer et al. and Chu & McNaught (1992).M. and Laird. vol. J. Churchill. Delhaye. ASME.. No.) Kaltetechnik. Int.E.W. J. No. and McNaught. (1966) Correlation for boiling heat transfer to saturated fluids in convective flow..Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Two-Phase Flow 343 Harvesting of the ice sheet is done by switching refrigerant fluid from liquid to gas inside the bayonet tube or vertical hollow plate. 1767-1778. 225-232. Churchill.F. S. 263 . 12. Once the ice has fallen into a storage tank a new cycle of ice production and harvesting can begin. Chen. Carey. F.effects of vapour shear and condensate inundation.M. Ind. McNaught (1982. 31. C.G. J. 80(2). Houston.. Process Des. G. Longman. and Robertson. 1907-1912. Hemisphere. 246-252. (1992) Condensation on bundles of plain and low-finned tubes . Collier. August. (1981) Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries.8 Rate processes It would not be proper to close without brief mention of the many correlations used in heat-transfer design. Chu. (1967) Warmeiibergang and Druckabfall in waagerechten Rohren bei der Stromung von Verdampfenden Kaltemitteln. 5(3). 1. (1992) The role of analysis in the rate procesess. pp.. Chisholm. V.H. IChemE Symposium Series. AIChE Symposium Series.C. (1958) Two-phase flow in rough tubes. (1992) Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena. C. J. (1983) Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines and Heat Exchangers.D. J. Hewitt. (1984) Investigations into the onset of convective boiling with liquid nitrogen in plate-fin heat exchanger passages under constant wall temperature . yet it would be remiss not to mention the contribution of Churchill (1988.. J. (1988) The role of mathematics in heat transfer.. J. and the assessment of his work by Kabel (1992). Loh. 322-333. 276-286. vol. 1988. D. A. Mixtures of ice crystals and glycol are now of interest as secondary circuit fluids in refrigeration systems. D. Ind. Dev. J. R. Heat Mass Transfer.P. Clarke. pp. Trans. 19(8).M. Engng Chemistry Res. (1981). Bergles et al. Int. New York.U.K. 1-13. S. References Bergles. Chisholm. 84.C. Chen.M. Heat Mass Transfer. 1985).Heat Transfer. 10(12). (1967) A theoretical basis for the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation for twophase flow. 1992) in explaining rate processes. Engng Chemistry. D..M. (1993). and Westwater. New York. Chawla. Hemisphere. J.. Condensation Readers with an interest in condensation should consult Collier (1972).

J. Ismail. November.A. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. Int.. R. (1979) New friction pressure drop correlations for upward.F. (1997) A heat exchanger model for mixtures and pure refrigerant cycle simulations. T. 98-103. G. Rhines.A. Kew. 3rd edn. (1986) Heat transfer and friction correlations for plant fin-andtube exchangers having plain fins. 32. Chapter 2..C. pp. L.A. W. New York.344 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers boundary conditions. Refrigeration. J. PJ.. Hausen.. (Ed. D. J.Boiling and Gas Liquid Flow. Engng Sci. P.L. and Radermacher. A. A. and Conclaves.. Chato. Shimon. M. 19(6). 244-255. 400-406. 20(4).J. (1983) Heat Transfer in Counter/low.. and Hall-Taylor. G. New York. 1st edn. (1994) Heat transfer and flow regimes during condensation in horizontal tubes. Presented at the HTFS Symposium. (1959) Heat transfer in two-phase flow.. (1997) Frost growth around a cylinder in a wet air stream. Finer. McGraw-Hill.. Int.F.. and Webb.. 312-320.. J. and Hendal. R. J. Int. Edward Arnold. K. Imperial College of Science and Technology. W. McGraw-Hill. L.F. Heat Mass Transfer. New York. J. Jones. 391^21. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. (1991) A strong enthalpy formulation for the Stefan problem. Refrigeration. Engng Chemistry. Collier. New York (see Hewitt. Heat Mass Transfer. Allen. H. Pergamon. (1997) Flow boiling of a single component and binary mixture hydrocarbon.G.. 212-220. T. C.P. and Cornwell. 106-119. In 5th UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. G. and Turner. 17-18 September 1997. J. and Thome. (1992) Reflections on rates. CRC Press. Critoph. Oxford. D.... Niagara Falls. Hewitt. Session D . Ind. T.. J. K. Parallel flow and Cross flow.L. (1985) Air Conditioning Engineering.I.G. Hemisphere. and Bott.A. Groothuis. (1970) Annular Two-Phase Flow. Friedel. and Lovatt. 705-715. Springer-Verlag. 17(8-10)..P. McGraw-Hill. Gray. (1993) Simple mathematical model for prediciting the transient behaviour of an ice-bank system. Florida. Date. Hestroni. Refrigeration. G. V. (1989) Prediction of pressure drop during horizontal annular flow boiling of pure and mixed refrigerants. 34(9). 1979 (Hoechst AG Reference 372217/24 698). J.. K..F. San Francisco. Gaibel. 1984. R.M. Poncher. G. Gas-liquid flow). M.G. G.. Int.K. (1950) Wdrmeubertragung im Gegenstrom. Cleland. M. (1996) Contact resistance in air-cooled plate fin-tube air-conditioning condensers. Sweeney.. (1994) Convective Boiling and Condensation. Thermal Engng. Kabel. Appl. R. (1997) Correlations for the prediction of boiling heat transfer in small-diameter channels. . Chem. Chapter 10. 3rd edn. R. H. M. pp..K. Shires. N. Salinas.P. 20(2). Wattelet.L.E. ACRC Project 37.Heat Transfer. horizontal and downward two-phase pipe flow. AIChE Symposium Series . Jung.R. 11(3).S.S. 31. 641-643.L. 16(5). S. 2nd edn. J. J.L. Holland.) (1982) Handbook of Multiphase Systems. Kandlbinder. (1972) Convective Boiling and Condensation. Hewitt.T. Dobson. and Hershberger. 2435-2446. Hausen. S. Villaneuva. Wadekar. Int.V. In Proceedings of the 9th International Heat Transfer Conference. Judge.L. Kenney. Collier. M. R. and Radermacher.C. J.R. Int.W. T. J.. and Hewitt. D. 2231-2235.C. H. Refrigeration.R.

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I). excluding longitudinal conduction Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. Ltd. and further development is summarized in Appendix A.APPENDIX A Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage Temperature and velocity fields A. they were obtained using a continuum approach. 4> is the Rayleigh dissipation function. MASS Hot fluid momentum ENERGY Solid walL ENER ENER Cold fluid momentum MASS In the fluid energy equations. and transients. step-wise rating. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. The energy terms dqt/dxi are volumetric heat-transfer rates.2.1 Mass flow and temperature transients in contraflow The complete set of equations to be solved are presented as equations (A. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . Eric M. Their validity may be checked using Schlichting (1960). Thermal diffusivity KW is defined in the notation.

350 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers which is accounted for separately. For the hot fluid the term can be expressed as where the flow area is constant. The state equation for a perfect gas may be interpreted locally. The balance of linear momentum equation can be recast to bring it into a more convenient form. Pressure gradient due to friction Fanning friction factor Frictional resistance to flow Force balance Pressure gradient due to friction .I).' the last expression provides the familiar convective heat-transfer terms In the above equations the constitutive equation for an isotropic viscous (Stokes) fluid is used which in expanded form becomes This form is already incorporated in the fluid energy equations (A. When divided by (phCh).

but in the other direction. . we neglect fluid longitudinal conduction terms. These are extremely small for gases and very small for many liquids.Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage 351 Alternative form of balance of linear momentum The balance of linear momentum equation for the hot fluid is Adding u(dp/dt) to both sides Substituting for dp/dt from balance of mass equation and the hot fluid equation becomes with an identical equation for the cold fluid. Balance of energy For the balance of energy equations. Expand the remaining terms and collect fluid work contributions together Remnants of the Rayleigh dissipation terms (4>) may not be significant. as order of magnitude arguments show that it is the transverse velocity terms which contribute most to dissipation. but can be significant for liquid metals. viz.

and simultaneous solution of the finite-difference energy balance equations is straightforward by matrix inversion. The balance of energy equations (A. The pressure and dissipation contributions (W/. A..WC). Wc) are available as numerical contributions from solution of the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations if desired. and rewriting Response of the temperature field for both hot and cold fluids and the wall is coupled. Alternative numerical solution routes for these equations are discussed in Chapter 9 and Appendix B. and are to be evaluated numerically at each grid station. but it can be allowed for in the numerical computation.2 Summarized development of transient equations for contraflow Fundamental One-dimensional form of continuum equations in which no rotational velocities exist MASS Hot fluid momentum ENER .352 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Lumping together pressure and dissipation terms as (W/. In the present case these corrections were omitted. H) may be regarded as constants which vary with space and time. Initially the wall longitudinal conduction term involving the second derivative of temperature will be omitted. G.8.5) can be written where (E. there being no missing values. F..

mass momentum Hot fluid energy Solid wall energy Cold fluid (same as hot fluid. but with reversed stations) energy momentum mass .Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage 353 Solid wall energy energy Cold fluid momentum mass Use same algorithms for cold mass flow as those for hot mass flow. but with reversed stations) (same as hot fluid.

mass Hot fluid momentum energy Solid wall energy energy Cold fluid (same as hot fluid. but with reversed stations) (same as hot fluid. with neglect of some minor contributions. with subsequent adjustment for frictional loss only. density Hot mass flow — [pressure field] density x velocity hot fluid Temperatures c solid wall cold fluid . but with reversed stations) momentum mass Simplified for computation Pressure terms omitted from this set.354 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Cleaned up Rearrangement of terms to permit solution. Note: pressure gradient terms may be important in adjusting flow velocities.

1.3 Computational approach The approach will be considered in three stages. Numerical considerations Splitting the problem With inlet disturbances (m. T) instantaneous mass flow rates can be expressed either as m or as puA.. the fluid momentum equations contain unknowns pu. Fletcher (1991).. . which would create difficulty when attempting to solve for all seven unknowns simultaneously. well below compressible heating levels (see Appendix L). the introduction of pressure-field terms involves both use of a state equation plus a friction factor correlation for each fluid. A. . but with reversed stations) density Cold massflow< . Because of this difficulty. This de-coupling is permissible because Mach numbers are normally less than 0. lr rhermal disturbances travel at much slower speeds than mechanical disturbances.1 where c is the speed of sound. ' . and highlight any computational difficulties. consideration of contraflow and crossflow design under transients. which simply requires that mechanical disturbances travelling at the speed of sound in the fluid shall not leave the space interval under consideration. A _ . .Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage 355 _ .. making the full set of transient equations unique for the Stokesian fluids chosen. while the fluid energy equations contain unknowns m"1. However. A . • First. _ f (same as hot fluid.. • Second. The unknowns pu and m thus correspond for prismatic flow. . see e.. Selection of time intervals Time intervals for high-speed flow are constrained by the modified CourantFriedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability condition. the approach adopted is sequential solution of the mass flow and linear momentum fields for each fluid stream independently. 4 . numerical considerations . to assess stability of the solution.the Crank-Nicholson finite-difference approach will be used on the simplified set of equations with no pressurefield terms. [ (same as hot fluid. . • Third. Steady-state solution The set of steady-state equations is obtained by omitting time-dependent terms.g. but with reversed stations) density x velocity . followed by separate and simultaneous solution of the set of the energy-field equations for wall plus hot and cold fluid temperatures.

Algorithms that allow for convective transport are the MacCormack predictorcorrector scheme (Appendix B. then solve by CrankNicholson and transform back to the original (x. This provides new velocity fields. and then arranged so that for each fluid the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations may be solved in turn. Initial conditions along the full length of the exchanger are required for p and pu to start the computation .356 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers At each time interval velocity values are found for both hot and cold fluids along the length of the exchanger.8). Events during the next time step are not yet known.3. Thereafter only inlet boundary conditions are known at each subsequent time interval. In both cases the velocity coefficients (u) are of first order only and approximate numerical values can be taken from the last time interval to permit solutions [very small time intervals (A?) are desirable]. and the information thus obtained is used to update mass flowrates in the energy equations.7) should ensure that a sufficient gap exists between jc stations. 8)]. outlet boundary conditions might be handled either by assuming that gradients of p and pu are zero at outlet [equation (A. or more simply by using equation (A. 10). Solution of the balance of linear momentum equation is for unknown values of pu.Nicholson finite-difference formulation. An alternative not yet explored is to first transform the independent variables (x. and extrapolating for an external fictitious value one step beyond the real outlet condition using data from the previous time interval [equation (A. f) coordinates.7) to find the maximum permissible time increment for the next time step. but the definition (A.9)]. t) as was done for Laplace transformation in Section 10. The largest absolute value is inserted in equation (A. Only the numerical solution approach for the hot fluid is required. Solution of the balance of mass equation is for unknown values of p. Either and . as the cold fluid can make use of the same solution method providing the renumbering of grid points is carried out before inversion. Using the Crank. Fluid flow equations The fluid flow equations are first recast in a form suitable for numerical work. The new velocity fields are obtained from u = (pu)/p. The cold fluid solution so found is then reverse renumbered to match the physical problem.this usually requires an initial steady state. and the method of lines with Runge-Kutta.

For an ideal gas the equation of state is equation (A.Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage or. see Appendix B. Pressure-field terms introduce additional effects. Distributed values of coefficient u from the last time interval are used to evaluate Reynolds numbers and obtain frictional coefficients (/) from an interpolating cubic spline fit. Using this approach there are no problems with boundary conditions. Completing the solution Pressure-field terms In the pressure-field group both pressure gradient and flow-friction terms were omitted from the balance of linear momentum equations during a first solution.5. Updated temperatures (T) are used first to calculate new physical properties from interpolating cubic spline fits. This was done because symmetry of the mass and momentum equations simplified development of algorithms. Extreme values of the pressure gradient term could lead to flow 'choking'. and can present snapshots of the temperature fields. In the friction loss term the velocity squared term is split to improve accuracy. and updated values incorporated into the complete set of equations ready for the next time interval.3). Reflection of transients in contraflow A feature of contraflow exchangers subject to transients is that disturbances carried by the first fluid will be felt by the second fluid and transported backwards. and for this special case we reset the pressure-field expression. better 357 Energy equations The energy equations are solved simultaneously for the transient temperature field using the same finite-difference scheme as was found effective in determining the effects of longitudinal conduction in steady-state flow. and so on. and observe the additional effect due to temperature transients Distributed values of (p. The importance of the pressure gradient term is because large changes in absolute temperature (T) can affect flowrates significantly. Reflections will continue to pass backwards and .Nicholson solution of the energy-field equations is that it handles the interaction of all unknowns simultaneously. causing knock-on effects in the first fluid. The distributed coefficients (uf/2rhyd) are now known and terms involving the unknown pu can be worked into the left-hand side of the solution matrix. A feature of Crank. T) are available prior to solution of the balance of linear momentum equation allowing the pressure gradient term to be evaluated numerically for placement on the right-hand side of the solution matrix.

but there may be compensation in the absence of temperature end-reflection effects. this cautionary adjustment need only be tried if computational difficulties should arise. However. .358 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers forwards until the system settles down. problems may arise if the disturbance is travelling in the opposite direction to the flow velocity.5 shows that the additional effect of cross-conduction may also have to be taken into account. Transients travelling against the flow in contraflow A transient generated by one fluid flowing in one direction may be experienced by the second fluid as a transient travelling in a direction opposite to its flow. Pressure loss is controlled by density and viscosity and both of these values are temperature dependent. particularly when pressure loss in the headers can be made zero by following Dow's method outlined in the second half of Chapter 8.2. Prediction of crossflow transients thus requires channel-by-channel analysis. The sign of the correction term may then depend on whether the flow velocity is less than the disturbance velocity. the initial assumption of equal mass flowrate in each channel is incorrect. Potential problems with crossflow For crossflow under steady-state conditions. The computational problem should not exist with the implicit Crank. Inspection of velocities pertaining in the simple illustrative examples of crossflow and contraflow given in Chapter 4 do indicate the possibility of transients running in a direction opposing the flow. Inspection of the temperature sheets in Section 3. Equal pressure loss in each channel is the proper constraint. Experimentation with an exchanger core deliberately configured to emphasize parasitic losses might be used to check theoretical predictions. particularly as the disturbances would be slowed by the thermal inertia of the wall and longitudinal conduction effects. Development of algorithms Software for development of algorithms for solution of the transient equations in contraflow will be found in the supplement to Appendix B. Further departure from the initial assumption of equal mass flowrate in each channel is likely to occur under transient conditions. Section 9.Nicholson type of finite-difference solution (although slow in execution). This was the reason for suggesting a modification to the CFL rule discussed in Chapter 9. in most cases thermal capacity of the intervening wall is high and damping should be sufficient to permit control.6 seems a good starting point. viz.corrector algorithms of the MacCormack type are in use. Change in sign of velocity When predictor. The work of Haseler outlined in Section 11. Fortunately.

p. Anderson. A. Biancardi. ASME.recuperators. (1959) The transient response of gasturbine plant heat exchangers .V. D. F.R. Engng Chemistry. 81. John Wiley. (1965) Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Engineering. and Treadwell. (1960) Calculation of the dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers with the aid of analogue computers. Ser. ASME. L. July. (1991) Computational Techniques for Fluid Mechanics. Fundamentals. Tannehill. 481-490. 4th edn. Berlin. 71. Ind. Ames. G. and Arpaci. and Laubli. J. 48. 48. A. D. Clark.Part I. pre-coolers. M. and London. 233-266. Fundamentals. W. 453-454. Ind. 184-185 and 250.. Dreitser. E. W. F. Part 1. R. R. D. Engng Chemistry. New York.L. Proc. J. (1959) Dynamic response of heat exchangers having internal heat sources .. Ser. (1962) Dynamics of a forced-flow heat exchanger. A. Rev. J. Trans. H.F. J. Trans. and Harrison. ASME J.A. Acklin. McGraw-Hill.L. Schlichting. and ducting. Bibliography . (1990) Transient response of the parallel flow heat exchanger with finite wall capacitance.application to heat and mass transfer problems. V. 291. ASHRAE.A. Dzubenko. ASME.. (1960) Dynamic response and control of multipass heat exchangers. (1956) Method of characteristics technique . 4. Heat Transfer. (1958) Dynamic response of heat exchangers having internal heat sources .. Masubuchi. Trans. Hemisphere. New York.M. and Griffiths.S.F. 138-139. C.B. Jaswon. L. ASME J.-A. Soc. (1965) Dynamic characteristics of water-to-air crossflow heat exchanger. B. Ind.W.. pp. Koppel.Transient Equations with Longitudinal Conduction and Wall Thermal Storage 359 References Mostly contraflow . The Finite Difference Method in Partial Differential Equations.S. New York. Academic Press. 80. 51-55. K.C. 60.S. 81. Engng Power. Engng Chemistry.A. 5(1).M. Ser. 48(4). 612-624. 703-710. (1990) Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer. intercoolers. Chapter 9.D. London.. Gartner. R. Cima. 1031-1034.A. 131-134.. (1960) Boundary Layer Theory. Gvozdenac.L. Mitchell. 2nd edn. 1(2). June. 212-224. October. Mozley... 1169-1179. ASME J. Clark. D. 225. A. 433-448. W.Part III. and Fletcher.. Ind. May. (1966) Forced-flow heat exchanger dynamics.see Chapter 9 for more extensive collection. 226-244. and Johnson. H. Harmon.A. and Mitchell.R. and Ashmantas. Engng Chemistry. Engng Chemistry. R.A. April..V.M. Basic Engng.H. Sulzer Tech. Acrivos. J. V.Part II. 1035-1041. 80.. Cohen. L. and Arpaci. Fletcher. J. Trans. June.W. (1958) The transient response of a two-fluid counterflow heat exchanger. (1954) Countercurrent transfer processes in the non-steady state. Ind. March. J. M. 80.C.A. and Smith. (1956) Dynamic characteristics of double-pipe heat exchangers. Arpaci. 13-20. Springer. November. A. (1956) Predicting dynamics of concentric pipe heat exchangers.R. 623-634. pp. April.F. C. February. Ingenieure Arch.J. April. V. Clark. (1958) Dynamic response of heat exchangers having internal heat sources . 82. (1984) Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer.

H. AIChEJ. Paynter. Flannery. Springer. I. Fundamentals. Report IAR 89-10. I. Teukolsky.) Bull. (1982) Computational Methods for Fluid Flow. 17(4). (On the transient response to a step change in inlet temperature. M. W. Soc.Response to flow-rate changes. Soc. Heat Transfer. 21(154). C.A. Part II . (1989) Numerical Redpies in Pascal: The Art of Scientific Computing. Todo. and Takahashi. Ind. 691-693 Stermole. 770-779 and 780-786. Bull. (1978) Dynamics of a shell and tube heat exchanger with finite tube-wall heat capacity and finite shell-side resistance. 86. 133-142. K. Tan. Part I . (1976) Dynamic response of bayonet type heat exchangers. (1984) Numerical methods of solution for continuous countercurrent processes in the non-steady state. Todo. 30(5). 353-358. 21(153). and Spinner. ASME. V. (1978) Dynamic response of bayonet-tube heat exchangers.P.. 2(1). and Taylor. H. K.S. Yamashita.. ASME. K.S.Application of numerical methods.. pp. I. Y. (1963) Dynamic response of heat exchangers to flow rate changes. Cambridge University Press. Peyret.H.360 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Ontko. Kansas.S. (1956) A new method of evaluating dynamic response of counterflow and parallel flow heat exchangers.H. R. W. R. (1958) Dynamic response of heat exchangers having internal heat sources . Part I . Engrs. and Spinner. September.T. S.Response to inlet temperature changes. Japan. Clark.. W.D. C. F. 644-651. Bull. H. (1991) Approximate solution for transient response of a shell and tube heat exchanger. 479-480. October. . Ser.J.A. T.H. March.. (1964) Transient heat transfer in a vapour-heated heat exchanger with time-wise varient flow disturbance. paper 15317. 30. 83. April.. 62-67. Chapter 17. Trans. May. Engng Chemistry Res. Fundamentals.M. B. Part II . Berlin. February. Izumi. Soc. Ind. 321-338. Press.. April.Part IV. (1978) Analysis of dynamic characteristics of crossflow heat exchangers with both fluids unmixed. 749-758.S. 78. J.. Tan. Engrs.Model equations and development of numerical methods and algorithms. and Larson. 1135-1140. Trans. 1639-1646. Ser. Cambridge. Wichita. Mech.J. W. J. Mech. Engng Chemistry. Japan. 19(136). I.J. ASME J.A. Japan. Mech. and Arpaci. and Spinner. Engng Chemistry. Engrs.. S. Ind. Tan. and Yamaguchi. (1989) A parametric study of counterflow heat exchanger transients. and Vettering. Yang. I. Yang. Institute for Aviation Research The Wichita State University.S.

k]+islTf*Nf/50.1 Algorithms for mean temperature distribution in one-pass unmixed crossflow Alternative algorithms for generating temperature sheets and the temperaturedifference sheet for crossflow are presented below.k+l]. eTg:=Tg[k.k]. eTf:=Tf[k+l. Eric M. accuracy being affected by error propagation. Tg[k+l. Ltd. {first origin square} k:=0. Improvements can be expected using a smaller mesh near the starting corner. but it is simpler to increase the size of the full mesh. Tf[k+l. FOR k:=l TO 49 DO BEGIN n:=k. The algorithm employs the modified Euler-Cauchy method which obtains an estimate of the slope at the new point.k]+mslTf*Nf/50.APPENDIX B Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings Development of Pascal listings B.k+l]+mslTg*Ng/50. islTf:=+Tg[k+l. step-wise rating.k+l]:=Tg[k. mslTf:=(islTf+fslTf)/2. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. and takes the mean of this estimated slope and the known slope at the old point to obtain a better estimate for the slope in the interval. The approach was explicit finite difference.27)].k+l]+islTg*Ng/50. and transients. particularly from the steepest parts of the temperature fields. FOR m:=n TO 49 DO {initial slope} {initial slope} {estimated Tg} {estimated Tf} {final slope} {final slope}' {mean slope} {mean slope} {new Tg} {new Tf} {in X-direction} Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing.k+l]:=Tf[k+l. More recent developments in symbolic mathematical solution of equations may present other approaches to solution.k]-Tf[k+l. These produced mean temperature difference for parameters of local Ntu numbers [equation (3. fslTg:=-eTg+eTf. mslTg:=(islTg+fslTg)/2. fslTf:=+eTg-eTf. islTg:=-Tg[k. For equally spaced intervals. at least a 50 x 50 mesh should be used. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .k+l]+Tf[k.

362 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers BEGIN islTg:=-Tg[m.k+1]:=Tf[k+1.k]-Tf[k+l.k+l]:=Tg[k.k+l]+islTg*Ng/50. FOR n:=m TO 49 DO BEGIN is!Tg:=-Tg[m-l. Tg[k+l. fslTf:=+eTg-eTf.k].n+1]:=Tf[m. islTf:=+Tf[m+1.k]+mslTf*Nf750. {initial slope} {initial slope} {estimated Tg} {estimated Tf} {final slope} {final slope} {final slope} {final slope} {new Tg} {new Tf} { in Y-direction} {initial slope} {initial slope} {estimated Tg} {estimated Tf} {final slope} {final slope} {final slope} {final slope} {new Tg} {new Tf} END. END.n+l]+Tf[m-l.n+l]+islTg*Ng/50. fslTg:=-eTg+eTf.n-1].n]+mslTg*Nf750.n]. eTg:=Tg[k. mslTf:=(islTf+fslTf)/2. islTf:=+Tg[k+l. mslTf:=(islTf+fslTf)/2.n]+islTg*Ng/50.n+l]:=Tg[m-1.0. m: =k.k+l].n-1]-Tf[m+1. fslTf:=+eTg-eTf. {next origin square} islTg:=-Tg[k.n+l].k]+islTf*Nf/50.n]-Tf[m. islTf:=+Tg[m. eTf:=Tf[m.n]+mslTg*Ng/50. eTf:=Tf[m+1. fslTf:=+eTg-eTf.n-1]+islTf*Nf/50. {other thermal parameters} {sum over inside temperatures} sum:=0.n]+Tf[m.n-1]+mslTg*Nf750. FOR m:=l TO 49 DO BEGIN FOR n:=l TO 49 DO {initial slope} {initial slope} {estimated Tg} {estimated Tf} {final slope} {final slope} {mean slope} {mean slope} {new Tg} {new Tf} {for k-loop} . eTf:=Tf[k+l. mslTg:=(islTg+fslTg)/2. fslTg:=-eTg+eTf. eTg:=Tg[m. Tf[m+1. Tg[m. Tg[m+l. mslTf:=(islTf+fslTf)/2.k+l]+mslTg*Ng/50.n]+islTf*Nf/50. Tf[m. eTg:=Tg[m-l.k+l]+Tf[k. END.n].n]:=Tg[m.n+l]+mslTg*Ng/50.n]:=Tf[m+1. fslTg:=-eTg+eTf. mslTg:=(islTg+fslTg)/2. mslTg:=(islTg+fslTg)/2. Tf[k+1.

0]-Tf [m.0.n]. FOR n:=l TO 49 DO sum:=sum+Tg[m. {effectiveness} In using this algorithm it is to be recognized that the explicit type of solution always produces some error propagation.span in core} {at warm fluid outlet} {sum over inner temps} {addmean outer temps} {mixed warm outlet} {mixed cold outlet temperature} sum:= 0. END. Tginn:=1.n]+Tf[50. n] -Tf [m. {add mean outer temps} Tfout:=sum/50. {mean temperature difference} meanTDiff:=sum/(50*50).0. sum:=sum+(Tg[m. IF (TdiffG>TdiffF) THEN Tdiff:=TdiffG ELSE Tdiff:=TdiffF. 50] -Tf [m. Tspan:=Tginn-Tfinn. 0]+Tg[m. n:=50.0. n] ) . Tfinn:=0. {mixed cold outlet} {effectiveness} Tdi ffG:=Tginn-Tgout.n] -Tf [ 0 . The value of 'meanTdiff' is used in design. {over inner temps} sum:=sum+(Tf[0. Consequently the value of 'meanTdiff' is more reliable than the computed outlet temperatures 'Tgout' and 'Tf out'. 50] ) ) /2. {cold fluid outlet} FOR m:=l TO 49 DO sum:=sum+Tf[m.n].0. and it is better to calculate the mean outlet temperature for each side using the energy balance equation. 50]) /2. {mixed warm outlet temperature} sum:=0. which affects both temperature sheets more or less equally. TdiffF:=Tfout-Tfinn. Tgout:=sum/50.n] -Tf [50.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings sum: =sum+ (Tg[m. viz. 0] ) + (Tg[m.n] ) ) /2. 363 {mixed warm inlet temp} {mixed cold inlet temp} {temp. {sum over edge temps} FOR n : = 0 TO 50 DO sum:=sum+( (Tg[0.n])/2. . Eff:=Tdiff/Tspan. m:=50. FOR m : = 0 TO 50 DO sum:=sum+( (Tg[m. n ] ) + (Tg[50.

