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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Sachin Tevatia on Aug 14, 2012
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12/28/2013

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WTO: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING IMPLICATIONS

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EVOLVING A LIBERALIZED TRADE REGIME UNDER A RULE BASED SYSTEM IDEA EVOLVED UNDER URUGUAY ROUND TO IMPROVE ACCESS TO INTERNATIONAL MARKET BAISC IDEA: OPEN MARKETS NOT SUDDEN DISRUPTED BY ARBITRARY IMPORT RESTRICTIONS .WTO:INTRODUCTION • • CAME ON EXISTENCE ON 1 JAN 1995 AS A SUCCESSOR OF GATT( GENERAL AGREEMENTS ON TRADE & TARIFF • MAJOR FUNCTION: TO ENSURE SMOOTH FLOW OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE • • • • • • A MULTILATERAL TRADING SYSTEM.

NATIONAL REGULATONS APPLIED AT THE BORDER WOULD CONFORM TO THE UNIFORM RULES LAID DOWN BY THE AGREEMENTS • . & OBLIGATIONS FULFILLED.MAJOR IMPLICATIONS OF WTO • -SECURITY OF ACCESS TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETSTARIFF REDUCTION & BINDING TO TRADE IN GOODS AMONG MEMBER COUNTRIES • -STABILITY OF ACCESS TO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS: ALL MEMBERS TO COMPLY -IMPLICATIONS FOR IMPORTERS OF RAW MATERIALS & OTHER INPUTS: AFTER PAYMENT OF DUTIES.

AS A SPECIALIZED AGENCY OF UN . OVER 50 COUNTRIES DECIDED TO CREATE INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION. TO MANAGE THE BUSINESS ASPECT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION OUT OF 50. 23 COUNTRIES AGREED TO A COMBINED PACKAGE OF TRADE RULES AND TARIFF CONCESSIONS NEGOTIATED CAME TO BE KNOWN AS GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS & TRADE (GATT).FROM GATT TO WTO • -AFTER WW II. CAME IN TO FORCE IN 1948 • • .

TARIFF CUT(%) 35 1947 GENEVA 23 1951 GENEVA TARIFFS 26 NA 1964-67 KENNEDY TARIFFS& ANTI DUMPING 62 35 .MULTILATERAL TRADE ROUNDS UNDER GATT YEAR ROUND SUBJECTS COVERED TARIFFS COUNTRIES AV.

SERVICES. FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT 33 1986-94 URUGUAY TARIFFS. IP. DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. AGRICULTURE. NON-TARIFFS. NON-TRIFFS 102 BARRIERS. CREATION OF WTO ETC 36 .TRADE ROUNDS contd 1973-79 TOKYO TARIFFS. 123 RULES. TEXTILES.

IN TOKYO AND URUGUAY ROUUND.GATT • -MEMBERSHIP FROM 23(1948) TO 123( 1994). . 153 ( 2008) • AV TARIFF ON MANUFACTURED GOODS IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DECLINED FROM 40% TO MERE 4 % • GATT FOCUSSED REDUCTION IN TARIFF BARRIERS TILL 1973 • LATER ON. FOCUS SHIFTED ON NON-TARIFF BARRIERS & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY .

TRIPS • 2.IT IS APPLICABLE IN CASE OF GATS.PRINCIPLES OF MULTILATERAL TRADING SYSTEM UNDER WTO • -TRADE WITHOUT DISCRIMINATION • 1. GRADUAL MOVEMENT TOWARDS FREER MARKETS THROUGH NEGOTIATIONS • 4. PROMOTING FAIR COMPETITION IN INTERNATIONL MARKETS .NO SPECIAL FAVOUR IN TERMS OF REDUCTION IN DUTIES. MOST FAVOURED NATION (MFN) TREATMENT. SAME FAVOUR TO ALL MEMBERS • . ETC. NATIONAL TREATMENT: IMPORTED & LOCALLY PRODUCED GOOS SHOULD BE EQUALLY TREATED • 3..

WTO AGREEMENTS: AN OVERVIEW • -DESCRIBED AS RULE BASED SYSTEM • • • • • • • • -BROAD STRUCTURE OF SIX MAIN PARTS 1. AN UMBRELLA AGREEMET 2. BROAD AREAS OF TRADE-GOODS -SERVICES -INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY -DISPUTE SETTLEMENT REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTS’ TRADE POLICIES .

• INCREASING OPPORTUNITIES FOR GOODS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS CREATING MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR REDUCTION IN TARIFFS -MARRAKESH PROTOCOL 1994.INCREASED MARKET SECURITY TO MEMBERS CREATING FAIRER MARKETS IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR ELIMINATION OF NON-TARIFF MEASURES THROUGH “TARIFFICATION PROCESS.PROCESS OF CONVERTING QUOTAS AND NON-TARIFF MEASURES TO TARIFFS BINDING AGAINST FURTHER INCREASE OF TARIFFS • • • • • • • .INDIVIDUAL MEMBER HAS EXPRESSED ITS TARIFF RATE CUTS TARIFFS BINDING.WTO CONTD.

BY JAN 2005.AGREEMENT ON SANITRY. A FRAMEWORK FOR BILATERAL OR UNILATERAL AGREEMENTS TO GOVERN QUOTAS LIMITING IMPORTS SINCE 1995. GOVERNED THROUGH MULTI FIBRE AGREEMENT(MFA) . WTO’S AGREEMENT ON TEXTILE & CLOTHING (ATC) HAS TAKEN OVER MFA.& PHYTO SANITORY (SPS0 MEASURES • TO PROTECT HUMAN.CONTD. • • OPENING UP MARKETING OPPORTUNTIES IN TEXTILE 1974..TILL URUGUAY ROUND. QUOTAS TO END • • • STANDARDS & SAFTEY MEASURES FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETS. ANIMAL OR PLANT LIFE .

TRADE IN SERVICES • • • • • • • GENERAL OBLIGATIONS.MFN STATUS GATS IN MEDICAL TRADE TRANSPERENCY OBJECTIVITY & REASONABILITY OF REGULATIONS RECOGNITION INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS & TRANSFERS PROGRESSIVE LIBERALIZATION .

PROTECTION & ENFORCEMENT OF IP RIGHTS • .TURMERIC PATENTS IN AMERICA • • • • • • • • • -NOVELTY NON-OBVIOUSNESS UTILITY COPYRIGHT TRADEMARK PERFORMERS& PRODUCERS OF PROGRAMS INDUSTRIAL DESIGN BROADCASTING INTEGRATED CIRCUITS .

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