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Steven T. Karris

Circuit Analysis I

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176-1.7546i magIx = 2.75 A theta = -39.64 deg

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

with MATLAB® Applications

Circuit Analysis I

Students and working professionals will find Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the principal electrical engineering concepts, and these are illustrated with numerous practical examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Concepts and Definitions • Analysis of Simple Circuits • Nodal and Mesh Equations Circuit Theorems • Introduction to Operational Amplifiers • Inductance and Capacitance • Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Phasor Circuit Analysis • Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments • Natural Response • Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • Introduction to MATLAB • Review of Complex Numbers • Matrices and Determinants Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to obtain quick and accurate answers.

Steven T. Karris is the president and founder of Orchard Publications. He earned a bachelors degree in electrical engineering at Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, and has done post-master work at the latter. He is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has over 30 years of professional engineering experience in industry. In addition, he has over 25 years of teaching experience that he acquired at several educational institutions as an adjunct professor. He is currently with UC Berkeley Extension.

Orchard Publications Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

$39.95

Circuit Analysis I

with MATLAB® Applications

Steven T. Karris

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Copyright © 2004 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks®, Inc., and Microsoft® Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
**

Library of Congress Control Number 2004093171

ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

Disclaimer

The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker®.

Preface

This text is an introduction to the basic principles of electrical engineering. It is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by this author while teaching for the electrical engineering and computer engineering departments at San José State University, DeAnza college, and the College of San Mateo, all in California. Many of the examples and problems are based on the author’s industrial experience. It can be used as a primary text or supplementary text. It is also ideal for self-study. This book is intended for students of college grade, both community colleges and universities. It presumes knowledge of first year differential and integral calculus and physics. While some knowledge of differential equations would be helpful, it is not absolutely necessary. Chapters 9 and 10 include step-by-step procedures for the solutions of simple differential equations used in the derivation of the natural and forces responses. Appendices B and C provide a thorough review of complex numbers and matrices respectively. There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas. Circuit analysis is comprised of numerous topics. It would be impractical to include all related topics in a single text. This book, Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications, contains the standard subject matter of electrical engineering. Accordingly, it is intended as a first course in circuits and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters. A sequel, Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications, is intended for use in a subsequent semester or two subsequent quarters. It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB. As shown on the front cover, a system of equations with complex coefficients can be solved with MATLAB very accurately and rapidly. MATLAB will be invaluable in later studies such as the design of analog and digital filters. In addition to several problems provided at the end of each chapter, this text includes multiple-choice questions to test and enhance the reader’s knowledge of this subject. Moreover, answers to these questions and detailed solutions of all problems are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Preface is to encourage the reader to solve all problems and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge. The author has accumulated many additional problems for homework assignment and these are available to those instructors who adopt this text either as primary or supplementary text, and prefer to assign problems without the solutions. He also has accumulated many sample exams. Like any other new book, this text may contain some grammar and typographical errors. Accordingly, all feedback for errors, advice and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated. Orchard Publications Fremont, California

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions

The Coulomb...................................................................................................................................................1-1 Electric Current and Ampere........................................................................................................................1-1 Two Terminal Devices...................................................................................................................................1-4 Voltage (Potential Difference) ......................................................................................................................1-5 Power and Energy...........................................................................................................................................1-8 Active and Passive Devices ........................................................................................................................ 1-12 Circuits and Networks................................................................................................................................. 1-12 Active and Passive Networks..................................................................................................................... 1-12 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow .................................................................................................. 1-12 International System of Units .................................................................................................................... 1-13 Sources of Energy........................................................................................................................................ 1-17 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 1-18 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 1-21 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 1-25

**Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits
**

Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................2-1 Ohm’s Law.......................................................................................................................................................2-1 Power Absorbed by a Resistor......................................................................................................................2-3 Energy Dissipated by a Resistor ...................................................................................................................2-4 Nodes, Branches, Loops and Meshes..........................................................................................................2-5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)...................................................................................................................2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)...................................................................................................................2-7 Analysis of Single Mesh (Loop) Series Circuits....................................................................................... 2-10 Analysis of Single Node-Pair Parallel Circuits......................................................................................... 2-14 Voltage and Current Source Combinations ............................................................................................. 2-16 Resistance and Conductance Combinations............................................................................................ 2-18 Voltage Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-22 Current Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-24 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices..................................................................................... 2-26 Resistor Color Code .................................................................................................................................... 2-27 Power Rating of Resistors .......................................................................................................................... 2-28

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications i

Contents Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .................................................................................................... 2-29 Ampere Capacity of Wires.......................................................................................................................... 2-30 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment ............................................................................................. 2-30 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring........................................................................................... 2-33 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 2-38 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 2-41 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 2-50

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Nodal, Mesh, and Loop Equations ............................................................................................................. 3-1 Analysis with Nodal Equations.................................................................................................................... 3-1 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations ..................................................................................................... 3-8 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources.........................................................................3-20 Thevenin’s Theorem....................................................................................................................................3-24 Norton’s Theorem .......................................................................................................................................3-35 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ........................................................................................................3-38 Linearity.........................................................................................................................................................3-39 Superposition Principle ...............................................................................................................................3-41 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices.............................................................................................................3-45 Efficiency ......................................................................................................................................................3-47 Regulation .....................................................................................................................................................3-49 Summary........................................................................................................................................................3-49 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................3-52 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................3-64

**Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers
**

Signals .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Amplifiers........................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Decibels ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response.......................................................................................................... 4-4 The Operational Amplifier ........................................................................................................................... 4-5 An Overview of the Op Amp...................................................................................................................... 4-5 Active Filters................................................................................................................................................. 4-13 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..................................................................................................................... 4-16 Input and Output Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4-28 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 4-32

ii Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................4-34 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................4-43

**Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance
**

Energy Storage Devices................................................................................................................................. 5-1 Inductance ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-1 Power and Energy in an Inductor ............................................................................................................. 5-11 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors........................................................................................ 5-14 Capacitance.................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Power and Energy in a Capacitor .............................................................................................................. 5-22 Capacitance Combinations ......................................................................................................................... 5-25 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms........................................................................................ 5-28 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-29 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-31 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 5-36

**Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis
**

Excitation Functions...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs ........................................................................................................ 6-1 The Complex Excitation Function.............................................................................................................. 6-3 Phasors in R , L , and C Circuits ................................................................................................................. 6-8 Impedance ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-14 Admittance .................................................................................................................................................... 6-17 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-21 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-25 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 6-30

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Nodal Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 7-1 Mesh Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 7-5 Application of Superposition Principle.......................................................................................................7-7 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ...........................................................................................................7-8 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits .......................................................................................................7-12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications iii

Contents Phasor Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................... 7-15 Electric Filters............................................................................................................................................... 7-20 Basic Analog Filters ..................................................................................................................................... 7-21 Active Filter Analysis................................................................................................................................... 7-26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 7-28 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 7-29 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 7-37

**Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments
**

Periodic Time Functions............................................................................................................................... 8-1 Average Values ............................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Effective Values ............................................................................................................................................. 8-3 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids ........................................................................................................... 8-5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies............................................................................. 8-7 Average Power and Power Factor............................................................................................................... 8-9 Average Power in a Resistive Load ...........................................................................................................8-10 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads ................................................................................8-11 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms.......................................................................................8-14 Lagging and Leading Power Factors.........................................................................................................8-15 Complex Power - Power Triangle .............................................................................................................8-16 Power Factor Correction ............................................................................................................................8-18 Instruments ...................................................................................................................................................8-21 Summary........................................................................................................................................................8-30 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................8-33 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................8-39

**Chapter 9 Natural Response
**

The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit............................................................................................. 9-1 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit ......................................................................................... 9-10 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 9-17 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 9-19 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 9-25

iv

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents

**Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits
**

The Unit Step Function...............................................................................................................................10-1 The Unit Ramp Function............................................................................................................................10-6 The Delta Function......................................................................................................................................10-8 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit ................................................................................10-14 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit ................................................................................10-21 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-31 Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-33 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................. 10-41

**Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB®
**

MATLAB® and Simulink® ........................................................................................................................ A-1 Command Window....................................................................................................................................... A-1 Roots of Polynomials.................................................................................................................................... A-3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ......................................................................................... A-4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values ....................................................................................... A-6 Rational Polynomials .................................................................................................................................... A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots ................................................................................................................ A-10 Subplots ........................................................................................................................................................ A-19 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation.......................................................................................... A-20 Script and Function Files ........................................................................................................................... A-26 Display Formats .......................................................................................................................................... A-31

**Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers
**

Definition of a Complex Number ...............................................................................................................B-1 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers......................................................................................B-2 Multiplication of Complex Numbers ..........................................................................................................B-3 Division of Complex Numbers....................................................................................................................B-4 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers ..............................................................................B-4

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v

....................................................................................................................... C-30 vi Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ............................................ C-21 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ C-20 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices ..................................................................................................C-2 Special Forms of Matrices ...........................C-5 Determinants ................................................................................................................................................................................................ C-23 Exercises.................................................................................................................................Contents Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Matrix Definition ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... C-19 The Adjoint of a Matrix ............................ C-21 The Inverse of a Matrix ...........................................................................................C-9 Minors and Cofactors.................................................................. C-12 Cramer’s Rule ........................................................................................................................................................................C-1 Matrix Operations........................................ C-16 Gaussian Elimination Method ....................

the charge of an electron is 1. – 19 18 electrons. It introduces the concepts and conventions used in introductory circuit analysis. and includes several practical examples to illustrate these concepts. In terms of this unit.1 The Coulomb Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. In other words. is the fundamental unit of charge.2) 1-1 . 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions T his chapter begins with the basic definitions in electric circuit analysis.24 × 10 positive or negative.1) The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as A and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second.1. that is. 1. is denoted by the letter q or Q .1. abbreviated as C . 8 –7 q Vacuum 1m F = 10 c 2 N q=1 coulomb –7 q Figure 1. The definition of coulomb is illustrated in Figure 1. ----i = dq = lim ∆q ----dt ∆t → 0 ∆t (1. Charge. the unit and quantities used in circuit analysis. ---------------------------1 ampere = 1 coulomb 1 sec ond Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (1.2 Electric Current and Ampere Electric current i at a specified point and flowing in a specified direction is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past this point in that specified direction. Definition of the coulomb The coulomb. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .6 × 10 C and one negative coulomb is equal to 6.

it is customary to think of current as the motion of positive charge.1 1-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . this is known as conventional current flow. since ----i = dq dt the charge q is q t t0 = ∫ t i dt 0 t or q( t ) – q ( t0 ) = ∫t i dt 0 t or q(t) = ∫t i d t + q ( t 0 ) 0 t (1.2. compute the total charge q transferred between a.1 For the waveform of current i shown in Figure 1. To find an expression of the charge q in terms of the current i . Then. let us consider the charge q transferred from some reference time t 0 to some future time t . t = 0 and t = 3 s b.2. Waveform for Example 1.3) Example 1. t = 0 and t = 9 s i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 −10 −20 −30 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Note: Although it is known that current flow results from electron motion.

b. Therefore. In such a case.3 indicates either a current of 2 A is flowing from left to right.3. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 6 s. we conclude that the actual direction of the current flow is opposite to the direction of the arrow. or −15 mA / s. In the case of time-varying currents which change direction from time-to-time.5 = 172.Electric Current and Ampere Solution: We know that q t t=0 = ∫0 i d t t = Area t 0 Then. Obviously. 2A Device −2 A Figure 1. Direction of conventional current flow Caution: The arrow may or may not indicate the actual conventional current flow. by calculating the areas. if the current with the assumed direction turns out to be negative. the actual direction of the current cannot be determined by inspection. area = 4 × 30 = 120 mC For 6 < t < 8 s. we find that: a. For example. Then. the direction of the current which flows at some particular instant. we assume a direction by placing an arrow next to the device in which the current flows. total charge = total area = 30 mC + 30 mC = 60 mC. We will see later in Chapters 2 and 3 that in some circuits (to be defined shortly). area = 1 × 30 = 30 mC Therefore. Convention: We denote the current i by placing an arrow with the numerical value of the current next to the device in which the current flows. we conclude that the actual direction is opposite of that of the arrow. For 0 < t < 2 s. for 0 < t < 3 s. or that a current of – 2 A is moving from right to left. total charge = total area = 30 + 120 + 30 −7. that is. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-3 . the designation shown in Figure 1. For 0 < t < 2 s. for 0 < t < 9 s. area = ½ × {1×(−15)} = −7. and if a negative value for the current i is obtained. for 8 < t < 9 s.5 mC.3. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 8 < t < 9 s. we observe that the slope of the straight line for t > 6 s is −30 mA / 2 s. As before. we assume a direction with an arrow for said current i . it is convenient to think or consider the instantaneous current. then. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 3 s. reversing the direction reverses the algebraic sign of the current as shown in Figure 1.5 mC.

What is the charge q at t = 5 ms given that q ( 0 ) = 0 ? Solution: a. The passage of current (or charge) through the device requires some expenditure of energy.– 0 = -----. a current i ( t ) = 20 cos 100 π t mA enters the left (first) terminal. In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal* as shown in Figure 1. i t = 0. a.2 π 0. Current entering and leaving a two-terminal device Let us assume that a constant value current (commonly known as Direct Current and abbreviated as DC) enters terminal A and leaves the device through terminal B in Figure 1. q( t) = ∫0 i dt + q ( 0 ) = 5 × 10 0 –3 ∫0 5 × 10 20 cos 100 πt dt + 0 0. What is the current at t = 40 ms ? c. Example 1.2 = -----.C 2 π π * We will see in Chapter 5 that a two terminal device known as capacitor is capable of storing energy.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.4. 1-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 In a two-terminal device.sin 100πt π 0.2 = -----. What is the amount of current which enters that terminal in the time interval – 10 ≤ t ≤ 20 ms ? b.sin -.3 Two Terminal Devices In this text we will only consider two-terminal devices. i t t0 = 20 cos 100 πt 20 × 10 –3 –3 – 10 × 10 = 20 cos 100 π ( 20 × 10 ) – 20 cos 100 π ( – 10 × 10 ) –3 –3 = 20 cos 2π – 20 cos ( – π ) = 40 mA b.4.4. This voltage across the terminals of the device is a measure of the work required to move the current (or charge) through the device. and thus we say that a potential difference or voltage exists “across” the device.4 ms = 20 cos 100 πt 5 × 10 –3 t = 0. 7A 7A Two terminal device Terminal A Terminal B Figure 1.4 ms = 20 cos 40π = 20 mA –3 c.

5. if this reference polarity turns out to be negative. A + Two terminal device −12 v − B = A − Same device 12 v + B Figure 1.6. it is convenient to think the instantaneous voltage. again we assume a voltage reference polarity for the voltage. in some circuits the actual polarity cannot be determined by inspection. The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v ) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb (1. Alternately.5.Voltage (Potential Difference) 1. We must remember that reversing the reference polarity reverses the algebraic sign of the voltage as shown in Figure 1. For example. in Figure 1. and if a negative value of the voltage is obtained. we can say that there is a voltage rise of 10 V in going from B to A . In the case of time-varying voltages which change (+) and (−) polarity from time-to-time. this means that the potential at the (+) sign terminal is at a lower potential than the potential at the (−) sign terminal. Alternate ways of denoting voltage polarity in a two-terminal device Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-5 . As in the case with the current. we say that terminal A is 10 V positive with respect to terminal B or there is a potential difference of 10 V between points A and B . we assume a voltage reference polarity by placing (+) and (−) polarity signs at the terminals of the device. As before. that is. Illustration of voltage polarity for a two-terminal device Caution: The (+) and (−) pair may or may not indicate the actual voltage drop or voltage rise.4 Voltage (Potential Difference) The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal.4) Convention: We denote the voltage v by a plus (+) minus (−) pair. we conclude that the actual polarity is opposite to that of the assumed reference polarity.6. the voltage reference polarity at some particular instance. A Two terminal device + 10 v B − Figure 1. We can also say that there is a voltage drop of 10 V in going from point A to point B . In such a case.

7.com. grid. 3 Apple Hill Drive. Plot of i ( t ) for Example 1. The charge q ( t ) is the integral of the current i ( t ) . Natick.mathworks. We use the following code to sketch i ( t ) .5) a.').it). www.2 sin 3t – 1) (10.*sin(3.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Example 1. t=0: 0. plot(t. An introduction to MATLAB is given in Appendix A.1 ∫0 ( e t1 0. MA. xlabel('time in sec..2. it=0. Inc. ylabel('current in amp.') The plot for i ( t ) is shown in Figure 1.*t))−1). that is. q(t) = ∫t t1 0 i ( t ) dt = 0.6) * MATLAB and SIMULINK are registered marks of The MathWorks. 01760.3 The i – v (current-voltage) relation of a non-linear electrical device is given by i ( t ) = 0.1.1 ( e 0. Use MATLAB®* to sketch this function for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s b.1: 10. 1-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 sin 3t – 1 ) dt (1.*(exp(0.7. Use the MATLAB quad function to find the charge at t = 5 s given that q ( 0 ) = 0 Solution: a. Figure 1.3 b.

tol). . Example 1. charge=quad('CA_1_Ex_1_3'.5) and MATLAB returns charge = 0. We define it as shown below. we write and execute the following code. 10) We will use numerical integration with Simpson’s rule.b) integration function where f is a symbolic expression.b.a.Voltage (Potential Difference) We will use the MATLAB int(f.0. function t = fcn_example_1_3(t).0. This is a mnemonic for Circuit Analysis I. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. it returns a warning. For this example. we will use the quad function. the quad* and quad8.m at line 58 s = int(1/10*exp(1/5*sin(3*t))-1/10.2*sin(3*t))-1). MATLAB has two quadrature functions for performing numerical integration. we need to create and save a function m-file. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. it is understood to be the standard tolerance of 10 . t=sym('t').m. MATLAB returns the following message when integration is attempted with the symbolic expression of (1.1*(exp(0. s=int(0. First.t = 0.6). MATLAB displays a warning message but still provides an answer. Both of these functions use adaptive quadrature methods.a. –3 With this file saved as CA_1_Ex_1_3. ISBN 09709511-1-6.10) When this code is executed.1*(exp(0. and performs an integration to a relative error tol which we must specify. Note When MATLAB cannot find a solution. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-7 .3. When such irregularities occur.m. and we save it as CA_1_Ex_1_3. The description of these can be seen by typing help quad or help quad8. this means that these methods can handle irregularities such as singularities. the reader may refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB® and Spreadsheets by this author. t = 0. In C:\MATLAB 12\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\int. For this example. The string ‘f’ is the name of a user defined function. MATLAB displays the following message: Warning: Explicit integral could not be found.0170 * For a detailed discussion on numerical analysis and the MATLAB functions quad and quad8. If tol is omitted.2*sin(3*t))−1). It has the syntax q=quad(‘f’. Orchard Publications.

That is. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. If. The unit of power is the watt . the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . we say that the device delivers power to some other device.8. The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the (+) (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the (+) sign.9. we satisfy the passive sign convention and power = p = vi is said to be absorbed by the device.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. on the other hand. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. Illustration of the passive sign convention In Figure 1. Examples where power is absorbed by a two-terminal device 1-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . terminal A is v volts positive with respect to terminal B and current i enters the device through the positive terminal A .7) Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one coulomb through the device. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device. joul coul --------Power = p = volts × amperes = vi = ---------.8) and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere (1. Then. A −2 A Two terminal device −12 v Power = p = (−12)(−2) = 24 w B − + = A 2A − Same device 12 v Power = p = (12)(2) = 24 w + B Figure 1. The passive sign convention is illustrated with the examples in Figures 1. ------Power = p = dW dt (1.10.8. A i Two terminal device v B + − Figure 1.5 Power and Energy Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. If the numerical value of this product is positive.= joul = watts coul sec sec (1.9 and 1.8. In this case.9) Passive Sign Convention: Consider the two-terminal device shown in Figure 1.× ---------.

4 Then. power is absorbed by the device. the maximum power (in watts) absorbed by the battery c.10. Examples where power is delivered to a two-terminal device In Figure 1. the total energy (in joules) supplied d. It is also assumed that the charging rate is ⎧ 8e – t ⁄ 3600 A i(t) = ⎨ ⎩0 0 ≤ t ≤ 8 hr otherwise For this 8-hour interval compute: a.11. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-9 .Power and Energy A i=6cos3t Two terminal device 1 v=−18sin3t B − A i=−5sin5t − Two terminal device 2 v=cos5t B + + p = (−18sin3t)(6cos3t) = −54sin6t w p = (cos5t)(−5sin5t) = −2.11 where the time has been converted to seconds.10. Decaying exponential for Example 1. Example 1. i(t) (A) 8 i = 8e – t ⁄ 3600 t (s) 28800 Figure 1. the total charge delivered to the battery b. the average power (in watts) absorbed by the battery Solution: The current entering the positive terminal of the battery is the decaying exponential shown in Figure 1. whereas in Figure 1. power is delivered to the device.5sin10t w Figure 1.4 It is assumed a 12-volt automotive battery is completely discharged and at some reference time t = 0 .9. is connected to a battery charger to trickle charge it for the next 8 hours.