Q:=mf*Cf*(Tfout-Tfinn). {one-pass unmixed-unmixed crossflow} refMR=ml/m2 (desired mass flow ratio) •iterate Rel (until Q matches Qduty) fl=correlation (interpolating splinefit) Gl=Re*mul/Dl (mass velocity side-1} Lpl=dpl*2*rhol*Dl/(4*fl*G1^2) (length of channel} E2=Lpl (edge length.coeff.fin height} mYl=Yl*SQRT(2*hl/(kfl*tfl)) (fin parameter} phil=TANH(mYl)/mYl (fin performance ratio} etal=l-gammal*(1-phil) (correct to total surface} ul=hl*etal*kappal (heat trans.364 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Q:=mg*Cg*(Tginn-Tgout).coeff @ plate} u2=similarly for side-2 u3=kp/tp (plate coefficient} . 1/2 plate spacing} mPl=Gl*Aflowl (Mflow. side-2} iterate 'aspect' (until newMR matches refMR} Lp2=aspect*Lpl (plate aspect=El/E2} El=Lp2 (edge length side-1} Splate=El*E2 (area of single plate} given dp2 (pressure loss on side-2} iterate Re2 (until dp matches dp2} | f2=correlation (interpolating splinefit} I G2=Re2*mu2/D2 (mass velocity side-2} | dp=4*f2*G2/v2*L2/(2*rho2*D2) (estimate for dp2} until dp=dp2 (Re known on both sides} Afrontl=El*(bl/2) (Afront. 1/2 plate spacing} Aflowl=sigmal*Afrontl (Aflow.2 Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact one-pass crossflow exchanger This schematic algorithm is given below. 1/2 plate spacing} repeat last 3 lines for side-2 newMr=mPl/mP2 (estimate of refMR} until newMR=refMR {'aspect' for Rel} Nw=TRUNC(ml/MPl)+1 (number of plates} wide=Nw*(bl/2+tp+b2/2) (exchanger width} vol=El*E2*wide (exchanger core volume} Sexchr=Nw*Splate (total plate surface} Stotall=Sexchr*kappal (total surface side-1} Stotal2=Sexchr*kappa2 (total surface side-2} Prl=Cpl*mul/kl (at mean bulk temperatures} Stl=j-correlation (interpolating splinefit} hl=Stl*Cpl*Gl (heat trans. B. side-1} Yl=bl/2 (approx.

find Lp2} until scan complete {full validity range} {visual check} plot curves (Lh.loRelH.Lpl.gamma) {surface params} surf2(fins.StPrA2/3) {inside valid range} test (max-loRel < Rel < min-hiRel) surf1(fins.Ntu2} {exchanger duty at Rel} {Q is desired peformance} B.hiRelH.forced-Re2.loRelF.cells on side-2} z2=E/c2 {total frontal area} Afront2=E*(b2/2) {forced Re2} Re2=D2*m2/(eta2*AfIow2) G2=Re2*mu2/D2 {forced mass velocity} {side-1. calc.ts.NEWdpl {PROC..Re2} iterate for rh-intersection & L if Lpl rh-curve.x. Rel.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings | U=l/(l/ul+l/u2+l/u3) j Ntul=U*Sexchr/(ml*Cpl) j Ntu2=U*Sexchr/(m2*Cp2) | find meanTD I Q=U*Sexchr*meanTD until Q=Qduty 365 {overall coeff.find Lpl} I pdrop2(Re2.c. fin height} {fin parameter} mYl=Yl*SQRT(2*hl/(kfl*tfl) ) .Lh. corr. side-2} {using Tl.hiRelH.Ntul.exchanger block} design PROCEDURE heatrans(Rel.3 Schematic source listing for direct-sizing of compact contraflow exchanger This schematic algorithm includes separate procedure bodies.limits} {StPrA2/3.ts.loRelH.fl) {fl.hiRelF.beta.} {side-1.Lh.dpl. side-1} {Ntu.t.x. Stanton no.NEWdp2 {forced pressure loss} {forced pressure loss} if Lp2 rh-curve.c.StPr 2/3) {splinefitted corr.find Edge} I pdropl(Rel. {main program} Rel=2500 {mid-range value} fric( corr.forcedRe2.coeff} Yl=bl/2 { plate} {Ntu.cells on side-1} {no.b.Edge) Gl=Rel*mul/Dl {mass velocity] {total flow area} Aflowl=ml/Gl {total frontal area} Afrontl=Aflowl/sigmal {edge length} E=Afrontl/(bl/2) zl=E/cl {no.Lp2) vs Edge {design point.limits} heat(Rel.Edge) {PROC. over 100 steps} I | heatrans(} Stl=(StPrA2/3)/PrX hl=Stl*Cpl*Gl (cell h.Lp2) {PROC.gamma) {surface params} scan over valid range of Rel {loRel->hiRel .b. PrX=PrlA2/3} PrX=EXP(2/3 *LN*(Pr1)) A heat(Rel. calc.Lpl) {

but the reader may find the following explanations helpful in understanding the generation of values. side-2} {depends on surface} {depends on surface} {mass exchr. side-1} {no.core} phil=TANH(mYl)/mYl etal=l-gammal*(1-phil) ul=hl*etal*kappal u2 similarly for side-2 u3=kp/tp U=l(l/ul+l/u2+l/u3) Splate=Q/(U*LMTD) Lh=Splate/E PROCEDURE pdrop(Rel.trans.cells.hiRelF. @ plate} {plate coefficient} {overall coeff. @ plate} {h.core} {porosity exchr. Am=X-sect.) . side-1} {total surface. This procedure is recommended as the best way of avoiding data entry problems.both 'rating' and 'direct-sizing' careful attention must be paid to accurate definition of the surface geometry.cells.366 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers {fin performance ratio} {correct to Stotal} {h.condn.coeff.Lpl) fric(Rel.coeff.dpi.4 Parameters for rectangular offset strip fins In running software for .for mass evaluation Mblock=rhoM*Am*L Py=l/Mblock/(rhoM*V) B.Lp2) PROCEDURE design Splate=E*L Ntul=U*S/(ml*Cpl) Ntu2=U*S/(m2*Cp2) Stotall=Splate*kappal Stotal2=Splate*kappa2 V=L*E*(bl/2+tp+b2/2) zRl=TRUNC(zl)+l zR2=TRUNC(z2)+l Ac=X-sect.trans. It was found that significant errors existed in some published data. Single-cell geometries (Terminators 1 and 2 to be added to identifiers to designate side-1 and side-2.for long.dp2. Definitions of parameters are provided in Table 4.loRelF. side-2} {volume exchanger} {no. except where already indicated for parameter 'alpha'.fl) Gl=Rel*mul/Dl Lpl=dpl*2*rhol*Dl/(4*f1*G1A2) PROCEDURE pdrop(Re2.} {mass velocity} {length for dpi} {same as for side-1} {total plate surface} {whole exchanger} {whole exchanger} {total surface. For the rectangular offset strip fin it is practicable to proceed from basic dimensions and compute consistent values. Quite small deviations from correct values may cause significant change in exchanger performance or in final dimensions.11 of Chapter 4.@ plate} {design surface plate} {length for Q} {splinefitted corr.

{l-cell} Sfins:= {2 sides} 2*(b-tf) {4 half-fin ends} 4*(b-tf)*(tf/2)/x 2*(c/2)*tf/x. Half of each base end is attached to the next cell. Half of each base end is attached to the next cell. and thus contribute to enhanced heat transfer. flow area. thus only the other half contributes surface area.e. and for heat transfer might well be lumped with the separating plate. Total surface area (heat transfer/strip length) . Cell:=(b-tf)*(c-tf). {2 half-base ends} + + . Per:=2*(b-tf) + 2*(c-tf). total surface per unit length {1 cell} Stotal:= {2 sides} 2*(b-tf) + {2 bases} 2*(c-tf) + + {4 half-fin ends} 4*(b-tf)*(tf/2)/x 2*(c/2)*tf/x. and adjustment for this effect is made later.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 367 Flow-cell characteristic dimension. {cell Aflow} {cell perimeter} We need to take cell ends into account. as these are attached to the plate. the fin ends act as steps in the flow direction. and effective perimeter Parameters under this section are required for one complete flow cell.i. D:=4*rh. {hydraulic radius} {hydraulic diameter} Values of single-cell parameters per unit length The following parameters are evaluated for the cell spaces between two separating plates. {2 half-base ends} For fin surface area the difficulty lies in deciding what to do with the fin ends. {4 half-fin ends} {2 half-base ends} Recover effective perimeter Per:=Perx/x. as the extra surface area will contribute. However. Perx:=Per*x + 4*(b-tf)*(tf/2) + 2*(c/2)*tf. In design of the heat exchanger only half-cells on either side of one plate are used. rh:=Cell/Per. Fin ends are considered to be half thickness on each side of a single cell. {effective perimeter} before evaluating cell hydraulic radius and hydraulic diameter. so that Reynolds numbers can be evaluated. thus only the other half contributes surface area.

{2 half-base ends} We recover effective perimeter Per:=Perx/x. tau:=Sbase/Splate. {2 sides } {2 bases} {cell Aflow} {cell perimeter} Cell perimeter needs to take cell ends into account. except where already indicated for parameter 'alpha'. Fin ends are taken as half thickness on each side of a single should be the same for both sides. {effective perimeter} . side-2} {Sfins/Stotal} {Stotal/Splate} {Sfins/Splate} {Aflow/Afront} {Sbase/Splate} {Splate/Vexchr} Partial CHECK . sigma:=Cell/(b*c+c*tp). Double-cell geometries (Terminators 1 and 2 to be added to identifiers to designate side-1 and side-2. gamma:=Sfins/Stotal. side-1} {Stotal/Vexchr.) Flow-cell characteristic dimension. so that Reynolds numbers can be evaluated. alphal:=bl*betal/(bl+2*tp+b2). beta:=Stotal/Vtotal. omega:=alpha/kappa. as the extra surface area will contribute. Half of each base end is attached to the next cell. alpha2:=b2*beta2/(bl+2*tp+b2). lambda:=Sfins/Splate.368 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers The undernoted parameters are for a complete cell space between two plates. Splate:=2*c. Cell:=((b-ts)/2-tf)*(c-tf). {single cell-level} {single cell-level} {single cell-level} Values of ratios valid for half single-cell heights Here ratios are taken that apply to both full and half-height surfaces. Per:=2*((b-ts)/2-tf) + 2*(c-tf). flow area and effective perimeter Parameters under this section are required for one complete flow cell. Sbase:=2*(c-tf) . Vtotal:=b*c. kappa:=Stotal/Splate. thus only the other half contributes surface area. {4 half-fin ends } Perx:=Per*x + 4*((b-ts)/2-tf))*(tf/2) + 2*(c/2)*tf. {Stotal/Vtotal} {Stotal/Vexchr.

e. gamma:=Sfins/Stotal. total surface per unit length {2-cells} Stotal:= {4 sides } {splitter} {2 plates} 4*((b-ts)/2-tf) +2*(c-tf) +2*(c-tf) + 8*((b-ts)/2-tf)*(tf/2)/x + 4*(c/2)*tf/x. simply . {Stotal/Vtotal} {Stotal/Vexchr. In design of the heat exchanger only half-cells on either side of one plate are used and adjustment for this effect is made later. alpha2:=b2*beta2/(bl+2*tp+b2). sigma:=2*Cell/(b*c+c*tp). tau:=Sbase/ should be the same for both sides A contribution from fin base thickness on both sides of the plate should be added to plate thickness for both single. rh:=Cellx/Perx. {double cell-level} {double cell-level} {double cell-level} Values of ratios valid for half double-cell heights Here ratios are taken that apply to both full. thus only the other half contributes surface area. omega:=alpha/kappa. Half of each base end is attached to the next cell. lambda:=Sfins/Splate. alphal:=bl*betal/(bl+2*tp+b2). side-2} {Sfins/Stotal} {Stotal/Splate} {Sfins/Splate} {Aflow/Afront} {Sbase/Splate} {Splate/Vexchr} Partial CHECK .• Splate:=2*c.i. {hydraulic radius} {hydraulic diameter} 369 Values of double-cell parameters per unit length The following parameters are evaluated for the cell spaces between two separating plates. side-1} {Stotal/Vexchr. beta:=Stotal/Vtotal.and double-cell fins. Total surface area (heat transfer/strip length) . D:=4*rh. {8 half-fin ends } {4 half-base ends} {4 sides } {splitter} 4*((b-ts)/2-tf) +2*{c-tf) 8*((b-ts)/2-tf)*(tf/2)/x + 4*(c/2)*tf/x {8 half-fin ends } {4 half-base ends} {2-cells} Sfins:= The undernoted parameters are for a complete cell space between two plates. This is not done. Vtotal:=b*c. Sbase:=2*(c-tf).and half-height surfaces.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings before evaluating cell hydraulic radius and hydraulic diameter. kappa:=Stotal/Splate.

may be ignored in evaluating overall heat-transfer coefficients. B. and indeed the plate itself. and the assumption is made that zero wall temperature gradient exists at both ends. The plate coefficient is.25) where Hot fluid equation The finite-difference form becomes .5 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow Finite-difference layout Wall temperatures are evaluated at stations intermediate to the fluid stations. however.370 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers because fluid heat-transfer coefficients are very much smaller than plate heattransfer coefficients. evaluated in computation simply to provide an immediate indication that fin base thicknesses. quations (3.

Solid wall equation The finite-difference form becomes where Qj and Rj are evaluated at Wj stations. Simplifying and dividing though by (Ajc)2 At hot fluid inlet.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 371 Simplifying At hot fluid inlet For the preliminary computer solution assume Pj = P = constant. 7' = 0 and W-\ = W .

1 3n 3n+l RHS. .Table B.1 n+1 n+ 2 # # 3n .1 3n 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 # # 2n . right-hand side.1 n 1 2 3 4 5 # # # # # # n+1 n+2 # # # # 2n .1 Matrix for longitudinal conduction in contraflow (position of terms) 5 H5 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # Unknown Equation 123 H2 H3 4 H4 6 W0 7 Wi 8 W2 9 W3 10 W4 11 C0 12 d 13 C2 14 C3 15 16 C4 RHS # 1 2 # # n.1 2n 2n+l 2n + 2 # # # # n # # # # # # 2n 2n + 1 2n + 2 3n .1 # 1 2 n.

j = n and Cn+\ is inlet temperature For the preliminary computer solution assume 5}• = S = const.k]:=0. compactness in writing the algorithm achieved. as symmetries can be identified.I. Cold fluid equation The finite-difference form becomes Simplifying At cold fluid inlet. k cols} {left & right hand sides} . and useful checks can be carried out The matrix layout for n=5 is shown in Table B. {known inlet temperatures} H[0]:=Thl.0. Positioning of terms in matrix Before writing the general algorithm it is helpful to get some idea of the shape of the matrix to be solved. END.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings At cold fluid inlet. Solution algorithm {clear matrix} FOR j:=l TO 3*n DO BEGIN FOR k:=l TO 3*n+l DO coeff[j. {j rows. and Rj• = R = const. j = n and Wn+\ = Wn 373 For preliminary computer calculations assume Qj• = Q = const. C[n]:=Tc2.

and allows temperature differences at each station along the exchanger to be evaluated.n+l]-I/(dX*dX). +n . .delta.3*n+l]:=(l-dX*P/2)*H[0]. {C[0] to C[n-l]} This provides the three temperature profiles in an exchanger with longitudinal conduction.3*n+l]:=+{Q/2)*H[0]. {cold fluid equation} FOR j:=l TO n DO coeff[j+2*n FOR j:=l TO n FOR j:=2 TO n . {invert matrix} llgauss(3*n. coeff[n+l. -l]:=-Q/2.j +r :=-l+dX*P/2 :=+l+dX*P/2 :=-dX*P. +n+l.11).j+2*n ]:=-R/2. {wall equation} FOR j:=l TO n DO coeff[j FOR j:=2 TO n DO coeff[j FOR j:=l TO n-1 DO coeff[j FOR j:=l TO n DO coeff[j FOR j:=l TO n-1 DO coeff[j +n +n . equation (3. ]:=-R/2.j+2*n coeff[n+2*n.2*n]:=coeff[2*n.j +n ]:=-!/(dX*dX). {W[0] To W[n-l]} FOR j:=2*n+l TO 3*n DO C[j-2*n-l]:=soln[j]. coeff[l+l*n. {delta is pivot error} {temperature field solution} FOR j:=l TO n DO H[j ]:=soln[j].j .j +n ]:=-dX*S.j .j . coeff[2*n.3*n+l]:=+(R/2)*C[n].j ]:=-Q/2. j +n ]:=+2/(dX*dX)+Q+R. except at each end where there is no longitudinal conduction. FOR j:=l TO n FOR j:=2 TO n DO coeff[j DO coeff[j +n .3*n=l]:=(+l-dX*S/2)*C[n]. coeff[n+l*n.j+2*n DO coeff[j+2*n-l.j +n+l]:=-!/(dX*dX).j+2*n +n-l.soln).2*n]-I/(dX*dX).374 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers {load matrix} {hot fluid equation} FOR j:=l TO n-1 DO coeff[j FOR j:=l TO n DO coeff[j FOR j:=l TO n DO coeff[j +l. DO coeff[j+2*n . ]:=-l+dX*S/2.n+l]:=coeff[n+l. coeff[l+0*n. +n . {H[l] to H[n]} FOR j:=n+l TO 2*n DO W[j -n-1]:=soln[j]. ]:=+l+dX*S/2. The treatment for obtaining the missing end-wall temperatures is outlined in Section 3.coeff.2.

Woodford's method also allows the smoothing spline to be an arbitrary polynomial. it is very possible that using logarithmic data will produce a good fit. but the author found the cubic polynomial to be adequate for most applications. no significant advantage over cubic splines was found in comparison with taut splines. When interpolating the logarithmic spline-fit care is then necessary to recover the original linear form. There are. and again to evaluate temperature differences at each station along the exchanger. the trick is simply to include additional knot points. de Boor (1978) examined a number of spline-fitting procedures in his book. Original data are required in the form of tables of values. and with variable power splines as back-up. With variable power splines a possible technique is to calculate sufficient intermediate points from the variable power spline and then use this new data to fit the standard interpolating cubic spline. Young (1988) who calculated the thermodynamic properties of steam from a few fundamental properties. The author tested both taut splines and variable power splines as alternatives to the cubic spline-fit for the representation of data. When using interpolating spline-fits there is no need to worry whether data are being used outside their range of validity in design. When difficulty is experienced with the straightforward cubic spline-fit. The difference between values of temperature difference with and without longitudinal conduction is then summed and a mean taken to obtain the reduction in LMTD due to longitudinal conduction to be applied in design. which may contain experimental errors. and in assessing cubic splines.2. other engineering applications in which taut splines are preferred. exponential splines. With sufficient knots. B. as extrapolation is not built in.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 375 It remains to calculate temperature profiles without longitudinal conduction using equations derived in Section 3.g. and taut splines. most datasets can be fitted. he observed that performance of the simple cubic spline is often difficult to improve upon.6 Spline-fitting of data Cubic spline-fitting is the preferred method for representing temperature-dependent physical properties plus both flow-friction and heat-transfer data. One of the thrusts in looking at different methods of fitting data was to find a twice-differentiable representation that may be useful in certain other applications. however. With cubic spline-fits. The spline-fitting algorithm of Woodford (1970) allows for experimental errors by including an estimated standard deviation of each ordinate. see e. then the variable power spline of Soanes (1976) is capable of providing a smooth fit. When data are very sparse and considerable changes in ordinates are involved with sharp changes in direction. . The exception is when the curve being fitted goes through a point of infinite gradient. but this can be fitted by two spline-fits with points adjacent to the infinite gradient being fitted by more elementary means. When oscillations are found.

yi). and (^3.I) can be differentiated twice to give .yo).7 Extrapolation of data This section is concerned with simple extrapolation over one space step only.I).73). The basis for extrapolation is comparison of an extrapolated cubic fit of data with the finite-difference expression for a second derivative.I). leading to The value for D can be obtained directly by substituting back into equation (B.376 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers B. and whenever possible putting it is possible to solve for constants (A. A requirement is equally spaced abscissae.y2).B. the coefficients of the cubic curve through these points may be obtained by solution of a set of four simultaneous equations obtained by substituting algebraic pairs of values in equation (B. (x2. Retaining strict symmetry in the solution. (Jti. Cubic fit A cubic fit to four equally spaced points can be represented by the polynomial With the coordinates of four points (xo.C) in sequence. Extrapolation Assume that the extrapolation is in the direction Equation (B.

x\ = h. The direction of algorithmic propagation for the disturbance in the second fluid is differerent from that in the first fluid. The energy equations provide the coupling between the two fluids. If the approach is other than by simultaneous solution by inversion of a Crank-Nicholson matrix. Interpolating cubic spline- . thus By finite differences. and *3 = 3/z. Crank-Nicholson approach This is a first option for solution of partial differential equations as the method is unconditionally stable. physical properties are adjusted using interpolating cubic spline-fits for each temperature-dependent parameter. then the second derivative can be evaluated at the known end point *3.yj) is Equating equations (B.5) and (B.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 377 If the abscissae are taken as XQ = 0.8 Finite-difference solution schemes for transients In a simple contraflow heat exchanger two fluids flow in opposite directions. At each time-step.6) from which the extrapolated value of 74 can be obtained as B. the second derivative at fe. but time steps are restricted by the Courant-FriedrichsLewy (CFL) condition which ensures that disturbances stay within each space step. jc2 = 2h. then the direction of solution plus the direction of propagating disturbances makes the situation very much more complicated. This is not a problem for the balance of mass and linear momentum equations which can be separated from the balance of energy equations for the low Mach numbers involved.

and since there results p^+1 — p^_j.378 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers fits are also used to prepare heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations from raw data-the data-fits often being better than those published with the data. Thus at time t + 1 we may put p^\ = p^_j without serious error followed by matrix inversion using Gaussian elimination. Beyond the first time-step. The balance of mass equation to be solved is We use values of velocity (u) from the previous time interval. The scheme shown is that for the hot fluid. Balance of mass Solution for density (p). Unknowns in the finite-difference form are H\ to H$. If necessary. Densities are replaced by their subscripts below. and . zero density gradient at H5 is assumed. Balance of linear momentum Solution for the product of density x velocity pu. as the identical algorithm can be used for the cold fluid providing the input data is reverse numbered before solution and the output results reverse renumbered after solution. This is not a problem at start-up from an isothermal condition. but Crank-Nicholson formulation requires a value at H^. The balance of linear momentum equation to be solved is in conservative form. Only the algorithm for the hot fluid is required. p^\ can be iterated until p£\=p£\.

This requires the average of fluid temperatures at each end of a cell in developing the algorithms.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 379 Values of velocity (u) and temperature (T) are from the previous time interval are used. and reverse re-numbered after solution. from which new values of velocity can be obtained. The approach to solution is the same as for the balance of mass equation. The Crank-Nicholson transient solution is set up at the mid-point of cells. the identical algorithm can be used for the cold fluid providing the input data are reverse numbered before solution. Temperatures are replaced by their subscripts below. Balance of energy Solution for the absolute temperatures T. . This requires the assumption of zero wall temperature gradients at each end of the exchanger. but wall temperatures at each end of the exchanger remain unknown.5 except that time-dependent terms are now involved. now providing distributed values of pu. where We set up the solution along the lines adopted for longitudinal conduction in Appendix B. As before. New values for density (p) are obtained directly from solution of the balance of mass equation.

(1984). balance of linear momentum. By this means we get exactly the same number of unknowns as there are equations. but wall temperatures at the midpoint of cells. 1980). It may be optimal to solve the balance of mass and linear momentum equations by MacCormack. The essential requirement is a very fast computer. He solved for a single-step inlet disturbance with constant physical properties. updated physical properties for the next time interval can be obtained from interpolating cubic spline-fits. Accuracy of numerical prediction of transient response of heat exchangers needs to be demonstrated against experimental results. Ontko (1989) adopted a modified MacCormack approach for solution of transients in a contraflow heat exchanger. Explicit solution of individual equations involves solution by predictor-corrector algorithms. by Peyret & Taylor (1982). New values of Reynolds numbers allow heat-transfer coefficients and flow-friction factors to be obtained for each fluid station. Anderson et al. and by Fletcher (1991). Alternative approaches Alternatives include the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme. and solution of the temperature-field matrix can be by Gaussian inversion. it is perfectly possible to allow for temperature-dependent physical properties. The maximum speed of sound found in the exchanger allows the next time interval to be estimated from the modified CFL condition. however. by Anderson et al. or by the method of lines plus Runge-Kutta. the time-wise temperature gradient at mid-points for the hot fluid equation may be written where j refers to the wall stations. and balance of energy equations can now be repeated for the next time interval. while solving the . (1984) observed that best results are obtained when differences in the predictor are taken in the direction of the flow disturbance. (1989). Various extensions of the Lax-Wendroff method exist (see Mitchell & Griffiths. The (RHS) terms are forward and backward differences for the right-hand side of the hot fluid equation given in the set above.380 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers For the hot fluid equation. and differences in the corrector are taken in the opposite direction. including several different versions of the two-step MacCormack algorithm. for which an easily understood graphical representation is given by Press et al. Solution of the balance of mass. Solution of coupled systems of conservation equations by the method due to MacCormack is described by Mitchell & Griffiths (1980). Once temperatures are known. The process is repeated for wall and cold fluid equations. Note that the solution provides fluid temperatures at the cell boundaries.

2). January..F. Witchita. 1991. and Taylor. T.4). Chapter 7. Chapter 18. Institute for Aviation Research. Kansas. (1989) Numerical Recipies in Pascal. C.A. II. C. 4th edn. Engng Gas Turbines Power.A. 1-7. W. One of the best ways of solving this sequence of discrete problems is by using the Runge-Kutta method.2 and 18.T. R.P. and Fletcher. 2nd edn. Edinburgh and London. I. Fig. Cambridge University Press. W. II. 27.V.D. Report IAR 89-10. 501-510. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. (1989) Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists. D. B. an extension of twice differentiable interpolation. .J.B. Teukolsky. John Wiley.Algorithms And Schematic Source Listings 381 balance of energy equations simultaneously using Crank-Nicholson and matrix inversion. References Anderson. Berlin. A. Jeffrey. See also Fletcher (1991. Tannehill. (1982) Computational Methods for Fluid Flow. 8.A. Applied Mathematical Sciences..H. New York. (1985) Numerical Mathematics and Computing. Young. Chapter 18. Peyret. Section 18.C.S. R.1978 (subsequently as loose-leaf Collected Algorithms from ACM). vols.Differences Integration and Differential Equations. Sections 18. C. J. Assoc. Stability of the explicit and implicit MacCormack schemes is discussed by Fletcher (1991. D. and Vetterling. 10. B. (1976) VP-splines. D.3).. B. Bibliography Anon. The best confirmation of accuracy of these alternative solution methods would be experimental. Ontko. The method of lines involves reducing the partial differential equation to a system of ordinary differential equations for the nodal values (Fletcher. The implicit scheme is an extension to the explicit scheme and as an example it is applied to a particular one-dimensional transport equation. Fletcher. Mitchell. Springer. (1989) A parametric study of counterflow heat exchanger transients. p. US Army Research Office. Section 7. (1960-1978) Index by Subject to Algorithms.. Noble. (1978) A Practical Guide to Splines.R. December 1977. Press. involving construction of a small laboratory test-rig to produce measured transients in model contraflow exchangers (see Chapter 4. Comm. W. ARD Report 76-3. and Kincaid.H.H. Springer. (1984) Computational Techniques for Fluid Mechanics.. and Griffiths. 110. Chapter 9. Oliver and Boyd. Mach. J. 2nd edn.T.2. pp. (1970) An algorithm for data smoothing using spline functions. (1988) An equation of state for steam for turbomachinery and other flow calculations. Cambridge. Wichita State University. Berlin. 1976. Soanes. (1964) Numerical Methods: 2 . 141-152. J..I. de Boor. Hemisphere. I and II. Chichester. R. June. Research Triangle Park. 303. (1991) Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics. Springer.4). A. ASME J. In Proceedings of the 1976 Army Numerical Analysis and Computer Conference. S. vol. Flannery. vol. North Carolina. Van Nostrand Reinhold (International). Woodford. Comp. Cheney. vol. (1980) The Finite Difference Method in Partial Differential Equations. (ACM).

382 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Ontko. T. D..F. Ltd. J.. A. I and II. Middleton. Faulkner.. England. Compact Heat Exchangers . (1981) Engineering Mathematics.J. Berry. Holden. and D. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. T.K..A. W.S. J. Hemisphere.H. Parker. Spencer. (1990) Transients in counterflow heat exchanger. J. vols. Kraus.G.S.. 531-548. New York. Metzger). D. A.D. . R.. London (Eds..T.M.a Festschrift for A. and Harris.. A. D. Green.R. Shah.A.. pp.L. and Rogers.

Evaluation of physical properties is by use of interpolating cubic spline-fits. and transients. and it may be appropriate to use a modified version of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. S. the separating wall and the cold fluid. Disturbances are prevented from passing into the next space interval by invoking the CFL constraint (Chapter 9. Thus transients must initiate from a known steady-state. Time interval solution has to accommodate hot and cold transients travelling in opposite directions. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. where the speed of sound for a perfect gas is c = *JyRT and the largest value of (\u\ + c) is taken.1 the solution process may be arranged as separate and sequential solution of mass flow and temperature fields. Automatic selection of time intervals is essential and is controlled by the software. At the beginning of each time interval it is required that the temperature profiles be known throughout the exchanger for the hot fluid. As the Mach number for flow does not exceed 0. Ltd. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. The approach to solving the transient problem can be found in Chapter 9 and Appendices A and B.1 Preparation of algorithms The finite-difference approach used is the stable Crank-Nicholson solution. Eric M. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .2). step-wise rating. Because physical properties are temperature dependent it is recommended that the computation is started from initially isothermal conditions. These equations were solved first to understand any computational problems before particularizing the solution. In a single time interval the first stage is to solve the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations for density (p) and velocity (u). Section 9. viz A? < (Ax/2)/(|w| + c).SUPPLEMENT TO APPENDIX B Transient Algorithms Crank-Nicholson finite-difference formulation Mass flow and temperature transients in contraflow A finite-difference solution involves a set of seven simultaneous partial differential equations.

