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This course is designed for radio network planning and tuning engineers. It is recommended for anyone who needs an understanding ofthe WCDMA/UMTS air interface.
WCDMA AIR INTERFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
What this is all about? Radio Access Evolution UMTS Specifications' Releases Radio Access Methods Spreading Channellization 0VSF Codes Scrambling QPSK Modulation WCDMA Transmitter P-CPICH (Pilot Channel)
4 6 8 I0 I2 I4 I6 I8 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
SCH, P-CCPCH S-CCPCH PRACH DPDCHDPCCH (DL) DPDCH/IIPCCH (UL) Transport Channels
Logical Channels Power Control Handover RAKE Receiver
22 23 24
High Speed Downlink Packet Access
Evolved Packet System (EPS)
WHAT THIS IS ALL ABOUT?
What do w e expect from new telecommunication networks?
Growth of subscribers no:
Total Dlglel Mobile Subocvlben
End-users performance expectations
capacity coverage quality security
dual-mode mobiles GSMIUMTS
Since the launch of digital mobile systems, in the year 2008 the number of digital subscribers has exceeded three and half billion. Higher expectations of mobile users, regarding services, mobility and security have forced operators to build more advanced networks. Actually, more and more people are turning to mobile technology not only for voice and text message communications (guaranteeing better capacities, coverage and quality) but to mobile broadband as their primary way to access Internet-based services, including Web servers, corporate networking and email on the move.
The convergence of existing technologies like mobile, fixed networks, Internet, intranets caused the new multimedia services and global roaming to become the most important factors and challenges to the telecommunication market. Sending still pictures, music, films, video-conferencing, and access to intranets or Internet requires more bandwidth and more reliable transport technologies. Before WCDMA/UMTS, transport network planning was relatively simple, at least in terms of functionality and capacity requirements. Taking into account the exponential growth in global mobile data traffic the actual solution lies in migrating to all-IP transport over Ethernet-based networks (because of the efficient aggregation and multiplexing, flexible interfaces and lower costs).
I ) Which is bigger nowadays i n your opinion: the total number of mobile subscribers
or the fofalnumber of$xed telephony subscribers?
2) Is it possible to access data published in the Internet with a typical mobile phone today? Whaf sort offinctionality must be supported by a mobile sfatioiS in such a case?
the number of worldwide mobile
pr ~ ~ P r a t i o l n E1; expected l o reach ii"i $$ ~ n 2 C W8 d
I In the year 2005 the number of SMS messages sent reached j / about one trillion.
W C D M A Air Interface -3-
How to build the radio system that will be able to support required higher bit rates? How has the radio transmission been evolving to reach expected 2 Mbps throughput?
First generation (1G) of mobile telephony networks was the generation of analogue transmissions where only one service was possible, the voice call. Systems like NMT, AMPS, and TACS are examples of them. Problems with control of quality and demands on data transmissions forced development of new digital technologies. Those new systems were called systems of the second generation (2G) such as GSM, PDC, D-AMPS, IS-95. The digital voice calls, a possibility to transmit data (with low rates) were very important steps towards the third generation (3G) systems where very high data rates (up to 2 Mbps) allow operating the new multimedia services. 3Gsystems are based on IMT-2000 recommendations. The UMTS is one of such systems.
O Telescope 2010
Because of a huge infrastructure of existing systems. major change brought by EDGE is the change from . existing systems should transmit data with higher bit rates. The Long Term Evolution (LTE) as the next step towards 4G systems were to have average user throughput of three.to fourtimes the HSDPA levels in the downlink (IOOMbps). wide area deployments. 2) W h a f are other names for fhe standard called IS-95? I The . combining number o f time slots per user. allocated for a services (HSCSD). is needed. both. To provide transmissions up to 2 Mbps a new radio access method had to be deployed. radio interface and the network have to be modified. changing the coding schemes and introducing packet transmissions (GPRS) and even changing the modulation (EDGE). I GMSK mod~dation scheme used in GSM into 8-PSK. not the revolution. W C D M A Air Interface -5- . The evolution of 3G called HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) and EUL (Enhanced Uplink known also as the HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access) increase the maximum downlink and uplink bit rates to 14 Mbps and 5. reaching transmissions close to the 500 kbps theoretically.76 Mbps respectively. i / i I ) Identifij diferent network solutions that you can call "generation 2%". And solutions for that are given by 3G systems. The evolution. which enables faster transmission across the air inteface. The evolution of HSPA (sometimes called HSPA+)' will increase the maximum bit rates up to 42 Mbps in the downlink 1 and 1 Mbps in the uplink (using Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna solutions and higher order modulation). ul up to 1 Gbps in low mobility. local area deployments. HSDPA and EUL is referred to as HSPA (High Speed Packet Access). But the target peak data rates are in the 4G: up to 100 Mbps in f l mobility. The GSM has evolved in the radio interface. and two to three times the HSUPA levels in the uplink (50Mbps).To support very advanced services. to reach this.
Location Services (LCS). In the following the content of the 3GPP Releases is briefly outlined. The 3GPP Release1999 December 1999. 3GPP Release 1999 contains. Iub and Iur interfaces. AMR speech codec.84 Mcps TDD modes. USIM. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). UTRAN Iu. was functionally frozen in j -6- O Telescope 201 0 . but is not limited to: UTRA FDD and 3. / 1 I Release 5 1 I Release 1999 I I I 2001-03 I 1999-12 I I I 2005-03 Time b 2002-03106 Notes 3GPP Release 1999 is the first release from 3GPP and covers specifications for a complete mobile system. GSM based evolved core network. Open Service Access (OSA) and Telecommunication management. Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL). a broad range of supplementary services.3 UMTS SPECIFICATIONS' RELEASES The 3rd Generation Mobile System and the (GSM) and their capabilities are developed in a phased approach.