If v = 3 ( e 0.4t 0.4t 3 0.8 kC b. A simple circuit with a diode is presented in Chapter 3. 1-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i = -. the charge for 2 seconds is q t t0 = ∫t t 0 i dt = 3 ∫0 ( e 2 0.8 – 1 ) – 6 = 3.4t 0.= -----------------------------.4 2 0 = 7.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 = – 8 × 3600 ( e – 1 ) ≈ 28800 C or 28.19 C The two-terminal devices which we will be concerned with in this text are shown in Figure 1.456 × 10 ( 1 – e ) ≈ 345.16t 2 – 1 ) . that is.4t 2 – 1 ) dt = -----.5 ( e 0. 3 28. p max = vi max = 12 × 8 = 96 w c.= -------------------------------------------------. Diodes and Transistors are non-linear devices. i max = 8 A (occurs at t=0) Therefore.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 28800 0 = 3. These will not be discussed in this text.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------. how much then.4t p 9(e + 1 )(e – 1) p = vi. q 15000 t=0 15000 28800 28800 0 = ∫0 i dt = ∫0 –8 8e – t ⁄ 3600 8 . W = ∫ p dt = ∫0 T 28800 vi dt = –8 ∫0 ∫0 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 96 .6 × 10 dt = --------------------------.5 The power absorbed by a non-linear device is p = 9 ( e charge goes through this device in two seconds? Solution: The power is 0.= 12 w.4t + 1 ) .– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------.8 × 10 3 Example 1. Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device.e – 3t 0 0. their voltage-current relationship is non-linear.16t 2 0. 5 d.4t 9( e – 1) 0.= 3 ( e – 1 ) A 0.4t v 3(e + 1) 3( e + 1) 0. 1 P ave = -T ∫0 1 p dt = -------------28800 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 345.6 KJ.12.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions a.

Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Ideal Independent Current Source − Maintains same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals. Dependent Voltage Source − Its value depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC).12. i or i(t) k 1 v or k 2 i k 3 i or k 4 v − + + − Linear Devices Resistance R iR vR R= sl ope Conductance G R iG iG p slo G= e G + vR − v R = Ri R Inductance L iL L iR + vG − i G = Gv G Capacitance C vG vL l op =s L e iC diL dt vC + C iC l op =s C e + vL − − diL vL = L dt dv iC = C C dt dvC dt Figure 1. k 3 is a constant and k 4 is a conductance as defined in linear devices below.When denoted as k 3 i it is referred to as current controlled current source and when denoted as k 4 v it is referred to as voltage controlled current source.Power and Energy Independent and Dependent Sources v or v(t) Ideal Independent Voltage Source − Maintains same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it. k 1 is a constant and k 2 is a resistance as defined in linear devices below. When denoted as k 1 v it is referred to as voltage controlled voltage source. Dependent Current Source − Its value depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. Voltage and current sources and linear devices Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-11 . Here. and when denoted as k 2 i it is referred to as current controlled voltage source. Here.

1. Resistors.8 Active and Passive Networks Active Network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source).9 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow There are two conditions which are necessary to set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit. 1. A network but not a circuit A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. vS R1 R2 L C + − Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.13. R L C vS + − Figure 1. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. A network and a circuit 1. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. inductors and capacitors are passive devices. Passive Network is a network which does not contain any active device.13.6 Active and Passive Devices Independent and dependent voltage and current sources are active devices.7 Circuits and Networks A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices as shown in Figure 1. An example is shown in Figure 1.14. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device.14. These are: 1-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

16 shows a closed circuit but there is no voltage present to provide the electrical work for current to flow. R1 R2 R4 R3 Figure 1.15 shows a network which contains a voltage source but it is not closed and therefore. current will not flow.10 International System of Units The International System of Units (abbreviated SI in all languages) was adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.International System of Units 1. both conditions are satisfied and current will flow.17 shows a voltage source present and the circuit is closed. Therefore. R vS L C I + − Figure 1. A closed circuit in which there is no current flow Figure 1. vS R L C + − Figure 1. The basic units of the SI system are listed in Table 1. Figure 1. 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-13 . These conditions are illustrated in Figures 1.16. The circuit must be closed. It was formerly known as the Metric System.1.15.17.17. It is used extensively by the international scientific community.15 through 1. There must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow. A circuit in which current flows 1. A network in which there is no current flow Figure 1.

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1. The common prefixes are listed in Table 1. 1-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6.3. Table 1. Other units used in physical sciences and electronics are derived from the SI base units and the most common are listed in Table 1.4 shows some conversion factors between the SI and the English system.5 shows typical temperature values in degrees Fahrenheit and the equivalent temperature values in degrees Celsius and degrees Kelvin. Table 1.1 SI Base Units Unit of Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Plane Angle Solid Angle Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Degrees Kelvin Mole Candela Radian Steradian Abbreviation m kg s A °K mol cd rad sr The SI uses larger and smaller units by various powers of 10 known as standard prefixes.2 and the less frequently in Table 1.

8 x 10 –2 meter 4 mH (millihenries) = 4 × 10 –3 henry 6 µw (microwatts) = 6 × 10 –6 watt 2 ns (nanoseconds) = 2 × 10 –9 second 3 pF (picofarads) = 3 × 10 -12 Farad Mega 3 Kilo –2 centi –3 milli –6 micro –9 nano – 12 pico TABLE 1.8 cm (centimeters) = 2.2 Most Commonly Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 Prefix Symbol Example Giga 6 G M K c m µ n p 12 GHz (Gigahertz) = 12 × 10 9 Hz 25 MΩ (Megaohms) = 25 × 10 6 Ω (ohms) 13.3 Less Frequently Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 18 15 12 Prefix Exa Peta Tera femto atto Symbol E P T f a Example 1 Em (Exameter) = 10 18 meters 5 Pyrs (Petayears) = 5 × 10 15 years 3 T$ (Teradollars) = 3 × 10 12 dollars 7 fA (femtoamperes) = 7 x 10 –15 ampere 9 aC (attocoulombs) = 9 × 10 –18 coulomb – 15 – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-15 .2 KV (Kilovolts) = 13.2 × 10 3 volts 2.International System of Units TABLE 1.

54 cm (centimeters) 1. (inch) 1 mi.4 Conversion Factors 1 in. (inch) 0.057 quarts 10 –10 meter 10 –6 meter TABLE 1. (mile) 2.6 212 °C –273 0 –17.8 25 37 100 °K 0 273 255.4 32 0 77 98.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1.4536 Kg (Kilograms) 946 cm3 (cubic centimeters) 0. (quart) 1 cm (centimeter) 1 Km (Kilometer) 1 Kg (Kilogram) 1 lt.6214 mi.5 Temperature Scale Equivalents °F –523. (pound) 1 qt.2 298 310 373 1-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (liter) = 1000 1 Å (Angstrom) 1 mm (micron) cm3 2.2046 lbs (pounds) 1.609 Km (Kilometers) 0.3937 in. (mile) 1 lb.

a printer. etc. Suppose that a computer system that includes a monitor.000 BTUs from a pound (lb) of that wood when burned.Sources of Energy TABLE 1.). natural gas. wood etc. and other peripherals absorbs an average power of 500 w gets its energy from that burned Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-17 . Other sources include nuclear and solar energy.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. Example 1.6 SI Derived Units Unit of Force Pressure or Stress Work or Energy Power Voltage Resistance Conductance Capacitance Inductance Frequency Quantity of Electricity Magnetic Flux Magnetic Flux Density Luminous Flux Illuminance Radioactivity Radiation Dose Volume Name Newton ( N ) Pascal ( Pa ) Joule ( J ) Watt ( W ) Volt ( V ) Ohm ( Ω ) Siemens ( S ) or ( Ω ) Farad ( F ) Henry ( H ) Hertz ( Hz ) Coulomb ( C ) Weber ( Wb ) Tesla ( T ) Lumen ( lm ) Lux ( lx ) Becquerel ( Bq ) Gray ( Gy ) Litre ( L ) –1 Formula N = kg ⋅ m ⁄ s Pa = N ⁄ m J = N⋅m W = J⁄s V = W⁄A Ω = V⁄A S = A⁄V F = A⋅s⁄V H = V⋅s⁄A Hz = 1 ⁄ s C = A⋅s Wb = V ⋅ s T = Wb ⁄ m 2 2 2 lm = cd ⋅ sr lx = lm ⁄ m Bq = s –1 2 S = J ⁄ kg L = m 3 × 10 –3 1.11 Sources of Energy The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. fuel oil. wind.6 A certain type of wood used in the generation of electric energy and we can get 12.

the energy consumption during this 8-hour interval b.× 14. the so-called coulumb force is repulsive. the cost for this energy consumption if the rate is $0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions wood and it is turned on for 8 hours.= lim ∆q ----dt ∆ t → 0 ∆t 1-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and 1 joule is equivalent to 0.12 Summary • Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. Wood burned in 8 hours.4 × 10 joules × 0. and also on the distance between the objects. the amount of wood in lbs burned during this time interval. Compute: a.60 6 kw – hr 3.4 × 10 = $0.× --------------------------. if the polarities are opposite (negative/positive or positive/negative).3 ft-lb of energy. the force is attractive.7376 ft-lb.6 × 10 joules .6 × 10 joules 6 c. the coulomb force decreases in proportion to the square of the distance between their charge centers. For any two charged bodies. • Electric current is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past 8 –7 this point in that specified direction.= 14.= 1. dq i = ----. If the polarities are the same (negative/ negative or positive/positive).× ------------------------------. the force with which two electrically charged bodies attract or repel one another depends on the product of the charges (in coulombs) in both objects. that is.7376 --------------. Energy consumption for 8 hours is 3600 s Energy W = P ave t = 500 w × 8 hrs × --------------. 1 lb f t – lb 1 BTU 6 14.4 Mjoules 1 hr b. Since 1 kilowatt – hour = 3.15 per kw-hr c. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .3 f t – lb 12000 BTU 1.× --------------------------------------.137 lb joule 778.15 1 kw – hr 6 Cost = ----------------. Thus. It is known that 1 BTU is equivalent to 778. $0. Solution: a.

That is. If. • In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal. • The value of an dependent current source depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. If the numerical value of this product is positive. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device. • An ideal independent current source maintains the same current regardless of the amount of volt- age that appears across its terminals. • Ideal voltage and current sources are just mathematical models. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-19 . We will discuss practical voltage and current sources in Chapter 3.Summary • The unit of current is the ampere. ------Power = p = dW dt • Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one cou- lomb through the device. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. on the other hand. and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. • The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb • Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. • The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. we say that the device delivers power to some other device. The unit of power is the watt and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere • The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the plus (+) minus (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the plus (+) sign. abbreviated as A. • The value of an dependent voltage source depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. • An ideal independent voltage source maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of cur- rent that flows through it. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi .

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions • Independent and Dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. • A passive network is a network which does not contain any active device.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. • To set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit there must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow and the circuit must be closed. • The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. etc. and capacitors are passive devices. wind. • Resistors. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. natural gas.). inductors. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. 1-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device. • An active network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source). It was formerly known as the Metric System. • Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device. • A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices. • A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. wood etc. • The International System of Units is used extensively by the international scientific community. fuel oil.

ampere B. volt C.13 Exercises Multiple choice 1. the integral of energy Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-21 . coulomb C. volt C. The unit of current is the A. watt D. The unit of charge is the A. coulomb E. watt D. ampere B. joule E. The unit of energy is the A. The unit of electric power is the A. joule E. coulomb C. joule E. Power is A. ampere B. none of the above 4. watt D. watt D.Exercises 1. none of the above 3. none of the above 2. ampere B. none of the above 5.

neither deliver or absorb power to or from other devices D. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage rating of that voltage source C. none of the above 9. kI where k is a capacitance value 1-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . kV where k is a conductance value B. kV where k is an inductance value D. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. voltage times some constant k E. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. none of the above 6. are just mathematical models E. normally deliver power to other external devices C. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. The value of a dependent voltage source can be denoted as A. always deliver power to other external devices B. An ideal independent voltage source A. none of the above 7.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions B. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals C. the derivative of energy C. current times some constant k D. An ideal independent current source A. kI where k is a resistance value C. none of the above 8. Active voltage and current sources A.

18 below. If this energy could be converted to electric energy with a conversion loss of 10%.5 ms. Compute the number of electrons per second that flow through this bulb when it is connected to a 120 volt source. 1. a. Compute the potential energy that the airplane has gained at this height.5. kV where k is an inductance value D. how much would this energy be worth at $0.18. none of the above 10. what average number of kilowatts would be generated? Answer: 1. Waveform for Problem 1 2.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 3. and the current through this device is i ( t ) = 2 cos 4000πt A . A two terminal device consumes energy as shown by the waveform of Figure 1.808 feet in 20 minutes after takeoff. 0 V.5.5 V. A household light bulb is rated 75 watts at 120 volts. kI where k is a resistance value C.10 c.Exercises E.75 and 6. 2.5 V. Answer: 1. none of the above Problems 1.000 metric tons.15 per kilowatt-hour? Answer: $65. Answers: 2. – 2. whose total mass is 50. 4. Find the voltage across this device at t = 0. Answer: 3. kV where k is a conductance value B. reaches a height of 32. If this energy were converted into electric energy during the period of 20 minutes. The value of a dependent current source can be denoted as A. An airplane. 450 Kw Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-23 .5 V W (mJ) 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (ms) Figure 1. kI where k is a capacitance value E. 736 MJ b.

8 J Answer: 85.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 4. 234 BTU ⁄ hr b.6 × 10 – 19 23 electron – volts J Answer: 1. How many BTUs per hour does this transmitter release as heat? 1 BTU = 1054. The remaining 25 kw of power is converted into heat. The power input to a television station transmitter is 125 kw and the output is 100 kw which is transmitted as radio frequency power. How many electron-volts per second is this heat equivalent to? 1 electron – volt = 1. 1-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------sec.

14 Answers to Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain answers to the multiple-choice questions and solutions to the exercises. You should follow this practice with the multiple-choice and problems on all chapters of this book. For the multiple-choice questions and problems that you are uncertain.Answers to Exercises 1. It is recommended that first you go through and answer those you feel that you know. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. for your benefit. make an honest effort to answer the multiple-choice questions and solve the problems without first looking at the solutions that follow. If your answers to the problems do not agree with those provided. review this chapter and try again. You must. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-25 .

= 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 0.= --------------------------.= -------------------.5 V –3 2 cos 19π A 2 cos π A –2 A 2 cos 4000π ( 4.= ---------------.5 ms 5 J⁄s 5 J⁄s = -------------------------------------------------------------.= -----------------------.= – 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 4.5 V ------------–3 2A 2 cos 2π A 2 cos 4000π ( 0.= 2.= 5 J ⁄ s = 2.75 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = ----------------------------------------------------------------. slope v 5 ms 4 – 5 mJ = -------------. D 5. A 8.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Multiple choice 1. B 7.5 × 10 ) A 2 ms 1 b. D 2. slope v 1 ms 0 5 mJ = ----------. A Problems 1. C 4. B 6.= ---------------. 1-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . B 9. B 10.= ------------i i i a. slope v = 0 t = 1. A 3.75 × 10 ) A d. p dW ⁄ dt slope v = -.5 ms = 0 = 0V -i c.

5 × 10 ) A 2. 000 m v = ------------------------. 000 metric tons × -------------------------.= --------------------------.24 × 10 electrons 5 -.5 V ---------------–3 2A 2 cos 26π A 2 cos 4000π ( 6.= 1. 0. 1.= -------------.( 5 × 10 ) ⎛ ----.3048 m 33. 000 m = 10 Km ft 60 sec. 808 ft × ---------------------. 200 sec.m ⁄ s 3 1.mv 2 where m = mass in kg and v = velocity in meters ⁄ sec. 5 p 75 w i = -. 2 1 7 25 7 W p = W k = -.= -. 736 MJ ⎝3 ⎠ 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-27 . min 25 10. 200 sec. 000 Kg 7 50.C ⁄ s 8 6.= 3.= 5 × 10 Kg metric ton Then.A 8 v 120 V q = 1 s ∫t i dt 0 t q t=1 s = 18 ∫0 5 5 -.5 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = -------------------------------------------------------------.61 × 10 J ≈ 1.= 10. 20 minutes × ---------------.Answers to Exercises slope v 7 ms 6 = – 5 mJ = – 5 J ⁄ s -------------1 ms t = 6.dt = -.⎞ = 173.= ----.= – 5 J ⁄ s = – 2.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 8 1C 3.t 8 8 1 s 0 5 = -. a. 1 2 W p = W k = -.C ⁄ s × ----------------------------------------------------.

W 1. and with 10% conversion loss. 600 sec.6 × 10 sec. 000 watts × ------------------------------. 1 joule = 1 watt-sec 1 watt-sec 1 Kw 1 hr 6 1.= -----------------------------.10 Kw-hr c.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions b. the useful energy is 482. 25.8 J watt b.× -------------------.9 = 434 Kw-hr $0.= 1. 736 MJ P ave = ---. sec. 000 watts × --------------------------------------------------------.× 434 Kw-hr = $65.= 1. 234 BTU ⁄ hr 1 hr 1054. 736 × 10 J × ------------------------.= 482.= --------------------------------------.= 1. 23 electron – volts 25. 1 BTU. 000 w 3. 1 BTU = 1054.22 × 0. 1.15 Cost of Energy = --------------.× ---------------------.6 × 10 watt 1-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 electron – volt ⁄ sec.8 J 1 joule ⁄ sec.= 85.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------– 19 sec.3600 sec. 1 electron – volt = 1.× -------------------.22 Kw-hr 1 joule 1.45 Mw = 1450 Kw t 60 sec 20 min × -------------min 4. a.× ------------------------.22 × 0.6 × 10 watt -----------------------------------------.9 = 482.6 × 10 – 19 – 19 J – 19 J 1 electron – volt 1.

current.1) This relation is known as Ohm’s law.2 Ohm’s Law We recall from Chapter 1 that resistance R is a constant that relates the voltage and the current as: v R = Ri R (2. V for phasor voltage and I for phasor current. currents. mesh. For example. sinusoidal (AC) voltages and currents will be denoted as v ( t ) and i ( t ) respectively. to be inroduced in Chapter 6. will be represented with bold capital letters.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits T his chapter defines constant and instantaneous values. 2.1 Conventions We will use lower case letters such as v . Other notations like v A or v 1 will represent the voltage (potential difference) between point A or point 1 with respect to some arbitrarily chosen reference point taken as “zero” volts or “ground”. v S and i S will be used to denote voltage and current sources respectively. Thus. Combinations of voltage and current sources and resistance combinations are discussed. 2. Series and parallel circuits are also defined and nodal. etc. Notations like v R1 and i R2 will be used to denote the voltage across resistance R 1 and the current through resistance R 2 respectively. and loop analyses are introduced. One ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere through it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. Thus. Phasor quantities. resistances. and p to denote instantaneous values of voltage. and the voltage and current division formulas are derived. The designations v AB or v 12 will be used to denote the voltage between point A or point 1 with respect to point B or 2 respectively. and Kirchhoff ’s Current and Voltage laws.2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 . and we will use subscripts to denote specific voltages. and power respectively. i . The unit of resistance is the Ohm and its symbol is the Greek capital letter Ω . 1V 1 Ω = -------1A (2. Ohm’s law. We will denote voltages as v ( t ) and i ( t ) whenever we wish to emphasize that these quantities are time dependent.

a resistor is a device that opposes current flow. can also be observed from the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G . 1 That is. In contrast. for a finite voltR age..5) Resistances (or conductances) are commonly used to define an “open circuit” or a “short circuit”. –1 1Ω 1A = ------1V (2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Physically.3) This is another form of Ohm’s law since by letting i G = i R and v G = v R . Resistors are used as a current limiting devices and as voltage dividers. A+ Open Circuit A+ R=∞ G=0 A + A+ i R=0 G=∞ i=0 B− i=0 B− v AB = i Circuit 0 Short B− v AB = 0 B− Figure 2.1. say v G .4) –1 The unit of conductance is the siemens or mho (ohm spelled backwards) and its symbol is S or Ω Thus. a short circuit is an adjective describing the connection of a pair of terminals by a piece of wire of “infinite conductance” or a piece of wire of “zero” resistance. infinite R means zero G and zero R means infinite G . we get 1 G = -R (2. the voltage across a short circuit terminals is always zero but the current through it may or may not be zero. Likewise. The concepts of open and short circuits The fact that current does not flow through an open circuit and that zero voltage exists across the terminals of a short circuit. and an open circuit. 2-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1. and can be thought of as an “infinite resistance” or “zero conductance”. The open and short circuit concepts and their equivalent resistances or conductances are shown in Figure 2. The current through an “open circuit” is always zero but the voltage across the open circuit terminals may or may not be zero. An open circuit is an adjective describing the “open space” between a pair of terminals. since G = --. In the previous chapter we defined conductance G as the constant that relates the current and the voltage as i G = Gv G (2. Then.

3. for a finite current. can be thought of as being a math model that supplies energy.” as shown in (2. 2. v R = Ri R and the power relation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 . R→0 lim v R = lim Ri R = 0 R→0 (2. say iR. then.8) + vR Figure 2.3.3 Power Absorbed by a Resistor A resistor.2.8). This absorbed power can be found from Ohm’s law. being a passive device. Voltage polarity and current direction not in accordance to passive sign convention Note: “Negative resistance. IR R R − v + R IR + vR − Figure 2.2.7) Reminder: We must remember that the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G are true only when the passive sign convention is observed. and a short circuit. vR = –R iR IR − R vR + R IR − (2. that is. This is consistent with our classification of R and G being passive devices and thus v R = Ri R implies the current direction and voltage polarity are as shown in Figure 2. absorbs power.6) Likewise. Voltage polarity and current direction in accordance to passive sign convention But if the voltage polarities and current directions are as shown in Figure 2.Power Absorbed by a Resistor G→0 lim i G = lim Gv G = 0 G→0 (2.