(ri) is the outlet condition and (n + 1) is a fictitious condition. cold fluid) can be solved. . Forward and backward finite differences are taken as from which the standard Crank-Nicholson finite-difference form is produced. The temperaturefield solutions then provides new temperature profiles from which new physical properties for the next time interval are obtained from interpolating spline-fits. S. The above procedures are repeated until the transient is complete. Once the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations have been solved then.2 Balance of mass The governing equation is first expanded Stations along the exchanger are numbered (0 • • • n + 1) where (0) is the inlet condition. solid wall.384 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Neither pressure (p) nor friction loss enter into the conservative continuum equation for linear momentum. and in the process will then introduce further transient effects. but pressure can be evaluated from density (p) using the state equation for the fluid. for the same time interval. Pressure group terms added to the balance of linear momentum equation will particularize the solution. and the pressure loss due to friction can be evaluated using both density (p) and velocity (u) from the last time step. the three simultaneous equations for the temperature fields (hot fluid.

Cj) requires knowledge of velocities at time t+1. which will not introduce too much error if time intervals are small. . and use this as an approximate value for p^. Extrapolation One approach is to extrapolate for p^+1 from the solution of the matrix for the previous time interval. The fictitious value p^\ = (p)6 is not known for the last equation. which are unknown. The fictitious value p^+1 may be found using the extrapolation rule explained in Appendix A. and two approaches to approximating an acceptable value are by extrapolation or by zero gradient.Transient Algorithms Rearranging unknowns on the left-hand side (LHS) 385 allows a compact notation to be adopted where and The solution matrix may now be loaded as follows: • first equation in matrix • intermediate equations in matrix • last equation in matrix The compact notation (Aj.Bj. However. we can use known velocities at time t to load and solve the matrix.

I has been set up for the hot fluid.1 1 2 n 3 4 5 B1 A2 B2 A3 1 2 C3 B4 As n.C5(p)6 n+1 Known inlet condition (p)0. estimated fictitious condition (p)6. but the solution method serves equally well for the cold fluid providing input data stations are renumbered appropriately.3 viz.386 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Section A. Zero gradient A simpler and better approach is to assume zero gradient at outlet. S.I Matrix for density Unknown Equation 1 Pi 2 P2 /"1 *-l 3 Ps C2 B3 A4 4 P4 5 Ps RHS DHJC — A /"^>\ JvHoi t\\\p)Q 1 2 n. (p)6 adjusted and matrix solution iterated until (p)4 = (p)6. allowing the fictitious value p^ = ffn-\- known u n.Q Schematic 5-cell layout u rij u fi2 u 1*3 u 1*4 ti "5 fictitious ur HG Cold fluid equation The matrix Table S. and thus provides the same compact notation .3 Balance of linear momentum The conservative form of the governing equation is This has the same form as the balance of mass equation. It is only necessary to reverse-renumber the cold fluid solution when it emerges. Table S.1 C4 B5 n RHS2 RHS3 RHS4 RHS5 .

C. . The solution matrix may now be loaded as follows: • first equation in matrix • intermediate equations in matrix • last equation in matrix For the density x velocity matrix... add 2. and should be replaced by numerical expressions for losses due to entry and exit effects. .) and (pu)'^ follows the same route as employed for the (density) matrix.. add (RT to expression for Bi to expression for RHSj to obtain friction Pressure gradient terms at entry and exit are zero..Transient Algorithms where 387 and Inclusion of pressure terms (see Appendix A. 3) Following evaluation of Reynolds numbers Rej"1 = (pudhyd/n)^1 factors (f)j~l from an interpolating cubic spline-fit: 1. . finding values of (Ay.fiy.

388 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table S. (pu)6 adjusted and matrix solution iterated until (pu)^ = (pu)6. but we might assume that there may be zero temperature gradient at the ends. estimated fictitious condition (pu)6. This requires setting up hot and cold fluid temperatures in the range (0 • • • n). It is only necessary to reverse-renumber the cold fluid solution when it emerges.1 n 1 2 3 4 5 Bi A2 Ci B2 A3 1 2 C3 B4 A5 n.1 C4 B5 n RHSi -Ai(pw) 0 RHS2 RHS3 RHS4 RHS5 .2 has been set up for the hot fluid.4 Balance of energy The use of Crank-Nicholson method for the three coupled temperature equations does not involve any extrapolation in the solution. End temperatures for the solid wall remain unknown. and the solid wall temperatures in the range (0 • • • n — 1).C5(p«)5 n+1 Known inlet condition (pu)0. Cold fluid equations The matrix Table S. . S. but this serves equally well for the cold fluid providing input data stations are renumbered appropriately.2 Matrix for density x velocity Unknown Equation 1 (pu)l 2 (pu)2 3 (pu)3 C2 B3 A4 4 fP"^4 5 (pu)5 RHS 2 1 n. The mid-point of cells is used as the basis for the algorithm. The first step is to settle the finite-difference layout for solution.

R.Transient Algorithms Simplification of the governing equations 389 Replace temperatures with their subscripts. noticing that these values are different from those defined for the steady-state. where Each equation is now converted to Crank-Nicholson finite-difference form separately. Q. Hot fluid equation Forward differences evaluted at . and replace coefficients with (P. S).

The time-wise temperature gradient between mid-points (both hot and cold fluids) is given by mean of time wise temperature gradients at each end where j refers to wall stations from which .390 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers and backward differences at Wj Crank-Nicholson is mean of forward and backward differences.

and mass flow rates remain unchanged so that {(w^1 = (wfc)j j then putting At j = 0 the hot inlet temperature H*Q~I is known thus .Transient Algorithms 391 then Collect unknown t + 1 terms on LHS. and known t terms on the RHS If all coefficients are evaluated at time ?.

392 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Solid wall equation Forward differences give Backward differences give .

thus time-wise temperature gradient between mid-points (for the solid wall) is given by where j refers to wall stations.Transient Algorithms 393 Crank-Nicholson is average of forward and backward differences. Then Unknown t + 1 terms are now on LHS and known t terms are on RHS .

and W'n+1) because end.394 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers If all coefficients for t -f 1 and t are evaluated at time interval t. At (7 = n) inlet temperature C^ is known. then putting where 7 is in the range 1 to (n — 1) • Hot end equation. Atj = 0 inlet temperature //Q+I is known. and W1^1 = WQ+I because hot-end wall temperature gradient is zero + collecting W^+ terms and moving inlet temperature //Q+I to RHS Cold-end equation.wall temperature gradient is zero .

.Transient Algorithms 395 collecting W'n+l terms and moving inlet temperature C^\ to RHS Cold fluid equation Forward differences evaluated at W.- and backward differences at W.

and mass flow rates remain unchanged so that {(^)j+1 = (u A )j).396 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Crank-Nicholson is mean of forward and backward differences Collect unknown t + 1 terms on LHS and known r terms on RHS If all coefficients are evaluated at time r. then putting .

4 which follows is the necessary prior step to writing a finite-difference algorithm for a (1 • • • 3n. Preparation of Table S. 1 • • • 3n + 1) matrix.Y +Z RHS entries vary depending on location. Hend and Cend entries each include multiplying coefficents.Transient Algorithms 397 At 7 = n — 1 the cold inlet temperature C^t1 is known thus The temperature-field matrix is large. Table S. even in compact form. The matrix may be solved by Gaussian elimination. .3 Symbol key for temperature matrix a=l+A+B b= 1-A+B c=-2B d=-F f = E + 2(D + F + G) g=-D j = -2Z h=-G k= 1+Y+Z m = l .5 Coding of temperature matrix See pages 400-403. S. To simplify the notation still further the following symbol key table is to be used together with the main matrix.

1 n 1 2 3 4 5 a b a b a RHS-Hend RHS RHS RHS RHS h h h h h n+1 n+2 g f g g f g g .1 RHS RHS RHS m RHS k RHS-Cend 3n 3n + 1 .e k j j j n+ 1 n+ 2 m k d d d d e g 2n.Table S.1 m k 1 2 n.1 2n j 6 7 8 9 10 d d g f g d d h h d h h m k RHS-Hend RHS RHS RHS RHS-Cend 2n+l 2n + 2 3n.4 Transient temperatures in contraflow with longitudinal conduction 6 W0 Wt W2 W3 W4 C0 3 d C2 4 C3 C4 5 c c c c c 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 RHS Unknown Equation 1 H\ 2 H2 H3 H4 H5 1 2 a b a b n.1 n j 2n 2n + 1 2n + 2 3n .1 3n 11 12 13 14 15 2n .

TEXT .E.3*n+l] {thermal diffusivity of wall at cell boundaries} FOR j:=0 TO n DO kappaW[j] :=lamW [ j]/(rhoW*CpW[j]).G.F.*******~*******~*******~*******~******* 1 Filename TMATRIX.D. RHSrreal. .Cend:real).loads coefficients for temperature matrix in TRANS} A A A A I ******* ******* ******* ******* ******* I } PROCEDURE tmatrix(Hend.. A. VAR j.Y. / I *******A*******A*******A*******A'******* I .B.k:integer. BEGIN {matrix coordinates (n) is the number of space cells (p=n+l) is the number of stations between cells By solving the temperature field matrix at the mid point of cells we w have (n) unknowns for each of the hot fluid (H) the wall (W) and the cold fluid (C) known H => 3 4 5 0 1 W => 0 2 } 0 3 45 C => 0 1 known The resulting matrix is [3*n.Z:vectorL.n] OF real. TYPE vectorL=ARRAY[0.

D.F. {• ************************************* . {writeln( ' Y. A[j] :=(dT/dX)*av_Vh. Z' ) . Z[j] : = (dT*Surf/(2*L) ) * (alphaC [j ] *av_Vc) / (WmC [j] *WCpC [j ]). 0 . field at wall stations} BEGIN FOR j :=0 TO n DO av_VG : = ( velC [ j +1] +velC [ j ] ) /2 .} I*******'********'"'*******'"'*******''''******* {j rows.k] : = 0 . END. WCpH[j] : = (CpH[j+l]+CpH[j] ) /2 .{writeln ( 'begin Ttnatrix components A. k cols} {left and right hand sides} {clear matrix} w r i t e l n ( ' c l e a r Tmatrix') FOR j : = 1 TO 3*n DO BEGIN FOR k:=l TO 3*n+l DO c o e f f ^ t j . Y [ j ] :=(dT/dX)*av_Vc. END. G [ j ] : = (Surf/ (2*Mw) ) * (alphaC [ j ] /CpW [j ] ) . {writeln( ' A .G complete'). END. } {coeffs for solution of hot fluid temp. {writeln('D. E. } BEGIN D[j] :=kappaW[j] / (dX*dX) . B [ j ] : = (dT*Surf/(2*L) ) * (alphaH [j ] *av_Vh) / (WmH [j ] *WCpH [j ] ) . WCpC [ j ] : = (CpC [ j +1] +CpC [ j ] ) /2 .E. field at wall stations} :=2/dT. WmH[j] : = (mH[j+l]+mH[j] ) /2 .B. : = (Surf/(2*Mw) )* (alphaH [j]/CpW[j] ) . B c o m p l e t e ' ) .Z complete'). field at wall stations} FOR j :=0 TO n DO BEGIN av_Vh: = (velH[j+l] +velH[j] ) /2. END. FOR j :=0 TO n DO {coeffs for solution of solid wall temp. WmC[j] : = ( m C [ j + l ] + m C [ j ] ) / 2 .} j { {coeffs for solution of cold fluid temp. F.G. Y.

l ] } { H [ n ] . +j ] =-F[j-l].F [ 0 ] .A [ n .{load matrix} {###########################M##^M#M######tt########M#M###M####M###M#M##M} {top section} {writeln('top section of Tmatrix').d} coeffA[ FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ coeffA[2 { . c o e f f * [ +n . .2 ] } {H[n-l] .l ] . +1]:=1+A[0]+B[0]. . coeff* [ +j+l. coeff A [ +1.3*n+l]:=coeffA[l. +n+j ] :=-2*B [j-1] . +n + 1 ] : = . . { H [ l ] . +n .F [ 0 ] . .d} { H [ 2 ] to H [ n . {H[l] . +n ]:=l+A[n-l]+B[n-1]. +n -1] = . { } W [ 0 ] .a} C0effA[ FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ coeffA[ { . +1] = .A [ j .a} {H[l] t o H [ n .} n +1. c o e f f " [ +n . .} +j +n H [ 0 ] onRHS} { H [ l ] to H t n . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ n+j .l ] + B [ n . {#################################################################################} {mid-section} {writeln('mid-section of Tmatrix').2 * B [ 0 ] .c} COeff^t +1.1 ] } {H[n] . + j . +0] : = 1 .3*n+l]-Hend*(1-A[0]+B[0]).2*n ]:=-2*B[n-1].d} H [ 0 ] on RHS} { H [ l ] to H [ n . { -} BEGIN {known} {rhs} {rhs-H*(1-A+B)} END. {adjust first value. coeffx[2 n . +0] = . .F [ n .1 ] + B [j-1] .1 ] : = l . FOR j:=0 TO n-1 DO RHS:= Th[j+1]*(1-A[j]-B[j ] ) + Th[j ]*(H-A[j]-B[j]) + (Tw[j]*(+2*B[j]). FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ +j .l ] } W [ n ] .A [ 0 ] + B [ 0 ] . n+j . n . +j-l] =-F[j-l].c} W [ l ] to W [ n . +j ] : =1+A[ j .1 ] : = l .1 ] . coeff*[ n +1.3*n+l] :=RHS.l ] } {H[n] . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A t +j . { } . j=0} coeffA[l.b} +1.1 ] + B [j-1] . +n ] =-F[n-l].

1 ] + 2 * ( F [ n . 2 * n + 1 ] : = .2*n+j ]:=-G[j-l]. 3 * n + l ] .l ] . 2 * n + 2 ] : = .l ] .3*n+l]:=coeff A [2*n.3*n +1] :=-G [n-1] .1 ] + D [ n .3*n+l]-Cend*(-G[n-1]).2 ] } {w[n-l] . . +n+j ] =E [j -1] +2* (D [j -1] +F [j -1] + G [ j -1] ) .2 ] } C [n] on RHS} c o e f f A [ +n + l . j = n .2*n ] = E [ n . .D [ j . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coeff" [ +n+j .. { . +n +2] = .1 ] ) .l } coeff*[2*n. FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coeff* [ +n+j .l ] .g} coeff* [ +n +1.h} { C [ l ] .2*n -1] = . {.G [ 0 ] . A coeff [ +n+j+l. {C[2] { C [ 0 ] .e} FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coeff * [ +n+j . A coeff [2*n . { w [ 0 ] .l ] .l ] :=Tw[0] . +n+j+l] = .2*n+j+l] :=-G[j-1] . Tw[n] :=Tw[n-l] .2*n +1] = .{ .l ] . {adjust hot end. + Tw [ j-1] * (D [ j ] ) {known} {mid RHS} END.2 ] } A coeff [2*n .D [ j .1 ] + G [ n . +n +1] = E [ 0 ] + D [ 0 ] + 2 * ( F [ 0 ] + G [ 0 ] ) .3*n+l]:=RHS. 3 * n + l ] : = c o e f f A [ n + l .D [ 0 ] . c o e f f A [2*n . { W [ 1 ] to W [ n . c o e f f A [ +n +1. {zero end gradient} T w [ . .2 ] } not valid} coeff* [ +n +1.h} {c[0] to C [ n .D [ n . } { c o e f f * [ +n + l . {top RHS} {bot RHS} {###Mtttt##tttt#####tt#tt###M##########tt####tttt#tt###########M#tt#############tt#########} .f} { W [ 2 ] to W [ n . j = 0 } c o e f f A [ n + l . coeffA[2*n .h} to C [ n . coeffA[2*n . +n+j-l] = . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coef f" [ +n+j .G [ 0 ] . . BEGIN FOR j : = 0 TO n-1 DO RHS:= T h [ j + 1 ] * ( F [ j ] + T h [ j ] * ( F [ j ] ) + T w [ j + l ] * ( D [ j ] + T w [ j ] * ( E [ j ] .F [ 0 ] ) . +n ] =-D[0].2 * ( D [ j ] + F [ j ] + G [ j ] + G [ j ] )) + Tc[j+l]*(G[j] + Tc[j]*(G[j] ) .e} { W [ l ] . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ +n+j ..H e n d * ( . not valid} { w [ 0 ] to W [ n .2 ] } {C[n-l] .D [ n . { w [ n .3*n ]:=-G[n-l].{adjust cold end.

{C[0] .2*n +2] =1-Y [ 0 ] + Z [0] .k} .2 ] } C[n-l] on RHS} coeff * [2*n +l.3*n+l] : = c o e f f A [ 3 * n .2*n+j + l] =1-Y [ j .j} { W [ l ] to W [ n . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coeff A [2*n+j .n} {C[2] to C [ n . coeff A [3*n .2 * Z [j -1] .3*n+l]:=RHS. The author give no assurance that this algorithm is correct. . 3 * n + l ] .1 ] + Z [j-1] .2*n ] : =-2*Z [n-1] .Y [ j ] + Z [ j ] END.2 ] } (C[n-l] . . Potential users should check every line of the analysis before committing themselves to computational predictions.k} {C[l] . +n+j ] : = . {C[l] to C [ n . {PROCEDURE tmatrix} WARNING. } { coeff * [2*n +l. coeff A [3*n . { .} { W [ 0 ] . .2*n +1] =1+Y [0] +Z [0] .C e n d * ( l .3*n ] =1+Y [n-1]+Z [n-1] .3*n +1] =1-Y [n-1]+Z[n-1] : BEGIN FOR j : = 0 TO n-1 DO {known} ). {adjust last value j = n .j} coeff*[2*n +1. {cold end} END.l } coeff A [3*n. 2 * n + j ] =1+Y [ j .Z [ j ] ) + T w [ j ] * ( + 2 * Z [ j ] ) . RHS: = T c [ j + 1 ] * ( 1 + Y [ j ] -Z [j] ) + Tc[j ] * ( l .Y [ j ] . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO coeff A [2*n+j . .2 ] } {W[n-l] . coeffA[2*n+j+l.1 ] + Z [j-1] coeff A [3*n . +n +1] : = -2*Z [0] . FOR j : = 2 TO n-1 DO c o e f f A [ 2 * n + j .{bottom section} {writeln('bot section of Tmatrix').

P. Cambridge University Press. A.. (1989) Numerical Recipes in Pascal. and Kincaid. Jeffrey. Green. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. (1964) Numerical Methods: 2-Differences Integration and Differential Equations. Van Nostrand Reinhold (International).H.A. A. B. T. The computation may thus become unstable once a flow transient reaches the end of the exchanger. Middleton. . (1985) Numerical Mathematics and Computing.J. D.M.. 2nd edn. (1989) Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists. Spencer. Oliver and Boyd. Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. two assumptions were proposed neither of which may correctly match the actual situation of zero temperature gradient at flow exit in the balance of mass and balance of linear momentum equations. or until heat transfer from the other fluid penetrates the solid wall. The problem is to ensure that • for (jc < L) temperatures and flow rates are functions of time and position • for (jc > L) the temperature and flow rate gradients are zero and this mathematical end condition is not easily modelled. 8. A. Bibliography Cheney. D.T. (1997) Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics. Teukolsky. Berry. D... Cambridge.G.H.F.AJ.6 Conclusions In the solution approach presented.T. W.. Parker.. 4th edn. W. D. C. J. I & II. Faulkner. Springer. B. 2nd edn.S. and Vetterling..5. Noble. The two numerical solutions proposed both assumed fictitious temperature gradients external to the exchanger..A. and Rogers. S. Edinburgh and London. Vols. Press..404 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers S. T. Rapidly rising or falling temperatures to the exchanger side of the flow exit must match with constant temperature levels outside the exchanger after the flow exit. using a representative section of the actual exchanger. Holden. Fletcher.. (1981) Engineering Mathematics.R. W. Ltd. Berlin. W. Vols I and II. Flannery. England.. The most reliable route to investigating the problem is then to study transient behaviour on a test rig such as Fig.

Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Exchanger specifications Thermal parameters A 200 kW contraflow exchanger with an effectiveness of 0. step-wise rating. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing.0 K and cold inlet temperature Tc2 = 340.APPENDIX C Optimization of Rectangular Offset-Strip.86 was chosen with hot inlet temperature Th\ = 410.0 K. In operational mode 1. This search arrangement was applied to both sides of the exchanger. the optimum surface geometry is sought for the following geometric parameters: • • • • minimum block volume (overall dimensions) minimum block length minimum frontal area minimum plate surface Choice of exchanger A two-stream compact plate-fin heat exchanger with single-cell rectangular offsetstrip fin surfaces on each sides was chosen as the model. which makes both pressure losses controlling. In operational mode 2. In design it is best to seek coincidence of pressure loss curves on the direct-sizing plot. Hence only performance characteristics for controlling sides are given in the figures which follow. Ltd. For the same thermodynamic performance. Pressure loss on one side of the exchanger was kept constant while the pressure loss on the other side was allowed to float and find its correct level at the design point. and transients. Plate-Fin Surfaces Directions in which to move C.1 Fine-tuning of rectangular offset-strip fins The generalized Manglik & Bergles (1990) correlations for heat transfer and flow friction allow exploration of the effect of varying surface geometries on final core size. Eric M. the hot fluid was made the low-pressure fluid (corresponding to a gas turbine recuperator). The only change in operational parameters between the two modes will be to swap the inlet pressure levels of the fluids. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . LMTD reduction for longitudinal conduction was not applied as interest is for trends at this time. the hot fluid was made the high-pressure fluid (corresponding to a cryogenic exchanger).

to produce the missing mass flowrate. c = 2.(one dimension at a time) Cell pitch c (mm) 1 1. Surface geometries The effects of changing fin thickness might be explored.0 Observations concerning all dimensional parameters stem from validity of the Manglik & Bergles correlations.6. mm Fin thickness. kg/m3 tp = 2.0 (mm).1 and 6. Keeping cell width flow area constant it was found that varying high-pressure fin thickness had virtually no effect on surface area.5 2 2. One forced mass flowrate was then found using the thermal duty Q = 200 kW. but it was thought that the credibility of the Manglik & Bergles correlations might be pushed too far. variation about nominal .86.0 bar.406 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Pressure levels (which were swapped to complete the investigation) were 1. and the scatter of data should be noted in Figs 4. however.15 p = 2770.I Range of geometrical parameters.5 4 Plate spacing b (mm) 2 3 4 5 Strip length x (mm) 2 3 4 5 6 1 8 6 7 8 . x = 6.00 tf = 0. Nominal sizes for both sides: b = 5. Parameters still required were an outlet temperature and mean specific heat of one fluid. One outlet temperature was forced using the effectiveness of 0. Surface geometry was varied according to the following scheme (Table c.15 was selected.00 (mm) Plate material Plate thickness. Then an arbitrary mass flowrate ratio of 1. Small low-pressure fin thickness helped minimize surface area.5 3 3.5 and 4. The result is inconclusive because the work of Kelkar & Patankar (1989) and Hesselgreaves (1993) needs further study.00 (mm).l). mm Density Al alloy. it is to be noted that thin fins also cause less longitudinal conduction. The outlet temperature was iterated and an estimated mean specific heat obtained from a spline-fit until the required thermal duty of 200 kW was matched. Also. and a forced mean specific heat was obtained from spline-fits of physical property data. the approach of varying one parameter at a time and then selecting a combination of these to optimize against a particular requirement may find the Table C.

if we ignore the behaviour of strip-length x.. C. is coupled with an increase in cell-width c and a decrease of cell-height b on the other side. Graphs were generated by changing the dimensions of plate spacing '&'. However. 99). but may miss a true optimum configuration. there is no reason why such work should not be done so that results obtained can be compared with other papers directly concerned with the effect of fin thickness on exchanger performance (Xi et al. could be minimized on both sides without affecting other parameters. Thus the reader should not expect to find that selection of three individually-optimized parameters will lead to a fully-optimized design. but their results are presented in scatter plots. block porosity. 1997) clear-cut evidence that cell width. Minimization of block length The same situation applies to block length as with block volume. Although this could have been done. Plate-Fin Surfaces 407 general area of best performance. . Cool et al. plate surface area and total surface area. The objective is to indicate the most profitable direction in which changes in the local geometry of rectangular offset-strip fins may be made when optimizing thermal performance of an exchanger. Here a manual search was used. block length and block frontal area.2 Trend curves Primary design parameters of interest are block volume. Secondary parameters include block mass. Minimization of block volume In the study of block volume there emerged from the complete set of four figures (Smith. which may cause problems. 1989).and double-cell ROSF geometries.0 mm). which could easily be accommodated through larger values in cellheights b and strip-lengths x. (1999) provide a complete set of search parameters using generic algorithms. There has been no attempt to explore the effect of varying fin thickness on exchanger performance. The computational scheme employed covered both single. it might have pushed the Manglik & Bergles correlations just a little too far. Minimization of block mass Here the situation is less clear.Optimization of Rectangular Offset-Strip. This implied a minor pressure loss penalty. for a reduction in cell width c with a modest increase in cell-height b on one side. one at a time while the other values remained at a median position. readers should refer to the set of 20 figures presented in Smith (1997.5 mm instead of 1. To obtain a complete picture of the situation. Automatic optimization techniques can encounter the problem of changing limits on Reynolds number validity during iteration. cell width 'c' and strip length V. c. There is also an indication that a marginally higher value is required for cell-widths (c = 1.

x) Fig. x) .C. c.4 Plate surface area versus (b.C.l Block volume versus (b. x) on the graphs. There is evidence that cell-width c can be reduced on both sides. Fig. c.3 Frontal area versus (b. x) Fig. plate-fin geometry that you think may be suitable. c.C. c. How to use the graphs Select the rectangular offset-strip.11. For all of the above options. constraints in the selection of plain rectangular surfaces may be seen in Fig. and plot the values of (b. with the option of decreasing cellheight b on one side while maintaining a more or less constant b on the other side. 4. or) Fig. c. Now examine slopes of the graphs and from the ordinate and abscissae scales determine the direction in which it would be beneficial to alter the original surface specification.408 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Minimization of frontal area Increasing the value of length L would reduce block frontal area.C.2 Block length versus (b.

. It is somewhat unexpected that changing strip length (x) hardly affects block volume or plate surface area. c. x) are varied. Analysis of laminar flow heat transfer along a flat plate predicts infinite heattransfer coefficients at the leading edge.3 Optimization graphs Sample trend curves (without pressure loss levels) are presented showing how block volume..Optimization of Rectangular Offset-Strip. and plate surface change as rectangular offset-strip-fin parameters (b. London.. fin thickness //A ——— = I — I cell pitch \cj References Cool.I. Stevens. and Adderley.669 x 10-8(Re)4-429(a)a920(5)3-767(y)a236]ai Heat transfer j = 0.6522(Re)-0-5403(«)-0-1541(S)°-1499(y)-0-0678 x [1+5. T.269 x 10-5(Re)L340(a)0-504(8)a456(y)-1-055]0-1 where the Colburn y'-factor is 7 = St Pr2/3. C. In 6th UK National Heat Transfer Conference. For minimum block volume large values of plate spacing (b) and small values of cell pitch (c) are appropriate. frontal area. block length. „ .4 Manglik & Bergles correlations In the notation of this text: cell pitcn pitch .6243(Re)-0-7422(«)-0-1856(8)°-3053(y)-0-2659 x [1+7. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. C. Plate-Fin Surfaces 409 C. although it does affect block length and frontal area. More detailed discussion of optimization of plate spacing and cell pitch is to be found in Chapter 4 and Appendix J. /c\ Manglik & Bergles a = — —:— = (-1 plates oacine olates pacing \b/ \b) fin thickness ftf\ Manghk & Bergles 8 = ——: —= I— I stop length' \xj Manglik & Bergles y = Flow friction: / = 9... and a mean value of heat transfer over the plate to be twice that calculated at the trailing edge. (1999) Heat exchanger optimisation using genetic algorithms. Further investigation of ROSF geometries might be worthwhile. A.

November. Hagiwara. New York.L.K. Compact Heat Exchangers . pp. K. Mech. Shah.a Festschrift for A. Hashemi). 10. Elsevier.M. March. R.) Manglik. 149-164. J. T.. Method. A. Y. (1990) The thermal hydraulic design of the rectangular offset-strip fin compact heat exchanger. and Bergles. 55(519). . 15-17 February 1993. Exp. (Eds R. ASME Publication HTD-Vol. (Also. E. (Effect of fin thickness on the middle range of Reynolds number. Int. Bibliography Manglik. John Wiley & Sons. Reprinted with corrections 1999.410 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Hesselgreaves.52. Chichester. 123-149. 3507-3513. Kraus. 21-28. Thermal Fluid Sci. Metzger). Comp. Engrs. and A. Palo Alta. 171-180. and Murata. A. Smith.E.V. Japan Soc.. and D. California.M. 99) Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers. A. 15(2). London (Eds R.. Pan B.D.. (1993) Optimising size and weight of plate-fin heat exchangers.) Trans. K. Suzuki. pp.K.M. Hemisphere. Xi. R. (1997. 391-399. (1989) Numerical prediction of heat transfer and fluid flow in rectangular offset-fin arrays. Applied: Numerical Heat Transfer. (1989) Basic study on the heat transfer characteristics of offset fin arrays. Pan A. Shah. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Heat Exchanger Technology. S. Kelkar. Ltd. G.E. and Patankar. and Bergles. (1995) Heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for the rectanglar offset strip-fin compact heat exchanger. Oxford pp. J.M.