Iu for GERAN. The 3GPP Release 4 was functionally frozen in March 2001. Priority Service. UTRAN sharing in connected mode and Security enhancements. Gb over IP. IP transport of CN protocols. Advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (A-GNSS). CAMEL enhancements and OSA enhancements. 700 MHz support for GERAN. UTRA FDD repeater function and low chip rate TDD option. Location Services enhancements. the initial phase of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). 3GPP Release 4 contains.7- . High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). Wireless LAN/UMTS Interworking. WCDA/IA Air Interface . IP transport in the UTRAN. but is not limited to. i Global WCDMA 'Family' subscriptions (total includes WCDMA + HSPA) exeeded 350 mln subscribers. Bearer independent CS core network. Global Text Telephony (this is a Release independent Feature). 3GPP Release 6 contains Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS). UMTS in 1800/1900MHz bands (release independent). Wideband AMR. 3GPP Release 5 contains. 16QAM in HSUPA. Network Sharing. e2e transparent packet streaming service.3GPP Release 4 is a further enhancement of 3GPP Release 1999. subscriber certificates. It is planned that 3GPP Release 7 will contain Multiple Input Multiple Output antennas (MIMO). CAMEL enhancements and OSA enhancement. but is not limited to. IMS Phase2. Enhanced Uplink (HSUPA). Wireless LAN/UMTS Interworking Phase 2. The 3GPP Release 6 was functionally frozen in March 2005. The 3GPP Release 5 was functionally frozen in March 2002 and the remaining part in June 2002. Transcoder Free Operation. 3GPP Release 7. Tandem Free Operation. 64QAM mofulation for HSDPA.
.When designing mobile communication system important is to know how to separate diflerent directions of transmission and how to enable an access to common resources for multiple users. ' \ I ' In Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) separate frequency bands are reserved for transmission and reception. This avoids collisions during communication. UL) and from the base station to an user equipment is usually separated in the frequency or the time domain. The uplink is normally placed on the lower freqency band. frequency FDD t frequency t TDD L time FDMA CodelPower time TDMA CDMA frequency frequency frequency Notes Transmission from an user equioment to the base station (Uplink. because it's easer to transmit lower -8- : 0Telescope 2010 . The distance between the uplink and the downlink is called Duplex Distance.
Transmission and reception is always discontinous. The first multiple access technology for mobile systems was Frequency Division ~ u l t i ~ Access (FDMA). TDD frame consists of a certain number of the uplin and downlink timeslots. A certain number o f timeslots make TDMA frame. Compared to FDD this is seen as the advantage. In this case for le each connection a separate frequency band of equal width is allocated. As it requires less energy this solution conserves the battery lifetime (which is a serious problem for mobile stations). Can transmit only within the timeslot that has been allocated to him/her. Time Division Duplex (TDD) requires just one frequency band for the transmission and the reception. One user has a cyclic access to the resources. Other users use the remaining timeslots o the frame. TDD system may be implemented in situation when availability of frequency resources is the limiting factor. This number is system specific. f Synchronization is needed to avoid overlapping of bursts sent in adjacent timeslots.frequeny wave over a long distance. Transmission is continous The characteristic property of CDMA systems is wide transmission band. Separation of different connections is achieved through assignment of different codes with specific propertis. Transmission is continous and no synchronization in time is needed. The Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) allows for simultaneous transmission of multiple users in the same frequency band. W C D M A Air Intevface -9- . In Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) the' available resources are divided in time domain into timeslots. . Transmission is discontinous. However in TDD time structure must be implemented to separate the uplink from the downlink. In order to avoid collisions synchronizations must be kept.
must be spread before the transmission. After spreading all services (signals).How does the narrowband user information use wide spectrum? How is it possible that users may use the same frequency at the same time? Which technique does the UMTS use to spread the spectrum? Spreading Spectrum Methods: frequency hopping -slow.g. no matter what bandwidth occupying (different for different services. The spectral power density of lower bit rate services (e. e. Spread spectrum .10- 0 Telescope 2010 . video). which in case of the UMTS is 5 MHz. The narrowband signal. fast (FH) time hopping (TH) channelization + Notes WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) systems use wide frequency channels. the transmission in the wide frequency band makes signal similar to the noise increasing resilience to interference and security of the system. voice. voice) is lower than of services with higher bit rates (like video).g. are transmitted occupying the same frequency band. Spreading the spectrum.