Common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt.⎞ = ---⎝ R⎠ R (2.16. WR diss t2 1 = ∫t RE SI ST AN C E P I IR V2 P (O hm s) V I E AG LT VO ts) ol (V p R dt (2.10) 2-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Thus. resistance. The energy dissipated in a resistor during a time interval. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating in watts commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. 1 watt.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits pR = vR iR Then.4. dissipates energy in the form of heat.4 Energy Dissipated in a Resistor A resistor.4. current. 2. and power Note: A resistor. T EN RR CU (W at ts) PO V2 I2R R P V V R I R P I2 W ER re pe m (A s) P V VI PR P⁄R Figure 2. resistance and power relations are arranged in the pie chart shown in Figure 2. is given by the integral of the instantaneous power p R . ½ watt. 2 watts. current. it never stores energy. This topic will be discussed in Section 2.9) The voltage. say from t 1 to t 2 . Pie chart for showing relations among voltage. by its own nature. 2 vR vR 2 p R = v R i R = ( Ri R ) i R = Ri R = v R ⎛ ---. 5 watts and so on.

Nodes.11) Alternately.1 A node is the common point at which two or more devices (passive or active) are connected. if the energy is known. then (2.5. the network shown in Figure 2. For example. Definition of node Definition 2. An example of a node is shown in Figure 2. Definition of branch vS Definition 2. Loops and Meshes If the power is constant. Loops and Meshes Definition 2. 2. pR = d W d t R diss (2. + − R Node C Branch Figure 2. we must express the quantities involved in their primary units.3 A loop is a closed path formed by the interconnection of simple devices.7 is a loop. say P .6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 . that is. we can find the power by taking the derivative of the energy.5 Nodes. the energy is in joules when the power is in watts and the time is in seconds.12) Reminder: When using all formulas. Branches.11) above. For instance in (2.10) reduces to WR diss = Pt (2. Branches.6.5. + − Node Figure 2.2 A branch is a simple path composed of one single device as shown in Figure 2.

For example.7. For example. in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits vS R + − C L Figure 2.8. in the circuit shown in Figure 2.6 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL) KCL states that the algebraic sum of all currents leaving (or entering) a node is equal to zero. – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 i1 i3 Figure 2. ABEF is both a loop and a mesh. we must assign a minus (−) sign to the currents entering the node. if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents leaving the node.8. A B R1 C L vS C + − R2 F E D Figure 2. but ABCDEF is a loop but not a mesh.9.14) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-6 .9. Definition of a loop Definition 2. Example showing the difference between mesh and loop 2.4 A mesh is a loop which does not enclose any other loops.13) i2 i4 But if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents entering the node and minus (−) sign to the currents leaving the node. i1 + i2 – i3 – i4 = 0 (2. Node to illustrate KCL (2. Then by KCL. then by KCL.

15) We observe that (2.18) or going counterclockwise. and v 4 represent the voltages across devices 1.15) are the same. therefore. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage drops.19) are the same. we get: v4 + v3 – v2 – v1 = 0 (2.17) Alternately. Device 2 + v2 + + v 3 Device 3 Device 1 v 1 v4 − − − Device 4 + A − Figure 2.16) or going counterclockwise. Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to the currents leaving the node. v 2 . For example.10. by KVL starting again at node A and going clockwise we get: v1 + v2 – v3 – v4 = 0 (2.16) through (2.13) and (2. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage rises. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . 3. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage drops.19) We observe that expressions (2. Circuit to illustrate KVL Now. we get: – v4 – v3 + v2 + v1 = 0 (2. in the circuit shown in Figure 2. by KVL starting at node A and going clockwise we get: – v1 – v2 + v3 + v4 = 0 (2. v 3 . and 4 respectively.10. voltages v 1 . 2. and have the polarities shown. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage rises. Then.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 (2. it does not matter which we choose as plus (+). Then.7 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (voltages from + to −) or voltage rises (voltages from − to +) around any closed path (mesh or loop) in a circuit is equal to zero. 2.

6 Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across each of the devices.11. and the capacitance and therefore it is classified as a parallel circuit A iS G L A iS A A A C G L C B B B B B Figure 2. Accordingly. Device with established voltage polarity 2-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to voltage drops. the inductance and the capacitance. the resistance.13. the conductance.. the inductance. the same current i flows through the voltage source.12. in the circuit of Figure 2. A simple parallel circuit Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will adopt the conventional current flow. the same voltage v AB exists across the current source. this is classified as a series circuit. For example. vS R + − C L Figure 2.11. R + vR − Figure 2. i. Definition 2. in the circuit of Figure 2. A simple series circuit Definition 2.e. For example. the current that flows from a higher (+) to a lower (−) potential.5 Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them.13 we are given the indicated polarity. if in Figure 2. For example.12.

17 (b). The current through and the voltage across these devices can easily be determined if these devices deliver power to the rest of the circuit. Device with established conventional current direction then we assign (+) and (−) as shown in Figure 2.15. iR R + vR − Figure 2.16.17 (a). if current flows in an assumed specific direction through a device thus producing a voltage.15. R Figure 2. such as voltage and current sources. Direction of conventional current flow produced by voltage sources Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 .17. R vR − + Figure 2. Voltage polarity in a device with established conventional current flow Note: Active devices.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) then.14. we assign a clockwise direction to the current as shown in Figure 2. This is consistent with the passive sign convention since we have assumed that the voltage source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. Direction of conventional current flow in device with established voltage polarity Alternately. if we are given this designation a device in which the current direction has been established as shown in Figure 2. established as part of their notation.16. we will assign a (+) sign at the terminal of the device at which the current enters. Thus with the voltage polarity as given in the circuit of Figure 2. i vS + − Rest of the Circuit vS + − Rest of the Circuit (a) (b) Figure 2. the current arrow will be pointing to the right direction as shown in Figure 2. For example.14. have their voltage polarity and current direction respectively.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Likewise. in the circuit of Figure 2.18 (b) to be consistent with the passive sign convention.19. The current i which flows through each device b. 2. 2. There are two conditions required to setup and maintain the flow of an electric current: 1. Voltage polarity across current sources Rest of the Circuit The following facts were discussed in the previous chapter but they are repeated here for emphasis. The power absorbed or delivered by each device 2-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we assign the voltage polarity shown in Figure 2.18 (a) below. the direction of the current source is clockwise. There must be a continuous (closed) external path for current to flow around this path (mesh or loop). an inductive. Example 2. we want to find: a. The external path is usually made of two parts: (a) the metallic wires and (b) the load to which the electric power is to be delivered in order to accomplish some useful purpose or effect. + iS Rest of the Circuit iS v − (a) (b) Figure 2. and assuming that this source delivers power to the rest of the circuit.8 Single Mesh Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding current. or a capacitive circuit. or a combination of these. There must be some voltage (potential difference) to provide the energy (work) which will force electric cur- rent to flow in a specific direction in accordance with the conventional current flow (from a higher to a lower potential).18. The voltage drop across each resistor c. voltage drops and power) in a circuit with a single mesh.1 For the series circuit shown in Figure 2. The load may be a resistive.

Circuit for Example 2. 4Ω + − 64 V 6Ω v S1 + R − 1 − − v S2 + R − 2 v S3 + 200 V A + − 80 V i R4 + 10 Ω − R3 + 8Ω Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2. we get * Henceforth. by substitution of given values into (2.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis + − 4Ω v S1 R1 v S2 64 V 6Ω R2 v S3 + 200 V − R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2.20) and by Ohm’s law.1 with assumed current direction Step 2: We assign (+) and (−) polarities at each resistor’s terminal in accordance with the established passive sign convention. Step 3: By application of KVL and the adopted conventions.20). v R1 = R 1 i v R2 = R 2 i v R3 = R 3 i v R4 = R 4 i Then.20.20. starting at node A and going clockwise. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 . the current direction will be assumed to be that of the conventional current flow. so let us assume that the current i flows in the clockwise direction* as shown in Figure 2. we get: – v S1 + v R1 + v S2 + v R2 + v S3 + v R3 + v R4 = 0 (2.19. Step 1: We do not know which voltage source(s) deliver power to the other sources.1 Solution: a.

1. Knowing the current i from part (a). v R1 = 4 × 2 = 8 V vR3 = 8 × 2 = 16 V v R2 = 6 × 2 = 12 V v R4 = 10 × 2 = 20 V (2. Then.21. starting at Node A and going counterclockwise. we observe that the 200 volt source absorbs −400 watts of power.1 with the assumption that the current i flows counterclockwise.24) From (2.24). we get: v R4 + v R3 – v S3 + v R2 – v S2 + v R1 + v S1 = 0 Next. the other two voltage sources receive (absorb) power from the 200 volt source. This means that this source delivers (supplies) 400 watts to the rest of the circuit.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits – 200 + 4i + 64 + 6i + 80 + 8i + 10i = 0 or 28i = 56 or i = 2A (2. Solution: We denote the current as i ' (i prime) for this example. (2.25) v R1 = R 1 i' 2-12 v R2 = R 2 i' v R3 = R 3 i' v R4 = R 4 i' Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .23) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each voltage source is pV S1 = – 200 × 2 = – 400 w pV S2 = 64 × 2 = 128 w pV S3 = 80 × 2 = 160 w (2. Repeating Steps 2 and 3 of Example 2. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi . However.1 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the total absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. Example 2. Then.21) b. the power absorbed by each resistor is p R1 = 8 × 2 = 16 w p R3 = 16 × 2 = 32 w p R2 = 12 × 2 = 24 w p R4 = 20 × 2 = 40 w (2. by Ohm’s law.2 Repeat Example 2. we can now compute the voltage drop across each resistor using Ohm’s law v = Ri .22) c. Table 2. the voltage drops across each resistor are as indicated in Figure 2.

26) we see that i' = – i as expected.1 Power delivered or absorbed by each device on the circuit of Figure 2.26) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 . Circuit for Example 2.21. we get 200 + 4 i' – 64 + 6 i' – 80 + 8 i' + 10 i' = 0 or 28 i' = – 56 or i' = – 2 A Comparing (2.2 By substitution of given values.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis TABLE 2. (2.21) with (2.19 Device 200 V Source 64 V Source 80 V Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor Total Power Delivered (watts) 400 Power Absorbed (watts) 128 160 16 24 32 40 400 4Ω 64 V − 6Ω R2 + v S3 400 − v S1 R1 + i' v S2 + − + 200 V A − + + R3 8Ω − − 80 V + R4 − 10 Ω Figure 2.

23.22 (b). The power absorbed or delivered by each device I1 G1 12 A 4Ω –1 I2 G2 18 A 6Ω –1 I3 G3 24 A 8Ω –1 Figure 2. voltage drop and power) in a circuit with a single node-pair. Example 2. A iS G L C A A A A iS G L C B (a) B B (b) B B Figure 2. is a single node-pair circuit. Circuit for Example 2. the circuit of Figure 2. For example.3 2-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 2. Circuit with a single node-pair 2.7 A single node-pair circuit is one in which any number of simple elements are connected between the same pair of nodes.22. find: a. The current i which flows through each conductance c. which is more conveniently shown as Figure 2. The voltage drop across each device b.9 Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding currents.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Definition 2.22 (a).23.

and G 3 in accordance with the conventional current flow. we get i S1 – i S2 + i S3 v AB = ------------------------------G1 + G2 + G3 (2. Node B is chosen as our reference node and it is convenient to assume that this reference node is at zero potential (ground) as indicated by the symbol A A A A A A i S1 v AB 12 A B i G1 G1 –1 i S2 18 A B i G2 G2 6Ω –1 i S3 24 A B i G3 G3 8Ω –1 4Ω B B B Figure 2. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 . G 2 .24.Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis Solution: a.28) by substitution into (2. we choose node A which is the plus (+) reference point and we form the algebraic sum of the currents leaving (or entering) this node.27).3 with assumed current directions Step 2: We assign currents through each of the conductances G 1 . Circuit for Example 2.30) and by substitution of the given values. i G2 . and i G3 . These currents are shown as i G1 . Then.27) and since i G1 = G 1 v AB i G2 = G 2 v AB i G3 = G 3 v AB (2.29) Solving for v AB . Step 3: By application of KCL and in accordance with our established convention. – i S1 + G 1 v AB + i S2 + G 2 v AB – i S3 + G 3 v AB = 0 (2. with plus (+) assigned to the currents leaving this node and with minus (−) entering this node we get –i S1 + i G1 + i S2 + i G2 – i S3 + i G3 = 0 (2. Step 1: We denote the single node-pair with the letters A and B as shown in Figure 2.24. It is important to observe that the same voltage (or potential difference) exists across each device.

c. i G1 = 4 i G2 = 6 i G3 = 8 (2. Table 2. This means that these sources deliver (supply) a total of 36 w to the rest of the circuit.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 12 – 18 + 24 v AB = ----------------------------4+6+8 (2. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi .31) or v AB = 1 V (2. the power absorbed by each conductance is p G1 = 1 × 4 = 4 w p G2 = 1 × 6 = 6 w p G3 = 1 × 8 = 8 w (2.32) b. 2-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The 18 A source absorbs power.2 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. or when the minus (−) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of another. 2.35) we observe that the 12 A and 24 A current sources absorb – 12 w and – 24 w respectively.10 Voltage and Current Source Combinations Definition 2.34) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each current source is p I1 = 1 × ( – 12 ) = – 12 w p I2 = 1 × 18 = 18 w p I3 = 1 × ( – 24 ) = – 24 w (2.25.33) and we observe that with these values. (2.35) From (2.27) is satisfied.8 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series aiding when the plus (+) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of another. From (2. Two or more series aiding voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic sum of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2. Then.28).

or a small flashlight. They can be combined into a single current source as shown in Figure 2.2 Power delivered or absorbed by each device of Figure 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 .27. Addition of voltage sources in series when all have same polarity A good example of combining voltage sources as series aiding is when we connect several AA size batteries each rated at 1.5 v to power up a hand calculator.25. Two series opposing voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2. Definition 2.9 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series opposing when the plus (+) terminal of one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of the other voltage source or when the minus (−) of one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of the other voltage source. Definition 2.26.10 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel aiding when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have the same direction.Voltage and Current Source Combinations TABLE 2.23 Device 12 A Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4Ω 6Ω 8Ω –1 –1 –1 Power Delivered (watts) 12 Power Absorbed (watts) 18 24 4 6 8 36 36 Conductance Conductance Conductance Total − + + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V 80 V v3 v2 v AB = v 1 + v 2 + v 3 B + 200 + 64 + 80 = 344 V − Figure 2.

27. resistors are connected in series or in parallel. series or parallel.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V v2 v AB = v 1 – v 2 B + 200 − 64 = 136 V − Figure 2.29 shows n resistors connected in series. Addition of current sources in parallel when they have opposite direction 2. They can be replaced by an equivalent current source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual current sources as shown in Figure 2.28. With either of these connections. Addition of current sources in parallel when all have same direction Definition 2.11 Resistance and Conductance Combinations Often.28. Figure 2. it is possible to replace these resistors by a single resistor to simplify the computations of the voltages and currents.26. 2-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel opposing when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have opposite direction. Addition of voltage sources in series when they have different polarity i1 12 A i2 i3 iT = i1 + i2 + i3 iT 18 A 24 A 54 A Figure 2. i1 18 A i2 iT = –i1 + i2 iT 6A 24 A Figure 2.

30. and we apply Ohm’s law.36) Example 2. 4Ω v1 R1 v2 64 V 6Ω R2 v3 + − + − 200 V i R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2. Then.= ------------------------------------.4 For the circuit of Figure 2..4 Solution: We add the values of the voltage sources as indicated in Definitions 8 and 9.+ -----. Addition of resistances in series The combined or equivalent resistance R eq is vR n v AB v R1 v R2 v R3 R eq = ------.= -----.+ … + ------i i i i i or R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = For Resistors in Series k=1 ∑ RK n (2.36).Resistance and Conductance Combinations A .37) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 .+ -----. Σv 200 – ( 64 + 80 ) i = ------.= 56 = 2 A ----ΣR 28 28 (2.29. R1 R2 R3 RN i B Rest of the circuit Figure 2. find the value of the current i after combining the voltage sources to a single voltage source and the resistances to a single resistor.30.. Circuit for Example 2. we add the resistances in accordance with (2..

+ … + ----R AB R1 R2 Rn or 1 1 1 1 ------.31.39) and since v ⁄ i = R .+ ----R eq R1 R2 or R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 (2. .31.= ----. dividing each term of (2.= ------. . . iT = i1 + i2 + … + in (2. we get in iT i1 i2 ------. . then i ⁄ v = 1 ⁄ R and thus (2.38) The same voltage exists across each resistor.40) reduces to 1 1 1 ------.= ----. R1 iT A .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Next. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-20 .+ ----.+ … + ------v AB v AB v AB v AB (2.+ ----. iT B By KCL.41) where the designation R 1 ||R 2 indicates that R1 and R2 are in parallel. (2.= ----.+ ------.38) by V AB . we consider thecase where n resistors are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.39) can be written as 1 1 1 1 -------. therefore. .+ … + ----R eq R1 R2 Rn For Resistors in Parallel (2. Addition of resistances in parallel . i1 i2 R2 Rn in v AB Figure 2.40) For the special case of two parallel resistors.

R1 v AB 11 ----.38). 12 × 4 R 2 ||R 3 = -------------. Then. Compute the voltage v AB across the current source.32. since G = 1 ⁄ R . Circuit for Example 2. Groups of parallel combinations for the circuit of Example 2. parallel conductances combine as series resistors do.42) that is.A 6 Figure 2.32. Replace all resistors with a single equivalent resistance R eq b. We could use (2.A 6 R1 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω Figure 2.Resistance and Conductance Combinations Also.5. a. i v AB 11 ----.33 and use (2. from (2.5 In the circuit of Figure 2.41) instead. However.40) to find the equivalent resistance R eq . Example 2. G eq = G 1 + G 2 + … + G n = k=1 ∑ Gk n (2.5 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω i Solution: a. it is easier to form groups of two parallel resistors as shown in Figure 2.33.= 3 Ω 12 + 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 .

35.⋅ ----. 3×3 3||3 = ----------. Partial reduction for the circuit of Example 2.= ----.Ω 11 i Figure 2.5 to its simplest form b. i v AB 11 ----.A 6 12 ----. The voltage v AB across the current source is 11 12 .5 Next. R 1 .36. and R 2 are known.A 6 R1 3Ω 3Ω 4Ω Figure 2.= 2 V 6 11 (2.43) 2.5 + 4 11 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2. 20 × 5 R 4 ||R 5 = -------------.v AB = IR eq = ----.35 R eq v AB 11 ----. 1. Reduction of the circuit of Example 2. 2-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Ω 3+3 Finally.5 × 4 12 R eq = 1.12 Voltage Division Expressions In the circuit of Figure 2. v S .= 4 Ω 20 + 5 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.= 1.5||4 = ---------------.Ω 1.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Also.34.34.

we will derive the voltage division expressions which state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.46) VOLTAGE DIVISION EXPRESSIONS Example 2.6 In the network of Figure 2.36.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 These expressions enable us to obtain the voltage drops across the resistors in a series circuit simply by observation. the arrows indicate that resistors R 1 and R 2 are variable and that the power supply is set for 12 V . Derivation: By Ohm’s law in the circuit of Figure 2.45) and by substitution of (2. a. R1 v R1 = ----------------.v S R1 + R2 (2. ( R 1 + R 2 )i = v S or vS i = ----------------R1 + R2 (2.v S and v R2 = ----------------.Voltage Division Expressions vS R1 R2 + − Figure 2. Compute v R1 and v R2 if R 1 and R 2 are adjusted for 7 Ω and 5 Ω respectively.v S R1 + R2 and R2 v R2 = ----------------.44) we obtain the voltage division expressions below. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage division expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.37.44) Also.36 where i is the current flowing through i. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 .45) into (2. we get v R1 = R 1 i and v R2 = R 2 i (2.36.

38.× 12 = 5 V R1 + R2 7+5 b. it follows that if we let R 1 = 3 Ω and R 2 = 9 Ω .46). v R2 = 9 V . the voltage drops v R1 and v R2 will be 3 V and 9 V respectively.6 Solution: a.× 12 = 7 V R1 + R2 7+5 and R2 5 v R2 = ----------------.37.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b. To what values should R 1 and R 2 be adjusted so that v R1 = 3 V .38.13 Current Division Expressions In the circuit shown in Figure 2. i S . R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω . and G 2 are known. G 1 .v S = ----------.v S = ----------. Circuit for the derivation of the current division expressions 2-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Using the voltage division expressions of (2. we get R1 7 v R1 = ----------------. Since v R1 + v R2 = 3 + 9 = 12 V . Network for Example 2. and the voltage drops are proportional to the resistances. iS v i G1 G1 ( R1 ) i G2 G2 ( R2 ) Figure 2. 2. and R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω ? + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − 12 V v R1 + − v R2 R1 + R2 − Figure 2.

48) into (2.39.i S G1 + G2 1 R 2 = ----G2 (2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-25 . we get i G1 = G 1 v and i G2 = G 2 v (2.49) Also. compute the voltage drop v Solution: The current source i S divides into currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 2.48) and by substitution of (2.i S and i R2 = ----------------.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 CURRENT DIVISION EXPRESSIONS (2.50) Example 2.40.7 For the circuit of figure 2. since 1 R 1 = ----G1 by substitution into (2.38.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------.47) Also. ( G1 + G2 ) v = iS or iS v = -----------------G1 + G2 (2.49) we get R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.Current Division Expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------.47) G1 i G1 = -----------------.i S G1 + G2 and these expressions enable us to obtain the currents through the conductances (or resistances) in a parallel circuit simply by observation. Derivation: By Ohm’s law for conductances. we will derive the current division expressions which state that G1 i G1 = -----------------.