W) denote the test fluid. 03. Eric M. O for oil and W for water. step-wise rating. Water: 02WARA (+). 04OARE (n).C. Fig. Ltd. The RODbaffle codes (e. Oklahoma. Phillips Petroleum Company). Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.l Heat-transfer correlations for RODbaffle geometries (experimental data.1 Further heat-transfer and flow-friction data Towards completion of this text. and to generate a set of smoothed data for the geometry 02WARA.g. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . courtesy of C. The first two digits (e. 03WARB (x).APPENDIX D Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers Extra correlations D. Light oil: 02OARA (o).C. The letter symbols (O. 02WARA) do not refer to dimensions of the RODbaffle geometry. the writer received a number of experimental datasets for the RODbaffle geometries from Dr C. Gentry. 02WARE (Y) Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. It seemed useful to plot these for comparison. the geometry of which is not identical to that used in Chapter 7.D. and transients. 02.g. Gentry of the Phillips Petroleum Company. 04) denote the specific test sequence. The final three letters identify baffle ring geometry.

and universal correlations may perhaps be more easily sought for correlations generated using the same fluid. Water: 02WARA (+). Lb (mm) p/d 1.46 248.10 12.80 19. 03WARB ( x ).375 1..4625 17.200 9.46 124.f.375 1.937 38. 1990.2 1. 02WARE (Y) Figures D.I Bundle geometry Chapter 7 02WARA 02OARA 03WARB 02WARE 04OARE Geometries for RODbaffle exchangers (courtesy of C.4 of Chapter 7. It is usually known in advance as to whether the shell-side fluid is to be water or oil. while curves at higher Reynolds numbers are for water. 04OARE (n). Chapter 4).C.050 19.80 9. Phillips Petroleum Company).2 correspond to Figs 7.C. p (mm) 44.I and D.2 Baffle loss coefficient for RODbaffle geometries (experimental data.875 15.80 4.D.60 4.4625 19.2 76. courtesy of C.70 12. Light oil: 02OARA (o).45 17. While the curves suggest the possibility of a unified correlation for shell-side heat-transfer and baffle loss coefficients which might be useful in optimization (c. Gentry.2 and 7.70 15.200 1.875 150 124.d. Gentry) Tube o.412 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Fig. it is evident from the consistency of individual datasets that better designs would always result when individual correlations are used.80 . Table D.375 1. d(mm) Tube pitch.70 12.050 Baffle spacing.1666 Lb/d 3. Manglik & Bergles. as recommended for plate-fin designs by Kays & London (see Chapter 4).92 76. Curves at lower Reynolds numbers with open symbols are for oil.4625 17.

2 Shell-side heat transfer for 02WARA (cubic spline-fit smoothed data) Reynolds no.64224 . Table D. Two tables with differing Reynolds numbers are provided because: 1.55479 0.275 47. baffleflow 77 936 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 25 000 20000 15 000 12000 10 000 8391 Baffle loss coeff.408 Nu Table D.59493 0.55904 0.946 93.808 161. shell-side 30580 30000 25000 20000 15000 12000 10000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3500 3292 413 /V>-4(VU0-14 232.207 228.55904 0.57113 0.55697 0. 1 provides a comparison of the ARA geometry used in Chapter 7 with the additional five sets of data provided separately by Gentry.626 107.62995 0.55554 0.153 41.041 193.180 63. Pr. and rjb/rjw.109 78.. (k b) 0. Regular values of shell-side Reynolds number are useful in setting up an interpolation scheme for the group containing Nu. Tables D.54795 0.309 43.3 Baffle loss coefficient for 02WARA (cubic spline-fit smoothed data) Reynolds no. The geometries are quite different.215 128.61511 0.Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers Table D.2 and D..3 are smoothed datasets for configuration 02WARA.

When a baffle touches the shell at one point.414 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 2. Regular values of baffle flow Reynolds number are useful in setting up an interpolation scheme for baffle loss coefficient A relationship between these two Reynolds numbers exists for the test data. viz.2 and D. and thus improve the calculation of exchanger performance. In practice many by-pass flow situations should lie between these two limiting cases. the approximate pressure loss across a single baffle may be calculated.3.2 Baffle-ring by-pass Shell-side by-pass flow degrades exchanger performance. The pressure losses are specified for the RODbaffle bundle. By-pass flow area shell i. Knowing the number of baffles. Bell & Berglin (1957) researched a method for calculating by-pass mass flowrate for both 'concentric' and 'tangential' baffles. When a baffle is concentric with the shell of the exchanger. D. the by-pass flow is named 'concentric'. mass flowrate. In the RODbaffle exchanger it should be possible to make a reasonable estimate of the by-pass mass flowrate. For a 'concentric' baffle. = D. baffle-ring o. the by-pass flow is named 'tangential'. viz.d. and the corresponding pressure loss is evaluated from . = d By-pass Reynolds number (G = th/A) By-pass pressure loss The actual by-pass pressure loss is found by dividing the shell-side tube-bundle pressure loss by the number of baffles (n). and the shell-side loss must be the same for bypass flow. This is the value to be matched. In its simplest form. the mass flowrate is first guessed to obtain a Reynolds number. but as this depends on geometry.d. The tangential case produces the greatest by-pass flow. three equations would be used to calculate by-pass mass flowrate. The value of the by-pass coefficient (C) is obtained from an experimentally determined plot of C = /(Re). and thermodynamic conditions it was not set up in Tables D.

or of a flow recirculation cell) • flow friction in a short duct • dissipation of kinetic energy loss on expansion from the duct • partial mixing of leakage flow with main shell-side flow between baffles For thin sharp-edged baffles.60mm.4606. Values for the dimensionless geometrical parameter Z lie in the range 0. The exchanger shell is divided into suitable small segments. such that each segment may be considered as part of a 'concentric' baffle arrangement with by-pass coefficient C' and flow area AA. Bell & Bergelin realized that more detailed allowances may have to be made to cover such items as • prior existence of a developed boundary layer on the exchanger shell wall between baffles • re-creation of boundary layer on baffle ring • flow acceleration nearing entry • flow contraction (and possible existence of a vena contracta. with mean baffle clearance gaps in the range 0.272.4500mm with one exceptional value at 22.6209 with one exceptional value at 33. both friction and kinetic energy allowances were made. Only a single baffle was used in testing. which may not be fully representative of actual conditions. Iteration can be used until the actual and calculated values of by-pass pressure loss are the same. For thick round-edged entry baffles. Experimental and practical geometries The internal diameter of the test shell was 133. The industrial exchanger of Chapter 7 has an internal shell diameter of 1217.2. the process is a little more complicated. The 'tangential' coefficient (C) is obtained from the relationship Recognizing the possible existence of laminar.1179-9. Baffle thickness (L) lay in the range 1.Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers 415 equation (D.0mm. and turbulent flow in the by-pass. By-pass length-to-width ratio _ baffle thickness mean radial gap 2L (D — d) For thick square-edged baffles. Gentry (1990) provides dimensions for RODbaffle baffle rings and for longitudinal slide bars. a friction allowance was introduced. For a 'tangential' baffle. a plot of kinetic energy loss parameter K =/(Z/Re) was used to estimate kinetic energy losses where. transitional.3).0mm. and a mean baffle-ring clearance gap of 3.6900.9 15 mm.45 mm. although solution by plotting a curve of guessed m versus calculated A/? is safer. Baffle-ring thickness .

The corresponding value of the dimensionless geometrical parameter Z would be 0. J/(m s K) fluid density.2) Using the graph published by Bell & Berglin (1957).6.04. because the shell-side mass flow was initially assumed to be the total mass flowrate.210 A = 7r/4(D2 . In the light of improved experimental and computational methods there might be a case for re-examining the problem to model exactly what is happening in by-pass flow.5 mm to a lower limit of 1.15kg/s. Bell and Berglin provide further corrections to be made when calculating the loss coefficient (C). Calculation of by-pass flow Examination of TEMA (1988) recommendations for clearance between shell inside diameter (D) and baffle-ring outside diameter (d) showed that the expression held for shell inside diameters (D) greater than 1000mm.217 d = 1. m baffle ring outside diameter. as radial gaps reduced progressively from 2. shell inside diameter. and study of the published papers listed in Chapter 7 is recommended.5 mm. Using equation (D.000 0245 p = 4. For computer calculation an interpolating spline-fit of this relationship would be preferable. .1026 Apply equations (D. Using equation (D. Some 76 baffles with a spacing of 150mm are used. 76 N/m2. The new shell-side flowrate will be the total shell-side flowrate minus the by-pass flowrate.007 845 Ap = 148. m2 pressure loss per baffle.416 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers (L) may lie in the range 10-50 mm. kg/m3 D = 1. N/m 2 absolute viscosity. and would be around 2. and guess a by-pass mass flowrate of 0. A more accurate result can be obtained by programming the calculation. C =/(Re) '= 0.d2) = 0.2) and (D. Assuming a thick square-edged concentric baffle-ring for the exchanger of Chapter 7. With the presently available results an immediate advance can be achieved by using interpolative spline-fitting on empirical relationships.3).01 increased progressively to about 0. m by-pass flow area.3) This is close enough to the required value of 148.5 x dr = 15 mm in this case. Once the by-pass flowrate is found.76 17 = 0.56. the whole exchanger has to be sized again. Below D = 1000mm the constant 0.

and Bergles. PhD thesis. Department of Chemical Engineering. KJ. London. Tarrytown. TEMA. (1990) RODbaffle heat exchanger technology. TEMA (1988) Standard of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association.C. Trans. and Bergelin. 593-601.M. and D. R. Shah.P. O.D. C. Chem. (1957) Flow through annular orifices. New York. KJ. Bibliography Bell. (1955) Annular orifice coefficients with application to heat exchanger design. Hemisphere. (1990) The thermal hydraulic design of the rectangular offset strip-fin compact heat exchanger. Manglik.E..L. 48-57. 79.Performance Data for RODbaffle Exchangers 417 The final shell-side outlet temperature is a result of mixing by-pass flow and shell-side core flow over the tube bundle. (Eds R. Newark. viz References Bell. A. A. A simple enthalpy balance is made at shell core outlet after sizing calculations and by-pass flowrate calculations are complete. . Delaware. Compact Heat Exchangers . Kraus. Metzger). Engng Prog. Gentry. ASME. 7th edn. July. New York.K.A festschrift for A. University of Delaware.

step-wise rating.1 Laplace transforms .I. E.1 Tables E. and E.2. 2nd edn) which the author had not seen. referred the author to some inversions in Carlslaw & Jaeger (1948. Table E.elementary Transform f(s) Inversion f ( t ) Dr Jeffrey Lewins. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing.APPENDIX E Proving the Single-Blow Test Method .3 provide a sequence of inversions in which those of interest above are to be found. Ltd. Eric M. While deriving these inversions it was considered that a gap existed in published tables of inverse transforms. IQ and /i are modified Bessel functions. in later private correspondence.Theory and Experimentation The analytical approach E.1 Analytical approach using Laplace transforms The required inverse Laplace transforms may be obtained by series expansion and term-by-term inversion. and transients. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 l . Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.

I). Assume the inlet disturbance D to be exponential in form (see Fig.2 Laplace transforms involving exp(n/s) Transform f(s) Inversion f(t) Table E.3 Laplace transforms involving exp[/i/0 — a)] Transform f(s) Inversion f(t) E.2 Numerical evaluation of Laplace outlet response The following procedure minimizes the computational requirement. E. Then with non-dimensional time . corresponding closely in shape to that obtained from a fast-response electrical heater.420 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table E.

E.Proving the Single-Blow Test Method .2 Outlet temperature response .2.Theory and Experimentation 421 Fig.E.l Non-dimensional disturbance and time constant non-dimensional time constant The outlet fluid temperature response then becomes The expected response is of the form shown in Fig. E. Fig.

Putting (a = na2.0 may be encountered. the new value of the integral is given by New value = Old value + Increment Each increment of integral may be evaluated using Legendre polynomials in fourpoint Gaussian quadrature where A is abscissae value. I\(2nct) = y(A) are computed using an algorithm given by Clenshaw (1962). i.0 will be encountered.0 was obtained before machine overflow occurred within the program. Values of the modified Bessel function. . a — ^/b/n. In testing it is seldom that values exceeding 20. then to continue evaluation of the G# -r curve the increment (cross-hatched area) is required to continue the summation. and w is weighting value. we change the variable. (1954).422 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Suppose the value of each integral is known up to T = a. In present computations a top limit of Ntu around 75. The two integrals to be evaluated are Let us consider evaluation of the first of these between limits r = a and r—b To avoid difficulties in the denominator when a = 0. Curves for values of Ntu up to 500.e.4 for fourpoint Gaussian quadrature described in the paper by Lowan et al. given in Table E. da — 2na • da) the integral becomes At a new value of r = b.0 have been obtained by Furnas (1930) using graphical methods. while in real cryogenic practice values of Ntu over 40.

but with improved data logging and computational equipment. The inlet temperature disturbance could be tuned. based on a UK National Physics Laboratory design by Cheers (1945).347 854 845 137 454 E. The identical hardware could be used today. Although this test-rig was used for evaluation of the thermal performance of tube bundles only. The once-through open tunnel had a flared inlet and contraction with honeycomb flow straightener leading to a 150 mm x 150 mm square duct.861 136311 594053 Weighting 423 2 3 4 1 0. The fast-response in-plane heaters were constructed of 0.3 Experimental test equipment Detailed descriptions of a precision single-blow test-rig are to be found in the theses of Coombs (1970) and of King (1976).339981043584856 +0. the air passed over two electrical heaters . After velocity profile flattening by wire mesh. so that higher input power could be adjusted over the first 10 cycles of 50 Hz supply to allow for thermal storage requirements of the heater wire and the supporting ceramic insulators. The pressure recovery section had a number of longitudinal tapping points so that the point of maximum pressure recovery from the test exchanger core could be determined.4 Gaussian four-point quadrature Position Abscissae -0. Each tapping point has to have a small enough diameter so as not to disturb the flow pattern. having point contact with the ellipse only at leading and trailing edges. supported on hollow elliptical alumina insulators (1 mm x 2. to the point where close approximations to exponential inputs were produced.861 136311594053 -0.the first was used to adjust for variation in ambient temperatures during the extensive test programmes. The coils were thus virtually free in the air stream.Theory and Experimentation Table E. and the second was used to generate a rapid exponential increase in air temperature for testing.652 145 154 862 546 0. The rise was restricted to about 6 K. its design and construction and its instrumentation were state of the art at that time.347 854 845 137 454 0. The fast-response heater was controlled by thyristor. which with an ambient absolute temperature of around 300 K meant that flow velocities and densities would remain within +1 per cent of mean temperature. square test section and square outlet pressure recovery section were constructed from smooth tufnol sheet to minimize thermal storage effects. each insulator being arranged so that its major axis was parallel to the flow stream. This is preferable to assuming step change disturbances that are physically impracticable.Proving the Single-Blow Test Method .5 mm). A shorter description can also be found in the paper by Smith & Coombs (1972).652 145 154 862 546 0.339 981 043 584 856 +0. Following the fast-response heater. but the flexible tubing . a square inlet section.1 mm nichrome wire coils.

(1930) Heat transfer from a gas stream to a bed of broken solids .P. References Carlslaw. Oxford University Press. (1976) Local and overall thermal characterisitics of tube banks in cross flow. (1972) Thermal performance of cross-inclinded tube bundles measured by a transient method. Engng Chemistry. 2137. National Physical Laboratory.. J. Before constructing any single-blow testing facility. A. F. B. Oxford. 205-220.M. H. N. Velocity and temperature profiles were taken in front of the test section at right angles to prove flatness. PhD thesis. E. NBS Applied Mathematical Series. 14(3). (1945) Note on wind tunnel contractions. (1948) Operational Methods in Applied Mathematics. Mathematical Tables. The suction compressor was placed at exit from the orifice plate pipework. B. However. (1970) A transient technique for evaluating the thermal performance of cross-inclined tube bundles.. designed to compensate for lead resistances. No. (1954) Table of the zeros of the Legendre polynomials of order 1-16 and the weight coefficients for Gauss mechanical quadrature formula. Industrial edn. 22(7). PhD thesis. Engng Sci. King. Ind. and to balance automatically. HMSO. in that on slowly increasing the mass flowrate the transition to turbulence was at the upper end of transition.C. Aeronautical Research Council. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. pp. A. This 'hysteresis loop' was considered to show the quality of flow stability achieved within the test-rig. Beyond the tufnol sections there was a sheet steel transition section from square to circular section leading to an orifice plate for flow measurement to British Standard 1042:1943. Coombs. This also incorporated thermocouples for temperature measurement. Report & Memorandum. and Coombs. . University of Newcastle upon Tyne. More references are to be found at the end of Chapter 10. J. Lowan.424 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers connecting tapping points to the manometers needs to be large enough so as not to dampen response. 185-189. J. These probes were removed before thermal testing commenced. Each response was measured by Kelvin double-resistance bridge units. Cheers. vol.S. Tables of Functions and Zeros of Functions. heat-transfer testing wiped out the hysteresis loop completely. Davids. Mech. (1962) Chebyshev Series for Mathematical Functions.C.. 5.L. C. it is strongly recommended that the reader consult as many sources as possible before deciding on the features of his/her test-rig.W.P.025 mm bare wire strung in zig-zag arrangement across the duct. 37. Smith. and Jaeger. and on slowly decreasing the flowrate the transition to laminar flow was at the lower end of transition. Furnas. C. 721-731.. No. and Levinson. Inlet temperature disturbance and outlet temperature response measurements were made by in-plane platinum resistance thermometers consisting of 0. Clenshaw. 2nd edn.N.II. Test results showed a variation under +10 per cent over the complete laminar and turbulent test regions explored. One particular geometry tested produced an unusual result for pressure drop only.

1 Calculus of variations A clear exposition of the theory for the calculus of variations is given in Hildebrand (1976). and transients.APPENDIX F Most Efficient Temperature Difference in Contraflow Formal mathematics F. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. and Rektorys (1969).y(xi) are known. Conditions concerning continuity of functions and of their derivatives are covered in the reference texts.c) is to satisfy the prescribed end conditions Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. Other texts are those by Courant & Hilbert (1989). ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .xi.y(xo). and the required solution reduces to solving the Euler equation Euler equation Generalization The problem can be extended to include a constraint in minimization or maximization of the integral where y(. Mathews & Walker (1970). Eric M. Ltd. step-wise rating. The basic problem concerns a function and the finding of a maximum or minimum of the integral of this function where end values xo.

then the appropriate Euler equation is found to be the result of replacing F in equation (F.2.2 Optimum temperature profiles From optimum contraflow exchanger (Chapter 2. Section 2.8)] .426 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers as before.4) From general contraflow temperature profiles [Chapter 3. equation (3.12) From definition of LMTD (Chapter 2. which is in the nature of a Lagrange multiplier. but a constraint condition is also imposed in the form where K is a prescribed constant.I) by the auxiliary function where A is an unknown constant. F. Section 2. will generally appear in the Euler equation and in its solution. and is to be determined together with the two constants of integration in such a way that all three conditions are satisfied. Section 3. This constant.

Mathews.B. 1020. and Hilbert.P. . 184. (Ed.L. References Courant.Most Efficient Temperature Difference in Contraflow 427 Hot fluid profile Cold fluid profile The log mean temperature difference for these profiles depends on choice of the value for constant a. (1970) Mathematical Methods of Physics. Hildebrand. F. K. John Wiley. I. p. Prentice Hall. 2nd edn. Cambridge. vol. R. (1976) Advanced Calculus for Applications. p. Addison-Wesley. New Jersey. Feynman at Cornell). D. J. 360. Rektorys. MIT Press. and Walker.) (1969) Survey of Applicable Mathematics. p. Massachusetts. p. 322 (based on course given by R. 2nd edn. R. (1989) Mathematical Methods of Physics.

Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Eric M.1 Sources of data Over the years the author encountered many delays in attempting to source information on the physical properties of materials of construction. Useful conversion factors are listed in Appendix M. step-wise rating.this behaviour being instanced in later Fig. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . Some data need conversion to appropriate engineering SI units. J/(kg K) Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. J/(m s K) for thermal conductivity and m2/s for thermal diffusivity. and are often presented in units not generally used by engineers.2 Fluids Particularly near the critical points of fluids.G. property values tend to change significantly with both temperature and pressure . The data are scattered. and titanium.l Specific heat of aluminium. and transients.APPENDIX G Physical Properties of Materials and Fluids Where to find and how to fit data G. J/(kg K) for specific heat. viz. Ltd. Density in kg/m3 can be obtained from thermal diffusivity. G. copper.

a recent issue of the Chemical Engineers Handbook. Other references can be obtained by consulting the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (ACS). 1987) is listed below.G. copper.G. (1970).3 Thermal diffusivity of aluminium. copper. J/(m s K) examples of steam tables. Touloukian et al. m2/s . e. and the IUPAC Series of which the representative volume on oxygen (Wagner & de Reuck. or by seeking information from the Fig. the UK Steam Tables in SI Units (1975). For other fluids the reader may wish to consult Vargaftik (1983). and titanium. and titanium.2 Thermal conductivity of aluminium.g.430 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 0 Fig.

9. UK Committee on Properties of Steam (1975) UK Steam Tables in SI Units 1970. Cox. References American Chemical Society (1971 to date) /.E. K.D. International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State . Prince Consort Road. In particular it can be time-saving to fit the complete set of data available. and de Reuck. Florida. IFI/Plenum Press. vol. (1983) Handbook of Physical Properties of Liquids and Gases. One point of including these three graphs is to encourage the use of interpolating cubic spline-fits to fit data.M. copper. Arnold.B. IUPAC Series. R. (1977) Hydrogen Properties. . Touloukian. Imperial College of Science. Wagner. and thermal diffusivity are presented so that the engineer may see what kind of behaviour exists. Vargaftik. In Hydrogen its Technology and Implications. (Eds. thermal conductivity. K.D. Washington.) Bibliography McCarty. Chem. Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology. Physical Properties Data Service. e.3 Solids For aluminium. Hemisphere/ Springer. London SW7 2BY. even though the current design requirement needs data only over a limited range. Phys. Blackwell. (1970 onwards) Thermophysical Properties of Matter. Reference Data. N. K. and Williamson. G. These curves are not necessarily typical for other solids and the series of volumes on Thermophysical Properties of Matter by Touloukian and others (1970) should be consulted. and titanium the properties of specific heat. (See also other volumes in the Series published by Blackwell. IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Properties Centre. by Oxford. and by Pergamon. (1987) Oxygen.Physical Properties of Materials and Fluids 431 manufacturers of working fluids. 1-11. 3.) CRC Press. the KLEA Refrigerants from ICI Chemicals & Polymers Division.g. et al.S. vols. Technology and Medicine. Y. This avoids extra work involved in re-fitting data for another range. W.

The landmark texts have added commentary to indicate their importance to this author's work. and transients. and especially for the heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations used in design today. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. (1969) One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow. Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .Q. G. John Wiley. Eric M. 1950 Hausen. McGraw-Hill.) 1957 Jakob.APPENDIX H Source Books on Heat Exchangers Read more than the present text H.1 Texts in chronological order The undernoted texts should provide excellent sources for tracing other published work on heat exchangers. Gleichstrom und Kreuzstrom. The wide ranging thoroughness of the treatment of topics in heat transfer does not detract from the chapters on heat exchangers in volume H) 1964 Kays. W. H. and should by rights be listed before Hausen. (1950) Warmeubertragung im Gegenstrom. (1964) and (1984) Compact Heat Exchangers. M.) 1969 Wallis. (The first edition was published in 1955. McGraw-Hill. The work is largely analytical.L. vol. Berlin (see also 1976). New York. Springer.B. II (1957). All books included in the following list are here on merit. (Engineers involved in chemical plant design will welcome this text as a source of essential information on the configuration and sizing of heat exchangers for different industrial applications. 2nd edn (1964) and 3rd edn (1984). McGraw-Hill. (The first volume appeared in 1949. (1950) Process Heat Transfer. and London. D. I (1949) and especially vol. The second and third editions are recommended for their thoroughness in the treatment of plate-fin exchangers. A. 1st edn.M. and its relevance and permanence is emphasized by the appearance of an English edition 26 years later. (This is the first definitive text which treats heat exchanger design with imagination and thoroughness. (1949) and (1957) Heat Transfer.) Kern. step-wise rating. New York.

R.D.F. C. Pergamon. New York.. and Hall-Taylor.434 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 1970 Hewitt. Palen. (1980) Compact Heat Exchangers History. Hemisphere. McGraw-Hill. Grundlagen der 1974 Afgan.G. (1978) Laminar Forced Flow Convection in Ducts. Academic Press. ASME Heat Transfer Division. (The analytical data provided in this volume extend the experimental data of Kays & London (1964). N. and Willmott. M. F. and Howard. Sauerlander. Hemisphere. (English edition of 1950 text) McGraw-Hill. New York. R. 1976 Hausen. Aarau & Frankfurt um Main. (1983) Two-Phase Flow in Pipelines and Heat Exchangers. New York. A.F. Schmidt. 10. New York. McDonald. McGraw-Hill.S. Oxford. S. 1982 Hestroni. (1980) Stirling Engines (see bibliography therein).K. (Ed. Washington. Parallel Flow and Crossflow. G. (1973) Wdrmeaustausch und Wdrmeaustaucher.K. 1973 Gregorig. (1972) Extended Surface Heat Transfer. A. and have been found valuable in the optimization of plate-fin exchangers. and Schliinder. 1978 Shah.. D.. Bergles. A. 1981 Kakac. HTD vol. D. J.. Technological Advances and Mechanical Design Problems. G. C. 1983 Chisholm. New York. 7972 Collier. (1972) Connective Boiling and Condensation (see 3rd edn 1994)..E. F. chemishen Technik.) (1982) Handbook of Multiphase Systems. (1976) Heat Transfer in Counter/low. .U. Washington. and Kraus. J. (1981) Thermal Energy Storage and Regeneration. G. Hemisphere. R.) 1980 Shah.P. (1970) Annular Two-Phase Flow.H.Design and Theory Source book.L.Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design. ASME. and London. H. and Mayinger. Washington.) (1981) Heat Exchanger Sourcebook.T. Oxford University Press. (1974) Heat Exchangers . E. Supplement 1 to Advances in Heat Transfer. A. (Ed. McGraw-Hill.W. (1981) Heat Exchangers . Hemisphere. Kern.Q. Washington. Longmans. New York. Walker.

Hemisphere. Kakac. New York. Shah. Hemisphere/Springer Verlag..M.. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Schliinder. and Hartnett. J.H. John Wiley. (Eds) (1983) Heat Exchangers . W.. 1984 Kays. Sparrow.Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design of Two-phase Flow Heat Exchangers. (1985) The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis. H. Kakac. John be read for insight.. (1985) Handbook of Heat Exchanger Applications. Minkowycz. NATO ASI Series E. R.) (1987) Heat Transfer Science and Technology. A.. (1988) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Shah. and Bergles.M.Source Books on Heat Exchangers 435 Hausen.. J.Selection.. Washington.F. and Survila.. (Eds) (1988) Two-Phase Flow Heat Exchangers .N. Hemisphere.. Longmans.. (1986) Vaporisers . W.H. and Skrinska. and Mashelkar. vol.E.D. Rohsenow. 3rd edn. and Afgan. Kakag. Dordrecht. Elsevier.Selection.C.J. A. New York. Hemisphere.. W.) (1983) Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. (1988) Heat Exchangers .P. 7988 . (1984) Compact Heat Exchangers. J. G. Longmans. and Game. Saunders. New York. A. E. Hewitt.E.P. 7987 Bejan. (Refer to 2nd edn..K.A.] Chisholm. New York. Cesna.F. E. R. E. New York. (1988) (English edition.A. T. and Fletcher. D. McGraw-Hill. and Fernandes. Portugal. 2nd edn. UK. (1985) Handbook of Heat Exchanger Fundamentals.. J. [An essential text on recent thermodynamics . (Ed. McGraw-Hill. A. (Ed. Parallel Flow and Cross Flow. R.-X. G.L. W. A. Shah. et al. W. B. V. (Eds) (1983) Low Reynolds Number Heat Exchangers. N..U. Oxford. UK. (1988) Heat Exchanger Technology..M. Washington. Design and Operation. R. Bergles. Subbarao. Vilemas. Kakac. Rohsenow. J. (Eds) (1987) Handbook of Single-phase Convective Heat Transfer. R. Hemisphere. Schneider. Hartnett. Stasiulevicius.) Kotas. Butterworths. Porto. Washington. Hewitt) Heat Transfer of Finned Tubes in Crossfiow. NATO Advanced Study Institute..O.K.M. Wang. B. and London.E.. Design and Construction. (Eds) (1987) Evaporators . Hemisphere. (1983) Heat Transfer in Counterflow.. John Wiley. 143. 1964.A.. Washington. McGraw-Hill. Taborek. R. McGraw-Hill.Theory and Practice. S. McGraw-Hill (1978). S. New York. S. (1987) Heat Transfer in Gas-cooled Annular Channels.Thermal Hydraulic Fundamentals and Design. (Eds) (1988) Heat Transfer Equipment Design. E.J.K. (1988) Handbook of Numerical Heat Transfer. E. E. and Aung. 7985 1986 Smith. together with Kestin's two volumes entitled A Course in Thermodynamics. Hemisphere. G. Washington.