I ) What are the biggest advantages of spread spectrum technologres as opposed to other solutions ? 2) What males spread spectrum complex and dificult to implement? Thanks to its unique features spread spectrum technologies have initially been in zrse for several years in military systems. W C D M A Air Intevface -11- . Frequency Hopping ! (FH). The j scrambling improves properties of the signal. 1 / Several spread spectrum technologies exist.systems are less sensitive to narrowband interference and fading. The channellization expands the band and is used to separate services. Time Hopping (TH) and Direct Sequence (DS) Spreading I Spectrum are basic methods. ciphers information and separates UMTS transmitters. In the UMTS/WCDMA the DS-SS . is involved. Information transmitted on wide frequency channels is easier to recover in case of the poor quality of the received signal. According to 3GPP specifications the spreading consists of two j steps: channellization and scrambling.
called Spreading Factor (SF).8.12- 0 Telescope 201 0 .22.214.171.124" is mapped to the spreading sequence. The bit in the spread signal is called a chip.How to separate services of the same user? How to keep the same bandwidth for all users and their semices? And finally: how to achieved the expected 2 Mbps transmissions? Bit rate Chip rate = CONST SF: 4. . The rate of spread information (signal) is the chiprate. The rate is increased with the ratio equal to the length of the spreading code. The output stream from the channellization process consists of spreading codes sequences (or inverse code sequences) being used instead of input bits (input bit . 128. input bit "1" is mapped to the inverse sequence) increasing the signal rate.256. F"2 Different bitrates with comsponding spreading factors Notes To spread signal the UMTS uses Direct Sequence Spreading Spectrum technique.
for a special downlink 1 control channel.16. I ~ 1 1) The higher bit requested.is this true or false? 2) Why does the chiprate have to be constant? t The chiprate used in CDMA (IS-95) i s 1. the longer code needed . The constant chiprate is / set to 3.84 Mcps (megachip per second). In the UMTS SFs of 4.128 and 256 are used (sometimes. the SF of 512 is used). That means that 1 higher bit rate services use shorter codes (lower SF).8.2288 Mcp W C D M Air bzterface -13- .To keep the fixed band of the frequency occupied by services of I different rates. the chiprate has to be constant. lower bit i rate uses longer codes (higher SF).1 32. 64.
-1) Digital 0 e->Analog +1 Digital I <-> Analog -1 Notes The channelisation codes of figure above are Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes that preserve the orthogonality between a user's different physical channels.SF. Each level in the code tree defines channelisation codes of length SF. corresponding to a spreading factor of SF.k. where SF is the spreading factor of the code and k is the code number.OVSF CODES DigitallAnalog mapping Example: 0 0 1 1 -> (+I . 0 < k < SF-1.+I . The channelisation codes are uniquely described as Cch.-1. The Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes l determine the data rates allocated to calls. A property of OVSF f .
codes is that any two codes from different tree levels are orthogonal if and only if neither is a mother code of the other. It may be noticed that number of available codes of a specific length is equal to the spreading factor. . In this way there can be more low data rate users served from one base station than high data rate users. it does not permit assignment of non-orthogonal codes to its ancestors and descendents. In other words crosscorelation should be as low as possible. The tree is built up after eachsplit by doubling the parent-code on one branch and by repeating the parent-code followed by the inversed parent-code on the other branch. OVSF codes (Walsh codes) are organized in the tree (as presented in figure above). Once the network assigns an OVSF code. Channelization codes should minimize interference among streams transmitted from a same source. This major drawback is called as the blocking PrOPertJ'.
That means the chip rate is not affected. have common name Pseudo Noise (PN) codes. because of the noise-like characteristics. improves signal characteristics and the system security. Scrambling codes. Scrambling. the band expansion is achieved by channellization process only. -16- O Telescope 2010 . that is. helping in the process of synchronization. Scrambling operation is done by chip-by-chip multiplication of dedicated scrambling code and a signal (channellized services of one transmitter). A scrambling code identifies transmitters (Node-Bs or MSs).How to separate users in the system when all services are transmitted on the same frequency? How to generate codes which will have very good autocowelation properties? GSM UMTS sCzs)\ Re-use factor = 4 Re-use factor = I Code re-use factor = 512 00000 0000000000 MSB Notes After channellization a signal of multiple services is scrambled by another code.
The length of registers and the feedback allocation are fixed. Uplink scrambling codes are allocated dynamically by RNC. WCDMA Air Interface The RAKE receiver with 8 fingers is used to correlate i -1 7- . 1) What is the puvpose ofallocation of diferent scrambling codes for difirent transmitters (Node-Bs) ? 2) What kind of operation is necessa y at the receiving side ifscrambling is used? I I received scrambled information.PN codes are generated by linear shift registers with feedbacks performing modulo 2 additions (XOR). Downlink scrambling codes are allocated during the planning phase of the system deployment.
I Q I ) 0 Notes Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) sometimes known as quaternary PSK. The mathematical analysis shows that QPSK can be used to double the data rate compared with a BPSK system while maintaining the same bandwidth of the signal. PSK uses a finite number of phases.I Q I ) 0 t fl (l=l. equispaced around a circle. Usually. -18- O Telescope 2010 .QPSK MODULATION Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals t o represent digital data. With four phases. quadriphase PSK. QPSK can encode two bits per symbol. ( I .RF Carrier amplitude I . each phase encodes an equal number of bits. Each pattern of bits f o m s the symbol that is represented by the particular phase. 4-PSK uses four points on the constellation diagram. each assigned a unique pattern of bina y digifs.Q=l) ----.
while the odd (or even) bits are used to modulate the quadrature-phase component of the carrier. BPSK is used on both carriers and they can be independently demodulated.Although QPSK can be viewed as a quaternary modulation. . With this interpretation. the even (or odd) bits are used to modulate the in-phase component of the carrier. it is easier to see it as two independently modulated quadrature carriers.
If the number of bits in a TTI is larger than the maximum size of a i .16. interleaving and transport channels mapping onto/splitti'ngfrom physical channels. dowil~nk phys~cal channel Notes Error detection is provided on transport blocks through a Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC).20 - O Telescope 2010 .8 or 0 bits and it is signalled from higher layers what CRC size that should be used for each TrCH. 1 All transport blocks in a TTI are serially concatenated. error correcting.12. Channel coding scheme is a combination of ewor detection. user data) from higher layers (Transport block/Transport block set) is encodevecoded to offer transport semices over the radio transmission link. rate matching.WCDMA TRANSMITTER Data stream (control.The size of the CRC is 24.