S. the U. the voltage v is 87 1044 v = – i 1 R 1 = – ----. we are only interested in current i 1 . In the United States.7 We observe that the voltage v is the voltage across the resistor R 1 .39.⋅ 3 = ----. Application of current division expressions for the circuit of Example 2. This is found by the current division expression as R2 + R3 + R4 4 + 5 + 20 87 i 1 = -----------------------------------------.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω 3A iS Figure 2. Therefore.⋅ i S = -----------------------------------. Department of Defense or its agencies issue standards known 2-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . capacitors and diodes is carried out by various technical committees.A R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 12 + 4 + 5 + 20 41 and observing the passive sign convention.V 41 41 or v = – 25. Circuit for Example 2.7 R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω i2 R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω i1 3A iS Figure 2. Also.⋅ 12 = – ----------.40. the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers.14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices Standardization of electronic components such as resistors.46 V 2.

indicate the tolerance and failure rate respectively.3 that is based on MILSTD-1285A color code. 2. The interested reader may find the latest revisions in the Internet or the local library. The failure rate is the percent probability of failure in a 1000-hour time interval.42 show the color coding scheme per EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD1285A respectively.42. the first and second bands designate the first and second significant digits respectively. As shown in Figure 2.15 Resistor Color Code The Resistor Color Code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. Resistor Color Code per MIL-STD-1285A In a color coded scheme.Resistor Color Code as Military Standards. the third represents the multiplier.41 and 2. Significant 1st 2nd Figures 3rd Tolerance Wider Space to Identify Direction of Reading Left to Right Multiplier Figure 2.41. Then the resistance value is found from the expression R = ( 10 × A + B ) ×10 C (2. or simply MIL-stds. All of the aforementioned standards are updated periodically. or conversely. that is.51) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-27 . a single digit number can be represented by a particular color band as shown in Table 2. Resistor Color Code per EIA Standard RS-279 Significant 1st Figures 2nd Multiplier Failure Rate Level on Established Reliability Levels Only Tolerance Figure 2. each color represents a single digit number. The tolerance is the maximum deviation from the specified nominal value and it is given as a percentage. the number by which the first two digits are multiplied. if they exist.42. Figures 2. Let A and B represent the first and second significant digits and C represent the multiplier. and the fourth and fifth bands.

000.37 where the current is 12 V ⁄ 12 Ω = 1 A .6.000 Ohms or ±0.75 MΩ. That is.01 0. a resistor. Therefore.05 = ±750.000. and probability of failure for that resistor? Solution: Table 2. Since the 5th band is Red.8 The value of a resistor is coded with the following colored band code.000 ±5% = 15. Green.75 MΩ. Red.1 0.000.3 yields the following data: Brown (1st significant digit) = 1. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating (watts) commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. Figure 2. and common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt. The 4th band is Gold indicating a ±5% tolerance meaning that the maximum deviation from the nominal value is 15. there is a 0. the nominal value of this resistor is 15. Green (2nd significant digit) = 5. ½ watt. What is the value.16 Power Rating of Resistors As it was mentioned in Section 2.000. we find that the wattage of the 7 Ω and 2 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 watt. Blue.25 MΩ and 15. tolerance. 5 watts and so on. Gold.001 Tolerance (Percent) Fail Rate (Percent) Example 2.2.000.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2. To appreciate the importance of the wattage of a resistor. 2 watts.1 1 2 1 0. this resistor can have a value anywhere between 14. left to right: Brown.25 0.000 × ±0. and Blue (multiplier) = 1. Using the power relation p R = i R .3 Resistor values per MIL-STD-1285A Color Code Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 1st & 2nd Digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.01 5 10 20 Multiplier (3rd Digit) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0. let us refer to the voltage divider circuit of Example 2.1 0.1% probability that this resistor will fail after 1000 hours of operation. 2.5 0.000 Ohms or 15 MΩ.

The relation of (2. the resistance of any pure metal at temperature T in degrees Celsius is given by R = R 20 [ 1 + α 20 ( T – 20 ) ] (2. the resistance decreases 0.79% . We could also divide the 12 volt source into two voltages of 7 V and 5 V using a 7 kΩ and a 5 kΩ resistor.17 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The resistance of any pure metal. Therefore.52) is an equation of a straight line with slope = R 20 α 20 . down to about – 50 °C .393 = 11.9 The resistance of a long piece of copper wire is 48 Ω at 20 °C . the resistance increases 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-29 . –3 2 3 2.52) where R 20 is the resistance at 20 °C and α 20 is the temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 °C .66 Ω. with this arrangement the current would be 12 V ⁄ 12 kΩ = 1 mA . Therefore the resistance increases by 30 × 0. In general. For each degree that the temperature of a copper wire rises above 20 °C Celsius.43. The temperature rise is 50 – 20 = 30 degrees Celsius and the resistance increases 0. This straight line is easily constructed with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet shown in Figure 2. Construct a curve showing the relation between resistance and temperature.Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 5 Ω resistors would be 7 watts and 5 watts respectively.1179 × 48 Ω in resistance or 5. This percentage of change in resistance is called the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance. a. The wattage of the 7 kΩ and 5 kΩ resistors would then be ( 10 ) × 7 × 10 = 7 × 10 –3 2 3 –3 W = 7 mW and ( 10 ) × 5 × 10 = 5 mW respectively. b.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 °C .393% for every degree rise. Solution: a.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 degrees Celsius.66 Ω .43. the resistance at 50 degrees Celsius is 48 + 5. Similarly. This represents an increase of 0. for each degree that the temperature drops below 20 °C . such as copper. What would the resistance be at 50°C ? b. changes with temperature. up to about 200 °C . we observe that the resistance reaches zero value at approximately – 235 °C .66 = 53. Then. From Figure 2. Example 2.

A mil-foot wire is a wire whose length is one foot and has a cross-sectional area of one circular mil. 2. are the circular mils and these denote the area of the cross section of each wire size. circuit breakers. Spreadsheet for construction of equation (2.6128 -200 6. and the area of a circle one mil in diameter is one circular mil.3856 -180 10.7264 -210 4.9312 -140 17. television sets etc.19 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment There are also standards for the internal wiring of electronic equipment and chassis. outlet boxes and appliances are governed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards which approves consumer products such as motors.4992 -190 8.9328 -240 -1. Moreover.18 Ampere Capacity of Wires For public safety. electric power supply (mains) wiring is controlled by local.272 -170 12.52) 2. Listed also.1584 -160 14. the area of any circle in circular mils is the square of its diameter in mils.43. primarily on the National Electric Code (NEC) and the National Electric Safety Code.0448 -150 15. radios. 2-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0464 -230 0.4 are for copper wires. state and federal boards. many products such as wire and cable. Table 2. Table 2. Also. these rating are for not more than three conductors in a cable with temperature 30°C or 86°F . The ratings for aluminum wires are typically 84% of these values. fuses.8176 Resistance of Copper Wire versus Temperature 100 80 Ohms 60 40 20 0 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Degrees Celsius Figure 2. The ratings in Table 2. The NEC contains tables with correction factors at higher temperatures. A circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (one-thousandth of an inch). Since the area of a circle is proportional to the square of its diameter.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Temp Resistance (deg C) (Ohms) -250 -2.84 -220 2.5 provides recommended current ratings for copper wire based on 45°C ( 40°C for wires smaller than 22 AWG.4 shows the NEC allowable current-carrying capacities for copper conductors based on the type of insulation.

4 Current Carrying Capacities for Copper Conductors Copper Conductor Insulation RH.Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment TABLE 2. RHH. THWN. FEPB. (14-2) THW. SA. XHHW TA. THHN XHHW† Size (AWG) RUH(14-2) T. UF TFE‡ 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 † Dry Locations Only 15 20 30 40 55 70 80 95 110 125 145 165 195 15 20 30 45 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 25 30 40 50 70 90 105 120 140 155 185 210 235 40 55 75 95 120 145 170 195 220 250 280 315 370 ‡ Nickel or nickel-coated copper only Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-31 . RUH. FEP. TW. RHW. TBS.

22 1624 2583 4107 6530 10380 16510 26250 41740 66370 83690 105500 133100 167800 211600 116 72 45.1 5 7.2 Wire in Free Air 0.059 0.185 0.4 22 13.734 0.7 6.02 1.5 159.151 0.8 254.092 0.4 2.86 1.83 1.15 3.5 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment and Chassis Copper Wires Wire Size Nominal Resistance (Ohms/1000 ft) at 100 °C 188 Maximum Current (Amperes) AWG 32 Circular Mils 63.074 0.5 7 11 16 22 32 41 55 73 101 135 181 211 245 283 328 380 0.2 28.2 2.53) 2-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 3.31 0.3 2.4 10.53 Wire Confined in Insulation 0.29 0.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.5 10 13 17 23 33 46 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 The resistance of a wire of length l can be computed by the relation ρl R = ---2 d (2.1 404 642.5 5.32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 0 00 000 0000 100.52 0.117 0.459 0.

4 × 5280 ρl R = ---. Example 2. Then.10 Compute the resistance per mile of a copper conductor 1 ⁄ 8 inch in diameter given that the resistance per mil-foot of copper is 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-33 . Example 2.004 ( 30 – 100 ) ] = 1.4. Solution: From Table 2. the electrical contractor must consider two important factors: a. l = length of wire in feet. R 100 is the resistance at 100°C for copper. Therefore. the electrical contractor must accurately determine the current which each wire must carry and make a tentative selection of the size listed in Table 2. Solution: ( 1 ⁄ 8 ) in = 0.125 in = 125 mils and from (2.11 Compute the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 30°C . and R is the resistance at 20 °C .5 we find that the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 100°C is 2.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring where ρ = resistance per mil-foot.= ---------------------------. the resistance of the same wire at 30°C is R 30°C = 2.45 Ω 2.53) 10.= 3. the conversion equation is R T = R 100 [ 1 + 0. For copper.004 ( T – 100 ) ] (2.02 Ω .02 [ 1 + 0. Correction factors must be applied to determine the resistance at other temperatures or for other materials. The wiring size in each section must be selected such that the current shall not exceed the current carrying capacities as defined by the NEC tables. and T is the desired temperature. d = diameter of wire in mils.20 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring In the design of an interior electrical installation.51 Ω 2 2 125 d Column 3 of Table 2.54).5 shows the copper wire resistance at 100°C .54) where R T is the resistance at the desired temperature. by (2.4 Ω at 20 °C .

depending on how many lamps were in use at one time. Solution: It is best to use a spreadsheet for the calculations so that we can compute sizes for more and different branches if need be.29% voltage variation the brightness of the lamps would vary through wide ranges.45 where from the last line of Part II we see that the percent line drop is 12. Compute the size of the main lines. assume that the distance from the panel to the load center is 60 ft. a variation of more than 5% in the voltage across each lamp causes an unpleasant variation in the illumination. in the lighting part of the system referred to as the lighting load.12 Figure 2. imperative that the designer consults the latest publications of the applicable codes for compliance. Use T (thermoplastic insulation) type copper conductor and base your calculations on 25°C temperature environment. therefore. Load distribution for an interior electric installation The panel board is 200 feet from the meter. kw-hr Meter Circuit Breaker Main Lines L1 Panel Board Lighting Load Utility Company Switch L2 Branch Lines L3 Figure 2. For this example.44. Example 2. The voltage drop throughout the electrical system must then be computed to ensure that it does not exceed certain specifications. 120 volt lamps. They change from time to time.44 shows a lighting load distribution diagram for an interior electric installation. Each of the three branches has 12 outlets for 75 w. Important! The requirements stated here are for instructional purposes only. With the 12. Also. The computations for Parts I and II are shown on the spreadsheet of Figure 2. It is. The load center is that point on the branch line at which all lighting loads may be considered to be concentrated. For instance. 2-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b. the voltage variation in the heating and air conditioning load must not exceed 10% .29 and this is more than twice the allowable 5% drop.

45 and 2.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring A much higher voltage than the rated 120 V would cause these lamps to glow far above their rated candle power and would either burn them immediately.46 indicate that we should not use a conductor less than size 6 AWG . The computations in Parts III through V of the spreadsheet of Figures 2. It is therefore necessary to install larger than 12 AWG main line. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-35 . or shorten their life considerably.

73 14.5 Equation (2. Parts I and II 60 2 120 25 3.12.2-36 Calculation Value 200 3 12 120 75 900 7.50 14 22. Spreadsheet for Example 2.20 2.54) (Step 13 x Step 16) / 1000 Step 7 x Step 17 Step 1 x Step 19 Table 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 22) /1000 Step 9 x Step 23 Step 18 + Step 24 (Step 25 / Step 4) x 100 0 Part I Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sizing in Accordance with NEC (Table 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 26 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications * No size smaller can be installed.4 ft Step 11 x Step 12 Table 2.02 1.2) Description Meter to Panel Board Distance No.269 2.57 12.29 % Figure 2. of Branches from Panel Board Outlets per branch Outlet Voltage Rating Power drawn from each outlet Power required by each branch Current drawn by each branch Required wire size for branches * Current required by the main line Required wire size for main line Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Part II Check for Voltage Drops ft C Ω Ω Ω V ft Ω Ω Ω V V 12.02 2 400 2.5 Equation (2.45.4 Step 2 x Step 7 Table 2.24 0.41 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in each branch Number of wires in each main Total length of wire in main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at Spec.74 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Distance from panel to load center Number of wires in each branch Total length of wire in each branch 0 Specified Temperature in C 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at Spec. smaller sizes have insufficient mechanical strength .50 12 Units ft V w w A AWG Carries up to 15 A A AWG Carries up to 20 A Step 3 x Step 5 Step 6 / Step 4 Table 2.

514 0.367 8.4 Table 2.09 % Part III Recalculation Using 10 AWG Conductor Size 27 28 29 30 31 32 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at Spec.Orchard Publications Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Equation (2.89 4. Parts III.206 4.91 AWG Carries up to 55 A Ω Ω Ω V V 4.310 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring 47 Percent line drop 2-37 .53 % Table 2.27 8.4 Table 2.5 Equation (2.917 0.46.321 0.5 Equation (2.64 AWG Carries up to 40 A Ω Ω Ω V V 5.459 0.129 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 40 Percent line drop Figure 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 29)/1000 Step 9 x Step 30 Step 18 + Step 24 10 1.25 10.54) (Step 20 x Step 43)/1000 Step 9 x Step 44 Step 18 + Step 45 (Step 46 / Step 4) x 100 6 0.56 % (Step 32 / Step 4) x 100 AWG Carries up to 30 A Ω Ω Ω V V Table 2.12.734 0. Spreadsheet for Example 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 36)/1000 Step 9 x Step 37 Step 18 + Step 38 (Step 39 / Step 4) x 100 8 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 33 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Part IV Recalculation Using 8 AWG Conductor Size 34 35 36 37 38 39 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at Spec. and V Part V Recalculation Using 6 AWG Conductor Size 41 42 43 44 45 46 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at Spec.62 6. IV.

• Short circuit refers to a branch (defined below) in a network that contains no device between its terminals. • Open circuit refers to an open branch (defined below) in a network. The energy is dissipated in the form of heat. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across their terminals. • If two or more current sources are in parallel. • A branch is part of a network that contains a device and its nodes. • Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero. they can be replaced by an equivalent resistance whose value is 2-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a piece of wire with zero resistance. The voltage across the terminals of a short is always zero whereas the current may have a finite value or may be zero. • If two or more resistors are connected in series. The voltage across the terminals of an open may have a finite value or may be zero whereas the current is always zero. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. • A node is a common point where one end of two or more devices are connected. that is. they can be replaced by a single voltage source with the proper polarity. • If two or more voltage sources are in series. • A mesh is a closed path that does not contain other closed paths • A loop contains two or more closed paths. they can be replaced by a single current source with the proper current direction. • A series circuit with a single mesh can be easily analyzed by KVL. • A resistor does not store energy. • A parallel circuit with a single node pair can be easily analyzed by KCL. • A resistor absorbs power.21 Summary • Ohm’s Law states that the voltage across a device is proportional to the current through that device and the resistance is the constant of proportionality. • Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (or voltage rises) around a closed mesh or loop is zero.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. It can be thought of as a resis- tor with infinite resistance (or zero conductance).

= ----. the equivalent resistance is found from the relation R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 • Conductances connected in series combine as resistors in parallel do. they can be replaced by an equivalent resis- tance whose value is 1 1 1 1 ------. • For the simple series circuit below vS R1 R2 + − the voltage division expressions state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.+ ----.v S and v R2 = ----------------.+ … + ----R1 R2 Rn R eq • For the special case of two parallel resistors.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-39 . • Conductances connected in parallel combine as resistors in series do.i S and i R2 = ----------------.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 • For the simple parallel circuit below iS v i R1 R1 i R2 R2 the current division expressions state that: R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.Summary R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = k=1 ∑ RK n • If two or more resistors are connected in parallel.

Two standards are the EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD-1285A.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits • In the United States. • The resistor color code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. resistors have a power rating. • The resistance of a wire increases with increased temperature and decreases with decreased tem- perature. the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. 2-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • The current ratings for wires and electronic equipment are established by national standards and codes. • Besides their resistance value.

the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the currents through all the devices D. the current that flows through a device is inversely proportional to the voltage across that device C. none of the above 2. the sum of the voltages in a node is equal to the sum of the currents at that node E. the sum of the currents through all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the voltages across all the devices D. the sum of the resistances around a closed loop is zero E. Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KCL) states that A. the voltage across a device is directly proportional to the current through that device B. Ohm’s Law states that A. the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that node E. the equivalent resistance R AB is computed with the formula A. the sum of the currents in a closed path is zero B.Exercises 2. none of the above 4.22 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that A. the resistance is the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path divided by the sum of the currents through all the devices in the closed path D. the voltage across a device is inversely proportional to the current through that device C. the resistance is the slope of the straight line in a voltage versus current plot C. R AB = R1 + R2 + R3 R1 + R2 + R3 2 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-41 . none of the above 3.47. the conductance is the reciprocal of resistance B. For the three resistors connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. R AB = B.

5 Ω 2-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .47.48. R AB = R1 R2 R3 -----------------------------R1 + R2 + R3 E. --------. For the three conductances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. 1. For the three resistances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. Network for Question 4 5. none of the above A R1 R2 R AB R3 B Figure 2. G AB = -------------------------------- 11 1 1 D. R AB = ------------------------------ R R R R1 + R2 + R3 D. none of the above A G1 G2 G AB G3 B Figure 2. G AB = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 + G2 + G3 G G G G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 2 2 2 1 2 3 C.+ -----.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 1 2 3 C. Network for Question 5 6. the equivalent conductance G AB is computed with the formula A.+ -----G AB E. G AB = B. the equivalent conductance G AB is A. 21 Ω –1 –1 B.= -----.49.48.

none of the above A R1 G AB B Figure 2.50. 24 V C. Network for Question 7 R 8. 144 ⁄ 19 Ω E.49.50. 8 V D. When R = ∞ . When R = 0 Ω . the voltage v R = 6 V . 10 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-43 . v R is A. The value of the voltage v X is A. 16 V E. 0 V D. when R = 4 Ω . The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 2.51 are relative to some reference node not shown. In the network shown in Figure 2. i R = 2 A . none of the above iR + Rest of the Circuit vR − Figure 2. 2 ⁄ 3 Ω –1 –1 D. Network for Question 6 4Ω R2 12 Ω R3 3Ω 7.Exercises C. 16 V C. 6 V B. – 6 V B.

none of the above 10 V 2A 2V 8Ω 3Ω 8V 2A 4Ω 20 V Figure 2. 8 V B.52. – 2 V D. 2 V C. Network for Question 9 10. none of the above 2-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the network of Figure 2. Network for Question 8 + − vX 6V 9. 1 A E.52 the value of the voltage v is A. 0 A C. 2 A B. – 8 V E. none of the above 4Ω + v − + 8V − Figure 2.53 the value of the current i is A.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits E. ∞ A D. For the circuit of Figure 2.51.

to what value should v S be adjusted to so that the power absorbed by R 2 will be 100 w? Answer: 100 V 2. With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω . R 1 = 70 Ω .53. + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − v + − R1 + − R2 S Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-45 . to what value should R 2 be adjusted so that the power absorbed by it will be 200 w? Answer: 72 Ω c. With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω . and R 2 = 50 Ω .54. R LOAD represents the load of that circuit.55. Network for Question 10 Problems 1. In the circuit of Figure 2. the voltage source and both resistors are variable.55. Circuit for Problem 1 a.Exercises 4Ω + 8V − 12 Ω i Figure 2. compute the power absorbed by R 2 . − + 3A 5Ω 5A 10 Ω 24 V 2Ω + − i LOAD p LOAD R LOAD + − 75 V v LOAD Figure 2. With v S = 120 V . In the circuit of Figure 2.54. Answer: 50 w b.

5 w 5.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Compute: a. Circuit for Problem 3 Answers: p A = 288 w . In the network of Figure 2. Compute the equivalent resistance R eq .57. each resistor is 10 Ω. Circuit for Problem 4 Answer: 62. R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω iR 2 + − 5i R V 2 R4 10 Ω Figure 2. i LOAD Answer: 8 A b. compute the power delivered or absorbed by the dependent voltage source.56.57. v LOAD Answer: 20 V c. p LOAD Answer: 160 w 3.56. p E = 216 w 4. p C = – 1800 w . p D = 144 w .58. For the circuit of Figure 2. p B = 1152 w . compute the power supplied or absorbed by each device. 24 A B D 6A + A 12 V − C + 60 V − + E − 36 V Figure 2. In the circuit of Figure 2. 2-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

R 1 = 10 Ω and R 2 = 20 Ω .59. Answer: 0. This method is known as analysis by network reduction.58. Circuit for Problem 6 Hint: Start at the right end and by series and parallel combinations of the resistors. Circuit for Problem 7 Answers: v X = 8 ⁄ 3 V .75 A 7. Circuit for Problem 5 Answer: 360 ⁄ 21 Ω 6. R1 i R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 + − 15 V Figure 2. v Y = – 16 ⁄ 3 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-47 . In the network of Figure 2. reduce the circuit to a simple series circuit. use the voltage division expression to compute v X and v Y .Exercises Req Figure 2.59. + 5Ω vX − 20 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V − vY 40 Ω + 16 V − + Figure 2.60. Compute the current i supplied by the 15 V source.60. In the circuit of Figure 2.