Palo Alto. Vol.. Hemisphere. Ellis Horwood. A. 1994 Colh'er. Hemisphere. A. and Ashmantas.a Festshrift for A. (1990) Compact Heat Exchangers . R. Dreitser. Stephan. Washington.. . (T. J. and Metzger. J. Washington. levlev. Dzyubenko. Yu. Hemisphere. Danilov. Hemisphere/Springer Verlag.F. 1993 Shah.A. JJ. New York and London.R.] Thome. (1994) Convective Boiling and Condensation. 7th edn TEMA.. B.Compact heat exchangers: techniques of size reduction. Hemisphere. (Eds) (1993) Aerospace Heat Exchanger Technology 1993. 1989 Zukauskas. Washington. G. (1991) Heat Exchange Engineering. (1990) Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer. L. Vol.J.V. K. (Coordinating Ed. Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association (1988) Standard of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association.L.D. Inc. V.-V.A. 1991 Foumeny... L. and Thome. Marcell Dekker. Cambridge. (1992) Thermodynamics and Gas Dynamics of the Stirling Cycle Machine.. (1992) Heat Exchangers. McKetta. (Note: the 'helical tubes' are actually 'twisted flattened tubes'. D.. Springer. Ashmantas. Elsevier.K. 15-17 February 1993. (1989) High-Performance Single-Phase Heat Exchangers. A. New York. R. London. Dreitser. Martin. J. (1992) Heat Transfer Design Methods.R. and Heggs. Hemisphere. A.M. Cambridge University Press. 1990 Dzyubenko.K.) Hewitt. Washington. P.) (1990) Hemisphere Handbook of Heat Exchanger Design. V. R. Tarrytown. G. (1992) Heat Transfer in Condensation and Boiling. Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Aerospace Heat Exchanger Technology. Hemisphere.J. (1990) Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in Helical Tube Bundles. 1 .A.J.. (1988) Heat Transfer in Tube Banks in Crossflow. W. Organ. Berlin. Berlin. Heggs. B.Design of heat exchangers. D. 1992 Carey. Shah.436 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers TEMA. G.P. (1992) Liquid-Vapor Phase-change Phenomena.V. Oxford. Roetzel. Irvine. and Ulinskas.G.. Springer Verlag. New York. Zukauskas. Oxford. Oxford University Press. Washington. and Butterworth. A. Kraus.A. [Contains the paper by Manglik & Bergles which provides the universal heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for rectangular offset-strip fins (ROSF) surfaces. 2 . (Eds) Design and Operation of Heat Exchangers. Washington. Washington. Hemisphere. California..N. Hemisphere. E. editor of English edition) (1990) Analysis and Design of Swirl-augmented Heat Exchangers. and Hashem. P. H.A.

22-27 June 1997. Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstration Energy Technologies CADDET Analysis Support Unit. G. G. CRC Press. Bejan. (Eds) (1998) International Encyclopaedia of Heat and Mass Transfer. Utah.) 7995 Afgan. WIT Press. (1995) Thermal Design of Three Fluid Heat Exchangers. D. M. Y. Heat Transfer. P. (Eds) (1998) Recent Advances in Analysis of Heat Transfer for Fin Type Surfaces. Snowbird.H. Turkey. G. Oxford University Press. 25 May-5 June 1998. Rating and Thermal Design. G. Florida.K. (Eds) (1998) Computer Simulations in Compact Heat Exchangers. and Bott. Neptun. Shires. CRC Press. Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands. S. Begell House. B. Carvalho. Adv. Southampton. New York. (Eds) (1996) New Developments in Heat Exchangers. Southampton & Boston. (Eds) (1999) Heat Transfer Enhancement of Heat Exchangers. R. 448. G. p. A. 1st edn.J..F.V. and Liu. Kakac. and Faghri. W. and Xuan. vol. and Roetzel. (1999) Learning from Experiences with Compact Heat Exchangers. Roetzel. Sittard. Chichester. 1996 f997 Shah. and Mamut. Developments in Heat Transfer..A Numerical Approach: Direct Sizing and Stepwise Rating. Cesme-Izmir. Bergles. 2 WIT Press. and Wadekar. 1998 Hewitt.. and Polezhaev. (1994) Latent Heat Transfer.L. Y. and Yuncii. Gordon & Breach.. S. F. Shires. p. Mochizuki. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute.S. should be a monograph. D. R. CADDET. New York. E. (1997) Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers .F.. (1999) Thermodynamic Optimisation of Complex Energy Systems. V. 3 vols. 13-14 July 1998. and Shah.. N. 3. (1994) Process Heat Transfer. Southampton & Boston. D. (Substantial article.] Lock. [An excellent modern treatment and successor to Kern (1950). Developments in Heat Transfer. H. M. S.V. Hewitt. K. Reay.. 26. WIT Press. Vol.. 219-324. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute.. Bar-Cohen. T. H. A..L.J.Source Books on Heat Exchangers 437 Hewitt. G.K..F.R. E. Applied Sciences 355. John Wiley. Florida. Smith. Begell House. W. Sunden.) Sekulic. (1994) Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer... 25..E. New York. Proceedings of an International Conference. (1999) Dynamic Behaviour of Heat Exchangers. Webb. Bell. Oxford. Developments in Heat Transfer. 7999 . (1998) Heat Exchangers: Selection.L. Kakac. R. A. Butterworth.P. CRC Press. 1344. Vol. (Eds) (1997) Compact Heat Exchangers for the Process Industries. Romania. (1998) Heat Exchanger Design Handbook.M. and Heggs. Series No. John Wiley.... Sunden. NATO Science Series E. (Where finning is involved this is an excellent modern treatment. B. 1. Mayinger. Florida.

(2002) Heat Exchangers: Selection. 693-700 and 701-704. L. R. and Martin.-V. M. B. D. ASME Technical Publishing. Shires. Begell House. (1994) Process Heat Transfer.F. and they require their own design procedures. Nee. July 1999. J. (1984) Flow distribution and pressure drop in plate heat exchangers.2 Exchanger types not already covered Plate-and-frame exchangers Design of plate-and-frame heat exchangers is related to direct-sizing of plate-fin heat exchangers. Begell House.U-type arrangement. Southampton. (2003) Heat Exchanger Engineering Techniques. with others (Eds) (1999) Compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the Process Industries. An exchanger with some flow depth in the tube bank may have three or more hairpin . Aziz. 2001 2003 Shah. Developments in Heat Transfer. New York. J. Banff. J. Proceedings of an International Conference. H. Part 2 . G. and Segal. and the reader is encouraged to widen the search. Sunden. (1999) Experimental study of turbulent flow heat transfer and pressure drop in a plate heat exchanger with chevron plates. R. CRC Press. (1992) Heat Exchangers. M. A.Z-type arrangement. H.D.L. (2000) Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. CRC Press. (2003) Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. Operation. Design.. Bassiouny. R.K.. but specific papers and articles provide a better introduction.P.D. Marcell Dekker. Hewitt. Oxford. ASME. New York. Chem. Florida. and Bott. John Wiley.F. 2nd edition.I. A few references are provided below. (2000) Modelling and Design of Twisted Tube Heat Exchangers. Canada. 110-117.R. and Sekulic.. Kraus.. 39(4).438 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Shah. Sunden. A. John Wiley. and Manglik. not omitting the texts listed in Section H.. (2000) Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers.M.J. Elsevier. Hesselgreaves. Selection. Kakag. February. R. R. and Welty. H.. WIT Press. (2001) Extended Surface Heat Transfer. Engng ScL. T. A. (2000) Compact Heat Exchangers. Trans. Rating and Thermal Design. and Manglik. 2000 Dzyubenco. H.M. G. Ashmantas.M. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers Such crossflow exchangers are frequently used as condensers and evaporators in refrigeration or air-conditioning plant. T. Heat Transfer. M. and Manglik. 121. New York. (Eds) (2000) Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Plate-andFrame Heat Exchangers. B. Kuppan.-V. B. and Liu. S. Inc. Muley.K. Southampton. Martin. Hemisphere. WIT Press. Part 1 . Developments in Heat Transfer. Florida.

19(6). Youn.. F. September. and Takeshita..L. S. . J. M. There is also the definitive paper by Kim et al. pp. Heri. 175-180 and 181-184. (1994) Heat transfer characteristics of plate fin-tube heat exchangers. J. Refrigeration. A. 762-771.M. Machielson. John Wiley. The formation of ice under a bad press-fit simply makes a bad fit more loose. Y. When icing may be encountered. 4th edn. May. (1993) Computerassisted design of plate-fin heat exchangers . Kayansayan.E. Heinritz. ASME. Refrigeration.. 16(1). and Turner. 18(3). Int. K. New York. S. Refrigeration. Full thermal design of tube-and-fin heat exchangers may require the approach developed by Vardhan & Dhar (1998). 16(3). Kim. Int. J.Source Books on Heat Exchangers 439 tube returns to be traversed by the air flow. The spacing of fins may be twice the developed boundary layer thickness. J. ASHRAE Trans. 1996). and Webb. The reader is encouraged to widen the search for papers. M. Nowotny. Int. Ogawa.N.. Heat Transfer. J.G. J. (1999) Air-side heat transfer and friction correlations for plain fin-and-tube heat exchangers with staggered tube arrangements.. L.D. 283-290. (1996) Contact resistance in air-cooled plate fin-and-tube air conditioning condensers. Int. Trans. C. Kondepundi. D.Comparison of experimental data with model. (1993) Performance of finned-tube heat exchangers under frosting conditions. (1989) Influence of frost formation and defrosting on the performance of air coolers: standards and dimensionless coefficients for the system designer. 151-158. 12. it may also be advantageous to omit every second fin in the bank for the depth of the first tube hairpin. R. J. B. 121. Int. 662-667. and O'Neal. (1999) which provides universal heat-transfer and pressure loss correlations for the fin-side of staggered tube arrangements. 153-160. 40-44. Part 1 .. Refrigeration. An effective solution for icing is to take hot gas from the compressor discharge and throttle it directly to the evaporator intake. N. (1993) Performance improvement of plate finand-tube heat exchangers under frosting conditions. K..Simulation model. B. 6. Glockner. G.. 400-406. Holland. Refrigeration.N. (1989) Effect of frost growth on the performance of louvered finned tube heat exchangers. Part 2 . A short timed blast of no more than one or two minutes is sufficient to burn the ice off. J.. Refrigeration. 12. (1995) Transient behaviour of finned-tube cross-flow heat exchangers.H.E. H. S. and Thiele. Refrigeration. N. and O'Neal. 49-57. Int. and development of design procedures would need to be supported by experimental results. 17(1). D.C.. August. The theory is likely to be more complicated than that for laminar flow between flat plates. Critoph. Int.L.H..L. and Kershbaumer.K.. R.. Kondepundi. S. (1994) Heating.: Symposia. Ataer. Ventilation and Air Conditioning Analysis and Design. N. With icing the attachment of fins to tubes may also require brazing instead of press-fitting to ensure maintenance of good thermal contact (Critoph et al.. and Parker. and Gogiis. Tanaka. Haussmann. In-line configurations are not recommended. J. so that a new leading edge becomes available for ice formation deeper into the exchanger (Ogawa et al. 1993). plus some allowance for core flow.example of an evaporator (in French). McQuiston.

-I. J.Simulation and control of an evaporator. Heat Transfer Equipment Design (Eds R.K. 119-125. 15(2).. Sunden. R.P. J. Shah.a success for fuel cell technology. Engineering Conferences International.a promising stationary power generation technology. 256-266. E.. J. Molten carbon fuel cells. A. Lee. Webb. and academia partnership and funding opportunities. H. (2003) In First International Conference on Fuel Cell Science. Novel fuel cells. government. Stephan. Refrigeration. Micro-channel heat transfer and flow friction. Recent conferences Kandlikar.. and Thonon.K.. Mukerjee. . Honda. fuel cells Miniaturization of process plant equipment is the driving force... 28 September-3 October 2003.L. New York... (2003) In Fourth International Conference on Compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the Process Industries.G. S.G. R. Ma. New York. Celata. Ota.K. B. 21(1). and Rudy... (1988) Plate-fin and tube-fin heat exchanger design procedures.L. Refrigeration. Giorgi. and Zhang. HernandezGuerrero.O. Panel on codes and standards for fuel cell systems. Engineering and Technology (Sessions: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell . T. Greece. Int. New York.. Advances in solid oxide fuel cell technology..B. M. Hemisphere. Part 2 . Djilali. Deakin. and R. Rochester. P. and Voecks. P. N. Crete. Molten carbonate fuel cells .science and applications.W. Rochester. Nishio. P. Thonon. Miiller-Steinhagen. B. Virkar. G. but other applications exist. Int. A.. Shah. A. H. Balance of power plant of fuel cell systems.M. 21(5). B. T. J. Pettit. Work in progress. 189-202. Solid oxide fuel cells . Automotive fuel cell applications. Onda. R. Mashelkar). Micro fuel cells . 398-403 and 404-414. K.440 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Paliwoda. Welty. Corvalis.B. Shah. modelling and simulation in fuel cells... (1992) Generalised method of pressure drop calculation across components containing two-phase flow of refrigerants. S. A. Thermodynamic analysis. Penny.-J. Toghiani. (1998) A general dynamic simulation model for evaporators and condensers in refrigeration.G.. J. 77-83. L.. Beale. (2003) In First International Conference on Microchannels and Minichannels.. P.R..L.Moving boundary formulation for two-phase flows with heat exchange. Subbarao. Vardhan. G. Shah. Oregon State University. R.) 21-23 April 2003. Fuels and fuel reforming technology..A. Willatzen.. C. pp.K. Heat/water/temperature balance in PEM fuel cells. Shyu. Leo.. K. Sing. 24-26 April 2003. Brooklyn. S. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell advanced studies. Heat/mass transfer/ flow phenomena in fuel cells.challenges and opportunities. and PIoug-S0rensen. R. Refrigeration. A. Cheng. General topics related to fuel cells. H. sponsored by ASME and Rochester Institute of Technology. S. Fuels and fuel processing .prospects in auto and stationary applications. New York.... sponsored by ASME and Rochester Institute of Technology. 2(3). A. Kandlikar. Part 1 .technology advances and opportunities.. (1998) A new procedure for performance prediction of air conditioning coils.-F. Int. S. Industry. M. A. (1988) Heat transfer and friction in small diameter channels. L. Micro-scale Engng.. Basic research needs in fuel cell technology .. and Dhar.. (1998) Experimental study of flow and heat transfer behaviour of single-phase flow of fluids in rectangular micro-channels. N.V..

.. Miiller-Steinhagen. H. New York. Engineering Conferences International.. M. and Malayeri.F. June 1995. and sampling of a few recent international conferences is undertaken below. Petroleum and organic fluid fouling. (2001) Heat Exchanger Fouling. Santa Fe.) 8-13 July 2001. J. Begell House. and Malayeri. United Engineering Foundation. Chemical reaction fouling . L. Davos.. E.) but more often the subject of fouling is kept to one chapter in a more general text on heat exchangers/process heat transfer. 418.B. Fundamental Approaches and Technical Solutions (Sessions: Introduction. T. New York. Switzerland.Source Books on Heat Exchangers 441 H. Aqueous systems . 612. Fouling in the food industry.. Aqueous systems . Gas systems .. New Mexico. Italy. C. Watkinson.C.some recent literature This field does not form part of the main theme of the present text. H. Recent conferences Panchai. .combustion. The reader may locate some textbooks on the subject (e. Industrial fouling problems and solutions.. and author Walker. Proceedings of an International Conference. S.3 Fouling . or reduced to one session in conference proceedings. Watkinson. Crystallisation and scaling. Surface treatment. Fouling in the food industry. Somerscales. P. p. author Bott. Fouling mitigation and cleaning. T.refineries.. Monitoring. San Luis Obispo. Modelling.cooling water. M.F. Fouling in the oil industry.F.R. The author list is substantial in every case. P. Fouling mitigation. Bott. E. p. Panchai. and Somerscales. particularly in industrial processing.. (1999) Understanding Heat Exchanger Fouling and its Mitigation (Sessions: Fundamentals of fouling mechanisms and design. T. Data evaluation and applications.R. Castelvecchio Pascoli (near Barga). 11-16 May 1997. (2003) Conference Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning Fundamentals and Applications (Sessions: Water and aqueous systems fouling. C. Melo. Fouling and cleaning in food and related industries.R.) 18-22 May 2003..R. Begell House.) Proceedings of an International Conference. Bott. Fouling in power plants. (1997) Fouling Mitigation of Industrial Heat Exchange Equipment.g. Muller-Steinhagen. and Toyama. Brooklyn.R.scaling. but it is an important subject. Surface modification and modelling of fouling processes.B. The literature is considerable. Fouling in the power industries and in boiling systems.C. California.

Each of these applications may involve heat exchangers operating in the creep/fatigue field. Solid oxide fuel-cell systems may operate with temperatures up to 850 °C at 5 bar. 1.1 Applications Conditions being considered for the helium-cooled very-high temperature reactor (VHTR) nuclear reactor. are maximum gas temperatures of 1000 °C and pressures in the range 7-15 MPa. Radial equilibrium of force Radial compatibility of total strain Axial equilibrium of force Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. viz. The most appropriate form of containment is then a tube which may be described as 'thick' or 'thin' in engineering terms. Supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactors are proposed for conditions of 375 °C at 25 MPa. Isotropic creep produces anisotropic damage 1. Ltd. 1964a). step-wise rating. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . and thick tube theory will be outlined to ensure that both thick and thin cases are properly covered.APPENDIX I Creep Life of Thick Tubes Operation in the creep/fatigue region. and transients.2 Fundamental equations The nine basic equations for stress readjustment in the wall of a thick tube under internal pressure with closed ends were given by the author (Smith. but the distinction is whether the tube may be thin enough to make approximations in the theory without significant error. Under purely elastic conditions tubes with a radial aspect ratio of less than 1. Under creep conditions deformations occur which progressively change the stress distributions in the component.10 might be regarded as thin. Eric M.

4). To illustrate this point. equation (1. one integral equation. The results were compared with commercially quoted data for 0. but see below). The reader may wonder why plastic strains are not included. r) dependent on heat flow These equations have to be solved numerically. The answer is that any form of creep (and indeed plasticity) involves irreversibility which by definition is time dependent. which is permitted when energy and linear momentum equations do not involve speeds approaching ballistic impact.444 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Axial compatibility of total strain ea = const. giving two ordinary differential equations. the first eight equations are reduced to the modified equation set (1. and one algebraic equation to be solved simultaneously for the stress field by matrix inversion. the author predicted tensile ramp loading behaviour for Nimonic 90 at both ambient and high temperatures using only steady load creep data.1 . independent of r Total strain (the author's 1964a paper allowed for plastic strains.1-1.. Constitutive elastic strains due to stresses Constitutive thermal strains due to temperature Constitutive creep strains (temperature and stress dependent) > requiring constitutive equations Constitutive temperature distribution 0 =f(t. and time-independent creep or plasticity is a thermodynamic impossibility. By substitution.9) is handled separately. Solution of the temperature field.

whence Equation (1. Because axial deformation was assumed to be zero for creep. Straining from ambient temperatures involves different metallurgical damage from that encountered under creep conditions.10) occurred in both instances and led to substantial mathematical simplification. but constant over the cross-section. 1966) and the results were quite close (Ellison & Smith.10) also holds for purely elastic stresses in thick tubes. attempts to incorporate these features in a composite solution did persist for some years. mathematically unsound to superimpose a non-linear creep solution on a linear elastic solution. and the real difficulty lies in formulating appropriate constitutive equations for creep.Creep Life of Thick Tubes 445 and 0. 1961. and was known to be constant for purely elastic loading. This is however an approximation. 1. This carries the condition that the axial stress is always the mean of the radial and tangential stresses. The massive contributions of workers in low-temperature plasticity are not to be ignored. 1973). However. so the findings were encouraging. as it is well understood that different rates of straining produce different tensile stress-strain curves.3 Early work on thick tubes In an outstandingly comprehensive treatise on several aspects of creep design. They were also relevant for one material only. and follows from the general expression for creep rate given by then must be zero. however. the axial elastic deformation being not zero. and because condition (1. (1949) Johnson & Kahn (1963) Rabotnov (1969 translation of 1966 book) It is. as many valuable predictions have been made assuming time independence. e. Bailey's (1935) treatment of the thick cylinder problem made the simplifying assumption of zero axial creep. but not definitive. which permitted an explicit solution of the problem. • • • • Soderberg (1941) Coffin et al.2 per cent tensile proof strain (Anon. . which was to be repeated time and again by many other workers. it involved a flawed assumption. Bailey showed that the assumption of zero axial creep was consistent with the requirements of axial equilibrium. The correct solution of the problem requires a numerical approach.g.

carbon steel. the multi-axial creep rates are then given by . Given an appropriate tensile creep curve (time versus creep deformation at constant stress). e = Johnson (1960). to obtain creep rate over a short time interval it was found convenient to use a numerical chordal creep rate on the curve where Chordal tensile creep rate. f) could perhaps be written as e =f(cr)<p(f).446 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers 1. confirmed that primary creep curves for different stress levels were geometrically similar for aluminium. Thus means of extracting multi-axial creep rates from tensile data are required. magnesium. which also references papers from 1948 to 1951. This led to the general expression for multi-axial creep. but generally only tensile creep data are available. The initial approach involves assumption of material isotropy. involving stress deviators (temperature dependence is incorporated in the section on constitutive equations) For design purposes we require to know multi-axial creep rates. which may not always pertain in practice. These findings suggested that time dependence of creep rate might be separated from stress dependence and that creep strain e = fao. For multi-axial creep in a tube in which the stress and strain axes remain coincident. Johnson (1962) showed that viz. and Nimonic 75. For equivalent complex stress creep rates in a multi-axial stress systems programme.4 Equivalence of stress systems In designing a multi-axial stress system it is usually necessary to make use of uniaxial tensile test data because multi-axial data are sparse.

of these parameters. Several tensile (time versus creep rupture) parameters have been proposed.5 Fail-safe and safe-life Both fail-safe and safe-life concepts have their place in design of structures. Over the new time interval the new chordal creep rate can now be calculated using equation (1. It is not proposed to survey the catalogue here. the experimental creep rupture data of Walles (1959) were inserted into Clarke's (1966) representation of tensile creep curves to obtain values of time at creep rupture.11) as before. 1. the correlation due to Conrad (1959a. Additional values of creep strain at rupture were obtained from the data . and using such parameters creep strain at rupture might be predicted. safe-life is the appropriate criterion. Safe-life is the permitted life of the structure before complete replacement is required.Creep Life of Thick Tubes where 447 1. Failsafe arises when one part of the structure fails and the remaining parts take up the load safely until repair is carried out. any attempt at numerical prediction of specimen behaviour is faced with the problem of deciding how creep rate in the next time interval is to be chosen. and computation proceeds until the ductility fraction reaches unity. the point on the new creep curve where deformation is to begin is chosen to have the same value of ductility fraction as was reached at the end of the previous time interval. Many empirical and theoretical models have been proposed for different alloys to explain different metallurgical mechanisms of creep. Suppose the specimen is allowed to creep over a time interval Af at steady values of stress and temperature until a creep strain of Ae has accumulated. For Nimonic 90.^elempture} proposed by Goldhoff (1965) can be taken as a measure of useful creep life expended. Under changing stress and temperature conditions. If now creep continues at a new stress and temperature level. instead we concentrate on how the information is used in design. To obtain smooth values of creep strain at rupture for Nimonic 90 (empture).6 Constitutive equations for creep Uni-axial creep computation When stress and temperature change with time. a running total of the ductility fraction can thus be kept.b) possessed the greatest similarity with expressions obtained by metallurgists working with dislocations. Given that the rupture creep strain at these stress and temperature levels (eraptore) is known. the ductility fraction (. In thick cylinder design. At this point the safe-life of the specimen is deemed to have expired.

I) to (1. The empirical expressions of Clarke and of Conrad. This multi-axial creep-life summation is done in the same manner as was done to find creep rates. thus the ductility fraction summations have to be increased for each principal stress direction at stations across the radius. but only when the stress is tensile. Creep damage by void formation occurs only under tensile stress (Mohr condition). Physical properties can then be updated.448 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers of Betteridge (1958). multi-axial stresses are reduced to equivalent uni-axial form using Maxwell's relation The equivalent uni-axial creep rate found using of the ductility fraction concept as described above. a predictable stress distribution no longer exists. These times were then used to obtain coefficients in Conrad's (1959a. Multi-axial creep computation For multi-axial creep behaviour under time-dependent stresses and temperatures. When the safe-life in one direction is reached. 1964a. Computation of the next time interval can now proceed. Multi-axial creep-life expenditure In a thick cylinder the stresses (o>. but plays no part in calculating the deformation and stress redistribution. Complete creep curves can be represented by Clarke's (1966) method. aa) are evaluated at each time interval. Although the tube may survive under a redistributed load after voids have coalesced. During each time interval. new creep rates found to increment creep strains. and the ductility fraction used to obtain creep strain and chordal creep rate at any time.b) correlation for creep rupture. are supported by expressions mathematically similar to those obtained by metallurgists working on dislocation theory.5) for the stress field solved (numerically) to obtain new stress and strain values for the next time interval (Smith. which when used with Clarke's curves provided smooth values of creep strain at rupture. the tube is assumed to have completed its service. a similar procedure to that for uni-axial creep is used for evaluating creep rates and expended safe-life in each time interval. 1965b). Conrad's rupture parameter has the form based on a dislocation model for creep proposed by Weertman (1957). The size of the time interval is determined by the permitted change in stress and temperature levels in the computation. and finally equations (I. First. During deformation both tensile and compressive values may exist at different times in different directions.14) is invoked to find the appropriate multiaxial creep rates. ar. . and then equation (1. if temperature changes are involved then equations for the temperature field are solved first (numerically).

and found that the shape of the curve was typical for all the alloys of the Nimonic series. the form of his expressions did correspond to those anticipated from metallurgical considerations Fig. In(strain) versus In(time). I. I.Creep Life of Thick Tubes 449 1.7 Clarke's creep curves It is worth taking a more detailed look at Clarke's representation of creep-strain data because it points a way to possible further improvements in safe-life prediction. He then proposed that it could adequately be represented by a hyperbola (Fig.2). 1.I.l Typical uniaxial tensile creep curve for Nimonic 90 .I in terms of natural logarithms.I. Clarke fitted a hyperbola for all the data at each test temperature using where Although Clarke claimed only that his data-fit was empirical. A typical creep strain versus time curve for Nimonic 90 presented by Clarke (1966) is shown in Fig. With this assumption. Clarke re-plotted the data from Fig.

2 Re-plotting of data for Fig. Taking natural logarithms of raw creep data. Davies et al. Metallurgically. I. 1. (1966) worked on Nimonic 80A and confirmed that annealing in the late secondary stage Fig. Woodford (1969) found strong evidence that the number of voids was controlled by total strain rather than by time. Its terms also corresponded closely to those proposed by Conrad for his creep-rupture parameter. viz.2 the point of minimum creep rate occurs before the circle defining the curve 'elbow'. such expressions are less appropriate with the more general form of equations (1.20) when a numerical approach is easier to apply. x = In(hours). The 'elbow' point on the In/In creep curve is of much greater interest than the point of minimum creep rate and its location can be found numerically. a more general hyperbola is first fitted to the data The origin is then determined and the data then adjusted to the new origin to produce the simpler form of hyperbola On the In/In plot of Fig. cavities being strung out along grain boundaries.I as natural logarithms . and Dyson & McLean (1972) found a strong linear relationship between cavity density and strain.450 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers involving dislocations. v = ln(creep strain). Ishida & McLean (1967) found that voids in creeping material occurred at right angles to the tensile stress. However.1. This method of representing data also allowed explicit expressions for strain and strain rate or time and strain rate.

Following observations by metallurgists of void formation near the start of tertiary creep. References Anon. and the form of Conrad's rupture parameter suggests itself. (1961) The Nimonic series of high temperature alloys. This is a welldefined point appropriate in design analysis of structures.9 Acknowledgements The data for Nimonics used in computation were the extensive results obtained by Walles and Graham at the National Gas Turbine Establishment.4) derived from the basic axioms of physics. viz. the ductility fraction concept could then be expressed as (Ae/ee«. making analysis of complex stress systems invalid in the final stages before failure.. Betten's review is a most timely contribution to the subject. However.8 Further and recent developments The fundamental equations (I. Henry Wiggin Publication 2358. 1. Computing facilities were provided courtesy of Professor Ewan Page. What is the shortest time required to collect sufficient experimental data to permit creation of new constitutive equations? 2. Hereford were equally helpful in providing data on Nimonics. which discusses 243 significant papers written over the past two or three decades.Creep Life of Thick Tubes 451 of creep was more effective in extending life than annealing in the early tertiary stage of creep. How long will it take the fastest computer to compute the creep behaviour of real components (minimum two-space-one-time problems)? 1. shows that mathematical representation of creep damage can now been extended to include complex stress situations in which the stress and strain tensors do not remain coincident during deformation. Henry Wiggin & Co. and their numerical solution. hold whatever constitutive equations may be injected into the thick tube problem.I) to (1. The simpler criteria of strain-to-rupture is less precise by the way in which macroscopic cavities in the material coalesce into bigger cavities. A correlation which defines the 'elbow' point in the Clarke representation is required. Such observations suggested that the end of safe-life for Nimonic 90 might be assumed when the 'elbow' of the In/In creep curve was reached. . RAE Farnborough.ovv). but two practical considerations remain. Director of the Computing Laboratory at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. This simplified the 1-space-1-time problem considerably. Betten's (2001) extensive review of investigations into creep behaviour.: 1. this problem is a special case of deformation in which initial directions of stress and strain tensors are maintained.