The maximum size of the code blocks depends on whether convolutional coding or turbo coding is used for the TrCH.code block then code block segmentation is performed after the concatenation of the transport blocks. the input bit sequence is segmented and mapped onto consecutive N radio frames. The 2nd interleaving is a block interleaver and consists of bits input to a matrix with padding. physical channel segmentation divides the bits among the different PhCHs. Code blocks are delivered to the channel coding block. The spreading operation is performed for all physical channel except SCH. Rate matching means that bits on a transport channel are repeated or punctured. WCDMA Air lizfevface -21- . Following rate matching in the DL and radio frame size equalisation in the UL the input bit sequence length is guaranteed to be an integer multiple of N. The 1st interleaving is a block interleaver with inter-column permutations. the inter-column permutation for the matrix and bits output from the matrix with pruning. Radio frame size equalisation is only performed in the UL. When the transmission time interval is longer than 10 ms. All the downlink physical channels are then combined. The convolutional coding or turbo coding schemes can be applied to TrCHs. When more than one PhCH is used. Higher layers assign' a rate-matching attribute for each transport channel. an IQ combining stage and a scrambling stage. Every 10 ms. one radio frame from each TrCH is delivered to the TrCH multiplexing. These radio frames are serially multiplexed into a coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH) . The spreading operation includes a modulation mapper stage successively followed by a channelisation stage. Radio frame size equalisation is padding the input bit sequence in order to ensure that the output can be segmented in data segments of same size.
SF=256) downlink physical channel that carries a pre-defined bit sequence.-------. 1 Notes The Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) has the following characteristics: .--. Figure above shows the frame structure of the CPICH...-.1 P-CPICH (PILOT CHANNEL) Predifined bit sequence 1 T slot = 2560 chips . . .- . -..--- -b I radio frame = 10 ms F l 'I' PN Pilot Channel Output : Orthogonal i i i Code0 The CPICH is a fixed rate (30 kbps.. 2 0 bits Slot #i 4 1.
The P-CPICH is scrambled by the primary scrambling code.. .f CPICH.There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell. .The same channelization code is always used for the P. 1 . .The P-CPICH is broadcast over the entire cell.
f The frame structure differs from the downlink DPCH in that no TPC commands.SCH. 0. I I I I I I ! !4 2560 chips ) 1 One 10 rns SCH radio frame The Primary CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps.24 - O Telescope 2010 .. ' Notes Figure above shows the frame structure o the Primary CCPCH. 256 chips . P-CCPCH - . no TFCI and no pilot bits are transmitted. -. SF=256) downlink physical channels used to carry the BCH transport channel. -.. I .. .pl 8 bits Slot #O Slot # I Slot #i 1 radio frame = 10 ms ! I Slot#O ! I Slot #l I I I I Slot #14 ! I I Primary SCH Secondary SC H 1 I I I I I I 1 m I I I e .. Nd.
Each SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256.1. 1. Primary SCH and Secondary SCH are transmitted during this period.. Instead. . The 10 ms radio frames of the Primary and Secondary SCH are divided into 15 slots.. the Primary and Secondary SCH. The Synchronisation Channel (SCH) is a downlink signal used for cell search.. The SCH consists of two sub channels. The PSC is the same for every cell in the system. The Secondary SCH consists of repeatedly transmitting a length 15 sequence of modulated codes of length 256 chips. transmitted in parallel with the Primary SCH.. . 14 is the slot number. the Primary Synchronisation Code (PSC) denoted cp in figure above.k in figure 18. . the Secondary Synchronisation Codes (SSC). 63 is the number of the scrambling code group. each of length 2560 chips.The Primary CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each slot. The Primary SCH consists of a modulated code of length 256 chips. Figure above illustrates the structure of the SCH radio frame. where i = 0. The SSC is denoted csi.. transmitted once every slot. and k = 0. This sequence on the Secondary SCH indicates which of the code' groups the cell's downlink scrambling code belongs to. WCDMA Air Intelface -25- I .
There are two types o Secondary CCPCH: those that include f TFCI and those that do not include TFCI. The set o possible rates for the Secondary CCPCH is the same as for the downlink DPCH. The frame structure of the Secondary CCPCH is shown in figure above. The spreading factor range is from 256 down to 4. The FACH and PCH can be mapped to the same or to separate Secondary CCPCHs. It is related to the spreading factor SF of the physical channel as SF = 256/2k. It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be transmitted. they can be mapped to the same frame. 1 . hence making it f mandatory for all UEs to support the use of TFCI. The parameter k determines the total number of bits per downlink Secondary CCPCH slot.26 - O Telescope 2010 .S-CCPCH Data pilot 1 1 radio frame = 10 ms Notes The Secondary CCPCH is used to carry the FACH and PCH. If FACH and PCH are mapped to the same Secondary CCPCH. .
The main difference between the Primary and Secondary CCPCH is that the transport channel mapped to the Primary CCPCH (BCH) can only have a fixed predefined transport format combination. I W C D M A Air Inteface -27- I . while the Secondary CCPCH support multiple transport format combinations using TFCI.The main difference between a CCPCH and a downlink dedicated physical channel is that a CCPCH is not inner-loop power controlled.