48 Ω at 20 degrees Celsius. i Y = – 8 ⁄ 3 V 9. only few are shown.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8.62. In the circuit of Figure 2.61. Compute the voltage drop on each of these conductors from the substation to the facility when they carry the maximum required current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment. and decided that the main lines from the substation to the facility will require several copper conductors in parallel. Answer: 70 V 2-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .62. iX 16 A 5Ω iY 24 A 10 Ω 40 Ω 20 Ω Figure 2. The electrical contractor and the utility company have made load calculations.32 Ω.5 miles away from the nearest electric utility company substation. use the current division expression to compute i X and i Y . A new facility is to be constructed at a site which is 1. It is known that the primary coil has a resistance of 5. Primary Coil Secondary Coil Iron Core Figure 2. There are many turns in both the primary and secondary coils but. a. Circuit for Problem 8 Answers: i X = – 16 ⁄ 3 V .61. it is found that the primary coil resistance has risen to 6. After two hours of operation. for simplicity. A transformer consists of two separate coils (inductors) wound around an iron core as shown in Figure 2. Compute the temperature rise of this coil. Circuit for Problem 9 Answer: 36°C 10. Each of these conductors must have insulation type THHN and must carry a maximum current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment.

Exercises b. Answer: 15. Answer: 0.02 w ⁄ cm 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-49 . The power absorbed per square cm of the surface area of each conductor under the conditions stated above.4 Kw c. The power absorbed by each conductor under the conditions stated above.

when R = 0 Ω .5 = ------------. i R = 6 ⁄ 4 = 1. Also. Therefore. D 3.5 A . i R = 0 but v R has a finite value and it is denoted as v R = ∞ in the figure below.0 d e 1.23 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. we observe that ---------------.5 b 2. D 6.0 vR = ∞ vR = ∞ a vR ( V ) 6.0 iR ( A ) 8. B When R = 4 Ω . A from the branch that contains the 3 Ω resistor. E 4. Now. C 7. the voltage v R = 6 V .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2.= 2 or v A = 16 and v – 10 3 thus v X = – 6 + 16 = 10 V 2-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i R = 2 A . B 2. Then be = de or 2. Then. E 5.0 – 1.0 c 0.and thus v R = ∞ = 24 V bc ac 2.5 1. When R = ∞ . D We denote the voltage at the common node as v A shown on the figure of the next page. we observe that the triangles abc and dbe 6 ---------------------------are similar. and thus v R = 0 (short circuit).

Problems 1. there is no voltage drop across the resistor and thus v = 8 V . With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω . the circuit is as shown below. the circuit is as shown below. Accordingly.× 120 = 50 V 2 70 + 50 Then. 70 Ω vS R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω Using the voltage division expression.= 50 w R2 50 2 b. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω We observe that v R = v s = 120V 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-51 . we get 50 v R = ----------------.= ------.Answers to Exercises 10 V 2A 2V 3Ω vA 2A 4Ω 20 V 8V + − 8Ω vX 6V 9. A The 12 Ω resistor is shorted out by the short on the right side of the circuit and thus the only resistance in the circuit is the 4 Ω resistor. R 1 = 70 Ω . A This is an open circuit and therefore no current flows through the resistor. a. 10. and R 2 = 50 Ω . With v S = 120 V . pR 2 vR 2 50 2 = ------.

= 72 Ω 200 2 c.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 ----------. 000 = 100 V 2. 000 2 or vS = 10. the circuit is as shown below.= 100 w 100 2 or v S = 100 × 100 = 10. Application of KCL at node A of the circuit below yields i LOAD = 3 + 5 = 8 A b.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits and vR 2 ------.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 R 2 = ----------. a. vS ----.= 100 w R2 2 or vS -------. Application of KVL around Mesh 1 yields – 75 + 3 ( 5 ) + v AB = 0 2-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω . vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 100 Ω Then.

we assign plus (+) and minus (−) polarities and current directions in accordance with the passive sign convention as shown below. p LOAD = v LOAD × i LOAD = 20 × 8 = 160 w ( absorbed power ) 3. by KCL at Node X i C = i B + i D = 24 + 6 = 30 A Then.Answers to Exercises 3A 5Ω − + A i LOAD 5A 10 Ω 24 V 2Ω + − i LOAD p LOAD R LOAD + − 75 V Mesh 1 B v LOAD Mesh 2 or v AB = 60 V Application of KVL around Mesh 2 yields – v AB + 24 + 2i LOAD + v LOAD = 0 or – 60 + 24 + 2 × 8 + v LOAD = 0 or v LOAD = 20 V c. Also. Where not shown. 24 A − iB 6A + X+ D − B vB iC + vD iE + iD + iA vA A vE E vC C 60 V − 36 V − 12 V − We observe that i A = i B and i E = i D . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-53 .

i R . v R = 50 – 2 × 10 = 30 V 2 and by Ohm’s law. v R . 2-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i R . and i D as shown in the circuit below.63.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits p A = v A i A = 12 × 24 = 288 w ( absorbed ) p E = v E i E = 36 × 6 = 216 w ( absorbed ) p C = v C ( – i C ) = 60 × ( – 30 ) = – 1800 w ( supplied ) By KVL vA + vB = vC or v B = v C – v A = 60 – 12 = 48 V and thus p B = v B i B = 48 × 24 = 1152 w ( absorbed ) Also by KVL vD + vE = vC or v D = v C – v E = 60 – 36 = 24 V and thus p D = v D i D = 24 × 6 = 144 w ( absorbed ) Check: We must show that Power supplied = Power absorbed p C = p A + p B + p C + p D = 288 + 216 + 1152 + 144 = 1800 w 4. We assign voltages and currents v R . Circuit for Exercise 4 By KVL. 2 4 3 4 R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω iR 3 X iR 4 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω − + vR iR 2 + 2 + R4 vR 4 − iD 10 Ω 5i R V − 2 Figure 2.

vR 4 ----i R = -----. Therefore.= 25 = 2.5 = 2.5 = 62.= 30 = 5 A 2 6 R2 Therefore.Answers to Exercises vR 2 ----i R = ------.5 w ( absorbed ) 2 5. the value of the dependent voltage source is 5i R = 5 × 5 = 25 V 2 and v R = 5i R = 25 V 4 2 Then.5 A 4 10 R4 By KCL at Node X iD = iR – iR 3 4 where i R = 10 – i R = 10 – 5 = 5 A 3 2 and thus i D = i R – i R = 5 – 2. The simplification procedure starts with the resistors in parallel which are indicated below. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 5 Req 10 Req 5 10 10 10 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-55 . p D = 5i R i D = 25 × 2.5 A 3 4 with the indicated direction through the dependent source.

75 A 2-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 10 5 10 15 5 10 6 Req 5 10 10 15 Req 5 10 6 5 16 180 ⁄ 21 Req 5 16 Req 180 ⁄ 21 Req 360 ⁄ 21 6. Next. R1 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R1 + − 15 V i R2 Then. R 1 + R 1 = 10 + 10 = 20 Ω 20 || 20 = 10 Ω 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and so on. Finally. We start with the right side of the circuit where the last two resistors are in series as shown below. addition of the left most resistor with its series equivalent yields 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and thus i = 15 ⁄ 20 = 0.

5 + 20 = 25 Ω and 10 + 40 = 50 Ω The current sources are in parallel opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single current source with value 24 – 16 = 8 A .– 8 = 0 3 3 8. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the parallel resistors by their equivalents.V 3 4+8 or 16 v Y = – ----.Answers to Exercises 7.= 4 Ω 5 + 20 and 10 × 40 10 || 40 = ----------------.= 8 Ω 10 + 40 The voltage sources are in series opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single voltage source with value 24 – 16 = 8 V . 5 × 20 5 || 20 = -------------.× 8 = -. we get 8 16 v X + ( – v Y ) – 8 = -. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-57 .+ ----. Thus. 8 4 v X = ----------. The simplified circuit is shown below. + vX − 8Ω i 4Ω A + − 8V − vY + Now.× 8 = ----. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the series resistors by their equivalents. by the voltage division expression. The simplified circuit is shown below.V 3 Check: By application of KVL starting at point A and going counterclockwise. Thus.V 3 4+8 and 16 8 – v Y = ----------.

5 = --------.32 ∆T = T X = ------.5 miles long is 2-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Also.5 – 254. the resistance of this conductor that is 1.= 0 .× 254.= ------------------------234.5 + T X 234.3 3 9. We construct the resistance versus temperature plot shown below.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8A iX 25 Ω iY 50 Ω By the current division expression. R 20 RX T 20 TX a −234. we get 16 8 8 + i X + i Y = 8 – ----.5 we find that the resistance of this conductor is 0.5 = 36°C 5. we get 254. 50 16 i X = ----------------.32 Ω 20°C ∆T R (Ω) b RX R0 T 20 R 20 e TX d T ( °C ) c From the similar triangles acd and abe. a.5 0 = = = = 5.× 254.5 R 20 or RX 6. From Table 2. from Table 2.5 – 254.059 Ω ⁄ 1000 ft at 100°C .– -.48 R 20 10.× ( – 8 ) = – ----.5 + 20 254.48 Ω 6.5 + T 20 + T X ------.5 + T 20 234.4 we find that the cable size must be 0000 AWG and this can carry up to 235 A .5 + 20 + T X RX 234.= ------------------------------------.× ( – 8 ) = – -. Then.= --------------------------------------.A 25 + 50 3 Check: By application of KCL starting at point A and going counterclockwise.A 25 + 50 3 and 25 8 i Y = ----------------.

Thus. the cable diameter in cm is d= 1. The power absorbed by each conductor is p = vi = 70 × 220 = 15.851 × 10 cm 1 Km 1 mile 5 Then.4673 ( 1 – 0.× 1. Table 2. Then.854 × 10 –7 2 ( 2.3178 Ω and the voltage drop on each of these conductors is v = iR = 220 × 0.5 miles × ----------------------.d = -.854 × 10 in 4 4 = 7.3178 = 70 V b.600 circular mils. we use the relation of (2.4673 Ω at 100°C 1000ft 1 mile To find the resistance of this cable at 20°C .32 ) = 0.= 5.02 w ⁄ cm 2 5 2 cm 7.= --------------------------------------.072 = 1. 400 w = ------------------------------. R 20 = R 100 [ 1 + 0.= 1.059 --------------. the cross-section of this cable in cm is 5. we perform the following conversion: π π 2 2 –7 2 1 circular mil = -.Answers to Exercises Ω 5280 0. the power absorbed per cm is p cm 2 2 2 Total power 15.609 Km 10 cm 5 2 Surface area = πdl = 3.072 cm circular mil –6 2 2 Therefore.5 gives wire sizes in circular mils.253 cm × 1.4 Kw c.54).001 ) = 7.035 cm The cross-section circumference of the cable is πd = π × 1.= 7.001 in . 400 w = 15.5 we find that the cross section of a 0000 AWG cable is 211.54 cm ) –6 2 in × -------------------------. 600 circular mils × ----------------------------------------.5 miles = 0.× --------------.851 × 10 cm Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-59 .067 × 10 cm 2 211. To find the diameter in cm.004 ( 20 – 100 ) ] = 0.= 0.× ----------------.253 cm and the surface area of the cable is 1.( 0.067 × 10 cm 2 in 2 From Table 2. We recall that a circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 0.035 = 3.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits NOTES 2-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

and Loop Equations Network Topology is a branch of network theory concerned with the equations required to completely describe an electric circuit. v n – 1 . loop and mesh equations and how they are applied to the solution of circuits containing two or more node-pairs and two or more loops or meshes. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the voltage drops around each of the L = M = B – N + 1 loops or meshes equal to zero. ground. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. N = number of nodes in a circuit. then N – 1 independent nodal equations are required to completely describe that circuit. At each non-reference node we assign node voltages v 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-1 . i. 3. B = number of branches .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . and regulation.2 Analysis with Nodal Equations In writing nodal equations. For a circuit containing N nodes. we will only be concerned with the following two theorems. superposition. v 2.1 Nodal.e. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the currents leaving each of the N – 1 nodes equal to zero. v n – 1 where each of these voltages is measured with respect to the chosen reference node.2 Let L = M = number of loops or meshes . we choose one of these as a reference node assumed to be zero volts or ground. In this text. Mesh. Theorem 3.. then L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations are required to completely describe that circuit. v 2.Circuit Theorems T his chapter begins with nodal. the maximum power transfer theorem. we apply KCL and write a nodal equation for each of the node voltages v 1. efficiency. Theorem 3. …. …. Other topics included in this chapter are the voltage-to-current source transformations and vice versa. linearity. 2.1 Let N = number of nodes in a circuit . 3. we perform the following steps: 1. If the circuit does not contain any voltage sources between nodes. 3.

thus. then we relate the voltage source to the node variables v j and v k . say nodes j and k denoted as node variables v j and v k . the current through the 8 Ω resistor is denoted as i 8 . Cramer’s rule. we replace the voltage source with a short circuit thus forming a combined node and we write a nodal equation for this common node in terms of both v j and v k .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Please refer to Appendix A for discussion and examples. and G (for ground) as shown in v2 10 Ω i 10 6Ω i4 18 A i6 24 A Figure 3. and solve for the unknowns of these equations using matrix theory. v1 8Ω i8 4Ω 12 A G .Circuit Theorems 4. 8Ω 10 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3. we have denoted the currents with a subscript that corresponds to the resistor value through which it flows through. .1.1 Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. 3-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We will follow this practice in the subsequent examples.1. Verify your answers with Excel® or MATLAB®. If the circuit contains a voltage source between two nodes. Circuit for Example 3.2.1 For convenience.2. v3 . the current that flows through the 4 Ω resistor is denoted as i 4 . or the substitution method. Example 3. Circuit for Example 3. and so on.1 Write nodal equations for the circuit shown in Figure 3.

3) where i 8 is the current flowing from right to left * and i 10 is the current that flows from left to right. . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-3 . we need N – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3 nodal equations.2) Next.⎝ 4 8⎠ 1 8 2 or 3v 1 – v 2 = 96 (3.1) where i 8 is the current flowing from left to right. Of course. The advantage is that we can check. we denote the coefficients of v1 (1/4 and 1/8 siemens) as self conductances and the coefficient of v2 (−1/8) as mutual conductance. and from right to left in writing the nodal equation at Node 2.Analysis with Nodal Equations For the circuit of Figure 3.-. in equation (3. we could have assumed that the current through the 8 Ω resistor flows in the same direction in both nodal equations. any assumptions made in writing the first equation need not be held in writing the second since the latter is independent of the first. application of KCL at node yields i 4 + i 8 – 12 = 0 or i 4 + i 8 = 12 (3.+ --------------. application of KCL at node or yields i 8 + i 10 + 18 = 0 i 8 + i 10 = – 18 (3. Expressing (3.1) in terms of the node voltages. or even write the node equations by inspection. Remember that we wrote independent node equations at independent nodes and. Likewise. should not be confusing. Therefore.3) the coefficients of v2 (1/8 and 1/10 siemens) are the self conductances and the coefficients of v1 (−1/8) and v3 (−1/10) are the mutual conductances.= 12 8 4 or ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ v – 1 v = 12 --. therefore. v 2 .2. * The direction of the current through the 8 Ω resistor from left to right in writing the nodal equation at Node 1. and respectively. and we assign voltages v 1. and v 3 at nodes . since G = 1/R. With reference to the above circuit and equation (3. we assign plus (+) values to self conductances and minus (−) to mutual conductances. to assign a (+) sign to all currents leaving the node in which we apply KCL. that is. It is advantageous. however. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G.1) for example. Now. we get v1 v1 – v2 ---. we can write a nodal equation at a particular node by inspection. Let us choose node G (ground) as our reference node.

(3.3) in terms of node voltages.= 24 6 10 (3.4) Similarly.Circuit Theorems Expressing (3. We write them in matrix form as follows: 3 –1 0 5 –9 4 0 1 –6 G v1 v2 v3 V = 96 720 – 240 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3. in terms of node voltages. and (3.= – 18 8 10 or 1 1-.2).5) or 1 1.+ 1 ⎞ v 3 = 24 ⎝ 10 6 ⎠ 10 or – 3v 2 + 18v 3 = 720 or v 2 – 6 v3 = – 240 (3.+ --------------.6) Equations (3.v 3 = – 18 ⎝ 8 10⎠ 8 10 or 5v 1 – 9v 2 + 4v 3 = 720 (3.v 1 + ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ v 2 – ----.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Then.6) constitute a set of three simultaneous equations with three unknowns.-– ----.v 2 + ⎛ ----. application of KCL at node or yields i 10 + i 6 – 24 = 0 i 10 + i 6 = 24 where i 10 is the current flowing from right to left. v3 – v2 v3 --------------.+ ---.4).7) 3-4 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1– -. we get v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.

183 30 9 Figure 3. With these values we can determine the current in each resistor.2 For the circuit of Figure 3.7) for the unknowns. V(3)). Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.3 shows the solution of the equations of (3.3. write nodal equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12.00 volts The spreadsheet of Figure 3. or Gauss’s elimination method. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.050 -0. 5 −9 4. fprintf('v2 = %5.4.00 volts Check with Excel®: v2 = -60.417 -0..2f volts \t'. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. . V=G\I.2f volts'.042 -0.7) Example 3. Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. fprintf(' \n'). .5. V(1)). Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V .2f volts \t'. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. to solve (3.00 volts v3 = 30. The procedure is discussed in Appendix A.100 V= -60 8 0. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.. 0 1 −6].025 -0.Analysis with Nodal Equations We can use Cramer’s rule or Gauss’s elimination method as discussed in Appendix A. and G (for ground) as shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-5 . V(2)).150 -0. . Cramer’s rule. Check with MATLAB®: G=[3 −1 0. fprintf('v3 = %5. I=[96 720 -240]'.. fprintf('v1 = %5..7). and v 3 = 30 V . . v 2 = – 60 V .250 -0..033 12 7 -1 G = 0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -1 0 96 3 G= 5 -9 4 I= 720 4 0 1 -6 -240 5 6 0.

v 1 = 12 V and thus our first equation is v 1 = 12 (3. To work around this problem. and v 3 at nodes . and one down.8) Next. one to the left.5. one to the right.2 with assigned nodes and voltages We assign voltages v 1. Therefore. we encounter a problem with the third term because we cannot express it as term representing the current flowing from node to node . and the circuit now looks as shown in Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.2 v1 8Ω v2 − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G v3 + 12 V − 4Ω 24 A Figure 3. and respectively. our next nodal equation will contain three terms.4. We observe that v 1 is a known voltage. v 2 . these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G . however. We have no difficulty writing the term for the current flowing from node to node .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . . Circuit for Example 3. 3-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and for the 18 A source. we move to node where we observe that there are three currents flowing out of this node. we temporarily remove the 10 V voltage source and we replace it with a “short” thereby creating a combined node (or generalized node or supernode as some textbooks call it). that is.Circuit Theorems 8Ω − + 10 V 6Ω + 12 V − 4Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3.6.

= 6 * 8 6 (3. at node 3.11) are * The combined node technique allows us to combine two nodal equations into one but requires that we use the proper node designations. Circuit for Example 3..v 1 + -. we express the current i 8 as v2 – v1 v3 --------------.v 2 + -.8).11) To obtain the third equation.9) or 1 1 1 – -. equations (3.. Likewise. (3. and (3.6. application of KCL at this combined node yields the equation i 8 + 18 + i 6 – 24 = 0 or i8 + i6 = 6 or v2 – v1 v3 --------------. 8 6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-7 .2 with a combined node Now. In this example. (3. Then.Analysis with Nodal Equations v1 8Ω i8 v2 v3 Combined Node − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G + 12 V − 4Ω i6 24 A Removed and replaced by a short Figure 3.v 3 = 6 8 6 8 or – 3v 1 + 3v 2 + 4v 3 = 144 (3. to retain the designation of node 2. we express the current i 6 as ---.10).10) and . we reinsert the 10 V source between nodes v 3 – v 2 = 10 In matrix form.+ ---.