(1959b) Correlation of stress-rupture properties of Nimonic alloys. National Gas Turbine Establishment.E. ASME. Proc. A. 171-172. Mechanics Rev. Dyson. 8 August. Henderson. B. ASTM STP 520. and Mathur.. Metal Sci. Metal Sci. 15 August. G. J.F.) Smith. Goldhoff. D.. C. 270-275. Bailey. and Cherniak. 131-349..physical and mechanical properties. E. 1949. 107-132. M. J. (1941) Interpretation of creep tests on tubes.452 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Anon. E.P. J. and McLean. 86. (Translation of 1966 Russian book. D. November. /.W. ASME. 82-92. R. Appl. 5(20). Engng Sci. 347-349. Holland. 63. J.W. W. (1966) Recovery properties of a nickel-base high temperature alloy after creep at 750°C. 287-291. 737-748. Coffin.. HMSO. J. Engineering. J. Fatigue at Elevated Temperatures. and Kahn. Appl.E.M. ASME.E.M. Y.. (1966) A convenient representation of creep strain data for problems involving time-varying stresses and temperatures. Betten. Rabotnov. (2001) Mathematical modelling of material behaviour under creep conditions. D. Instn Mech. D. R. American Society for Testing Materials. E.M. Betteridge. 1951). . B. A. J. NOTE Report No. (1969) Creep Problems in Structural Members. Metals. J. (1960) Complex stress creep of metals (references to earlier work in 1948.R. Dennison. L.F. V. (1935) The utilisation of creep test data in engineering design. September. Conrad.) Ellison. Trans. R. H. Mechanics.N. Creep Relaxation and Fracture of Nimonic Alloys. 1. 16. P.M.. spheres and thin discs. J.R. 206(5351). 81. Metals. Part L(3). (1965) Uniaxial creep-rupture behaviour of low alloy steel under variable loading conditions. E. 29-42. Engrs..284. 7(1). Metals. Metallurgical Rev. and Evans. Basic Engng. 447-506. (1962) Complex Stress. (1959a) Correlation of high temperature creep and rupture data. 220-223. Paper 58-A-96. Engrs. National Physical Laboratory.S. RJ. 575-612. /. 206(5350). Part 3. 87(2). J. Inst.G. Hants. 251-257. Trans. 374-378. Johnson. Johnson. (1965a) Analysis of creep in cylinders. Basic Engng.A. P. (1958) Creep under changing complex stress systems.. Ishida. Johnson. 1(1). Ser. Part 2. Proc. Henry Wiggin Publication 3270. A. (1967) Formation and growth of cavities in creep. Trans. (1958) The extrapolation of the stress rupture properties of the Nimonic alloys. J. 94. Instn Mech. Davies.. (1965b) Estimation of the useful life and strain history of a thick tube creeping under non-steady conditions. A. Pyestock. and Smith. Strain Analysis. 87(10). Soderberg. 178. In Conference on Thermal Loading and Creep in Structures and Components. Part 1.. ASME. March. 22 August. (1949) Primary creep in the design of internal pressure vessels. June. (1973) Predicting service life in a fatigue-creep environment. 206(5350). (1972) New method of predicting creep life. and McLean. Trans. March. Conrad. Ser. Leckie. Inst. 6.. 54(2).E. Johnson. Mech. 232-237. 44-49. North-Holland Publishing Co. June. Shepler. H. (1963) Creep of metallic thick-walled cylindrical vessels subject to pressure and radial thermal gradient at elevated temperatures. Smith. 209-210. (See also IMS Internal Report 44. (1966) Nimonic alloys . English version edited by F. Yu.E. 229-241. H. Inst. Clarke. pp. UK.

6(4). 234-240. Weertman. Engrs.F. 7(1). Mech. Islip. Proc. (See also pp. Bulleid Memorial Lectures 1967. E. University of Nottingham. G. Smith.M. 3. National Gas Turbine Establishment. 1185-1189. vol. Pyestock. 28.M. P. 178. data from K. D. Strain Analysis.. Graham). J. (1959) A quantitative presentation of the creep of Nimonic alloys (valid in the range 650 to 870 °C for stresses up to 541 MN/m2). (NOTE.A. Tilly. J. Research Note. Appl.F. 61-68. J. Instn Mech. RJ. (1964a) Primary creep behaviour of thick tubes. (1967) Engineering in High Duty Materials.) Woodford.Creep Life of Thick Tubes 453 Walles.A.E. (1964b) Axial deformation in thick tubes creeping under internal pressure. and Barnes. 418-420.. Physics. 135-141. Part L(3). 362-364.F.A. IV. J.. Metal Sci. K.H. (1969) Density changes during creep in nickel. L.. Walles & A. Engng Sci. Howe.. In Conference on Thermal Loading and Creep in Structures and Components. E. NOTE Note NT 386. . (1972) Relationships for tensile creep under transient stresses. J. Hants. Smith.P.W. J. (1957) Steady-state creep through dislocation climb. Bibliography Glenny.

1 Acceptable flow velocities All notation in Appendix J follows that used in Chapter 4.05 to minimize the dump pressure loss.3 and 12.13. respectively.2 of the text by Shah & Sekulic (2003). the velocity value was found to be The above velocity values may be used in checking values found in exchanger design. Also surface geometries corresponding to the correlations are known and fixed. For a conservative velocity value using the gas-side exchanger exhaust temperature of 564. This determination is reinforced if the side with the lowest pressure loss also carries the higher-temperature fluid. for hot and cold fluids were found in a design presented in Section 9. When accurate fouling data become available then appropriate adjustments to the above velocity values can be made. Values of 32.4 K. J. hand calculations Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. step-wise rating. Since no published velocity constraint is specified with Kays & London (1964) plate-fin surface correlations. corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 589 and 542. The side of the two-stream exchanger with the lowest pressure level will usually require the lowest pressure loss. Ltd.8) is to keep the Mach number at engine exhaust flange below a Mach number of 0. Eric M. In preliminary investigations.which is not always carried out.APPENDIX J Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization Search for improvement within constraints J. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons.47 m/s.2 Overview of surface performance It is convenient to represent flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations by procedure interpolating cubic spline-fits which automatically keep values / and j within the validity range of the correlations. and transients. Section 5. A clue to selection of pressure loss in the text by Walsh & Fletcher (1998. and this may not be discovered unless velocity values are evaluated . ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . quite high velocities can arise in the core of a compact exchanger design.

When such universal correlations are employed then two additional constraints must be applied during computation. 1.152 0. 4. Rectangular offset strip-fins When universal correlations are employed.7).0 mm2. The flow area parameters b. tf(mm) 0. viz.127 0. duct length L m. b (mm) 8. but this probably has applications only for thin crossflow figure 4. In this work the author employed a specific performance parameter for unambiguous comparison of performance of heat exchangers.5 kg/(m2 s). with constant mass velocity of G = 12. constant density p = 0.11 approaches primary surfaces.73 m/s.2.540 Fin thickness. and the maximum cell geometry to be considered would therefore not exceed that shown in Table J.550 kg/m3. (c — tf) used in describing rectangular surface geometries1.3.456 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table J.11 of Chapter 4 shows the relative performance of plain rectangular ducts against duct aspect ratio developed using theoretical results for performance of plain rectangular ducts given in Table J.1016 may be used. The right-hand end of Fig. and specific performance parameter Qspec kW/(m3 K) against duct aspect ratio. using cubic fits where data is smooth. The results revealed that square ducts gave the worst possible performance. x (mm) 12. e.4 and these results were applied in deriving performance graphs given in Appendix C. preferably interpolating in the middle range of four points (see Appendix B.I Minimum/maximum range of ROSF surfaces for Manglik & Bergles correlations Geometrical parameters Maximum Minimum Plate spacing.70 2.9050 Cell width. and plotted fin efficiency <f>.940 Strip length.g. c for cells with zero fin thickness in that figure correspond to (b — tf). . giving constant flow velocity of u = G/p = 22. c (mm) 2. viz: • maximum and minimum permitted values of Reynolds number • range limits of surface geometries under consideration On the low-pressure side of an exchanger we might reasonably expect to use ROSF surfaces. the Manglik & Bergles (1990) algebraic equations for /and j for rectangular offset strip-fins (ROSF) surfaces may be found in Appendix C.9660 1. Plain rectangular ducts Figure 4.11 was constructed using an assumed constant value of flow area A = 8.

The direct-sizing approach is not completely optimized because only one cell parameter was allowed to vary its geometry over the permitted full range while the other parameters were maintained at some mean condition. However it is not desirable to go to very short exchangers as this results in greater longitudinal conduction.123 3.049 5.490 6. mm Plate thickness.585 19.608 exchangers (car radiators). 1999).548 14. while Cool etal. (1999) presented results for genetic algorithms in the form of scatter diagrams covering the research area for plain rectangular ducts. Plate and fin material Fin thickness. Genetic algorithms avoid this constraint. simply selecting and following the best incremental improvement.702 18. while in this section we shall reverse the notation and use Duct Aspect = (duct height/ duct base).11 finds applications with block contraflow exchangers (gas turbine recuperators).0 Note that the x-axis of Fig. kg/m3 tf= 0. Both methods are capable of exploring the complete envelope of possible surface geometries to arrive at a fully optimized exchanger core. while the left-hand of Fig 4. 1997-99).block contraflow exchangers Full optimization of plate-fin surfaces is possible using either the direct-sizing approach (Smith 1994..233 15. mm Thermal conductivity. or by following the genetic algorithm approach (Cool et a/. Trend curves In 1994 the author used direct-sizing on an exchanger with a cold-side/hot-side pressure ratio of 6/1 to investigate the effect on performance of changing the .2 Extract from Shah & London (1974) (fully developed forced laminar flow) Duct aspect (b -tf)/(c. nor is it desirable to go to excessive duct heights as this leads to minimization of improvement.Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization Table J.3048 \w = 20. Optimization of.11 uses LOG(duct base/duct height).77 pw = 7030. J/(m s K) Density.1524 tp = NuH1 457 fxRe 20.331 4.227 8/1 6/1 4/1 2/1 1/1 6. Results for direct-sizing with ROSF surfaces were presented by Smith (1997-99) as a series of four plots of trend curves. and the search allows the whole geometry to vary one parameter at a time. 4.

0 <b< 10. .l5mm te = 0. c.0mm The value for b = 1. viz. (1999).4 in Appendix C provide just an outline for the more comprehensive list of figures presented by Smith (1997-99). Manglik & Bergles (1993) universal heat-transfer and flow-friction correlations for both single-cell and double-cell geometries were employed. changing one dimension at a time while keeping the others at their nominal size2.0mm tf = 0.0mm 3. From the figures generated using direct-sizing the case of minimum block volume showed consistency.0mm 1. b = 5. The effects of fin thickness tf. • minimum frontal area of a block may be approached by selecting minimum block volume and choosing a higher value for block length L. Figures C. • minimum mass of the block is less frequently required. Six possible core minimization targets were investigated.0mm x = 6.0 mm can be avoided as this would have led to a square cell.0 < c < 4.see Fig. • length of the block remains a free choice as it can be specified independently to match allowable pressure losses. 4. viz.11.c< 6. The range of rectangular offset strip-fin geometries used were 2. separating plate thickness tp. which employs the genetic algorithm approach. five sets of which were presented in the text by Smith (1997-99): • minimum total and plate surface areas approximate to minimum core volume. and splitter thickness ts were negligible and did not affect the results. x were varied about their nominal size. A nominal surface geometry was selected. in that each of four figures indicated that the best choice was to use rectangular cells of minimum width.20mm and the dimensions b.0mm c = 2.0 < . and only minor differences in the results between single and double cell configurations were found.15mm tp = 0.458 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers geometry of ROSF surfaces.I to C. • • • • • • minimum volume of block minimum mass of block (excluding fluids) minimum length of block minimum frontal area of block minimum plate surface area minimum total surface area Six sets of four figures were generated. 2 In this respect the search is less thorough than that developed by Cool et al. which was shown to be the worst choice . but which produces scatter diagrams.

3 Input data for contra-flow exchanger (Qduty = 5. J/(m s K) Density by gas law Gas constant.048817 Rh = 287.02735 = 702.4724 MW. J/(kg K) Absolute viscosity. kg/s Inlet absolute pressure.5 -qh = 0. K Outlet temperature.57 Ch = 1084.15 = 662.69 Cold HP air mc pc Tc2 Tc\ = 24.00002850 Ac = 0. however there is no constraint on using different cell widths.4 (Smith 1997-99).70994 J.318 = 9.07 ph = 0.044744 Rc = 287. Also physical properties would change slightly to correspond with the new mean temperatures encountered.842) Flow stream parameter Specified parameters Mass flow rate.90 TJC = 0.I to C. and the choice made was to select duct widths (c — if) = 1. 3 This choice reduces design of the exchanger to the study of performance of opposite cells. . For minimum core block volume we first select the cell dimension with the greatest slope. the hot low-pressure side will obviously require the largest single-cell duct height. kg/(m s) Thermal conductivity. the smallest cell widths were found to give minimum block volume.3 Design problem Input data Consider the contraflow recuperator shown in Table J.I (this text) and Figs C.0 mm. Using plain rectangular cell surfaces. Hot low-pressure side Figures of Appendix C apply to a design of ROSF fins with a cold/hot pressure ratio of 6/1 (the same conclusions will be valid for other pressure ratios). data adapted from the examples for crossflow and contraflow exchangers described in Chapter 4. = 0.00003015 A/.4724 MW. while the height for the cold high-pressure side (b — tf)c requires further consideration.59618 Cc = 1051. Examining flow requirements in Table J.07 pc = 5.3. Using Fig. C.59 = 497. kg/m3 mh ph TM Th2 Hot LP gas = 24.1014 = 448. J/(kg K) Density.0 mm for both hot and cold sides3. let us now seek minimum block volume. effectiveness = 0. bar Inlet = 8. Here we take the same mean temperature difference in crossflow.683 = 1. We anticipate that the results will differ from those for the contraflow example described in Chapter 4 as now Qduty = 5. and apply this to the corresponding contraflow example. K Values by splinefits Specific heat at const. but we shall use the values quoted in Chapter 4.4. say (b . pressure.Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization 459 Table J.

Table J. loss Heat trans.0 mm Duct aspect (b~tf\ (c~tf)h 8/1 Core press. 1 provides the necessary values of Nusselt number Nu and flow-friction expression/Re for the hot low-pressure side.8037 18. Duct width. then hydraulic diameter mass velocity flow area of single duct mass flow rate in duct flow velocit heat transfer coefficient fin efficiency .292 825.7500 15.2232 14.946 678.0.036 ^Ph N/m* L ' ' 6/1 4/1 2/1 14.460 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table J.9650 We plan to employ data for plain rectangular ducts in laminar forced flow convection using the theoretical results of Shah & London (1978).J/(m2sK) 896. coeff.490 /Re = 20. (c — tf)h = 1. viz. ah. Results obtained by selecting data from both rectangular offset strip-fins and plain rectangular ducts should not be in too serious error for obtaining reasonable starting values for optimization.4 Summary of results for hot low-pressure side. Nu = 6. = 500.585 and we choose to remain in the laminar region by assuming that Re/.960 435.

Plotting the heat transfer coefficient versus duct aspect ratio shows that we are approaching minimal performance return as the duct aspect ratio increases above 8/1.Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization 461 fin performance rati plate heat transfer coefficient friction factor pressure loss ratio It is useful at this point to assess the dependence of heat transfer performance on cell aspect ratio. The choice for the low pressure side is clear. = 500. (c — tf)/.0mm.10 6389.4.10 2394. say (b — tf)h = 12.414 774.. choose the highest value of plate referred heat transfer coefficient.06 . ac.014 A/?c N/m L. i.0 mm high carrying half the mass flow rate. coeff. with a duct cell 6.N/m 3 8/1 6/1 4/1 2/1 630. Beyond this point it may be desirable to go to double-cell surfaces. which also requires the least pressure loss.216 400.046 630. J/(m2 sK) 845. loss Heat trans.5 Summary of results for cold high-pressure side.e.664 1073. Duct width.0 mm Duct aspect (b-tf\ \c-tf)c Core press. = 1. Cold high-pressure side The Reynolds number on the cold high-pressure side may be obtained as follows making use of edge-length With Re.0 (laminar flow) Table J. On repeating the above calculations over the permitted range of fin heights the results are summarized in Table J.

log mean temperature difference. U.6 shows that a minimum exists for core volume.234446 2.162482m3 occurred at (b .370676mm. J/(m2 s K) 429.351 Plate surface Spiate.0064572 0.636 335. Overall plate heat transfer coefficient.445725 8/1 6/1 4/1 2/1 286. m 0.168902 2. V in m3 is then found from Table J. total plate surface.165 .5 summarizes findings Search of core design The overall heat transfer coefficient.6 Cold-side duct aspect Search of core design for minimum volume Overall heat transfer coeff.227 299. Using this data.0074572 0.057 274. is obtained from Log mean temperature difference.0084572 0.7).346 366.889 = 4. each value also being Table J. and block volume were obtained using the following equations.0054572 Block volume V. (half height cell surfaces + plate thickness). Table J. Using four-point cubic interpolation (Appendix B.420678 2. m Half-height cells + plate thickness. &0imtd is obtained using Total plate surface. U in J/(m2 s K). Spiate m2. m3 2. the following values for the optimum cold side design were obtained. is obtained from (Half height cell surfaces + plate thickness) are converted to metres Block volume.462 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Following the same calculation route as for the hot low-pressure side.570 410. it was found that the minimum volume of V = 2.

difference .4947112 I /Re = 18.57827 Reynolds number 463 Repeating the same performance calculation illustrated for the hot low-pressure side. the following values were obtained hydraulic diameter mass velocity flow area of single duct mass flow rate in duct flow velocity heat transfer coefficient fin efficiency fin performance ratio plate heat transfer coefficient friction factor pressure loss ratio Final exchanger core overall heat transfer coefficient log mean temp.Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization obtained by four-point cubic interpolation: JNu c = 5.

864 deg K. giving values of StPr2^ and/over the full range of Nu.215 N/m3.25mm while keeping the aspect ratio at 8/1. This result points to the importance of specifying pressure losses as input data in direct-sizing.723 m (this free choice affects Ap's) pressure losses pressure levels become The hot-side exit pressure level is below atmospheric pressure.7 also revealing that volume of the contraflow exchanger with mean temperature difference of 69. Comparison with earlier designs Table J. a partial legacy from the original Kay & London design case (2nd edn. The specific performance parameter Qduty/V&6m = US/V (kW/m3 K) shows the optimized exchanger design to be best. The resulting hot-side plate heat transfer coefficent becomes a = 830. surfaces 6.365 J/(m2 s K).11 (a) respectively.224 deg K is greater than that of the optimized exchanger with mean temperature difference of 44.and j-correlations is discussed later. 1964).2 and 11. as the mean temperature differences do not correspond. The use of accurate data for f. Suitably modified theoretical parameters Nu and / Re plotted on the same figures suggest that performance values . An immediate reduction in pressure loss for the low pressure hot-side may be achieved by selecting (c — tf)h = 1. However the author did not pursue this design route. Table J. Experimental performance data Kays & London (1964) provide heat transfer and flow-friction curves for only two plain rectangular fin geometries. whilst the pressure loss reduces to (ApA/L) = (4//IGj)/(2pft4) = 2860. Note however that performance of the high-pressure coldside should be re-calculated using new values of Reynolds numbers. as both heat transfer performance data and friction factor data used were based on Shah & London's 1978 theoretical predictions. The contraflow design is not ideal for comparison with the optimum design.464 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers total plate surface core block volume core block length exchanger (breadth x width) L = 0.7 compares the results of designing by direct-sizing with the new approximate approach.

from which interpolating cubic splinefitted f. J/(m2 s K) &MX. Directions for improvement As illustrated in Table J.85 2324.6134 2.MW Crossflow exchanger 702. m3 Overall heat trans.22 662. coeff. K Cold inlet temp. reported by Kays & London (1964).94 0.224 2.15 521.5932 4. Reliable experimental data for plain rectangular ducts in laminar flow is required.8548 26.8408 500. Rec A0 m degK NtuA Ntuc Plate surface S.328685 347.0mm 1/4-11.8548 28.0371 4. duct K&L plain K&L plain 1/4-11.98 44.28 637.59 448. K Effectiveness e Hot Reynolds no.2261 571.7459 1555.7 Comparison of exchanger performance (first two sets of results from Chapter 4) Parameter Hot inlet temp. K Cold outlet temp.864 4.373 4. K Hot outlet temp.94 0.8..0mm single cell K&L louver K&L louver Plain rect.0 873.0 single cell 6-/f=8..07 4079.0mm 3/8-06.0 c — tf= 1..28 637.15 498.59 448. but it does provide a good starting point for optimization. This may require an experimental single-blow testing program.08 0.969 5. the present method of calculation should not be pressed too far in final design.7459 1366. U. duct c — tf= 1.59 448..06 3/8-06. allowing the range of duct sizes to be tested to be minimized.11 (a) values at specific Reynolds numbers are compared with the values used in the new computational approach. Assessment of . m2 Volume V. Cold Reynolds no. Re/.06 single cell single cell fc -If =4.8066 350..Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization 465 Table J.8..4724 52.50 3.7347 398.15 521.803227 189.54 2.37 mm Cold surface using Shah & London (1974) data may not match too closely the actual performance of plain rectangular ducts.1308 2.4558 Contraflow exchanger 702.656238 175.28 44. and it may be necessary to adjust one or both values of cell width appropriately.3802 Qduty VA0m US f kW \ V Vm 3 K/ Hot surface Plain rect. Adequate allowance must be made to accommodate fouling particles.704 4.and j-correlations may be prepared.57 69. For the plain rectangular duct surface 11. Table J.3354 Optimum contraflow 702.854 4.

581 duct thicknesses will be necessary to ensure that the ducts can withstand applied internal pressures. and should be added to the recommendations for future work listed in Appendix L.1.466 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Table J.7561 NuH1 6.00 18.0789 f Re 20.585 19.4 Exchanger optimization Optimization route This optimization problem was made possible by the following observations . A Pascal program is required.0 500. 11 (a) Cold high-pressure side K&L surf ace 11. 0. and the heat-transfer data may involve Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.3 873. and good incentive to seek increase in the larger coefficient ai. Direct-sizing approach Direct-sizing design is recommended as this involves specification of pressure losses as input data. Overall heat transfer coefficient At this point it is worth considering what happens to the overall heat transfer coefficient.3 Aspect ratio 8.8 Performance comparison for heat-transfer and flow-friction input data Surfaces Hot low-pressure side K&L surface 11. and neglect thermal resistance of the separating plate. Interpolating cubic spline-fits of original heat-transfer and flow-friction data should be used. If we assume hot and cold fluid heat transfer coefficients to be a\.571 5. CL-I.0000 5.578 19. There is great incentive to seek increase in the smaller coefficient ai. with input data designed to obtain minimum core block volume. J. The direct-sizing design software is not developed here. This observation supports the choice made to increase the size of the hot-side rectangular duct as discussed under 'Final Exchanger Core' above. 11 (a) Reynolds number 500.4947 5.7561 4.3707 5.490 4. then the overall heat transfer coefficient U is found from from which the overall coefficient is seen to lie in the range «2/2 < U < «2 where a-i is the smaller of a\.0 873.

pp. Engng. allowed generation of cold side Reynolds numbers which depend on duct height only .. Printed circuit geometries have a maximum depth of etching around 2. and Shah.L. 27-32.namely plain rectangular fins with duct aspect ratios in the range between 3/1 to 10/1 and cell spacing (fin pitching) between 1. R.0 mm external diameter may prove to be of interest in special applications.a Festschrift . Round tubes as surface geometry Webb (1994.I to C. 218-228. Edinburgh. 4. 6th UK National Heat Transfer Conference. nor for the use of wings. In any case little advantage is evident in use of strip fins . Two etched plates placed face to face would just approach the lower limit required.11).Compact Surface Selection for Sizing Optimization 467 • performance trend curve Figs C. evaluated using four-point cubic interpolation.I to C. Very small tubes of under 1. Kays. T. However the use of wavy channels might still prove to be practicable. (1990) The thermal hydraulic design of the rectangular offset strip-fin compact heat exchanger. here (b . Institution of Mechanical Engineers. • varying the cold side cell geometry revealed that a minimum exists for core volume. References Cool. (1968) Offset rectangular plate-fin surfaces .tf)h = 10. September. Power. New York.00). J.2) shows round geometries to have reasonable thermal performance values of (Nu# = 4.364. and London. A. C. To ensure good thermal contact each separating plate would need to have cusped circular profiles machined on one side to ensure snug fit with the round tubes. London. J. In Compact Heat Exchangers .heat transfer and flow friction characteristics. A.15 to 1.0 mm which is well below the required height of duct. Table 2.4 (Smith 1997-99).E.M.0mm • fixing cell geometry on the hot side with the constraint that Reynolds number was 500.M./Re = 16.. and Adderley.5 Possible surface geometries Plain rectangular fins For many low fouling applications there may only be one prime candidate surface geometry . (1964) Compact Heat Exchangers.0 mm for both sides led to minimum core volume • the hot low-pressure side required the largest practicable value for cell height.4 presented by Smith (1997-99) show that minimizing cell base values (c — tf) = 1. 2nd edn. Because of the narrowness of the finned channels there is no longer scope for use of rectangular offset-strip fins. W. R. ASME.5 mm (see Fig. Stevens. It is also known that some perforated fin surfaces can generate unwanted noise.L.see Appendix C. 90.I.0. Figs C. A. McGraw Hill. but the width of etching may prove to be too great. and Bergles.K. A. (1999) Heat exchanger optimisation using genetic algorithms. Manglik.

Hemisphere Press. R. Oxford. Shah. 55-66. (1998) Gas Turbine Performance. Chichester.P.D. 10th International Heat Transfer Conference. Blackwell Science. 1st edn. and Seculic.. . E. Berryman). London (Eds R. P.J.L.468 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers for A. (2003) Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (1997-99) Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Webb. Paper I/2-CHE-2.K. Industrial Sessions Papers (Ed R.M. pp. New York. 1997. Smith. P.L. and D. R. Kraus. reprinted with corrections 1999. E. A. New York. 123-149..P. D. (1994) Direct thermal sizing of plate-fin heat exchangers. Walsh. Metzger). pp.K. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Shah. (1994) Principles of Extended Heat Transfer.M. Smith. and Fletcher.

N/(m s) p = density.APPENDIX K Continuum Equations Basis of equations in solid and fluid mechanics for those who insist on knowing where to begin K. Below continuum (macroscopic) level we would enter the statistical (microscopic) level. step-wise rating.1 Laws of continuum mechanics Valid range of theory Continuum theory introduces the concept of small volumes and small time intervals. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . and transients. Kandlikar & Grande (2002) proposed the following classification based on hydraulic diameter Conventional channels Minichannels Microchannels Transitional channels Nanochannels dh > 3 mm 200 |xm < <4 < 3 mm 10 |xm < dh < 200 jxm 0. kg/m3 T = absolute temperature. J/(kg K) 17 = absolute viscosity.1 fjim The microchannel range is influenced by rarefaction effects for gases described by the Knusden number (Kri) where and A is mean free path for a gas obtainable from with R = gas constant. For fluid flow in small channels. K Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. Eric M.1 JJLHI <dh< lOjjim dh < 0. but these must not become too small otherwise the smoothness of macroscopic property values is no longer guaranteed. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd.

(1966) were followed by Jaunzemis (1967). the heat-transfer coefficient (a) must increase. In the limit. covering solid mechanics. and 0.470 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers For air at 300 K. this means that we may be working very much within the developing flow region for laminar flow. Similarly the friction factor (/) must also increase. A = 0. Table 4. but not for developing flow on rectangular ducts with heat transfer. K2) are constants for a given duct geometry. . However. single-phase and two-phase fluid flow. making the subject matter more accessible to engineers. Development of continuum theory The main thrust of work in continuum mechanics was carried out by a group of applied mathematicians at John Hopkins University under the leadership of Clifford Truesdell. There was required to be exactly the same number of governing equations as there were unknowns. and several textbooks also appeared.evidently still in the continuum region. McAdams (1954) suggests the following regimes for gases Thus continuum flow may extend some way into the minichannel range suggested by Kandlikar & Grande. which implies that the duct length must be shorter to meet a pressure loss constraint. and more exotic phenomena.068 jim (data from Kandlikar & Grande).b) and by Coleman et al.9 for fully developed flow in plain rectangular ducts shows that where (Ki. One highperformance exchanger is reported to employ tubes 0. As the hydraulic diameter (dh) approaches the lower limit for continuum flow.05 mm wall at temperatures up to 700 °C . The texts by Truesdell (1966a.8 mm o. it would be desirable to calculate the Knusden number for each small duct application below 3 mm hydraulic diameter.d. Malvern (1969) and by many others. This considerable undertaking clarified the approach to many problems. The objective of the work was to establish the exact form of equations for predicting the behaviour of continua. The work of Shah & London (1978) provides a substantial amount of information. Much of the work was published in the journal Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis. There is need to explore this region further for the ducts of interest.