. ..28 - O Telescope 2010 . b Message part radio frame T = 10 ms u 4096 chips 4096 chips - 10 ms (one radio frame) Message part I I 4 t 20 ms (two radio frames) Notes The random-access transmission is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication. Information on what access slots are available for random-access transmission is given by higher layers. denoted access slots. 10%its (k=0.3) / 4 slot #O slot #I I /- slot # i l . The UE can start the random-access transmission at the beginning of a number of well-defined time intervals. .PRACH Data Pilot Npilot bits Data Ndata bits TFCl 1 Control Tslot= 2560 chips.-.. . There are 15 access slots per two frames and they are spaced 5120 chips apart.
This corresponds to a spreading factor of 256 for the message control part. There are a maximum of 16 available signatures. The data part consists of 10*2k bits. Each slot consists of two parts. I / 1 The 10 ms message part radio frame is split into 15 slots. This corresponds to a spreading factor o 256. while a 20 ms message part consists of two consecutive 10 ms message part radio frames.1. The message part length is equal to the Transmission Time Interval of the RACH Transport channel in use. and 32 f respectively for the message data part. The data and control parts are transmitted in parallel. where k=0. In case o f a 20 ms PRACH message part. A 10 ms message part consists of one message part radio frame. The control part consists of 8 known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection and 2 TFCI bits.2. The TFCI of a radio frame indicates the transport format of the RACH transport channel mapped to the simultaneously transmitted message part radio frame. 128. the TFCI is repeated in the second radio frame WCDA4A Air Interface -2 9- . each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. a data part to which the RACH transport channel is mapped and a control part that carries Layer 1 control information.The random-access transmission consists of one or several preambles of length 4096 chips and a message of length 10 ms or 20 ms. This TTI length is configured by higher layers. The total number of TFCI bits in the random-access message is 15*2 = 30. Each preamble is of length 4096 chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature of length 16 chips. 64.3.
i. is transmitted in time-multiplex with control information generated at Layer 1 (known pilot bits..7) T.= I I 4 1 radio frame = 10 ms b Notes Within one downlink DPCH. and an optional TFCI). The spreading factor f may thus range from 512 down to 4.. It is related to the spreading factor SF 1 o the physical channel as SF = 512/2k. lohibits (k=0. the dedicated transport channel (DCH). TPC commands. -30O Telescope 2010 . corresponding to one power-control period. each of length f Tslot = 2560 chips.e. The downlink DPCH can thus be seen as a time multiplex of a downlink DPDCH and a downlink DPCCH.. dedicated data generated at Layer 2 and above.DPDCH/DPCCH (DL) 4 DPDCH Ndataqbifs DPCCH NT~C bits -A DPDCH -b DPCCH TFC l NTFCl bits 2560 chips. f Each frame o length 10 ms is split into 15 slots. I I The parameter k in figure 9 determines the total number o bits f f per downlink DPCH slot. Figure above shows the frame structure o the downlink DPCH.
It is the UTRAN that determines if a TFCI should be / transmitted and it is mandatory for all UEs to support the use of I TFCI in the downlink. for fixed-rate [ services). W C D M A Air Interface -31- .g.g.There are basically two types of downlink Dedicated Physical Channels. those that include TFCI (e. for several simultaneous services) and those that do not include TFCI (e.
and an optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI).DPDCH/DPCCH (UL) DPDCH Data %atPs 10*2 k bits (k=0.= = DPCCH TFCI I 4 Subframe #O I Subframe # Subframe #2 I I I Subframe#) I Subframe #4 ( b 1 subframe = 2 m s 1 radio frame: I= ms 10 Notes The uplink DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel. Ndat. The Layer 1 control information consists of known pilot bits to support channel estimation for coherent detection.6) glot 2560 chips. transmit power-control (TPC) commands..32 - O Telescope 2010 . There may be zero. The uplink DPCCH is used to carry control information generated at Layer 1. The transport-format combination . one. or several uplink DPDCHs on each radio link. feedback information (FBI).
The DPDCH and DPCCH are always frame aligned with each other. W C D M A Air Intevface -33- . there are 10 bits per uplink DPCCH slot. corresponding to one power-control period.indicator informs the receiver about the instantaneous transport I format combination of the transport channels mapped to the simultaneously transmitted uplink DPDCH radio frame. each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. There ) is one and only one uplink DPCCH on each radio link. Figure above shows the frame structure of the uplink DPDCH ] and the uplink DPCCH. It is related to the spreading factor SF of the DPDCH as SF = 256/2k. split into 15 slots. Each radio frame of length 10 ms is . The DPDCH spreading factor may range from 256 down to 4. The spreading factor of the uplink DPCCH is always equal to 256. ' The parameter k in figure above determines the number of bits per uplink DPDCH slot.e. i.