000 12 7 G-1= 0. v 2 = 20 V .571 V= 20 8 0. fprintf('v2 = %5.2f volts \t'. fprintf('v1 = %5.. Check with MATLAB: G=[1 0 0.143 -0.00 volts A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 1 0 0 12 3 G= -3 3 4 I= 144 4 0 -1 1 10 5 6 1. we assign a mesh or loop current i 1.429 0. 3-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .. we apply KVL around each mesh or loop. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 3. and v 3 = 30 V .Circuit Theorems 1 0 0 –3 3 4 0 –1 1 G v1 v2 v3 V = 12 144 10 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3.3 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations In writing mesh or loop equations.1 shows that the power delivered is equal to the power absorbed.00 volts ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ v3 = 30. . From these we can find the current through each device and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. V(3))..7.12) Table 3.000 0. i n – 1 for each mesh or loop. …..2f volts \t'. 0 −1 1]. 2. fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12. fprintf('v3 = %5. If the circuit does not contain any current sources. V=G\I. V(1)). fprintf(' \n').2f volts'. −3 3 4.12) Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V . we follow these steps: 1. For a circuit containing M = L = B – N + 1 meshes (or loops). I=[12 144 10]'.00 volts Check with Excel: v2 = 20.429 30 9 Figure 3.000 0. V(2))..143 0.429 0. i 2.

the currents through. Circuit for Example 3. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. Cramer’s rule. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. Example 3. If the circuit contains a current source between two meshes or loops. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.3 For the circuit of Figure 3. we relate the current source to the mesh or loop variables i j and i k .1 Table for Example 3.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations TABLE 3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. or Gauss’s elimination method.8. and we write a mesh or loop equation for this common mesh or loop in terms of both i j and i k .8. we replace the current source with an open circuit thus forming a common mesh or loop. Then.3 + 24 V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-9 . Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. say meshes or loops j and k denoted as mesh variables i j and i k .2 Device 12 V Source 10 V Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12 10 20 30 12 30 8 Current (amps) 2 19 18 24 3 5 1 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 24 190 360 720 36 150 8 744 744 3.

we get the equation 4 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + 36 + 8i 2 + 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 or – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 (3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω − − 12 V i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 12 Ω Figure 3. going clockwise.15) 3-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and observing the passive sign convention. we get: 6 ( i 3 – i 2 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 = 0 or – 6i 2 + 28i 3 = – 24 (3. and observing the passive sign convention. going clockwise. i 2 .13) Mesh #2: Starting with the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor.14) Mesh #3: Starting with the lower end of the 6 Ω resistor. going clockwise. we get the equation for this mesh as 2i 1 + 4 ( i 1 – i 2 ) – 12 = 0 or 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 (3.3 + 24 V − Applying KVL around each mesh we get: Mesh #1: Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3. and observing the passive sign convention.Circuit Theorems Solution: For this circuit we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations and we arbitrarily assign currents i 1 . Circuit for Example 3.9.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .9.

e. Simplifying and rearranging (3.17) (3.13). i. to assign the same direction to all currents. the self resistances are the 4 Ω . of course. – 4i 1 and – 6i 3 . the voltage drops due to the mutual resistances in the second equation have a minus (-) sign.13) we have assumed that the upper end of this resistor has the plus (+) polarity.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Note: For this example. clockwise. 3. 2. we see that current i 1 flows through the 2 Ω and 4 Ω resistors. Since i 2 enters the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor. The 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are also the mutual resistances between the first and second.4271 .19) Simultaneous solution yields i 1 = 0.e.18) and in matrix form 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 3 – 14 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 12 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. and i 3 = – 1. was not mandatory.9 and equation (3.15) are similarly related to the self and mutual resistances in the third mesh. In Mesh 2. i 2 = – 2. Accordingly.. 8 Ω . then in accordance with the passive sign convention. 2 + 4 = 6 is the coefficient of current i 1 in that equation. (3.. we could have assigned any direction in any mesh.3627 where the negative values for i 2 and i 3 indicate that the actual direction for these currents is counterclockwise.3593 . is the coefficient of i 2 in equation (3. With reference to the circuit of Figure 3. however. Their sum. the voltage drop due to current i 2 is – 4i 2 and this is the second term on the left side of (3. We call this resistance the mutual resistance between the first and the second mesh. i. The advantage here is that we can check. This is best explained with the following observations: 1. i. We observe that current i 2 also flows through the 4 Ω resistor.13). The signs of the coefficients of i 2 and i 3 in (3.16) (3. and the second and the third meshes respectively. We call these the self resistances of the first mesh. 18. This.14) and (3. and 6 Ω resistors whose sum. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 3-11 . or even write the mesh equations by inspection. It is advantageous.14).13).15) we get: 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 3i 2 – 14 i 3 = 12 (3.e. we assigned all three currents with the same direction. and in writing equation (3.

712 0.19) Table 3. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.10.996 1.031 I= -2.2f amps \t'.2f amps'.627 16.952 18.786 2.000 36.2f amps \t'..570 22. fprintf('i3 = %5..964 44..000 0.397 -0.10.288 122.095 -0.3627 9 Figure 3. I(2)). fprintf(' \n') i1 = 0.530 5.363 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 5.000 24.43 amps i2 = -2. V=[6 18 12]'. 2 −9 3.363 0.142 -0.3593 8 0.352 Current (amps) 0.365 30.2 Table for Example 3.669 122. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -2 0 6 3 R= 2 -9 3 V= 18 4 0 3 -14 12 5 6 0.976 13.4271 7 R-1= 0.359 1.Circuit Theorems Check with MATLAB: R=[3 −2 0.874 5.3 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12. .760 3-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .144 18.854 11.124 84.031 -0. I(1)).2 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors...020 -0.36 amps i3 = -1.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .095 -0.359 0. fprintf('i2 = %5. I(3)). 0 3 −14].427 2.363 1.020 0.36 amps Excel produces the same answers as shown in Figure 3.427 2. TABLE 3.078 -1. fprintf('i1 = %5. fprintf(' \n'). I=R\V.924 32.

we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 4i 1 – 12 = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-13 .Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Example 3.12. i 2 . or Gauss’s elimination method.12. Circuit for Example 3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. Cramer’s rule.4 with assigned loops Applying of KVL around each loop. and i 3 .4 For the circuit of Figure 3. a 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω c d b + 12 V h + − − i3 i2 i1 g 4Ω 6Ω e 12 Ω + 24 V − f Figure 3.11. and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. we get: Loop 1 (abgh): Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. construct a table showing the voltages across.4 + 24 V − Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example where we found that we need 3 mesh or loop equations. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. write loop equations in matrix form. and we assign currents i 1 . Circuit for Example 3. Then. all in a clockwise direction. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.11. We choose our loops as shown in Figure 3.

. fprintf('i3 = %5..21) Loop 3 (abcdefgh): Likewise.2f amps \t'. fprintf('i2 = %5.2f amps \t'.20) Loop 2 (abcfgh): As before. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention..36 amps 3-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 6i 2 – 12 = 0 or 2i 1 + 16i 2 + 10i 3 = – 24 or i 1 + 8i 2 + 5i 3 = – 12 (3. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention..00 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = -1. I=R\V. V=[6 −12 −24]'. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2.Circuit Theorems or 6i 1 + 2i 2 + 2i 3 = 12 or 3i 1 + i 2 + i 3 = 6 (3. 1 8 5. I(3)). we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 – 12 = 0 or or 2i 1 + 10i 2 + 32i 3 = – 48 i 1 + 5i 2 + 16i 3 = – 24 (3.2f amps'... I(2)). 1 5 16].23) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 1 1.79 amps i2 = -1. fprintf('i1 = %5. I(1)).Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . fprintf(' \n').22) and in matrix form 3 1 1 1 8 5 1 5 16 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 – 12 – 24 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.

982 13. Circuit for Example 3.363 32.758 For the circuit of figure 3.519 5.924 1. Table 3.786 2.283 122.365 2.359 84.427 0.4 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Example 3.997 1. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.124 2.712 0.760 31.574 22. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − + + 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω 5A Figure 3.5 Voltage (volts) 12.627 16. TABLE 3.146 18. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.3 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors and the values are approximately the same as those of the previous example.13.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Excel produces the same answers.053 44.363 122.872 5.000 0. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.359 0.000 24.964 18. or the substitution method.854 11.352 Power (watts) Current (amps) Delivered Absorbed 0.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-15 .13.3 Table for Example 3.427 5.000 36.363 1. Cramer’s rule.

Circuit for Example 3. the equations are the same as in Example 3. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3. and we assign currents i 1 .14. we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations.3 where we found them to be 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 or 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 (3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . i 2 .5 with assigned currents For Meshes 1 and 2. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 5A 12 Ω Figure 3.24) and – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 or 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 (3. we observe that the current i 3 is just the current of the 5 A current source and thus our third equation is simply i3 = 5 (3.25) For Mesh 3.Circuit Theorems Solution: This is the same circuit as those of the two previous examples except that the 24 V voltage source has been replaced by a 5 A current source. 3-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .14. As before.26) and in matrix form.

2f amps'. V=[6 18 5]'. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2. The currents i 3 and i 4 for Meshes 3 and 4 respectively present no problem. but for Meshes 1 and 2 we cannot write mesh equations for the currents i 1 and i 2 as shown because we cannot write a Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − + − 36 V 8Ω 3-17 ... I(2)).2f amps \t'. we will encounter a problem as explained below. I=R\V. fprintf('i3 = %5.13 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = 5. 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω 6Ω 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω 18 Ω 24 V 20 Ω − + 12 V − Figure 3.00 amps Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3..16.. However..15. .6 i2 = 0. 0 0 1].6 Solution: Here.15 and solve for the unknowns using MATLAB or Excel. Circuit for Example 3. fprintf('i2 = %5.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 0 1 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. fprintf('i1 = %5. Then. I(3)).09 amps Example 3. compute the voltage drop across the 5 A source. we would be tempted to assign mesh currents as shown in Figure 3. 2 −9 3.27) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 −2 0. I(1)).2f amps \t'. fprintf(' \n').

Circuit for Example 3. 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω i1 i2 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω i4 + − 36 V 8Ω − 6Ω + 12 V − i3 18 Ω 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.Circuit Theorems term which represents the voltage across the 5 A current source. we apply KVL around this combined mesh.6 with correct current assignments Now. To work around this problem we temporarily remove (open) the 5 A current source and we form a “combined mesh” (or generalized mesh or supermesh as some textbooks call it) and the current that flows around this combined mesh is as shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .16.6 with erroneous current assignments 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 12 V + − Mesh − Combined 4Ω 6Ω + − 16 Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − i3 18 Ω 12 Ω i4 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.17. and we express the voltage drop across this resistor as 2i 1 since in Mesh 1 the current is essentially i 1 . Circuit for Example 3. We start at the left end of the 2 Ω resistor.17. 3-18 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Continuing. we reinsert the 5 A current source between Meshes 1 and 2 and we obtain our second equation as i1 – i2 = 5 (3. The current now enters Mesh 2 where we encounter the 36 V drop due to the voltage source there. the equations are 10 ( i 3 – i 1 ) + 12 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 18i 3 – 12 = 0 or 5i 1 – 20 i 3 + 6i 4 = – 6 (3. we observe that there is no voltage drop across the 4 Ω resistor since no current flows through it.32) We find the solution of (3.30) and 16 ( i 4 – i 2 ) + 20i 4 – 24 + 12 ( i 4 – i 3 ) = 0 or 4i 2 + 3i 3 – 12 i 4 = – 6 (3.28) Now.29) For meshes 3 and 4.32) with the following MATLAB code. and the voltage drops across the 8 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are 8i 2 and 6i 2 respectively since in Mesh 2 the current now is really i 2 . The voltage drops across the 16 Ω and 10 Ω resistors are expressed as in the previous examples and thus our first mesh equation is 2i 1 + 36 + 8i 2 + 6i 2 + 16 ( i 2 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 1 – i 3 ) – 12 = 0 or 12i 1 + 30i 2 – 10 i 3 – 16 i 4 = – 24 or 6i 1 + 15i 2 – 5 i 3 – 8 i 4 = – 12 (3. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-19 .31) and in matrix form 6 15 – 5 – 8 1 –1 0 0 5 0 – 20 6 0 4 3 – 12 R i1 i2 i3 i4 I = – 12 5 –6 –6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.

. 1 −1 0 0.4f amps'. This statement applies to an ideal current source which also does not exist.. for instance.6025 ) + v 5A + 10 × ( 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . no current source can supply infinite voltage when its terminals are open-circuited.2737 amps Now.455 We can verify this value by application of KVL around Mesh 2 where starting with the lower end of the 6 w resistor and going counterclockwise we get ( 6 + 8 ) × 1. to be accounted for. fprintf('i1 = %5.455 + 16 × ( 1. 3.3975 – 1. V=[−12 5 −6 −6]'.3975 + 4 × ( 3. we can also compute the power delivered or absorbed by each of the voltage sources and the current source..6025 amps i3=1.6025 – 36 + 4 × ( 3..18 (a).4f amps \t'.18 (b). does not exist. for instance.4f amps \t'..2737 ) = 0 With these values.I(1)).4f amps \t'.3975 + 1.. fprintf('i3 = %5. 0 4 3 −12]. I=R\V.6025 ) – 36.4 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources In the previous chapter we stated that a voltage source maintains a constant voltage between its terminals regardless of the current that flows through it.I(4))..2315 amps i4=0.2315 ) – 12 = 0 This yields v 5A = – 36. we can find the voltage drop across the 5 A current source by application of KVL around Mesh 1 using the following relation: 2 × 3. of course. fprintf(' \n'). 3-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We also stated that a current source maintains a constant current regardless of the terminal voltage. 5 0 −20 6. no voltage source can supply infinite current to a short circuit.3975 amps i2=-1.6025 + 0. Likewise a practical current source has an internal conductance which is represented as a resistance R p (or conductance G p ) in parallel with the current source i S as shown in Figure 3. This statement applies to an ideal voltage source which. A practical voltage source has an internal resistance which. fprintf('i2 = %5.I(3)). it is represented with an external resistance R S in series with the voltage source v S as shown in Figure 3...3975 + 1.I(2)). fprintf('i4 = %5. fprintf(' \n') i1=3.Circuit Theorems R=[6 15 −5 −8.

18 (a).33) and vS i ab = -----------------RS + RL (3.18 (b) the current of s the source will always be i S but the terminal current i ab will be i ab = i S – i RP if a load is connected at points a and b . a RS − − + i ab RP RL iS (b) a + v ab − b i ab RL + v ab − b vS (a) Figure 3.18. Equivalent sources From the circuit of Figure 3.18 (b) can be made equivalent to each other.18 (a) and 3.19 (a) and 3. Practical voltage and current sources In Figure 3.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources a RS − − (a) b iS (b) b a + vS Rp Figure 3. the load resistor R L is the same in both. in Figure 3. we will show that the networks of Figures 3. the voltage of the source will always be v S but the terminal voltage v ab will be v ab = v S – v R if a load is connected at points a and b . In the networks of Figures 3.34) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-21 .v S RS + RL (3. Now.19 (b). Likewise.19. RL v ab = -----------------.19 (a).

it applies to any load no matter how complex.i S Rp + RL (3.19 (b).36) Since we want v ab to be the same in both circuits 3.35) we get: RP RL RL v ab = -----------------. a voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be transformed to a current source i S whose value is equal to v S ⁄ R S . from (3. The voltage-to-current source or current-to-voltage source transformation is not limited to a single resistance load.40) Therefore.19 (b). Then.19 (a) and 3.33) and (3. in series with a resistance whose value is the same as R p .37) and (3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .39) and Rp = RS (3. RP RL v ab = -----------------. Example 3.36) we get: Rp vS i ab = -----------------.7 Find the current i 10 through the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3. from (3.v S = -----------------.19 (b). a current source i S in parallel with a resistance R p can be transformed to a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S .37) Likewise.38) vS = Rp iS (3.19 (a) and 3.i S Rp + RL (3. Likewise.20. 3-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we want i ab to be the same in both circuits 3.35) and RP i ab = -----------------. in parallel with a resistance R p whose value is the same as R S .34) and (3. from (3.= -----------------.i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3.38) and for any R L .Circuit Theorems From the circuit of Figure 3.

Circuit for Example 3.21. i 10 0.22.23.75 Ω conductance to a resistance and performing current-to-voltage source transformation. –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-23 . we get the circuit of Figure 3. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 3.7 after combinations of current sources and conductances Converting the 0. 8A 6A 0.21.7 where voltage sources have been transformed to current sources Combination of the two current sources and their conductances yields the circuit shown in Figure 3. Then. Circuit for Example 3. Circuit for Example 3.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources 2Ω − − 32 V − + 4Ω i 10 10 Ω 12 V + Figure 3.75 Ω 2A –1 10 Ω Figure 3. however.7 Solution: This problem can be solved either by nodal or by mesh analysis.25 Ω –1 Figure 3.20. we will transform the voltage sources to current sources and we will replace the resistances with conductances except the 10 Ω resistor.22. We will treat the 10 Ω resistor as the load of this circuit so that we can compute the current i 10 through it.5 Ω –1 i 10 10 Ω 0.

It states that we can replace a two terminal network by a voltage source v TH in series with a resistance R TH as shown in Figure 3. the current through the 10 Ω resistor is –8 ⁄ 3 i 10 = ---------------------. x × v xy × y (a) x × v xy Network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent circuit Load (Rest of the circuit) R TH Load (Rest of the circuit) + v TH − × y (b) Figure 3.7 in its simplest form Thus. Circuit for Example 3.24.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .41) 3-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Thevenin’s Theorem This theorem is perhaps the greatest time saver in circuit analysis.24 (a) if the load is removed in which case both networks will have the same open circuit voltages v xy and consequently. especially in electronic circuits. Replacement of a network by its Thevenin’s equivalent The network of Figure 3.24. v TH = v xy open (3.23.Circuit Theorems 4/3 Ω − + + − i 10 10 Ω 8/3 V Figure 3. v TH = v xy Therefore.24 (b) will be equivalent to the network of Figure 3.= – 4 ⁄ 17 A 10 + 4 ⁄ 3 3.

26. First step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3. we are left with the circuit shown in Figure 3.25. we can find the Thevenin resistance R TH by first shorting all (independent) voltage sources.25.42) where i SC stands for short-circuit current. 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3. Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem The Thevenin resistance R TH represents the equivalent resistance of the network being replaced by the Thevenin equivalent.27.8 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3.= -------i xy short i SC (3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-25 . first at terminals x and y and then at x' and y' as shown in Figure 3.26. 3Ω − − 12 V × x 3Ω 7Ω × x' + 6Ω 10 Ω v LOAD + i LOAD RLOAD v TH R TH x × + + y 5Ω × × − y' 8 Ω − y × Figure 3. If the network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent contains independent sources only.8 Solution: We will apply Thevenin’s theorem twice. Circuit for Example 3. and it is found from the relation v xy open v TH R TH = -------------------. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction that is opposite to the load when it has been disconnected from the rest of the circuit at terminals x and y .8 Breaking the circuit at x – y . opening all (independent) current sources.

29. Second step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3.43) and thus the equivalent circuit to the left of points x and x is as shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .8 Next.Circuit Theorems × x 6Ω R TH 3Ω + − 12 V ×y Figure 3.8 with first Thevenin equivalent 3-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the new circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.× 12 = 8 V 3+6 R TH V =0 s 3×6 = -----------. Circuit for Example 3. R TH 2Ω v TH 8V 3Ω 7Ω × x′ + i LOAD RLOAD − − 5Ω + v LOAD 10 Ω y′ × − 8Ω Figure 3.8 Applying Thevenin’s theorem at x and y and using the voltage division expression. we attach the remaining part of the given circuit to the Thevenin equivalent of Figure 3. R TH v TH 2Ω × x + − 8V × y Figure 3. First Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.28.= 2 Ω 3+6 (3.28.28. we get 6 v TH = v xy = -----------.29.27.

31. and the current i LOAD by Ohm’s law as shown below. R TH 2Ω − − 8V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω v TH × x′ + 5Ω × y′ Figure 3. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3. This is illustrated with the two examples that follow. 8 v LOAD = -------------.2 A 12 + 8 It is imperative to remember that when we compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance. we must always look towards the network portion which remains after disconnectinf the load at the x and y terminals. we get 10 v' TH = v x'y' = ----------------------------------. R' TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ + i LOAD RLOAD + 4V − − v LOAD − 8Ω y′ Figure 3.8 simplified by Thevenin’s theorem The voltage v LOAD is found by application of the voltage division expression.6 V 12 + 8 4 i LOAD = -------------.31.× 4 = 1.8 Using the voltage division expression. is shown in Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-27 . Entire circuit of Example 3.30. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' and we get the circuit of Figure 3.× 8 = 4 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 R' TH v TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω This Thevenin equivalent with the load resistor attached to it.30.Thevenin’s Theorem Now.= 0.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source.32 (a).33 (a).32 (b).= 75 Ω 300 + 100 Now.33. compute the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y 50 Ω 250 Ω 100 Ω × x R TH + − 240 V y × (a) (b) × y Figure 3. we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source. Thus. therefore.33 (b). 50 Ω 250 Ω × x 100 Ω Load Begin with this series combination Then. Thus. 300 × 100 R TH = ( 250 + 50 ) 100 = -----------------------.Circuit Theorems Let us consider the network of Figure 3. compute the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y × x Load 250 Ω 50 Ω 100 Ω 240 V x × RTH 50 Ω 100 Ω 250 Ω + y × − (a) y× (b) Figure 3.= 93.32. let us consider the network of Figure 3.75 Ω 150 + 250 3-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the right This network contains no dependent sources. 150 × 250 R TH = ( 50 + 100 ) 250 = -----------------------. Begin with this series combination Then. Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the left This network contains no dependent sources. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. therefore.

9 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3. and connecting the rest of the circuit.34.36. disconnecting the load resistor and applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' we get the circuit of Figure 3. By application of Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as before. + − − RTH v TH 2Ω x × 24 V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω x′ × + i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + − − 8V v LOAD y 5Ω × y′ × − Figure 3. although the resistors in the networks of Figures 3. therefore.9 Solution: This is the same circuit as the previous example except that a voltage source of 24 V has been placed in series with the 7 Ω resistor.9 with first Thevenin equivalent Next. 10 v' TH = v x 'y ' = ----------------------------------.35. that is. Circuit for Example 3. + − − 7Ω 10 Ω v LOAD 24 V 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω + 12 V + i LOAD RLOAD − − − 8Ω Figure 3.33 (b) have the same values. the Thevenin resistance is different since it depends on the direction in which we look into (left or right). There is no current flow in the 7 Ω resistor. Circuit for Example 3.Thevenin’s Theorem We observe that. the Thevenin voltage across the x' and y' points is the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the 10 Ω resistor and the 24 V source.× 8 – 24 = – 20 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-29 .34. Example 3.35. we get the circuit of Figure 3.32 (a) and 3.