The stress power term is only important under ballistic impact conditions where it generates a significant amount of thermal energy .2 and K. included or omitted in different equations as appropriate) for most engineering . but the considerable benefit remains that when simplifications are made to obtain a solution. the last expression is an equality which simply has to be satisfied. leaving no holes. namely mechanical energy and thermal energy.3.Continuum Equations 471 Prior study of Tensor Calculus is desirable . and equations have eventually to be expanded before algorithms can be written. This then requires construction of a sufficient number of Constitutive equations which can only be validated by experimentation. In engineering it may not be beneficial to compact the equations too much. A perfect example of this is illustrated in Sections K. all these distorted blocks will fit together exactly. the extent of the error could be known.namely if a body is imagined to be cut into a series of rectangular blocks. and examination of its two sub-forms.: balance of mass balance of linear momentum balance of moment of momentum balance of energy growth of entropy one equation three equations not required for irrotational flow one equation an inequality There are found to be more unknowns present than there are equations to be solved. and these terms differ in sign so that they seemingly disappear when mechanical and thermal energy equations are summed to form the total energy equation.e. There are five Physical Axioms. namely concepts in physics which are taken to be true as a result of observation . This deformation may be regarded as strain or as rate of strain . viz. The seemingly exotic nature of the last two constitutive equations in coupled theory (Section K. Potential solutions developed from continuum theory might not always be fully practicable.on the surface this is just a compact way of writing equations. as there may remain the requirement to solve the problem on a computer. Both theories require first the concept of Kinematics . then after deformation.a concept involving pure mathematics only. but the concepts seem to fit the facts and can be expressed mathematically. coupled and de-coupled theories.2) is probably due to the fact that they are seldom invoked . and no equations. There appears a 'stress power' term in each equation. viz. Four of the expressions are equations.3) involves study of the energy equation. but it also carries the benefit of allowing an observer to view the physical phenomena from different directions while the equations remain unchanged. in that too much data might be required to produce an engineering solution.engineers find that most problems can be tackled by first simplifying the couple proof being possible.and may be neglected (i. De-coupled theory (Section K.

which approach minimizes coding errors. and reverse renumber the solution when it appears . Hence the solution of problems involving both stress and temperature may be de-coupled and solved sequentially.see discussion under 'Pressure gradient due to friction' in Appendix A.472 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers applications. Solution of equations Solution of these equations may now be broken in to two groups. The need to make such corrections might be omitted in a first computer run. Transient equations The de-coupled equations for a single fluid provide a foundation for the transient equation discussed in Appendix A . It is best practice always to go back to the beginning and introduce the proper constitutive equation at the fundamental level. The mechanical energy equation then becomes identical to the balance of linear momentum equation.only now we have to cater for two fluids and one separating wall. Second group The solution process is made straightforward by constructing the matrix to be solved mid-way between values for fluid temperatures. The second group contains the balance of energy equations (temperature field) for the wall and both fluids. The same algorithms can be used for each fluid. First group In each time interval there is need to use values of velocity from the previous time interval to set up the equations for solution. it only being necessary to reverse-number input values for the second fluid before solution. . being constrained by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. The expression for pressure gradient takes care of flow acceleration/ deceleration effects. e. The first group contains the balance of mass (density field) and balance of linear momentum equations (density x velocity field) . The time intervals are small. a thixotropic paint. but if the need should arise it would be possible to use the newly found velocity value and iterate solution of the first group of equations until change in the value of velocities was found to be less than some arbitrary small value. The stress/strain law has been modified to become an expression involving the friction factor (/) . as there are then exactly the same number of equations as unknowns. In no circumstances should such equations be used to describe the flow of a nonNewtonian fluid. There may also be need to iterate solution of the balance of linear momentum equations until zero gradient is obtained at the assumed outlet condition.the stress/strain (or strain-rate) law and Fourier's law. In the last set of equations presented in Appendix A. Further simplifications become possible when it is found that the Rayleigh dissipation terms are very small and may be neglected in the fluid equations. These equations are only for one dimension in space and one in time. Only two constitutive equations are now required .one set for each fluid. Fourier's law is built into each of the energy equations.g. 1.2 the term [pressure field] contains both the shear stress/strain law and an expression for pressure gradient.

geometry of deformation Basic axioms . A minimum of 50 space intervals is recommended.Continuum Equations 473 This approach uses arithmetic mean values of fluid temperatures. F = e — inequality. K. not an equation where the Helmholtz function.2 Coupled continuum theory Kinematics . is introduced in place of e.physical principles Balance of mass Balance of linear momentum Balance of moment of momentum (non-polar materials only) Bijk<Tki = 0 implying symmetry of stress tensor * ov/ = cry. Equations Axiomatic: Mass Linear momentum Moment of momentum Energy Constitutive: Stress/strain Fourier's law Energy Entropy Equations ==>• Unknowns 1 3 * 1 6 3 1 1 16 1 3 6 1 3 1 1 Density Velocity components Stress components * Specific internal energy Heat flux vector components Temperature Specific entropy P Ui <nj e <li T s 16 •4= Unknowns . and any errors so introduced would be minimized by increasing the number of space intervals. Balance of total energy (mechanical + thermal) Growth of entropy .

and density may be deleted as an unknown. Temperature-field equations Axiomatic: 1 Thermal energy Constitutive: Fourier's law 3 Equations =>• 4 Unknowns 1 3 Temperature Heat flux vector components T <li 4 4= Unknowns .3 De-coupling the balance of energy equation Balance of total energy Balance of mechanical energy (scalar product of «.and balance of linear momentum equation) Balance of thermal energy Adding the mechanical energy and thermal energy equations causes the stress power term to hide in the total (mechanical + thermal) energy balance equation. The stress power term is only important under ballistic impact conditions. thus the balance of mass equation need not be invoked. and the solution of problems involving both stress and temperature may be de-coupled and solved sequentially.. and it can be neglected for most engineering applications. Thus the mechanical energy equation is not required to solve stress-field equations.474 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers K. Stress-field equations Axiomatic: Massf Linear momentum Moment of momentum Constitutive: Stress/strain (rate) Equations ==>• Unknowns 1 3 * 6 1 3 6 Densityt Velocity components Stress components P Ui Vij 10 10 •<= Unknowns t In small deformation of solids. density is assumed to be a prescribed constant.

plus additional material contributed by 23 colleague authors. Y. Heat and Mass Transfer. McGraw-Hill. Jaunzemis. Markovitz.M. (1978) Laminar Force Flow Convection in Ducts.C. S. Bibliography Aparecido. Springer-Verlag.Continuum Equations 475 References Coleman. W. New York. 311-319. Berlin. (1969) Rational Thermodynamics. H. (1966b) The Elements of Continuum Mechanics. Supplement to Advances in Heat Transfer.S. New York.D. Macmillan.) . Begell House. 341-347. Ellis Horwood. S. 123-130. Prentice-Hall. vol. McGraw-Hill. C. Paper IMECE2002-320453. C. Part I . Compact Heat Exchangers: A Festschrift on the 60th Birthday of Ramesh K. Wang. Part II . and London. New York. New York. (1966a) Six Lectures on Modern Natural Philosophy. R. 17-22 November. A. Kandlikar.Thermal problem. Kandlikar). McAdams.L. Berlin. Truesdell. 2. Shah (Eds.Hydrodynamic problem. Truesdell. (2002) Laminar flow friction and heat transfer in non-circular ducts. Celeta.J. R. (1983) Mechanics of Continuous Media. New York. J.E. and Noll. (1969) Introduction to the Mechanics of a Continuous Medium. no. Chichester. 2nd edn. (19£4) Heat Transmission. M. Muzychka. Int.M. Springer-Verlag. pp. W. and Yovanovich.B..H. and Cotta. J. B. Thonon. 3rd edn. C. Springer.. pp. Bontemps.G. 33. G. A.K. W. and S. and Grande.P. New Jersey. Shah. (1990) Thermally developing laminar flow inside rectangular ducts. Truesdell. W. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. (2002) Evolution of microchannel flow passages thermohydraulic performance and fabrication technology. Hunter. pp.-C. (2nd edition has Appendix by C. Academic Press. L.. (1967) Continuum Mechanics. B. Malvern. New Orleans. (1966) Viscometric Flows of Non-Newtonian Fluids.

Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. • plain sinusoidal ducts currently show the highest thermal performance for compact exchangers. • blockage of one channel by debris is limited to the point where the blockage occurs. • migration of flow across the main flow direction may produce exchangers with improved mass flow distribution for both contraflow and crossflow. • offset-lenticular fins help restart boundary layers. viz. and transients. • sinusoidal-lenticular ducts enlarge and contract throughout the heat-transfer surface and the wider portions will show improved thermal performance. Fig.L.l Sketch approximating to sinusoidal-lenticular surface geometry Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing.I) as this class of surface geometry may possess special features absent from other surface geometries.APPENDIX L Suggested Further Research Recommended extensions L. L. Ltd. leading to high heat transfer coefficients.1 Sinusoidal-lenticular surfaces It may be useful to investigate further the thermal performance of sinusoidalenticular geometries (Fig. Eric M. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . step-wise rating.

for different flowrates. unmixed-unmixed flow case. 11. It is possible that the solution approach may have to be by step-wise rating.6) to see if the problem is mitigated in any sense. This will provide a first measure of the extent of any potential problem. For conventional surface geometries it is suggested that a programme of investigation might involve a number of sequential stages. For steady-state design it is recommended that a thorough analytical/experimental programme be initiated to provide a reliable design approach with confirmation by careful experimental investigation of the performance of Z-type and U-type header systems. .17 reveals that the pressure loss in parallel flow channels will not be the same. The core pressure loss is given by thus A/> = <p(rj) where (17) is a function f temperature. Assume equal mass flowrates across the inlet face. no dependence on inlet Reynolds number was required. If the situation is serious enough. The assumption of equal mass flowrate across the inlet face of crossflow exchangers is made by nearly every researcher. and it now seems time that the validity of this assumption be explored. This is not a trivial problem and may involve consideration of cell-by-cell heat transfer and flow friction over the complete exchanger. Without changing the assumption of equal inlet mass flowrates. L. In Chapter 8 the analytical solution of flow in a cylindrical gas burner with profiled insert. and the temperature profiles of each flow path are different. 2. at least for the one-pass. and evaluate pressure loss profiles across the exchanger. the numerical solution was less clear on this point.16 and 3.3 Headers and flow distribution Headers Header design should be given as much attention as core design. From photographs of experimental work (see Dow's 1950 paper) the flow discharge along the header was level .478 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers L. now apply Haselar's method of allowing for cross-conduction effects (Ch.2 Steady-state crossflow In Chapter 3. Section 11. 3. impose the condition of equal pressure loss for each flow channel and find the mass flowrate profiles across each inlet face. In a first approach to design of a header with varying rectangular cross-section (required for most heat exchangers).but at different flame height . 1. viz. examination of temperature and temperature-difference sheets of Figs 3.

Chapter 16) is reproduced below. 1. The reason for adopting Crank-Nicholson is that it permits a clear view of what is happening to each component of the governing equations. nor have its results been compared with those of an alternative approach. and turns a single partial differential equation (PDE) into a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) at each station along the exchanger length.4 Transients in contraflow The Crank-Nicholson finite-difference solution approach presented in Chapter 9. which are then solved using Runge-Kutta. The pressure loss needs to be investigated for tapering channels of rectangular cross-section for a range of rib angles in the range 0-15 degrees.Suggested Further Research 479 In later stages the work should be extended to investigate what happens during transients. The longer flow channels would have greater included angles and would need to be wider.4) is a more efficient approach. and is not there primarily to exchange heat. 1991. with careful assessment of delays in entry to the exchanger core for both U-type and Z-type headers. Section 7. Their presence may be unavoidable with certain contraflow designs. The target is the same equal minimum pressure loss for all inlet and outlet channels of both increasing and decreasing taper angles. L. Flow distributors The duty of a distributor is to connect the header to the core of the exchanger when necessary. and for varying mean widths of channel. Appendix A and the supplement to Appendix B is slow in implementation. vol. The Method of Lines (Fletcher. Thus may be discretized using backward differences to produce the ordinary differential equation to be solved by Runge-Kutta at every station The neat geometrical description in geometrical terms of the Runge-Kutta method by Hamming (1962. but it has not been fully computed. An alternative description can .

Essentially Runge-Kutta simply integrates the curve between its two ends and adds the result to the initial value (xn. 2/6.5). Section 15. Section 3.6) shows how the method of lines with Runge-Kutta may be readily extended to solve sets of simultaneous equations. 2.3) show that the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is to be Jeffrey (1989. Section 17. Later consideration could be given to adding a diffusion term to the fluid energy equations as diffusion rates are more often driven by temperature than by turbulence alone. The four slopes are averaged using weights of (1/6. 1962. (1989). (1977.4 of Appendix E. Using this new slope (fc2/A*) we start again at (xn. 2/6. Implementation of the method can be found in the text by Press et al.1/6). pn) we compute the slope (fci/Ajc) and with this value go one-half step forward and examine the slope there. and that no higher-order method is viable. Section 7. Section 12. pn)..480 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers be found in Press et al.1).. It is suggested that the relative performance of the Crank-Nicholson and method of lines approaches be computed and compared. Formal mathematical derivation of the Runge-Kutta method from Taylor series is presented by Hildebrand (1976. Hamming states that'.5). vol. The reader may be struck by the similarity between the weights used by Runge-Kutta and the abscissae and weighting factors of the Gaussian fourpoint quadrature method using Legendre polynomials shown in Table} to (xn+i. and using this average slope we make the final step from (xn. Using this latest slope (£3/Ax) we again start at (xn. Gaussian methods of integration are effective in estimating the value of an integral from a few samples providing that the function can be accurately approximated by a polynomial' (Hamming. In the energy equation addition of diffusion terms can provide additional . using the same cubic-spline fitting of temperature-dependent physical data and an identical worked example. Spencer et but now go a full step forward to examine the slope (&4/Ajt). Given p' = f( and go one-half step forward and again sample the slope.p) we compute in turn from which and At the point (xn. (1989.

M. Green.. Van Nostrand. vols.. remains that the fluids retain Newtonian constitutive form. (1977) Engineering Mathematics. A. England. 2nd edn. providing the restriction on equations (A.. For fluids other than perfect gases. (1976) Advanced Calculus for Applications. D.J.. . W. W.Suggested Further Research computational stability.B. Cambridge. 2nd edn. Springer. McGraw-Hill. 1 and 2. References Bejan. Berry.T.A. 4th edn. (1962) Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers. R. B.A. D. W. Jeffrey...W. New Jersey. Flannery. Cambridge University Press. J.J. D. Holden.A.. and Rogers. (1991) Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics.H. W. The centred difference expression would be 481 Rayleigh dissipation models shear stresses acting throughout the fluid which generate frictional heating. Middleton.R. John Wiley.. A.G..I). analytical equations of state in Bejan (1997). Press. F. Van Nostrand. but this last effect is likely to be negligible for heat exchangers.F. Teukolsky. Appendix A. viz.H. (1989) Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists. T. C. Hildebrand. Hamming.T. A.. T. Prentice-Hall. Spencer. ButterworthHeinemann.F.. vols. might be used to extend the computational methods to other fluids. Faulkner. 2nd edn. A. and Vetterling. Parker. New York. (1997) Computational Methods for Process Simulation. (1997) Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Fletcher.S. S. Ramirez. 1 and 2.P. (1989) Numerical Recipies in Pascal. including Redlich-Kwong and Benedict-Webb-Rubin.

003 785 m3 = 3.004 564 m3 = 4.APPENDIX M Conversion Factors Work in SI units Length (L).2 mm2 1 ft2 = 0. step-wise rating.4 mm 1 ft = 0. and transients. m' 1 in2 = 645. surface S). Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. m 1 inch = 25.0929 m2 Volume (V).609 km Area (cross-section A. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 .785 litres Mass (M). m3 1 in3 = 16 387 mm2 1 ft3 = 0.546 litres 1 US gallon = 0. Ltd.3048 m 1 mile = 5280 ft =1.028 32 m3 1 UK gallon = 0.4536 kg 1 ton = 2240 Ibm = 1016 kg 1 tonne = 1000 kg Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. kg 1 Ibm = 0. Eric M.

Q) 1 ft pdl = 0.50 lbf/in2 = 105 N/m 2 1 atm.356Nm/sorW 1 hp = 550 ft Ibf/s = 745.44 MN/m2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 1 bar = 14.356 N m or J 1 Btu = 1055 N m or J 1 therm = 105. W l f t l b f / s = 1.322 N/m2 (T = 0°C.806 38 N/m2 (T=4°C.600 MN m or MJ Power.806 65 m/s2) Energy (W.0185 kg/m3 1 g/cm3 = 1000 kg/m3 Pressure (p).6 N m/s or W .76 N/m2 1 kgf/cm2 = 98. N/m4 1 lbf/in2 = 6894.15.806 65 m/s2) 1 mmH2O = 9.484 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Density (p).768 x 104 kg/m3 Ilbm/ft 3 = 16.P = 760 mmHg) (g = 9.5 MN m or MJ 1 kWh = 3. = 1.042 14 N m or J l f t l b f = 1.013 25 bar 1 atu = pressure over atmospheric (not desirable as a unit) 1 mmHg = 1 torr = 133. P = 760 mmHg) (g = 9. kg/m3 1 lbm/in3 = 2.0665 N/m 2 1 tonf/in2 .

m/s I ft/s = 0.8 J/(kg K) 1 kcal/kg K = 4186.448 N 1 tonf = 9964 N 1 kgf = 9.8 J/(m s K) 1 kcal/(m h Q = 1. m2/s 1 ft2/h = 0.514 444 m/s Gas constant (R).356 Nm 1 tonf ft = 3037 Nm Velocity (u).380 95 J/(kg K) Specific heat capacity (Cp).1383 N 1 M = 4.807 N 1 dyne = 10~5 N 485 Torque.Conversion Factors Force. J/(m s K) I Btu/(ft h /?) = 1.Cp)].730 73 J/(m s K) 1 cal/(cm s O = 4186.3048 m/s 1 mile/h = 0. N m 1 Ibf ft = 1.4470 m/s 1 knot = 0.A/(/>. J/(kg K) 1 ft Ibf/Obm R) = 5.000 025 806 m2/s . N 1 pdl = 0. J/(kg K) I Btu/(lbm R) = 4186.8 J/(kg K) Thermal conductivity (X).163 J/(m s K) Thermal diffusivity [K .


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Heat-transfer coefficient (a, U), J/(m2 s K) 1 Btu/(ft2 h R) = 5.678 26 J/(m2 s K) 1 kcal/(m2 h C) = 1.163 J/(m2 s K)

Dynamic (absolute) viscosity (t\), kg/(m s) 1 lbm/(ft h) = 0.000 413 kg/(m s) 1 poise = 0.1 kg/(ms) 1 centipoise = 0.001 kg/(m s)
1 (N s)/m2 = 1 kg/(m s)

1 lbf/(ft s) = 1.488 16 kg/(m s) 1 (kgf s)/m2 = 9.806 65 kg/(m s) 1 slug/(ft s) = 47.8802 kg/(m s) 1 (Ibf s)/ft2 = 47.8802 kg/(m s) 1 gm/(cm s) = 0.1 kg/(m s) 1 (dyne s)/cm2 = 0.1 kg/(m s)

Kinematic viscosity (v = q/p) - convert to dynamic viscosity (rj) 1 stoke = 10~4 m2/s

Surface tension (&), N/m llbf/in=175.127N/m 1 dyne/cm = 10~3 N/m

SI units (preferred throughout)

The new international standards for notation are followed, with some exceptions. Circumstances always arise where an awkward choice can be avoided and notation simplified, if there is departure from the standard. It was found that single-blow transients deserved such treatment, and the symbol for temperature was changed from T to 9, to allow the use of X, Y, T for dimensionless length and scaled time. It was relatively easy to accept most of the new symbols, e.g. • • • • individual heat transfer coefficient (a for K) thermal conductivity (A for K) thermal diffusivity (K for a) absolute viscosity (17 for ^t)

although in the last case the same symbol is now used for efficiency and absolute viscosity, while fji remains available, at least for single-species heat transfer. While lengthy discussions to arrive at the final preferred list of international symbols must have occurred, this author will plead that, the preferred list is for guidance of the experienced, and for observance by the novice. Most readers of this volume will fall into the first category, and will appreciate the problem of having too many subscripts. Where departure from the preferred convention has arisen, it has been solely to achieve clarity of presentation. Examples of the important symbols used are surface area, 5, associated with overall heat-transfer coefficient, U area of cross-section, A fluid mass flowrate, m solid wall mass, M specific heat at constant pressure, C mass velocity of fluid, G = m/A temperature, steady-state and transient, T temperature difference, A0 non-dimensional temperatures, 6 time, dimensionless time, t, T
Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing, step-wise rating, and transients. Eric M. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Dimensionless groups are treated at the end of Chapter 2, and will not be further listed in the tables of symbols. One or two of the less-used groups are explained where they arise.

Chapter 2 Fundamentals
Symbol Parameter area of cross-section specific heat at constant pressure exergy friction factor mass velocity, m/A specific enthalpy characteristic length flow length mass flowrate number of overall transfer units, U S/(m C) larger value of W/,, Nc absolute pressure (bar x 105) heat flow exchanger duty ratio MwCw/(mC), see Appendix A reference surface area time temperature temperature span of an exchanger overall heat transfer coefficient ratio of water equivalents (W < 1) length heat-transfer coefficient ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv) constant core pressure loss temperature difference effectiveness non-dimensional temperature thermal diffusivity, A/(pC) thermal conductivity normalized length density Units

A C E f G h £ L m N Ntu P

m2 J/(kg K) J/s
kg/(m2 s) J/kg m m kg/s


R S t T Tspan U W x,y,z
Greek symbols a 7 Y A/> A0 e 8


N/m 2 J/s W or J/s
m2 s K K J/(m2 s K)

J/(m2 s K) N/m 2 K m2/s J/(m s K)

A £ P




Parameter residence time latent heat hot, cold, wall mean limiting log mean temperature difference loss ends of exchanger


Subscripts fg h, c, w m lim Imtd loss 1,2

Chapter 3 Steady-state temperature profiles
Symbol Parameter area of cross-section specific heat at constant pressure friction factor mass velocity, (m/A) finite-difference temperatures, (hot, cold, wall) coefficients of contraction, expansion length of exchanger mass flowrate residence mass of fluid (constant velocity only) mass of solid wall number of local transfer units, aS/(m C) number of overall transfer units, U S/(m C) absolute pressure (bar x 105) exchanger duty ratio of thermal capacities, (MM,Cw)/(m^C/t) etc. curved length of an involute surface area angle in radians for an involute plate thickness temperature overall heat transfer coefficient specific volume volume length normalized length, (X = x/Lx, Y = y/Ly)


A C f G H,C,W Kc,Ke L m m M n N P
R s S t tp T U

J/(kg K)
K m kg/s kg kg


N/m 2 W or J/s
m m2 m K

V x,y X,Y

J/(m2 s K) m3/kg m3 m


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Parameter heat-transfer coefficient core pressure loss effectiveness absolute viscosity dimension less temperature thermal diffusivity, A/(p C) thermal conductivity normalized length, (x/L) density ratio (A/7OW/A/ronto/) residence time hot, cold, wall directions defined in text defined in text matrix coefficients defined in text Units

Symbol Greek symbols a A/? e 17 6 K A £ p oT Subscripts h, c, w x, y Local parameters AQ , A i , A2 , AS Pi Q, 72, r^ ay Pi , /32, p, fJi

J/(m2 s K) N/m2 kg/(m s)

m2/s J/(m s K)


Chapter 4 Direct-sizing of plate-fin exchangers
a b c C D E f G (h,l,s,t)
j L m n N P
Parameter individual cell flow areas plate spacing cell pitch specific heat cell hydraulic diameter edge length flow friction coefficient mass velocity Manglic & Bergles parameters defined in text Colburn heat transfer coefficient flow length mass flowrate number of local transfer units, a S/(m C) number of overall transfer units, U S/(m C) absolute pressure (bar x 105) Units

m2 m m J/(kg K) m m
kg/(m2 s)

m kg/s


Notation Symbol Parameter cell perimeter exchanger duty gas constant fin thickness plate thickness splitter thickness temperature overall heat transfer coefficient strip length number of cells heat-transfer coefficient Manglic & Bergles ratios defined in text core pressure loss temperature difference absolute viscosity thermal diffusivity thermal conductivity density hot, cold, wall log mean temperature difference mean ends of exchanger



Per Q R tf tp ts T U

m W or J/s J/(kg K) m m m K J/(m2 s K) m

Greek symbols a a, 8, y A/> A0 T?

J/(m2 s K)

Subscripts h,c,w Imtd m 1,2

N/m2 K kg/(m s) m2/s J/(m s K)

Surface parameters Stotal/Vexchr alpha Stotal/Vtotal beta Sfins/Stotal gamma Stotal/Splate kappa lambda Sfins/Splate (kappa x gamma) Aflow/Aplate sigma

1/m 1/m

Chapter 5 Direct-sizing of helical-tube exchangers
Symbol Parameter local area total area dimensionaless parameter
m2 m2


a A b


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

C d D f G

Parameter specific heat tube diameter mandrel, wrapper, mean coil diameters friction factor mass velocity factors defined in text length of a single tube length of tubing in one longitudinal tube pitch tubing in projected transverse cross-section length of tube bundle integer number of tubes in outermost coil mass flowrate integer number of tubes in innermost coil total number of tubes in the exchanger longitudinal tube pitch absolute pressure (bar x 105) shell-side porosity exchanger duty start factor (integer 1 to 6 only) reference surface area transverse tube pitch temperature velocity overall heat transfer coefficient volume number of times shell-side fluid crosses a tube turn integer number of tubes in intermediate coil heat-transfer coefficient core pressure loss log mean temperature difference absolute viscosity thermal conductivity density helix angle of coiling annular inside maximum minimum shell-side, tube-side, wall


J/(kg K) m m
kg/(m2 s)
m m


L m m n N P P Py Q r S t T u U V


m N/m2

W or J/s
m2 m K m/s


J/(m2 s K) m3

Greek symbols a


A P 4> Subscripts


J/(m2 s K) N/m2 K kg/(m s) J/(m s K) kg/m3

a i max min s, t, w

Note: tube outside diameter (d) has no subscript, as this is the reference surface.



Chapter 6 Direct-sizing of bayonet-tube exchangers
Symbol a,b A,B C d,D t L m N Parameter constants defined in equation (6.22) constants specific heat diameter length of tube length of exchanger mass flowrate number of overall transfer units, N=US/(mQ absolute pressure (bar x 105) perimeter transfer units, P = N/L exchanger duty spacing between two parallel flat plates temperature velocity overall heat-transfer coefficient distance locus of minimum mean tube perimeter parameters defined in the text pressure loss effectiveness absolute viscosity temperature for case of condensation function bayonet, external inner, outer minimum defined in Figs 6.1, 6.4, 6.5, and 6.8 inner bayonet-tube fluid mean value Units

J/(kg K) m m m kg/s N/m2 1/m
W or J/s m K m/s J/(m2 s K) m m m

P P s


T u U


Greek symbols «,/3
AP e i?

N/m2 kg/(m s) K


Subscripts b,e i,o min 1,2,3 Embellishments


Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

Chapter 7

Direct-sizing of ROD baffle exchangers
Parameter flow area per single tube total flow area number of RODbaffles diameter shell diameter friction factor mass velocity baffle loss coefficient length baffle spacing mass flowrate number of local transfer units, aS/(mC) number of overall transfer units, U S/(mC) tube pitch absolute pressure (bar x 105) exchanger duty baffle rod radius temperature velocity overall heat-transfer coefficient number of tubes
m m2
m m


a A B d D f G k L Lb m n N P P r T u U Z

kg/(m2 s)
m m



N/m 2 W or J/s m K m/s J/(m2 s K)

Greek symbols heat-transfer coefficient a core pressure loss A/7 log mean temperature difference kOlmtd surface roughness S absolute viscosity 1? thermal conductivity A density P Subscripts

J/(m2 s K) N/m 2 K m kg/(m s) J/(m s K) kg/m3

b,P s,t

baffle, plain shell, tube

Terms from paper by Gentry et al. CL coefficient in correlation Nu — Q/Re/,)0-6 where CL = (&)(Q) CT coefficient in correlation Nu = Cr(Re/,)° 8 where CT = (£)(Q) Ci, €2 coefficients in correlation k\, — 0(Ci +


Notation Symbol Parameter exchanger baffle ring inner diameter exchanger baffle ring outer diameter exchanger outer tube limit shell inner diameter expressions defined in papers by Gentry et al.



Dbi Dbo


m m m m


Chapter 8 Exergy loss and pressure loss
Symbol Parameter constants in temperature ratios, and in friction factors area for flow specific exergy, b = h — TQS rate of exergy change, B = m(bout — bin) specific heat at constant pressure hydraulic diameter specific internal energy friction factor specific enthalpy rate of irreversibility production length of header mass flowrate header inlet mass flowrate number of transfer units, Nh = US/(mC)h, exergy loss number pressure specific heat flow heat flowrate hydraulic radius gas constant specific entropy reference surface area for heat transfer entropy generation rate time temperature velocity overall heat-transfer coefficient specific volume core volume Units


A b B C D e f h I L m w0



J/(kg K)

J/s m

kg/s kg/s

Nx P

Nc = US/(mC\



N/m2 J/(m2 s)
J/s m

R s S v ^gen


J/(kg K) J/(kg K)

J/(s K)
s K m/s


T u U

J/(m2 s K)
m3 m3


H f G L m m m M P S t T u U J/(kg K) kg/(m2 s) m kg/s kg kg N/m 2 m2 s K m/s J/(m2 s K) .2 J/s N/m 2 K K kg/(m s) kg/m3 Chapter 9 Transients in heat exchangers Symbol Parameter cross-sectional area numerical coefficients in velocity-field algorithms specific heat numerical coefficents in temperature-field algorithms friction factor mass velocity length number of space increments in exchanger length mass rate of flow residence mass mass of exchanger core absolute pressure (bar x 105) reference surface area time temperature velocity overall heat-transfer coefficient m Units 2 A A.y Greek symbols isentropic index 7 exergy change rate A5 Ap pressure difference A0 local temperature difference log mean temperature difference A0LW effectiveness e absolute viscosity V density P function of #) Subscripts cold.h dead state 0 hot.C C E. hot c.F.G.B. cold end of exchanger 1.496 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Symbol Parameter work distance Units Nm m W x.

bi B B# C D G G# k L m mg Mb Ntu r R J/(kg K) K m kg/s kg kg m s S t t* bg m2 s .) non-dimensional ratio (G2/Gi) numerical constant length of matrix mass flowrate of gas mass of gas in matrix mass of matrix number of transfer units (one local value only) radius ratio MbCb/(mgCg} Laplace transform image of t surface area time time constant of inlet exponential temperature disturbance m K Units a ao. indicating space station superscript.w j t hot.) non-dimensional ratio (B2/Gi) specific heat non-dimensional inlet disturbance mean fluid temperature excess (Bg — 0. indicating time interval J/(m2 s K) kg/(m s) m2/s J/(m s K) kg/m3 Chapter 10 Single-blow test methods Symbol Parameter arbitrary radius numerical constants mean solid temperature excess (db — 0. cold./3 A increment absolute viscosity 1? K thermal diffusivity A thermal conductivity density P Subscripts h.c.Notation 497 Symbol Parameter flow work terms distance Units K/s m W X Greek symbols a heat-transfer coefficient characteristic directions «.ai. wall subscript.

c g i w 1.s h.b c C h k P J/(kg K) J/kg r R S T W x.y Q N/m2 W or J/s J/(kg K) J/(kg K) K W or J/s .498 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Parameter temperature gas velocity defined as (mgL/mg) volume of solid matrix distance into matrix Units K m/s Symbol T u V X m3 m Greek symbols heat-transfer coefficient a ratio (r/Ntu) 0 delta function *) e temperature above reference state thermal diffusivity K non-dimensional scaling of length € (T dummy variable non-dimensional time T T* non-dimensional time constant (O rotational speed TJJ non-dimensional rotational speed Subscripts b. surface hot. cold gas initial isothermal reference state wall inlet.2 bulk. outlet J/(m2 s K) K m2/s 1/s Chapter 11 Heat exchangers in cryogenic plant Symbol Parameter arbitrary limits sonic velocity specific heat at constant pressure specific enthalpy number of stages of compression absolute pressure (bar x 105) exchanger duty compression ratio gas constant entropy temperature work fractions Units m/s a.