RACH. FACH. I / I I Logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred.Transport channels are transported further over UTRAN interfaces. DCH. There is only one type of dedicated transport channel. HS-DSCH and E-DCH. 1 A general classification of transport channels is into two groups: Dedicated channels and Common channels. PCH. There are seven types of common transport channels: BCH. DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) * RACH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) BCH F*cH PCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) 7 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) SynchronisationChannel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) HS-DSCH E-DCH W C D M A Air Interface -35- . Iub or Iur. the Dedicated Channel (DCH). A general classification of logical channels is into i two groups: Control channels and Traffic channels.
while the physical channels define how and with what physical characteristic the data are transport. Control Channel Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Control Channel (MCCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Scheduling Channel (MSCH) Traffic Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) MBMS point-to-multipoint Traffic Channel (MTCH) Notes Logical channel is defined by what type of information is transferred. A general classification of logical channels is into two groups: Control channels and Traffic channels. while Logical Channels are interface between MAC and RLC. The logical and transport channels define what data are transported. Control Channels: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. -36O Telescope 2010 . The Transport Channels are interface between MAC and Layer 1. Transport Channel and Logical channel.There are three types of channels in the WCDMA technologies: Physical Channel.
dedicated to one UE. ' i Traffic Channels: Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): A Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) is a point-to-point channel. This channel is commonly used by the UEs having no RRC connection with the network and by the UEs using common transport channels when accessing a new cell after cell reselection. for the transfer of user information. Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH): Bi-directional 1 channel that transmits control information for uplink and downlink shared channels between network and UEs. A DTCH can exist in both uplink and downlink. This channel is established through RRC connection setup procedure. or. UMTS Air Interface -3 7- . This j channel is for TDD only. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): A point-to-point bidirectional channel that transmits dedicated control information I between a UE and the network. ! 1 Common Control Channel (CCCH): Bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between network and UEs. 1 ! Common Traffic Channel (CTCH): A point-to-multipoint I unidirectional channel for transfer o dedicated user information I f for all or a group of specified UEs. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the UE. the UE is in the cell connected state (utilising UE sleep mode procedures).Paging Control Channel (PCCH): A downlink channel that transfers paging information.
1 The interference is a limiting factor for coverage. The transmissions of I users' signals are on the same frequency and at the same time. value Closed loop Quality loop RNC update Notes The Power Control is one of the most important functions ! implemented in the UMTS/WCDMA. Exceeding the threshold interference ( level leads to the drop of services in the entire cell. . Transmitter ( power level has to be kept at the lowest possible level to reach 1 the lowest possible interference.38- 0TeleScope 201 0 . That allows to keep the i highest possible capacity on one hand. higher capacity and wider coverage? How to balance the system load? 4 Open loop Ref.What is the power control and why is i t so important in UMTS/WCDMA? How to achieve better quality. capacity and [ quality of the system. and to keep the signal strong enough with the good quality expected in the system on the other hand.
must reduce the transmitted power to avoid too high interference to weaker signals transmitted from distant mobile stations (near-far problem). Outer loop power control is used to keep the individual connection on a required quality level (according to changes in signal propagation environment). 1) Can near-frar problem affect also other mobile systems? 2) What types ofpower confrol are used in GSM? I The I UMTS Air Interface i power control in UMTS is pdomzed almost continuously the power can be adjzdsted 1500 times per second. decides what level of transmitted power to use for its random access message. So. and are transmitted by the Node-B to increase or decrease the mobile stations' transmission power level. Uplink measurements done by the Node-B compared to the target reference value are the base for the decisions taken. - i -39- .The mobile station. Open loop power control takes place when the mobile station. the number of mobile stations working in the cell influences the size of the cell. The reference value (in the closed loop) is updated by the . being close to the Node-B. Too many mobile stations being close to the Node-B generate very high uplink interference and the signal transmitted from distant (the cell edge) mobile phones may be jammed. Outer loop power control is done between the Node-B and the RNC.. measuring signal strength on broadcast channels.quality loop". More mobile stations generate higher interference and in effect the cell shrinks (cell breathing). Fast closed (inner) loop power control takes place when precise power control is needed and dedicated (traffic) channels are used.
Depending on how the channel is changed the UMTS introduces different possible handovers. I / . Soft handover takes place when the same frequency is used in neighbouring cells (it's the UMTS case). I ' \ .40 - 0 Telescope 2010 .How to increase quality and capacity of the UMTS system? How to change cells during a call when roaming to the GSM network? Hard Handover Soft Handover Softer Handover U GSIW-UMTS roaming Notes Handovers occur when a mobile station changes cells during lasting service. or the quality changes (change of physical channel). The mobile station is connected to two or more Node-Bs at the same time and exchanges information simultaneously.
the new connection to the destination cell is build. I ) Whaf is the reasonjor a soff handover? 2) W h a f for multiple carriers can be assigned in the system? ere i no "harder" handover in the UMTS. The connection to the originating cell is released first and after that.Softer handover takes place when the mobile station is simultaneously connected to two different sectors of the same Node-B. 1 Hard handover is needed when multiple carriers are allocated in the system. IFHO). IRATHO). and in a handover between UMTS and GSM networks (Inter. It takes place in case of Hierarchical Cell Structure.Radio Access Technology Handover. s UMTS Air Intevface -41- . hot-spot places (Inter-Frequency Handover.
Some of them are 1 fast power control. before reaching the receiver. trees. f n positive manner. I CDM A-based systems another n powerful method is used: RAKE receiver. interleaving or retransmission protocols. 1 .RAKE RECEIVER One of the characteristics o radio Wanmission is multipath propagatia f Signa I. strong coding. Dueto phase shifts between multipath components the resulting combined signal is attenuated I Delay profile Cornbi ner a I 1. experiences multiple wfrectims caused be obstacles such as hills. Multiple copies of the same signal propagate on difjerent paths and thus reach the receiver with different delays. Ntax1rnum RliD Combining m I To Decoder I 1 Searcher Finger t Power measurement of Neighboring Base Stations Notes Multipath fading cannot be eliminated. buildings. Hoever different i methods are used to overcome this problem. RAKE equalizes delays o multipath components and combines the signals i a .