Solution: This circuit contains a dependent voltage source whose value is twenty times the current through the 6 Ω resistor.36.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .37. We will apply Thevenin’s theorem at points a and b as shown in Figure 3. Final form of Thevenin equivalent with load connected for circuit of Example 3. that is.9 and the Thevenin resistance is the same as in the previous example. connecting the load R LOAD as shown in Figure 3. 3-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD .10 For the circuit of Figure 3.= – 1 A 12 + 8 Example 3.Circuit Theorems v TH 2Ω 3Ω 10 Ω + − − RTH x × 24 V 7Ω x′ × + − − 8V y 5Ω × y′ × Figure 3.38.9 8 v LOAD = --------------.37. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3. R' TH V TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω Finally. we compute v LOAD and i LOAD as follows: R′TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + −20 V − − v LOAD y′ Figure 3.× ( – 20 ) = – 8 V 12 + 8 – 20 i LOAD = --------------.39.

Thevenin’s Theorem + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3.39. Application of Thevenin’s theorem for Example 3. we disconnect the load resistor and our circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.44) To find the open circuit voltage v OC = v ab . Circuit for finding v OC = v ab of Example 3. we cannot short the dependent source. Circuit for Example 3. therefore. × a + − 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω + iX b × Figure 3.10 For the circuit of Figure 3.10 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω × a + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω + + − v LOAD b × Figure 3.10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-31 .40.38. we will find the Thevenin resistance from the relation v LOAD v OC RL → ∞ R TH = -------.= ------------------------------i SC i LOAD RL → 0 (3.39.40.

42 and we can find the short circuit current i SC from the circuit of Figure 3. Spreadsheet for Example 3. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 0 3 – 12 5 10 – 15 7 R I1 I2 I3 I = 4 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.53 A A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B 3 R= 3 10 0. Please refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter for a solution requiring nodal analysis.176 0. we must first compute the short circuit current I SC .106 R-1= -0.165 -0.41. we find that i 3 = – 3.10 Thus.53 ) × 4 = – 14.341 -0. Accordingly.43 where i SC = i 4 3-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .882 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ C -2 -12 -15 -0.247 -0. We chose mesh analysis since we only need three mesh equations whereas we would need five equations had we chosen nodal analysis.45) and after simplification and combination of like terms. we place a short across points a and b and the circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.294 D 0 5 7 0.46) Using the spreadsheet of Figure 3.42 I= -1.18 V Next. we write the three mesh equations for this network as 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4i 3 + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 (3.36 -3. to find the Thevenin resistance R TH . Observing that i X = i 1 – i 2 .353 E F G 4 H Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication V= 0 0 0.118 0. the Thevenin voltage at points a and b is v TH = ( – 3.41.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .53 Figure 3.Circuit Theorems We will use mesh analysis to find v OC which is the voltage across the 4 Ω resistor.

we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 3 – 12 10 – 15 0 0 R 0 5 7 –4 0 0 –2 11 i1 i2 i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 4 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. Mesh equations for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.43. Circuit for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.10 The mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3.42.10 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω i4 × a i SC + + iX − b × Figure 3.Thevenin’s Theorem × a i SC + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω + iX 5Ω b × Figure 3.43 are 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 – 4i 3 + 11i 4 = 0 (3.47) and after simplification and combination of like terms.48) We will solve these using MATLAB as follows: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-33 .

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

R=[3 −2 0 0; 3 −12 5 0; 10 −15 7 −2; 0 0 −4 11]; V=[4 0 0 0]'; I=R\V; fprintf(' \n');... fprintf('i1 = %3.4f A \t',I(1,1)); fprintf('i2 = %3.4f A \t',I(2,1));... fprintf('i3 = %3.4f A \t',I(3,1)); fprintf('i4 = %3.4f A \t',I(4,1));... fprintf(' \n');...fprintf(' \n')

i1 = 0.0173 A Therefore,

i2 = -1.9741 A

i3 = -4.7482 A

i4 = -1.7266 A

i SC = i 4 = – 1.727

and

v OC --------------R TH = -------- = – 14.18 = 8.2 Ω – 1.727 i SC

**The Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 3.44.
**

8.2 Ω a vTH RTH

×

+

− −14.18 V

×

Figure 3.44. Final form of Thevenin’s equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.10

b

**Finally, with the load RLOAD attached to points a and b, the circuit is as shown in Figure 3.45.
**

8.2 Ω vTH RTH

× +

i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω

a

+

− −

v LOAD

−14.18 V

−

×

b Figure 3.45. Circuit for finding v LOAD and i LOAD in Example 3.10

Therefore, using the voltage division expression and Ohm’s law we get

3-34

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem

8 v LOAD = ---------------- × ( – 14.18 ) = – 7.00 V 8.2 + 8 – 14.18 i LOAD = ---------------- = – 0.875 A 8.2 + 8

3.6 Norton’s Theorem

This theorem is analogous to Thevenin’s theorem and states that we can replace everything, except the load, in a circuit by an equivalent circuit containing only an independent current source which we will denote as i N in parallel with a resistance which we will denote as R N , as shown in Figure 3.46.

x × v xy × y x ×

Network to be replaced by a Norton equivalent circuit (a)

Load (Rest of the circuit)

Load (Rest of the circuit)

+

iN

−

v xy RN (b) × y

Figure 3.46. Replacement of a network by its Norton equivalent

The current source i N has the value of the short circuit current which would flow if a short were connected between the terminals x and y, where the Norton equivalent is inserted, and the resistance R N is found from the relation

v OC R N = -------i SC

(3.49)

where v OC is the open circuit voltage which appears across the open terminals x and y. Like Thevenin’s, Norton’s theorem is most useful when a series of computations involves changing the load of a network while the rest of the circuit remains unchanged. Comparing the Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalent circuits, we see that one can be derived from the other by replacing the Thevenin voltage and its series resistance with the Norton current source and its parallel resistance. Therefore, there is no need to perform separate computations for each of these equivalents; once we know Thevenin’s equivalent we can easily draw the Norton equivalent and vice versa.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-35

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Example 3.11 Replace the network shown in Figure 3.47 by its Thevenin and Norton equivalents.

iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

+

− 20i X V

y

Figure 3.47. Network for Example 3.11

Solution: We observe that no current flows through the 3 Ω resistor; Therefore, i X = 0 and the dependent current source is zero, i.e., a short circuit. Thus,

v TH = v OC = v xy = 0

and also

i SC = 0

This means that the given network is some mathematical model representing a resistance, but we cannot find this resistance from the expression

v OC R TH = R N = -------i SC

since this results in the indeterminate form 0 ⁄ 0 . In this type of situations, we connect an external source (voltage or current) across the terminals x and y. For this example, we arbitrarily choose to connect a 1 volt source as shown in Figure 3.48.

iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

− − 1V

+

− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.48. Network for Example 3.11 with an external voltage source connected to it.

3-36

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem

In the circuit of Figure 3.48, the 1 V source represents the open circuit voltage v OC and the current i represents the short circuit current i SC . Therefore, the Thevenin (or Norton) resistance will be found from the expression

v OC R TH = R N = -------- = 1 V = 1 V --------------i iX i SC

(3.50) .

**Now, we can find i from the circuit of Figure 3.49 by application of KCL at Node
**

v1 3Ω iX 3Ω 6Ω

x

− − 1V

+

− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.49. Circuit for finding i X in Example 3.11 v 1 – 20i X v 1 --------------------- + ---- + i X = 0 6 3

(3.51)

where

v1 – 1 i X = ------------3

(3.52)

**Simultaneous solution of (3.51) and (3.52) yields v 1 = 34 ⁄ 25 and i X = 3 ⁄ 25 . Then, from (3.50),
**

1 R TH = R N = ------------ = 25 ----3 ⁄ 25 3

**and the Thevenin and Norton equivalents are shown in Figure 3.50.
**

R TH v TH = 0

25/3 Ω

RN iN = 0

25/3 Ω

Figure 3.50. Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalents for Example 3.11

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-37

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
**

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.51. We want to find the value of R LOAD which will absorb maximum power from the voltage source v S whose internal resistance is R S .

RS − vS −

+

v LOAD

+

i LOAD R LOAD

−

Figure 3.51. Circuit for computation of maximum power delivered to the load R LOAD

**The power p LOAD delivered to the load is found from
**

R LOAD vS p LOAD = v LOAD × i LOAD = ⎛ ---------------------------- v S⎞ ⎛ ---------------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R S + R LOAD ⎠ ⎝ R S + R LOAD ⎠

or

R LOAD - 2 p LOAD = ----------------------------------- v S 2 ( R S + R LOAD )

(3.53)

**To find the value of R LOAD which will make p LOAD maximum, we differentiate (3.53) with respect to
**

R LOAD . Recalling that d d v (u) – u (v) d ⎛ u⎞ dx dx -- = --------------------------------------2 d x ⎝ v⎠ v

**and differentiating (3.53), we get
**

( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) dp LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d R LOAD (R + R )

S LOAD 2 2 2

(3.54)

**and (3.54) will be zero if the numerator is set equal to zero, that is,
**

( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) = 0

2 2 2

or

R S + R LOAD = 2R LOAD

or

3-38

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Linearity

R LOAD = R S

(3.55)

Therefore, we conclude that a voltage source with internal series resistance R S or a current source with internal parallel resistance R P delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or

R LOAD = R P . For example, in the circuits of 3.52, the voltage source v S and current source i N

**deliver maximum power to the adjustable* load when R LOAD = R S = R P = 5 Ω
**

RS 5 Ω

+

−

R LOAD vS

5Ω

+

−

RN iS

R LOAD 5Ω

5Ω

Figure 3.52. Circuits where R LOAD is set to receive maximum power

We can use Excel or MATLAB to see that the load receives maximum power when it is set to the same value as that of the resistance of the source. Figure 3.53 shows a spreadsheet with various values of an adjustable resistive load. We observe that the power is maximum when R LOAD = 5 Ω . The condition of maximum power transfer is also referred to as resistance matching or impedance matching. We will define the term “impedance” in Chapter 6. The maximum power transfer theorem is of great importance in electronics and communications applications where it is desirable to receive maximum power from a given circuit and efficiency is not an important consideration. On the other hand, in power systems, this application is of no use since the intent is to supply a large amount of power to a given load by making the internal resistance R S as small as possible.

3.8 Linearity

A linear passive element is one in which there is a linear voltage-current relationship such as

v R = Ri R d vL = L iL dt d iC = C vC dt

(3.56)

*

An adjustable resistor is usually denoted with an arrow as shown in Figure 3.52.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-39

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

RLOAD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

PLOAD 0.00 2.78 4.69 4.94 5.00 4.96 4.86 4.73 4.59 4.44 4.15 4.01 3.88 3.75 3.63

Power (Watts)

**Maximum Power Transfer 6 5
**

Power (Watts)

4.08

4 3 2 1 0

0 5 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Linear Scale 15 20

**Maximum Power Transfer
**

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Log Scale 100

4.30

Figure 3.53. Spreadsheet to illustrate maximum power transfer to a resistive load

Definition 3.1

A linear dependent source is a dependent voltage or current source whose output voltage or current is proportional only to the first power of some voltage or current variable in the circuit or a linear combination (the sum or difference of such variables). For example, v xy = 2v1 – 3i 2 is a linear relationship but p = vi = Ri 2 = v 2 ⁄ R and i = I S e

v ⁄ nV T

are non-linear.

Definition 3.2

A linear circuit is a circuit which is composed entirely of independent sources, linear dependent sources and linear passive elements or a combination of these.

3-40

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Superposition Principle 3.9 Superposition Principle
**

The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Note: Dependent sources (voltage or current) must not be superimposed since their values depend on the voltage across or the current through some other branch of the circuit. Therefore, all dependent sources must always be left intact in the circuit while superposition is applied. Example 3.12 For the circuit of Figure 3.54, compute i 6 by application of the superposition principle.

2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

12 V

+

−

4Ω i6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.54. Circuit for Example 3.12

Solution: Let i' 6 represent the current due to the 12 V source acting alone, i'' 6 the current due to the 36 V source acting alone, and i''' 6 the current due to the 5 A source acting alone. Then, by the principle of superposition,

i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6

First, to find i' 6 we short the 36 V voltage source and open the 5 A current source. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 3.55. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y of Figure 3.55, we obtain the circuit of Figure 3.56 and from it we get

4 × 12 v xy = v TH = -------------- = 8 V 2+4

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-41

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

2Ω 8Ω x × 10 Ω

+

12 V

−

4Ω

6Ω i' 6 ×

12 Ω

y

Figure 3.55. Circuit for finding i' 6 in Example 3.12 2Ω 8Ω x ×

− − 12 V

+

4Ω

y

×

Figure 3.56. Circuit for computing the Thevenin voltage to find i' 6 in Example 3.12

**Next, we will use the circuit of Figure 3.57 to find the Thevenin resistance. 2Ω 8Ω x
**

×

4Ω

RTH

y

×

Figure 3.57. Circuit for computing the Thevenin resistance to find i' 6 in Example 3.12 28 4×2 R TH = 8 + ------------ = ----- Ω 3 4+2

We find the current i' 6 from Figure 3.58.

3-42

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Superposition Principle

RTH vTH 10 Ω

+

8V

− i' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.58. Circuit for computing i' 6 in Example 3.12 12 8 i' 6 = ---------------------- = ----- A 23 28 ⁄ 3 + 6

(3.57)

**Next, the current i'' 6 due to the 36 V source acting alone is found from the circuit of Figure 3.59.
**

2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4Ω i'' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.59. Circuit for finding i'' 6 in Example 3.12

and after combination of the 2 Ω and 4 Ω parallel resistors to a single resistor, the circuit simplifies to that shown in Figure 3.60.

36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4 -- Ω 3 i'' 6

+

6Ω − 12 Ω

Figure 3.60. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i'' 6 for Example 3.12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-43

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

From the circuit of Figure 3.60, we get

54 36 i'' 6 = – ----------------------------- = – ----- A 23 4⁄3+8+6

(3.58)

Finally, to find i''' 6 , we short the voltage sources, and with the 5 A current source acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 3.61.

2Ω 8Ω 10 Ω

4Ω i''' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.61. Circuit for finding i''' 6 in Example 3.12

**Replacing the 2 Ω , 4 Ω , and 8 Ω resistors by a single resistor, we get
**

28 2×4 ------------ + 8 = ----- Ω 3 2+4

**and the circuit of Figure 3.61 reduces to that shown in Figure 3.62.
**

10 Ω 28 ----- Ω 3 i''' 6 6Ω 5A 12 Ω

Figure 3.62. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i''' 6 for Example 3.12

**We will use the current division expression in the circuit of Figure 3.62 to find i''' 6 . Thus,
**

28 ⁄ 3 70 i''' 6 = ---------------------- × ( – 5 ) = – ----28 ⁄ 3 + 6 23

(3.59)

Therefore, from (3.57), (3.58), and (3.59) we get

3-44

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Then. If a circuit contains only one non-linear device. however we will see how operational amplifiers can be represented by equivalent linear circuits in the next chapter.13 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor.60) and this is the same value as that of Example 3. conducts current only in the indicated direction + 1V − − vD D iD Figure 3. 3. Circuit for Example 3. Then. and all the other devices are linear.13 For the circuit of Figure 3.v (current-voltage) relationships are non-linear. for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models.87 A (3. The procedure is illustrated with the following example. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution.----.63. A detailed discussion of these is beyond the scope of this text. Example 3.----23 23 23 23 or i 6 = – 4.64. by KVL Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-45 . we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non-linear element. RTH vTH 1 KΩ Diode. such as a diode.5.Circuits with Non-Linear Devices 112 i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6 = 12 – 54 – 70 = – -----------.63. We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in figure 3. However.10 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices Most electronic circuits contain non-linear devices such as diodes and transistors whose i .

Check: Since this is a series circuit. the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 kΩ × 0.4 0.335 + 0.5 0.61) We observe that (3. Therefore.335 V .4 1.0 0.0 0. i D = 0 .8 0.4 0. The intersection of the non-linear curve and the straight line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D = 0. Then.0 0.8 0.6 0. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 3.61) is an equation of a straight line and the two points are obtained from it by first letting v D = 0 .3 0. then.64.335 mA . by KVL v R + v D = 0.2 0.6 0. i R = 0.335 mA = 0. Diode i-v characteristics vR + vD = 1 V or Ri D = – v D + 1 or 1 1 i D = – -.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .665 = 1 V 3-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v D + -R R (3.335 mA also.0 vD (volts) Figure 3.2 i D (milliamps) 1.1 0.665V and i D = 0.9 1.65 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.7 0.2 0.Circuit Theorems 1.

06 0.6 0.28 0.000 0.16 0. Thus.000 0.0 0. Curves for determining voltage and current in a diode 3.4 0.000 0.3 0.7 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1 0.65.4 1.11 Efficiency We have learned that the power absorbed by a resistor can be found from p R = i R and this power is transformed into heat.24 0.0 ID=−(1/R)VD+1/R Diode I-V Relationship for Circuit of Example 3.62) Obviously.2 1.04 0. while the total load of the second floor draws 40 amperes at the same time. In a long length of a conductive material.000 0.22 0. Accordingly.8 0.0 0.2 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.02 0. we define efficiency η as Output Efficiency = η = Output = ---------------------------------------------------Input Output + Loss 2 2 2 The efficiency η is normally expressed as a percentage. The building receives its electric power from a 480 V source.000 0. such as copper.5 0.000 0.13 ID (milliamps) VD (volts) Figure 3.0 0.000 0.10 0.6 0.30 Diode Current (milliamps) 0. this lost power is known as i R loss and thus the energy received by the load is equal to the energy transmitted minus the i R loss.4 0.2 0. the total load on the first floor draws an average of 60 amperes during peak activity. a good efficiency should be close to 100% Example 3.000 1.000 0.000 0.× 100 Input Output + Loss (3. Output Output % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.18 0.9 1.× 100 = -----------------------------------. Assuming that the total resistance of the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-47 .12 0.000 0.26 0.Efficiency Diode Voltage (Volts) 0.14 0.8 0.08 0.14 In a two-story industrial building.20 0.

66) Total power p L received by 1st and 2nd floor loads: p L = p S – p loss = 48. Solution: First.60 + 2.5 Ω ) = 60 × 1 = 3.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.6 = 2.56 = 6.84 % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.5 Ω + 0.65) Total power loss: p loss = p loss1 + p loss2 = 3.66.16 = 41.16 kilowatts (3. This is shown in Figure 3.84 kilowatts Output 41.5 Ω 0.5 Ω 60 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 40 A + 2nd Floor Load Figure 3.6 kilowatts 2 2 (3.17 % Input 48.14 Power p S supplied by the source: p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 × ( 60 + 40 ) = 48 kilowatts (3.64) Power loss between source and 2nd floor load: p loss2 = i 2 ( 0.63) Power loss between source and 1st floor load: p loss1 = i 1 ( 0.68) 3-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .67) (3.66.8 Ω 0. we draw a circuit that represents the electrical system of this building. 0.6 Ω .00 (3.8 Ω + 0.× 100 = 87.8 Ω ) = 40 × 1.× 100 = -----------. compute the efficiency of transmission.56 kilowatts 2 2 (3. Circuit for Example 3.Circuit Theorems cables (copper conductors) on the first floor is 1 Ω and on the second floor is 1.00 – 6.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

for a circuit that contains N nodes.69) Example 3.15 Compute the regulation for the 1st floor load of the previous example. we create combined nodes as illustrated in Example 3. v NL – v FL %Regulation = ---------------------.Regulation 3. the total voltage drop in the conductors is 60 × 1 = 60 V . the regulation is defined as In other words. we must write N – 1 independent nodal equations in order to completely describe that circuit. denoting the no-load voltage as v NL and the full-load voltage as v FL . v NL – v FL Regulation = ---------------------v FL The regulation is also expressed as a percentage. Solution: The current drawn by 1st floor load is given as 60 A and the total resistance from the source to the load as 1 Ω .× 100 v FL (3.2. the fullload voltage of the load is v FL = ( 480 – 60 = 420 V ) and the percent regulation is v NL – v FL 480 – 420 % Regulation = ---------------------.× 100 = ----------------------. we create combined meshes as illustrated in Example 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-49 .12 Regulation The regulation is defined as the ratio of the change in load voltage when the load changes from no load (NL) to full load (FL) divided by the full load. and N nodes. Thus. Therefore.× 100 = 14. When the presence of current sources in a circuit seem to complicate the mesh or loop analysis because we do not know the voltage across those current sources. B branches.3 % v FL 420 3. When the presence of voltage sources in a circuit seem to complicate the nodal analysis because we do not know the current through those voltage sources.13 Summary • When using nodal analysis. Thus.6. we must write L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations in order to com- pletely describe that circuit. Then. for a circuit that contains M meshes or L loops. • When using nodal analysis.

by a voltage source denoted as v TH in series with a resistance denoted as R TH . opening all independent current sources. by a current source denoted as i N in parallel with a resistance denoted as R N . linear dependent sources. 3-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. If the circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. inductors. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. and capacitors. If the circuit contains dependent sources. • A practical voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be replaced by a current source i S whose value is v S ⁄ i S in parallel with a resistance R P whose value is the same as R S • A practical current source i S in parallel with a resistance R P can be replaced by a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S in series with a resistance R S whose value is the same as R P • Thevenin’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load.Circuit Theorems • A practical voltage source has an internal resistance and it is represented by a voltage source whose value is the value of the ideal voltage source in series with a resistance whose value is the value of the internal resistance. The value of i N represents the short circuit current where the circuit is isolated from the load and R N is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. If the circuit contains dependent sources. the value of R N can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. the value of R TH must be computed from the relation R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC • Norton’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. If a given circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . • A practical current source has an internal conductance and it is represented by a current source whose value is the value of the ideal current source in parallel with a conductance whose value is the value of the internal conductance. and linear passive devices such as resistors. the value of R N must be computed from the relation R N = v OC ⁄ i SC • The maximum power transfer theorem states that a voltage source with a series resistance R S or a current source with parallel resistance R S delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or R LOAD = R N • Linearity implies that there is a linear voltage−current relationship. the value of R TH can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. independent current sources. • A linear circuit is composed entirely of independent voltage sources. opening all independent current sources. The value of v TH represents the open circuit voltage where the circuit is isolated from the load and R TH is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-51 . It is normally expressed as a percentage. • Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output to input and thus it is never greater than unity. .Summary • The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. It is normally expressed as a percentage. • Regulation is defined as the ratio of v NL – v FL to v FL and ideally should be close to zero.