Notation Symbol Parameter 499 Units Greek symbols a blade angle. 2.(forms of hydrogen) saturation field minimum isentropic dead state stations in radial turbine analysis Embellishments ~ mean value Chapter 12 Heat transfer and flow friction in two-phase flow Symbol a A B c C d E. 3 equilibrium. n.H f Fl 8 G f m m n P Parameter numerical constant area for flow numerical constant numerical constant numerical parameter depending on flow condition tube diameter parameters in Friedel's correlation friction factor heat flux acceleration due to gravity mass velocity length numerical constant mass flowrate numerical constant absolute pressure (bar x 105) heat flowrate temperature overall heat-transfer coefficient dryness fraction ratio defined in text Units m2 m W or J/s m/s2 kg/(m2 s) m kg/s N/m2 W or J/s K J/(m2 s K) q T U X2 X .p fg min s 0 0. 1. o. (CP/CV) 17 efficiency 6 angle Subscripts e.F. normal. ortho-. para. preferred notation for gas turbines y isentropic index.

500 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Symbol Parameter Units J/(m2 s K ) m N/m2 kg/(m s) kg/m3 N/m Greek symbols heat-transfer coefficient a length increment M pressure loss AP absolute viscosity i? density P surface tension a two-phase flow multiplier 4> Subscripts crit f fg g tp critical liquid saturation vapour two-phase Appendix A Transient equations with longitudinal conduction and wall thermal storage Symbol Parameter wall cross-section for longitudinal conduction specific heat at constant pressure specific internal energy strain rate friction factor unit matrix length mass rate of flow mass of exchanger solid wall. (Mw = p^A^L) absolute pressure (bar x 105) heat flow rate radiation hydraulic radius gas constant reference surface area time temperature velocity total volume of exchanger solid wall Units m2 J/(kg K) J/kg A C e e f I L m M P r R S t T u V rhyd m kg/s kg N/m2 J/(m2 s) J/(m3 s) m J/(kgK) m2 s K m/s m3 .

then kw = (AW/AW)KW. hot.for re-defined thermal diffusivity (see below) thermal conductivity density stress shear stress Rayleigh dissipation function cold.1/s N/m 2 (N/m2)2 m N/m2 s 1/K K 4 t e Greek a. wall tensor directions directions Units K/s m Greek a T? K J/(m2 s K) kg/(m s) m2/s J/(m s K) kg/m3 N/m 2 N/m2 1/s2 A P a T <D Subscripts c. Appendix I Creep life of thick tubes Symbol ^C) *^C Parameter creep strain.w ij x. 0.Notation Symbol W x.m.y Re-defined thermal diffusivity Where Aw = cross-sectional area for longitudinal conduction and Aw = crosssectional area for working out volume of wall.h. these two areas may differ depending on how a compact surface is formed.y 501 Parameter dissipation terms distance local heat transfer coefficient absolute viscosity thermal diffusivity A/(pC) . — crm) time coefficient of thermal expansion temperature angles which asymptotes make with the .<f> V (T N/m 2 .n r -.x-axis Poisson's ratio stress Units E J'2 l. creep strain rate Young's modulus second invariant of deviator stress tensor numerical coefficients radius stress deviator (ay.

502 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Symbol Subscripts a. Ot 1. cr. Or.2 Parameter axial. r. er. et ca. elastic radial. tangential elastic axial. ct da. creep tangential thermal axial. radial. elastic tangential creep axial. thermal radial. creep radial. outside Units . thermal tangential inside. t ea.

nucleate 331 Buffer zone. 298 Catalysts and continuous conversion. C. ISBN: 0-470-01616-7 . 13 Plate-fin 5 Porous matrix heat exchangers 9 RODbaffle 6 Serpentine tube-panel 13 Spirally wire-wrapped 8 Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers: A Numerical Approach: Direct-sizing. isothermal and non-isothermal shell-sides 204 Design illustrations 190 Kurd number 190 Isothermal shell-side conditions 177 annulus temperature profile 180 condensation 189 evaporation 178 inner temperature profile 181 non-isothermal shell-side conditions 191 results for cases A. plate-fin.see longitudinal conduction 67. tube-panel 11. para-ortho 302 Classification of exchangers 1 Bayonet-tube 9. D 182-190 Non-isothermal shell-side conditions 191 explicit solution 196 general numerical solutions 199 special explicit case 194 Pressure loss bayonet-end pressure loss 201 helical annular flow 203 simple annular flow 201 Best of plain rectangular and triangular ducts 120 Best small plain rectangular duct 125 Boiling. part-load operation 174 Calculus of variations 426 Carnot efficiency above and below the dead state 43. and transients. Ltd. Eric M. ortho-para. step-wise rating. Smith Copyright  2005 John Wiley & Sons. 208 Baffle-ring by-pass (RODbaffle exchanger) 414 Bayonet tube exchangers 8.Index Acceptable flow velocities (Mach number) 41 Air conditioning exchangers 340 Algorithms and schematic source listings 361 Crank-Nicholson finite-difference formulation 383 Extrapolation of data 376 Finite-difference solution schemes for transients 377 alternative aproaches 380 Crank-Nicholson approach 377 Geometries for rectangular offset strip fins 366 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow 370 Mean temperature distribution in one-pass unmixed crossflow 361 Schematic source listing for direct-sizing: compact contraflow exchanger 365 one-pass crossflow exchanger 364 Spline-fitting of data 375 Annular mist flow 332 Annular no-mist flow 332 Applicability of dimensionless groups 56 Availability 232 Axial conduction . B. 14 Conclusions. 37 Baffles in heat exchangers 2. or leakage plate 'sandwich' 130 By-pass control. 14 Helical-tube 3 Helically-twisted flattened-tube 7 Involute curved. 83.

schematic source listing 364 Compactness and performance 42 Comparison of real exchangers by exergy loss 253 Condensation 340 Consistency in design method 132 Contact resistance 341 Continuum equations 349. 79 Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow 83 Mean TD in one-pass unmixed crossflow 78 Mean TD in two-pass unmixed crossflow 79 One-pass unmixed crossflow 74 Three-pass crossflow 268 Two-pass unmixed crossflow 79 Cryogenic heat exchangers 14. 408 Coupled continuum theory 473 De-coupling the balance of energy equation 474 Laws of continuum mechanics 469 Contraflow Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow 110 Controlling pressure loss 41 Dependence of exergy loss on absolute temperature 236 Direct-sizing of plate-fin exchanger 113 Direct-sizing of helical tube exchanger 114 Direct-sizing of RODbaffle exchanger 207 Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow 35. 456 Possible surface geometries 467 Surface selection 464 Compact contraflow.504 Index Acknowledgements 451 Applications 443 Clarke's creep curves 449 Constitutive equations for creep 447 Early work on thick tubes 445 Equivalence of stress systems 446 Fail-safe and safe-life 447 Fundamental equations 443 Further and recent developments 451 Cross-conduction 317 Crossflow Determined and undetermined 90 Direct-sizing of unmixed crossflow plate-fin exchanger 106 Governing equations for steady crossflow 74. 297 Background 287 Candidate refrigeration fluids 299 Carnot efficiency above and below the dead state 298 Catalysts and continuous conversion. para-ortho 302 Commercial applications 321 ceramic super conductors 321 fuel cells 322 liquid hydrocarbons 321 liquid hydrogen in aerospace 322 liquid nitrogen 321 pressurized hydrogen gas 321 methanol 321 world hydropower potential 321 Compressors 303 Cryo-expanders 304 optimum expansion ratios for minimum exergy loss 306 Forms of hydrogen 299 Classification of exchangers (Continued) Wire-woven heat exchangers 9 Compact surface selection for sizing optimization 455 Acceptable flow velocities (Mach number) 455 Exchanger optimization using direct-sizing 466 Formulae used to generate performance tables 459 Overview of surface performance 455 Plain rectangular ducts 127. 426 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow 40 Required values of Ntu in cryogenics 42 Conversion factors 483 Creep life of thick tubes 443 . schematic source listing 365 Compact crossflow. ortho-para.

normal. 340 Cryo-expanders (inward radial flow turbines) 304 Effect of pressure ratio on cooling range 306 Monatomic and diatomic molecules 306 Cubic spline-fitting (interpolating) 375 Data fitting 375 505 Defrosting and frosting 342 Dehumidification 340 Dig deeper (to) 45 Dimensionless groups 47 Applicability of dimensionless groups 54 Approach via differential equations 47 Buckingham's 7r-theorem 47 Dimensionless groups in heat transfer and fluid flow 54 Rayleigh's method 47 Direct-sizing 1 Computer programs for direct-sizing 104 Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow plate fin exchangers 116 Contraflow direct-sizing . direct-sizing) 315 stepwise rating of exchangers 315 Product and refrigerating streams 299 Rapid cooling with mixtures of gases (Paugh) 299 Required values of Ntu in cryogenics 42 Stepwise-rating of multistream heat exchangers 317 Haseler's allowance for cross-conduction effects 317 stacking patterns for multistream exchangers 320 Storage tank 'roll-over' 14.EDGEFIN program 116 Crossflow direct-sizing . para hydrogen 299 Hydrogen liquefaction plant 303 Hydrogen molecule configurations 300 Liquefaction concepts and components 298 Liquefaction of hydrogen 313 Liquefaction of nitrogen 307 Minimum work of liquefaction 300 Mixtures of gasses 299 Nitrogen liquefaction plant 307 Optimization of multistream exchangers 321 Para-content versus temperature 300 Preliminary direct-sizing of multi-stream heat exchangers 314 estimate of mean temperature difference (ratio of mass flowrates) 315 splitting exchanger into two-fluid units (approx.KAYSFIN program 106 Direct-sizing of bayonet-tube exchangers 177 Direct-sizing of a contraflow exchanger 113 Direct-sizing of helical-tube exchangers 143 Direct-sizing of RODaffle exchangers 208 Direct-sizing of unmixed crossflow exchanger 106 Direct-sizing of plate-fin heat exchangers 99 Rating and direct-sizing design software 103 Directional headers.Index equilibrium. 326 Exclusions and extensions 1 Baffled exchanger cores 2 Lamella heat exchangers 3 Plate-frame designs 2 Porous metal developments 3 . ortho. 340 Thermo-magnetic regenerators 298 Cryogenic heat exchanger design 298 Multi-stream exchangers 314 Cryogenic storage tanks 14 Bayonet-tube exchanger 14 'Roll-over' problem 14. fixed loss due to temperature profiles 40 Evaporation 178. U-type & Z-type 249 Double-tube heat exchanger 333 Embedded heat exchangers 251 Energy balance equation 53 Effectiveness concept 46 Entropy.

66 Exergy loss minimization below the dead state 35 e-Ntu sizing problem 32 Intermediate wall temperature 65 Link between Ntu values and LMTD 26 LMTD-Ntu rating problem 23 LMTD-Ntu sizing problem 25 Log mean temperature difference 21 Ntu depends on terminal temperatures 44 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow 40 controlling pressure loss 41 exergy approach 40 Mach number approach 41 Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow 35 Parallel flow 20.31 Required values of Ntu in cryogenics 42 Exclusions and extensions (Continued) Printed-circuit designs 3 Rapid prototyping 3 Single-spiral designs 2 Exchanger layup (compact) 99 Exchanger optimisation 460 Exergy destruction 94 Exergy loss number for heat exchangers 229 Allowing for fluid and heat leakage 240 Bejan's balanced counterflow exchanger 230 Commercial considerations 242 Contraflow exchangers 234 Dependence of exergy loss number on absolute temperature level 236 Destruction of exergy 94 Dimensionless exergy loss number 231 Discussion of earlier work 230 Effect of temperature level on exergy loss number 236 Exergy change for any flow process 231 Exergy loss for any heat exchanger 233 Grassmann and Kopp 236 Historical development 230 Instantaneous exergy loss 234 Multi-stream exchangers 234 Minimum entropy generation 230 Minimum exergy loss 231 Optimum temperature profiles 236 Performance of cryogenic plant 238 Reference temperature 231 Specific availability 232 Specific exergy difference 232 Experimental test rigs (contraflow.506 Index Fundamentals of heat exchangers 19 Compactness and specific performance 42 performance comparison 42 specific performance 42 Comparison of LMTD-Ntu and e-Ntu approaches 33 Condenser 19. 133. 456 Flow distributors 130. p3 Flow mal-distribution 250 Fouling. LMTD-Ntu. 423 Exponential spline fitting 375 Extrapolation of data 376 Fine-tuning of compact surfaces 127 Flow-friction and heat-transfer correlations 129. detection. 79 Contraflow. e-Ntu 23.and two-pass 74. parallel flow 59. one. 61 De-superheating feed heater 20 Dimensionless groups 47 comparison with analytical solution 51 convective heat transfer 53 fundamental approach via differential equations 47 Rayleigh's method and Buckingham's 7r-theorem 47 Directional headers. 66 Crossflow. U-type & Z-type 249 similarity in transient thermal conduction 48 Effectiveness and number of transfer units 27 Effectiveness and Ntu plots 31 Evaporator 19. Appendix 1. singleblow) 251. 135. 275. 413. 61 Rating problems. references 442 Friedel's two-phase pressure loss 338 Frosting and defrosting 342 . 154. 212.

173 Transition Reynolds number 164 Tube-side area for flow 151 Tube-side constraints 155 Tube-side correlations 154 . 168 Flow-friction correlations 154. e-Ntu 25.Index Simple temperature distributions 19 Sizing problems. 163. 168 Heat transfer constraints 158 Heat transfer correlations 154. 229 Headers Compact flow distribution 249 Control of flow distribution 243 Design for zero pressure loss 244 Directional headers 249 Dow's theory of header design 244 Exchanger aspect ratios 248 Headers of varying rectangular section ' 246 U-type. 94 Inter-cooler.346 162. recuperated 12. optimum temperature profiles in contraflow 35. 163. recuperator 19 Gaussian quadrature 422 Geometry of ROSF surfaces 133. 364 Grassman and Kopp. 411 Helical-tube multi-start coil exchangers 3. 409 Plain rectangular ducts 129 RODbaffle exchangers 211. LMTD-Ntu. 168 Helix angle of coil 146 Laminar flow friction-factor. 144 Central duct 151 Completion of the design 160 Consistent geometry 145 Correlations and constraints 154 Cryogenic designs 4 Design for curved tubes 168 fine tuning with curved-tube correlations 168 heat transfer (referred to outside tube surface) 170 507 individual coil design 169 overall heat transfer coefficient 170 shell-side heat transfer coefficient 170 shell-side pressure loss 169 straight tube correlations 168 tube-side heat transfer coefficient 170 tube-side pressure loss (coiled) 171 variations in mass flowrate 171 Design window 163 Direct-sizing design framework 143 Discussion 172 Exchanger with central duct 151 Fine-tuning the design 163. 164 Manglik & Bergles universal ROSF for compact exchangers 135.32 Sizing when Q is not specified 34 Temperature cross-over 20 Theta methods 26 To dig deeper 45 the effectiveness concept 46 units in differential equations 46 Values of Ntu required in cryogenics 42 Gas turbine. heat-transfer 164 Length of tube bundle 146 Length of tubing in one longitudinal tube pitch 147 Mean diameter of the z-th coil 145 Nuclear designs 4 Number of times that shell-side fluid crosses a tube turn 147 Number of tubes in exchanger 146 Optimized design 173 Part-load operation with by-pass control 174 Pressure loss constraints 158 Shell-side constraints 156 Shell-side correlations 154 Shell-side minimum area for axial flow 147 Shell-side porosity 151 Shell-side to tube-side flow area ratio 151 Simplified geometry 151 Start factor 145 Thermal design 153 Thermal design results for (t/cf) = 1. Z-type 249 Heat transfer correlations Helical tube multi-start coil exchangers 154.

heat-transfer 166. 132 Hydrogen 299 Catalysts and continuous conversion in liquefaction 302 Equilibrium-hydrogen 299 normal-hydrogen 299 ortho-hydrogen 299 para-hydrogen 299 spins of protons 299 Ice harvesting 342 Icing 342 Intercooler 12 Intermediate wall temperature 65 Interpolating cubic spline-fit 375 Involute-curved plate-fin exchangers 11 Inward radial flow turbines 305 Kroeger's method 67 Longitudinal conduction in balanced contraflow 68 Labelling of exchanger ends xiii Laplace transforms 419 Leakage buffer zone 130 Leakage plate 'sandwich' 130 Liquefaction plant 298 Catalysts and continuous conversion 302 Compressors 303 Concepts and components 298 Cryo-expanders 304 Hydrogen 299. 380 Mach number 41. 135. 455 Manglik & Bergles universal correlations 132.508 Index Log mean temperature difference (LMTD) 21 Comparison of (LMDT-Ntu) and (e-Ntu) approaches 33 Link between Ntu and LMTD 26 (LMTD-Ntu) rating 23 (LMTD-Ntu) sizing 25 Reduction factor due to longitudinal conduction (balanced) 67 Reduction factor due to longitudinal conduction (unbalanced) 72 'Theta' methods 26 Longitudinal conduction in transient flow 263 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow (steady-state) 67. 362 Mean temperatue difference in two-pass unmixed crossflow 77 Mean temperature difference in complex arrangements 93 Method of characteristics 258 Mist flow 332 Multi-stream exchangers 130. 317 cross-conduction effect 317 three-fluid exchangers 94 Most efficient temperature distribution in contraflow 425 Calculus of variations 425 Optimum temperature profiles 426 Navier-Stokes equation 53 Newtonian constitutive equation 53 Nitrogen liquefaction 307 Notation 487 Ntu from terminal temperatures only 42 Nucleate boiling 331 Helical-tube multi-start coil exchangers (Continued) Tubing in a projected transverse cross-section 147 Turbulent flow friction-factor. 167 Velocity constraints 157 Helically baffled exchangers 223 Helically-twisted flattened-tube exchanger 7 Helixchanger 223 Kurd number 190 Hydraulic diameter 121. 370 Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow (steady-state) 83 MacCormack finite-difference scheme 257. 128. 405 Mean temperature difference in one-pass unmixed crossflow 74. 313 Nitrogen 307 Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase pressure loss 327 .

133. 129. 135 Total pressure loss 105 Universal ROSF correlations 135 Porous matrix heat exchangers 9 Pressure loss Cautionary remark concerning evaluation 92 Compact flow distributors 249 Control of flow distribution (temperature dependent fluid properties) 243 Dow's theory of header design 244 Exit loss (expansion) 93 Flow acceleration 93 Flow maldistribution (minimization) 250 Friedel two-phase flow pressure loss 338 Header design for zero pressure loss 244 Headers of varying rectangular section 246 Inlet loss (contraction) 93 Kay's and London expression for losses 93 Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase pressure loss 327 Minimizing effects of flow maldistribution 250 Pumping power 253 . by-pass control 174 Performance data for RODbaffle exchangers 411 Baffle-ring bypass 414 Further heat-transfer and flow friction data 411 Physical properties of materials and fluids 429 Fluids 429 Solids 431 Sources of data 429 Pinch technology 92 Plain rectangular duct 120. 409 Multi-stream design 130 Overview of surface performance 127 Rating and direct sizing 103 Specific performance comparison of plain rectangular ducts 129 Surface geometries 103. 129 Plate-fin heat exchangers 5. distribution 130 Heat-transfer correlations 103 Involute curved layup 11 Longitudinal conduction losses using LOGMEAN 125 Manglik & Bergles universal correlations 135. 236. 125.EDGEFIN program 115 Crossflow exchanger .Index Optimization of rectangular offset-strip plate-fin surfaces 405 Fine-tuning of rectangular offset-strip fins 405 Manglik & Bergles correlations 409 Optimization graphs 408 Trend curves 407 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow 40 Optimum temperature profiles in contraflow (Grassmann & Kopp) 35. 426 Overview of surface performance 455 Part-load operation. 120. 99 Alternative contraflow design 120 Best of plain rectangular and triangular ducts 120 Best small plain rectangular duct 125 Buffer zone or leakage late 'sandwich' 130 Cautionary remark about core pressure loss 92 Computer software for direct-sizing 104 Concept of direct-sizing in contraflow 110 Conclusions 138 Consistency in design methods 132 Contraflow exchanger .KAYSFIN program 106 Direct-sizing of a contraflow exchanger 113 509 Direct-sizing of an unmixed crossflow exchanger 106 Exchanger layup 99 Fine tuning of ROSF surfaces 127 Flow-friction correlations 103 Geometry of rectangular offset strip fins 133 Headers.

maximum slope. 217 Practical design 217 Recommendations 222 Reynolds numbers 211 Shell-by-pass flow 416 Tube-bundle diameter 217 'Roll-over' 14. thermal design xxviii RODbaffle exchangers 6 Approach to direct-sizing 208 Baffle-ring by-pass 411 Characteristic dimensions 209 Configuration of the RODbaffle exchanger 208 Design correlations 210 Design framework 207 Direct-sizing 215 Flow areas 209 Flow-friction correlations 213. 411 baffle-rings 214 . 405 Reduction factor for LMTD (due to longitudinal conduction) 67 Balanced contraflow 68 Unbalanced contraflow 72 Reduction in meanTD in one-pass unmixed crossflow 83 Refrigeration fluids 299 Regenerators 290 Roadmap. 411 shell-side 211 tube-side 212 tube-wall 212 Other shell and tube designs 222 Phadke tube count 216. 340 Schematic algorithms 361 Segmental baffles 2 Shell-and-tube exchangers 222 Conventionally baffled 222 Rattened and helically twisted tubes 223 Helically baffled 223 RODbaffled 208 Small tube inclinations 266 Similarity 48 Single-blow testing 275 Accuracy of outlet response curves in experimentation 284 curve matching. fine tuning 133.510 Index shell-side 214 tube-side 213 Further flow-friction and heat-transfer data 411 Generalized correlations 220 shell-side baffle pressure loss 221 shell-side heat transfer 220 Heat-transfer correlations 211. phase angle & amplitude 284 Additional effects 287 axial and longitudinal conduction in the fluid 287 conduction into the solid interior 287 internal heat generation 287 longitudinal conduction in the solid 287 surface losses from matrix exterior 287 Analysis of coupled fluid and solid equations 278 Analytical and physical assumptions 277 Boundary conditions 280 Pressure loss (Continued) Test rig for transients in model heat exchanger 251 U-type and Z-type headers 249 Optimum pressure losses in contraflow 40 Primary surface heat exchanger 129 Propulsion systems 10 Intercoolers 12 Large recuperators 11 Liquid hydrogen propulsion 12 Small recuperators 11 Proving the single-blow test method theory and experiment 420 Analytical approach using Laplace transforms 419 Experimental test equipment 423 Numerical evaluation of Laplace outlet response 420 Pumping power 253 Rayleigh dissipation function 53 Rating and direct-sizing software 103 Rectangular offset strip fins (ROSF). initial rise.

taut. variable power 375 Steady-state temperature profiles 59 Cautionary remark about core pressure loss 92 Condensation 66 Contraflow 61 Determined and undetermined crossflow 90 Evaporation 66 Exergy destruction 94 Extension to two-pass unmixed crossflow 79 Involute-curved plate-fin exchangers 82 Linear temperature profiles in contraflow 59 Longitudinal conduction in contraflow 67 equal water equivalents 68 schematic temperature profiles 71 unequal water equivalents 72 Longitudinal conduction in one-pass unmixed crossflow 83 Mean temperature drfference in complex arrangements 93 Mean temperature difference in unmixed crossflow 74 Parallel flow 61 Pinch technology 92 Possible optimization criteria 92 Three fluid exchangers 94 Wall temperatures 65 Stepwise rating of multistream exchangers 317 Stratified flow 331 Suggested further research 477 Header design 478 Steady-state crossflow 478 Transients in contraflow 479 . 423 Exponential inlet disturbance 383 Features of test method 275 Generating theoretical response curves 286 Harmonic inlet disturbance 282 Initial rise method 284 Inlet disturbances 277 Inverse Laplace transforms 281 Laplace transforms 420 Longitudinal conduction 288 Mathematical assumptions & physical requirements 277 Maximum slope 284 Numerical evaluation of integrals 420 Practical considerations 288 full equations 288 longitudinal conduction 288 Phase angle and amplitude 285 Regenerators 290 Relative accuracy of outlet response curves in experimentation 284 Simple theory 278 Simplification 290 Solution of basic equations using Laplace transforms 280 Solution by finite-differences 286. 420 full computation 289 neglecting longitudinal conduction 290 Step inlet disturbance 284 Theoretical modelling 276 Theoretical outlet response curves 285 Single-pass crossflow 74 Sinusoidal-lenticular surfaces 477 Sizing when Q not specified 34 Solution of transient temperature fields in contraflow 379.Index Choice of theoretical model 276 Complete curve matching 284 Conclusions on test method 287 Coupled fluid and solid equations 278 Experimental test rig and equipment 275. 139. 399 Solution of transient velocity fields in contraflow 379. 384. 386 511 Source books on heat exchangers 433 Exchanger types not already covered 439 Fouling . 388. 129. 219 Spirally wire-wrapped exchanger 7 Spline-fitting of data 375 Cubic. exponential.some recent literature 442 Texts in chronological order 433 Single-spiral heat exchangers 2 Specific performance 42.

512 Index pressure gradient due to friction 350 Summarized development of transient equations for contraflow 352 cleaned up 354 expanded and rearranged 353 fundamental 352 simpified for computation 354 Transients in heat exchangers 257 Contraflow review of solution methods 257 characteristics. singleblow 251. 380 method of characteristics 258 other approaches 258 Rayleigh dissipation function 258 Contraflow with finite-differences 259 convective mesh drift 262 disturbances. 265 Rayleigh dissipation function neglected 260 results of computation (without pressure field equations) 265 selection of time intervals 260. 423 Thermal design roadmap xxviii Thermal storage in wall 349 'Theta' methods 26 Three-fluid exchangers 94 Three-pass crossflow 268 Time constant 421 To dig deeper 45 Transient equations with longitudinal conduction and wall storage 349 Computational approach 355 change in sign of velocity 358 development of algorithms 359 energy equations 357 fluid flow equations 356 numerical considerations 355 potential problems with crossflow 358 pressure field terms 357 reflection of transients in contraflow 357 selection of time intervals 355 splitting the problem 355 transients travelling against the flow in contraflow 358 Mass flow and temperature transients in contraflow 349 alternative form of balance of linear momentum 351 constitutive equation for Stokes fluid 350 .80 Test rigs.contraflow 266 extrapolation schemes 385 finite-difference solution schemes 383 flow-friction and pressure terms 262. shape of 264 enginering applications . convective 262 one dimensional plug flow 263 order of solution 264 phase-lag. 265 interpolating cubic splinefits 263 longitudinal conduction 263. 352 mesh drift. contraflow. method of 258 direct finite-differences 257 Laplace transforms with numerical inversion 258 MacCormack's finite difference method 257. cross-conduction and boundary conditions 265 physical properties 263 pressure terms and flow friction 262. 383 Supplement to Appendix B .Transient algorithms 383 Balance of energy 388 Balance of linear momentum 386 Balance of mass 384 extrapolation 385 zero gradient 386 Coding of temperature matrix TMATRIX 397 Conclusions 404 Crank-Nicholson finite-difference formulation 383 Preparation of algorithms 383 TMATRIX 399 Taut spline fitting 375 Temperature crossover 20. 349 Mach numbers 263 mass flow and temperature transient equations 349.

439 Twisted-tube heat exchanger 7. 383 summarized development of transient equations 352 temperature difference across solid wall 263 time interval selection 260. intermediate 65 Wall thermal diffusivity 349 Wire-woven heat exchangers 9 .Index shape of disturbances 264 shell-and-tube exchangers with small tube inclinations 266 shell heat leakage 262 space and time intervals 260. 383 Crossflow review of solution methods 267 axial dispersion terms 259 engineering applications 268 summary of past work 267 solution methods 268 Supplement to Appendix B . 223 Two-pass unmixed crossflow 79 Two-phase flow 12-2 Aspects of air-conditioning 340 Condensation 343 Contact resistance 340 Fin-and-tube (tube-and-fin) heat exchangers 341 513 Friedel two-phase pressure loss correlation 338 Frosting and defrosting 342 Ice harvesting 342 Lockhart-Martinelli two-phase pressure loss correlation 327 Plate-fin surfaces 339 Rate processes 343 Supporting work 339 Two-phase design of a double-tube exchanger 333 Two-phase flow regimes 326 Two-phase heat transfer correlations 331 annular mist flow 332 annular (no-mist) flow 332 demarcation mass velocity 333 mist flow 332 nucleate boiling 331 stratified flow 321 transition from annular mist flow to mist flow 332 Two-phase pressure loss 327 Friedel 327.Transient algorithms 383 TMATRIX coding 399 Transition in two-phase flow (annular mist to mist flow) 332 Trend curves for selection of ROSF surfaces in contraflow 407 Tubular heat exchangers 13 Involute tube panel 13 Serpentine tube panel 13 Tube-and-fin (fin-and-tube) heat exchangers 341. 338 Lockhart-Martinelli 327. 328 With and without phase change (two-phase flow) 325 Units in differential equations 46 nomenclature 487 Variable power spline fitting 375 Wall temperature.

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