' the Pilot strength in order to prepare for possibne handover. signals are combined. This finger is called Searcher. Each of the delay profile peaks is allocated a separate correlation receiver.43 - . n One o the RAKE receiver fingers is used for scaru-ting f neighbouring cel1s'Pilot channels.In the RAKE receiver detected signal is first put. RAKE receiver finger. i. I RAKE fingers may be used for tracing multipath components and for the maximum ratio combining i soft/sofier handover. : UMTS A i r Ilzte?f~:farc . The delay profile determines how the energy o one chip is "smeared" in f time. After equalizing deIays between R A E fingers.to a matched filter.e. Searcher finger helps to perform measurements on . The resulting output signal from RAKE is improved. which is used to identify current delay profile.
earlier versions of UMTS. introduced in 3GPP Release 5. higher speed and greater capacity are required. as the use of packet data services increases and new services are introduced. However. allowing users of HSDPA networks a . QPSK Notes WCDMA is evolving to enable higher bit-rates and higher throughput.One of the most important aspects of third-generation (3G) mobile systems is enhanced packet data access. The first step. improving the downlink is the technology known as the High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). Together these two technologies are known as High Speed Packet Access (HSPA). WCD2MA 3GPP Release 99 provides data rates of 384 kbiys for wide-area coverage. The second step (included in 3GPP Release 6) is to improve the uplink by introducing Enhanced Uplink (EUL). HSDPA provides download speeds at least five times faster than . -44- O Telescope 2010 .
5G cellular radio technology. which prioritizes users with the most favorable' channel conditions Fast retransmission and soft-combining.45 - . there were 166 commercial HSDPA networks in 75 countries with a further 38 networks committed to deployment. / The high speeds of HSDPA is achieved through techniques including: / Shared-channel transmission.4 Mbps per cell. By the end of 2007.broader selection of video and music downloads. HSPDA specifies data transfer speeds of up to 14. Sometimes HSDPA is characterized as a 3. which further increase capacity 16QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). UMTS Air Interface . . which results in efficient use of available code and power resources in WCDMA 1 A shorter TTI. which reduces round-trip time and improves the tracking of fast channel variations ! Link adaptation. which maximizes channel usage and enables the ] base station to operate close to maximum cell power Fast scheduling.
=>42 Mbps UL => 18 Mbps Notes Evolved High-Speed Packet Access. MIMO on CDMA based systems acts like virtual sectors to give extra capacity closer to the mast. HSPA+ provides HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access) data rates up to 42 Mbit/s on the downlink and 12 Mbit/s on the uplink with MIMO technologies and higher order modulation (64QAM). The actual speed for a user will be lower.UMTS and HSPA is continuously evolving.46 - O Telescope 2010 . new technology enhancements are being added such as higher order modulation. The 42Mbit/s and 12Mbit/s represent theoretical peak sector speeds. At cell edge and even at half the distance to the cell edge there may only be . also known as HSPA+. DL => 21Mbps UL => 9Mbps 64QAM & MlMO DL. Even afCm HSDPA/HSUPA (HSPA). 16QAM MIMO DL => 28 Mbps UL => 12 Mbps 0 0. is a wireless broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7. MIMO and recently Dual-Cam'er HSDPA.
QAM64 modulation techniques multiply data speeds by about 1. MIMO uses more than one pair of antennas. multi-carrier.47- . MIMO can double speeds. typically 2-by-2 or 4-by4. these techniques combined will increase the peak rate to 56 Mbit/s (14 x 2 x 2 carriers).slight increase compared with 14. there are 20 HSPA+ networks running in the world at 21Mbit/s and two are running at 28Mbit/s. UMTS Air Interface . 1 To increase the speed of HSPA from its top theoretical downlink of 14 Mbit/s. that varies the amplitude and phase of a signal to increase the data capacity. Future revisions of HSPA+ support up to 168Mbps using multiple carriers (MIMO.5 times. 4 carriers).. to increase data send and receive speeds. 64QAM. Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is a technique that splits up the data being transmitting and sends it over a number of smaller channels (or "carriers") as a way to boost speed while cutting radio interference. also frequently used by cable vendors. As of November 2009. In the case of two carriers involved.4 Mbit/s HSDPA unless a wider channel than 5MHz is used. and multi-carrier will increase speeds by the number of carriers being bonded. vendors have three techniques available to them: MIMO. . and QAM64. QAM64 is a type of Quadrature amplitude modulation.
Important parts of such a long-term evolution include reduced latency. higher user data rates.24 EVOLVED PACKET SYSTEM (EPS) To ensure competitiveness of the 3GPP systems in a timefvame of the next 10 years and beyond. -48- O Telescope 2010 . the packet-switched technology utilised within 3G mobile networks requires further enhancement. a long-term evolution of the 3GPP access technology needs to be considered LTE *EPS. improved system capacity and coverage.Long Term Evolution *SAE System Architecture Evolution - Notes j To enhance the capability of the 3GPP system to cope with the rapid growth in IP data traffic. and reduced overall cost for the operator. A continued evolution and optirnisation of the system concept is also necessary in order to maintain a competitive edge in terms of both performance and cost.Evolved Packet System *LTE.
is a useful i feature for future network evolution. E-UTRAN supports use of different multiple antenna configurations (MIMO). LTE/SAE is specified from Release 8. UMTS Aiu Interface . The E-UTRAN standard is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) downlink operation and Single Carrier Frequency Domain Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) uplink operation.Additionally.4 MHz up to 20 MHz spectrum allocations. SGSN and GGSN) to only two (e-NodeB and S-GW) in EPS. The result of these work items are the Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) and Evolved Packet Core (EPC). This means that the traditionally Circuit Switched (CS) services will be carried by PS bearers. where the Long Term Evolution (LTE) targets the radio network evolution and the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) targets the evolution of the packet Core Network. The number o user-plane nodes is reduced from four in Release 6 (NodeB. Only a Packet Switched (PS) domain is defined in LTE.These together (E-UTRAN and EPC) build the Evolved Packet System (EPS). I-WLAN and 3GPP access systems.g. The standard development in 3GPP is grouped into two work items.This increases the data rates and spectrum efficiency. Furthermore. These choices support .great spectrum flexibility with a number of possible deployments from 1. It will support both FDD and TDD mode of operation and targets both a paired spectrum allocation with uplink and downlink separated in frequency. A mechanism to I support seamless mobility between heterogeneous access networks. and unpaired spectrum with uplink and downlink operating on the same frequency. In order to achieve this. should be considered. e. an evolution or migration of the network architecture. EPS in Release 8 is based on a simplified network architecture f compared to Release 6.provided through various access technologies. as well as an evolution of the radio interface. it is expected that IP based 3GPP services will be i .49 - . RNC.
I-Interrogating.3GPP AAL AMPS AMR AN API APN AUC AUTN ATM BCH B G BGCF BICC BSC BSS CAMEL CAP CC CDMA CN CS CSCF D-AMPS DCCH DHCP DNS DRNC DS DSCH DTCH E-UTRAN EDGE EIR EPC EPS ETSI EUL FACH FDD FDMA FOMA GERAN GGSN GMSC GPRS GSM Third Generation Partnership Project ATM Adaptation Layer Advanced Mobile Phone System Adaptive Multi-rate Codec Access Network Application Programming Interface Access Point Network Authentication Centre Authentication Token Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Channel Border Gateway Breakout Gateway Control Function Bearer Independent Call Control Base Station Controller Base Stations Subsystem Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic CAMEL Application Part t Call Control Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Circuit Switched Call Session Control Function (P-Proxy. S-Serving) Digital-AMPS Dedicated Control Channel Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Domain Name System Drift RNC Direct Sequence Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel Evolved UTRAN Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Equipment Identity Register Evolved Packet Core Evolved Packet System European Telecommunication Standards Organization Enhanced Uplink Forward Access Channel Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiple Access Freedom Of Mobile multimedia Access GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node Gateway Mobile services Switching Center General Packet Radio Services Global System for Mobile communications .
GSN GTP HE HLR HS-DSCH HS-SCCH HSCSD HSDPA HSPA HSS HSUPA IK IMEI IMSI IMS IMT IP ISDN ITU IWF LA LAN LCS LTE MAC MAP MBMS MExE MGCF MGW MIMO MM MMS MRF MRFC MRFP MS MSC MT MTP NMT NSAPI OFDMA OSA PCH PDC PDN PDP PSE P-TMSI GPRS Support Node GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Home Environment Home Location Register High Speed Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Shared Control Channel High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Packet Access Home Subscriber Server High Speed Uplink Packet Access Integrity Kev International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity IP-Multimedia CN Subsystem International Mobile Telephony Internet Protocol Integrated Services Digital Network International Telecommunication Union Inter-Working Function Location Area Local Area Network Location Services Long Term Evolution Medium Access Control Mobile Application Part Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service Mobile applications Execution Environment Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Multiple Input Multiple Output Mobility Management Multimedia Messaging Service Media Resource Function Media Resource Function Control Media Resource Function Processor Mobile Station Mobile services Switching Centre Mobile Termination Message Transfer Part Nordic Mobile Telephony Network Service Access Point Identifier Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Open Services Access (Architecture) Paging Channel Personal Digital Cellular Packet Data Network Packet Data Protocol Personal Service Environment Packet-TMSI 8 UMTS Air Interface .51 - .
52 - 0Telescope 2010 .QoS QPSK PS PLMN PSTN RAB RACH RANAP RFC RLC RNC RNS RRC SAE SAT SCF SCS SCTP SDP SGSN SIP SLF SRNC SRNS STC TACS TD TDD TDMA TE TEID TMSI TTI UDP UE UMTS USAT USIM UTRA UTRAN VASP VHE VLR WAN WCDMA WLAN mc Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Packet Switched Public Land Mobile Network Public Switched Telephony Network Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Application Part Request For Comments Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Radio Resource Control System Architecture Evolution SIM Application Toolkit Service Capability Feature Service Capability Server Stream Control Transmission Protocol Session Description Protocol Serving GPRS Support Node Session Initiation Protocol Subscription Locator Function Serving RNC Serving RNS Signalling Transport Converter Total Access Communication System Time Division Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access User Equipment Tunnel End-point ID Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity Transmission Time Interval User Datagram Protocol User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UMTS SIM Application Toolkit UMTS Subscriber Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Value Added Service Provider Virtual Home Environment Visitor Location Register Wide Area Network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless LAN World Radiocommunication Conference - .
Copyright 02004-2010 TeleScope by The document was produced by Telescope. All rights reserved. The document is not intended to replace the technical documentation that was shipped with your system. including photocopying. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. The document version is v l . Therefore. Always refer to the technical documentation during operation and maintenance. without consent ofTeleScope. electronic or mechanical. The contents of this document are subject to revision without noticeTeleScope assumes no legal responsibility for any errors or damage resulting from the usage of this document. or any information storage and retrieval system. recording.l I .IMPORTANT NOTICE This book is a training document and contains simplifications. it must not be considered as a specification of any system or technology.
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