6 V B. 3 A D. Circuit for Question 2 3-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .68 is A. – 2 A B.14 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. Circuit for Question 1 2.67 is A. none of the above + 2Ω − 10 V − 4V 2Ω 2Ω i 2Ω + Figure 3. The current i in the circuit of Figure 3. none of the above − 6V + 2Ω 8A + − 8A Figure 3.67. 5 A C. 32 V E. 4 A E.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . – 8 V D. 16 V C.68.Circuit Theorems 3. The voltage across the 2 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.

– 8 A C.Exercises 3.69 are relative to some reference node which is not shown. – 4 A B.70. The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 3. – 9 A D. 8 ⁄ 3 A C. 6 A E. – 6 A E.70 is A. none of the above 6Ω 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 8A i 3Ω + − Figure 3. Circuit for Question 3 4. The current i is A. Circuit for Question 4 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-53 . none of the above 4V 6V 2Ω + 6V i 2Ω − 12 V 8V + − 8V 8V 2Ω 13 V Figure 3. – 3 A B.69. The value of the current i for the circuit of Figure 3. – 5 A D.

none of the above + 2A 4Ω v − Figure 3. 6 V C. Circuit for Question 6 4Ω + kv − 3-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For that circuit. 8 V D. The value of the voltage v for the circuit of Figure 3.71.71 is A. 12 V E. the value of k is dimensionless. Circuit for Question 5 vX 2Ω + 2v X − − 6.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 0 E.72. no solution is possible if the value of k is A.Circuit Theorems 5. ∞ D. For the circuit of Figure 3.72. 1 C. 4 V B. none of the above + + 2A 2Ω v − Figure 3. 2 B.

5 D. none of the above a 2Ω 2A b Figure 3. Network for Question 8 2Ω + 2V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-55 . For the network of Figure 3. none of the above a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω 2Ω 2Ω Figure 3. 2 C. the Thevenin equivalent resistance R TH to the right of terminals a and b is A.Exercises 7.73. the Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH across terminals a and b is A. – 3 V B.74. 1 B. Network for Question 7 8. For the network of Figure 3.73. 1 V D. – 2 V C. 10 E. 5 V E.74.

For the network of Figure 3. – 1 A C.75. 5Ω E. 1. the Norton equivalent current source I N and equivalent parallel resistance R N across terminals a and b are A. In applying the superposition principle to the circuit of Figure 3. none of the above i 2Ω 8A 2Ω − 2Ω + 4V Figure 3.76.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 8 A B. 0 A.Circuit Theorems 9. 4 A D. the current i due to the 4 V source acting alone is A. – 2 A E. 2 Ω B. 2. 1 A. Network for Question 10 3-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 Ω D. Network for Question 9 2A 2A 10.76. 25 Ω C. none of the above a 5Ω 5Ω b Figure 3.75.5 A. 4 A.

– 499.78. Answers: – 3. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 36A in Figure 3.6 V + 12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω − + 4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A Figure 3.80. Answer: 21.9 A.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. Use nodal analysis to compute the current through the 6 Ω resistor and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3.82.17 w 4. Answer: 1. Use mesh analysis to compute the current through the i 6 Ω resistor. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage across the 18 A current source in the circuit of Figure 3. Answer: 86.77. – 499.81.79.77. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 10 Ω in Figure 3. Answer: 0.9 A.78.34 V 5. Answers: – 3.Exercises Problems 1. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.5 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-57 .33 w 6. Circuit for Problem 2 3. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3.

81. Circuit for Problem 3 120 V 4Ω 8Ω 12 Ω 240 V 3Ω + + − 36 V + + 4Ω 12 A 36 A − v 36A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 4 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω − + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A − i6 Ω 15 Ω + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 5 + − 36 V 3-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .80.79.

Circuit for Problem 6 + − 12 V 2Ω 6A 10 Ω + 24 V − 36 V 12 V 3Ω 8A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 8 3-59 . In the circuit of Figure 3. Compute the power absorbed by the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.73 w + 20 Ω − 9. Circuit for Problem 7 Figure 3.84.83 using any method. Compute the power absorbed by the 20 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.84 using any method. Answer: 1.83.4 Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − 12 V 24 V Figure 3. Answer: 73.Exercises 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω − 15 Ω 8Ω 6Ω + iX 10 Ω v 10 Ω − + 7.85: a.82. To what value should the load resistor R LOAD should be adjusted to so that it will absorb maximum power? Answer: 2.32 w 2Ω 3Ω − 6Ω + 8.

Circuit Theorems b.87.86. Circuit for Problem 10 5Ω iX 11. Answer: 1. Answers: i N = 0.86 by its Norton equivalent.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3.75 Ω a 15 Ω 4Ω 5iX b Figure 3.87.85. R N = 23. Circuit for Problem 9 10. Circuit for Problem 11 3-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Replace the network shown in Figure 3. What would then the power absorbed by R LOAD be? Answer: 135 w + 12 Ω − 36 V 15 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω R LOAD Figure 3. Use the superposition principle to compute the voltage v 18A in the circuit of Figure 3.

Exercises

12. Use the superposition principle to compute voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.88. Answer: 21.6 V +

12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω −

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

Figure 3.88. Circuit for Problem 12

**13.In the circuit of Figure 3.89, v S1 and v S2 are adjustable voltage sources in the range
**

– 50 ≤ V ≤ 50 V, and R S1 and R S2 represent their internal resistances. Table 3.4 shows the results

of several measurements. In Measurement 3 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 1, and in Measurement 4 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 2. For Measurements 5 and 6 the load resistance is adjusted to 1 Ω . Make the necessary computations to fill-in the blank cells of this table.

TABLE 3.4 Table for Problem 13

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6

Switch S 1 Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Switch S 2 Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

v S1 (V)

v S2 (V)

i LOAD (A)

48 0 0 15

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5

0

Answers: – 15 V , – 7 A , 11 A , – 24 V

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-61

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

+

R S1 1 Ω R S2

−

1Ω − v S2 S2

i LOAD v LOAD

v S1 S1

Adjustable Resistive Load

**14. Compute the efficiency of the electrical system of Figure 3.90. Answer: 76.6%
**

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.90. Electrical system for Problem 14 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

15. Compute the regulation for the 2st floor load of the electrical system of Figure 3.91. Answer: 36.4%

0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.91. Circuit for Problem 15 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

Figure 3.89. Network for Problem 13

+

−

+

2nd Floor Load

+

2nd Floor Load

3-62

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Exercises

16. Write a set of nodal equations and then use MATLAB to compute i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Example 3.10 which is repeated as Figure 3.92 for convenience. Answers: – 0.96 A, – 7.68 V +

3Ω 6Ω 5Ω Figure 3.92. Circuit for Problem 16 − 3Ω − − 12 V 7Ω 4Ω v LOAD

20i X 10 Ω

+

iX

+

i LOAD RL

− 8Ω

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-63

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.15 Answers to Exercises
**

Multiple Choice 1. E The current entering Node A is equal to the current leaving that node. Therefore, there is no current through the 2 Ω resistor and the voltage across it is zero.

−

6V

+

2Ω 8A A 8A 8A

+

− 8A

**2. C From the figure below, V AC = 4 V . Also, V AB = V BC = 2 V and V AD = 10 V . Then,
**

V BD = V AD – V AB = 10 – 2 = 8 V a n d V CD = V BD – V BC = 8 – 2 = 6 V . T h e r e f o r e , i = 6 ⁄ 2 = 3 A.

+

2Ω

−

4V 2Ω C 2Ω i

A − 10 V

B 2Ω D

+

3. A From the figure below we observe that the node voltage at A is 6 V relative to the reference node which is not shown. Therefore, the node voltage at B is 6 + 12 = 18 V relative to the same reference node. The voltage across the resistor is V BC = 18 – 6 = 12 V and the direction of current through the 3 Ω resistor is opposite to that shown since Node B is at a higher potential than Node C. Thus i = – 12 ⁄ 3 = – 4 A

4V 6V A

2Ω

+

6V C 3Ω i B

−

12 V 8V

+

−

8V

8V

2Ω 13 V

3-64

+

−

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

4. E We assign node voltages at Nodes A and B as shown below.

6Ω 12 V A 3Ω 6Ω B i 8A 3Ω

+

−

At Node A

V A – 12 V A V A – V B ----------------- + ----- + ------------------ = 0 6 3 6

and at Node B

VB – VA VB ------------------ + ----- = 8 3 3

These simplify to

2 -- V A – 1 V B = 2 -3 3

and

2 1 – -- V A + -- V B = 8 3 3

**Multiplication of the last equation by 2 and addition with the first yields V B = 18 and thus
**

i = – 18 ⁄ 3 = – 6 A .

**5. E Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
**

A + vX + 2A 2Ω v − 2Ω + 2v X − −

v v – 2v X -- + ---------------- = 2 2 2

or

v – vX = 2

Also by KVL

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-65

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

v = v X + 2v X

and by substitution

v X + 2v X – v X = 2

or

vX = 1

and thus

v = v X + 2v X = 1 + 2 × 1 = 3 V

**6. A Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
**

A + 2A 4Ω v − 4Ω + kv −

v v – kv -- + ------------- = 2 4 4

or

1 -- ( 2v – kv ) = 2 4

and this relation is meaningless if k = 2 . Thus, this circuit has solutions only if k ≠ 2 . 7. B The two 2 Ω resistors on the right are in series and the two 2 Ω resistors on the left shown in the figure below are in parallel.

a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω

2Ω 4Ω

2Ω

2Ω

Starting on the right side and proceeding to the left we get 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || 4 = 2 , 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || ( 3 + 2 || 2 ) = 4 || ( 3 + 1 ) = 4 || 4 = 2 Ω .

3-66

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

8. A Replacing the current source and its 2 Ω parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source in series with a 2 Ω resistance we get the network shown below. +

− 2V 2Ω 2Ω i − 4V b a

**By Ohm’s law,
**

4–2 i = ----------- = 0.5 A 2+2

and thus

v TH = v ab = 2 × 0.5 + ( – 4 ) = – 3 V

9. D The Norton equivalent current source I N is found by placing a short across the terminals a and b. This short shorts out the 5 Ω resistor and thus the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

a 5Ω 2A b I SC = I N A 2A

**By KCL at Node A,
**

IN + 2 = 2

and thus I N = 0 The Norton equivalent resistance R N is found by opening the current sources and looking to the right of terminals a and b. When this is done, the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+

3-67

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

a 5Ω 5Ω b

Therefore, R N = 5 Ω and the Norton equivalent circuit consists of just a 5 Ω resistor. 10. B With the 4 V source acting alone, the circuit is as shown below.

i − + 2Ω − B 2Ω + − A 2Ω

+ 4V

We observe that v AB = 4 V and thus the voltage drop across each of the 2 Ω resistors to the left of the 4 V source is 2 V with the indicated polarities. Therefore,

i = –2 ⁄ 2 = –1 A

Problems 1. We first replace the parallel conductances with their equivalents and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.

v 1 12 Ω 1 4Ω 12 A

–1 –1

v 2 15 Ω 2

–1

v3 3

+

v 18 A 18 A − 6Ω

–1

24 A

**Applying nodal analysis at Nodes 1, 2, and 3 we get: Node 1:
**

16v 1 – 12v2 = 12

Node 2:

– 12 v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = – 18

3-68

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

Node 3:

– 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 24

**Simplifying the above equations, we get:
**

4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3 – 4 v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = – 6 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

**Addition of the first two equations above and grouping with the third yields
**

6v 2 – 5v 3 = – 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

For this problem we are only interested in v 2 = v 18 A . Therefore, we will use Cramer’s rule to solve for v 2 . Thus,

D2 v 2 = ----∆ D 2 = – 3 – 5 = – 21 + 40 = 19 8 7 ∆ = 6 – 5 = 42 – 25 = 17 –5 7

and

v 2 = v 18 A = 19 ⁄ 17 = 1.12 V

2. Since we cannot write an expression for the current through the 36 V source, we form a combined node as shown on the circuit below. +

v1 1 4Ω 12 A 36 V v3 12 Ω 2 v 2 15 Ω 3 −

+

6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

**At Node 1 (combined node):
**

v1 v1 – v2 v3 – v2 v3 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + ---- – 12 – 24 = 0 4 6 12 15

and at Node 2,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-69

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------- + --------------- = – 18 12 15

Also,

v 1 – v 3 = 36

**Simplifying the above equations, we get:
**

7 1 3 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 + ----- v 3 = 36 30 3 20 311 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36

**Addition of the first two equations above and multiplication of the third by – 1 ⁄ 4 yields
**

1 --- v 1 + 1 v 3 = 18 6 4 1 1 – -- v 1 + -- v 3 = – 9 4 4

**and by adding the last two equations we get
**

5----- v 3 = 9 12

or

108 v 3 = v 6 Ω = -------- = 21.6V 5

**Check with MATLAB:
**

format rat R=[1/3 −3/20 7/30; −1/12 3/20 −1/15; 1 0 −1]; I=[36 −18 36]'; V=R\I; fprintf('\n'); disp('v1='); disp(V(1)); disp('v2='); disp(V(2)); disp('v3='); disp(V(3))

**v1= 288/5 v2= -392/5 v3= 108/5 3. We assign node voltages
**

v1 , v2 , v3 , v4

and current i Y as shown in the circuit below. Then,

3-70

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

v1 v1 – v2 ---- + --------------- + 18 – 12 = 0 4 12

and

v2 – v1 v2 – v3 v2 – v4 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 12 12 6

v1

12 Ω v 2 iX 6Ω

18 A 15 Ω

v3

+

i6 Ω − 36 V −

4Ω 12 A

v4

5i X iY 24 A

**Simplifying the last two equations above, we get
**

1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12

+

and

111 19 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 – -- v 4 = 0 12 15 6 60 5 1 2 Next, we observe that i X = --------------- , v 3 = 5i X and v 4 = 36 V . Then v 3 = ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) and by 12 v –v 12

**substitution into the last equation above, we get
**

19 1 1 5 1 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- × ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) – -- 36 = 0 60 6 15 12 12

or

1 31 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 9 90

**Thus, we have two equations with two unknowns, that is,
**

1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12 31 1 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 90 9

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-71

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .= – 3.Circuit Theorems Multiplication of the first equation above by 1 ⁄ 3 and addition with the second yields 19 ----. we find v 3 from 55-----------------.v 1 – ----.-------1 -.9 A 6 6 19 To compute the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source. the node voltages of interest are: v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 V v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 V v 3 = – 435 ⁄ 38 V v 4 = 36 V The current through the 6 Ω resistor is v2 – v4 74 240 ⁄ 19 – 36 i 6 Ω = --------------.v 2 = 4 60 or v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 We find v 1 from 1 1 -. we must first find the current i Y .v 2 = – 6 3 12 Thus.⎛ – 282 – 240⎞ = – 435 12 12 ⎝ 19 38 19 ⎠ Therefore. v3 – v2 i Y – 24 – 18 + --------------.( v 1 – v 2 ) = ----. 1.-------v 3 = ----.= – ----.= -----------------------------. It is found by application of KCL at node voltage v 3 .× 240 = – 6 12 19 3 or v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 Now. Thus.v 1 – ----.= 0 15 or 3-72 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

17 w 38 145 38 that is. the dependent source supplies power to the circuit.= ----------15 38 and 1657 --------------------p = v 3 i Y = – 435 × ----------. − 120 V 4Ω + + 240 V 3Ω − i6 8Ω i5 12 Ω 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 i3 6Ω i4 24 A Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Combined mesh (2 and 3): – 4i 1 + 12i 2 + 18i 3 – 6i 4 – 8i 5 – 12i 6 = 0 or – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 We now re-insert the 36 A current source and we write the third equation as i 2 – i 3 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: – 8 i 2 + 12i 5 = 120 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-73 . Since we cannot write an expression for the 36 A current source. 4. we temporarily remove it and we form a combined mesh for Meshes 2 and 3 as shown below.= – 72379 = – 499.Answers to Exercises – 435 ⁄ 38 – 240 ⁄ 19 i Y = 42 – ---------------------------------------------15 915 ⁄ 38 1657 = 42 + -----------------.

I=R\V..Circuit Theorems – 2 i 2 + 3i 5 = 30 Mesh 6: – 12 i 3 + 15i 6 = – 240 or – 4 i 3 + 5i 6 = – 80 Thus. I(1)).... I(2)).. fprintf('\n'). fprintf('i3=%7. 0 0 0 1 0 0. I(3))... 0 0 −4 0 0 5]. 3-74 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .2f A \t'.... fprintf('\n').. we have the following system of equations: i1 i2 – i3 i4 –2 i2 –4 i3 + 3i 5 = 12 = 36 = – 24 = 30 + 5i 6 = – 80 – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 and in matrix form 1 –2 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 –2 0 0 9 –1 0 0 –4 0 –3 0 1 0 0 0 –4 0 0 3 0 0 –6 0 0 0 5 i1 i2 i3 ⋅ i4 i5 i6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 0 36 – 24 30 – 80 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 6 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 0..2f A \t'.. 0 1 −1 0 0 0... fprintf('i1=%7. −2 6 9 −3 −4 −6.... fprintf('i2=%7. V=[12 0 36 −24 30 −80]'.2f A \t'.. 0 −2 0 0 3 0...

..79 ) ] + 6 × [ ( – 29.34 = 0.73 ) – ( 24. I(6)).00 ) ] or v 36 A = 86.. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-75 .00 A i2= i5= 6.2f A \t'. Thus.18 ] + 86. we find that 4 × [ 6..14 5. we must show that v 4 Ω + v 8 Ω + v 36 A = 0 By substitution of numerical values.2f A \t'.27 – 14.27 A 14... We assign mesh currents as shown below. fprintf('i6=%7. fprintf('\n') i1= 12. we apply KVL around Mesh 2.Answers to Exercises fprintf('i4=%7.73 A i6= -39.18 A i3= -29. 120 V 4Ω + + − 240 V 3Ω − i5 8Ω i6 12 Ω + 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 36 A v 36 A − i3 6Ω i4 24 A v 36 A = v 12 Ω + v 6 Ω = 12 × [ ( – 29.27 – 12 ] + 8 × [ 6.. Thus. fprintf('i5=%7. I(5)). I(4)).73 ) – ( – 39. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 3..00 A i4= -24.34 V To verify that this value is correct. we can find the voltage v 36 A by application of KVL around Mesh 3.. We will show that we obtain the same answers using mesh analysis.79 A Now.2f A \t'.

3-76 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the above reduces to – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i 2 – 5i 5 = 36 or – i 2 + 21i 3 – 20i 5 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: i 5 = 18 Grouping these five independent equations we get: i1 – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – i 2 + 21i 3 i4 = 12 – 6i 5 = – 18 – 20i 5 = 36 = – 24 i 5 = 18 and in matrix form.Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω i5 + i3 − 5i X i4 24 A + i1 i2 − 36 V Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Mesh 2: – 4i 1 + 22i 2 – 6i 3 – 12i 5 = – 36 or – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – 6i 5 = – 18 Mesh 3: – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i X = 36 and since i X = i 2 – i 5 .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

...61 + 24. p 5i = 5i X ( i 3 – i 4 ) = 5 ( i 2 – i 5 ) ( i 3 – i 4 ) X = 5 ( 15. 0 0 0 1 0. 0 −1 21 0 −20. .61 A i 6 Ω = i 2 – i 3 = 15..9 A Next.. fprintf('i5=%7..71 – 19.33 w These are the same answers as those we found in Problem 3. fprintf('i1=%7.2f A \t'.. I(3)).71 A 18. I(1)).00 A i3= 19. 0 0 0 0 1]..Answers to Exercises 1 –2 0 0 0 0 11 –1 0 0 0 –3 21 0 0 R 0 0 0 –6 0 – 20 1 0 0 1 i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 i5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 – 18 36 – 24 18 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 5 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 .00 ) = – 499.2f A \t'. fprintf('i3=%7.. I(5))..2f A \t'... V=[12 −18 36 −24 18]'..2f A \t'. fprintf('i4=%7. I(2)). I=R\V. fprintf('\n')...00 ) ( 19. fprintf('i2=%7.. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-77 . 6..71 – 18. I(4)).. fprintf('\n').00 A By inspection. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ i2= i5= 15.2f A \t'.....61 = – 3. We assign mesh currents as shown below and we write mesh equations. fprintf('\n') i1= 12.00 A i4= -24. −2 11 −3 0 −6..

6 –8 0 0 –2 0 –3 29 – 6 – 15 –3 8 0 10 – 10 – 1 R i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 9 – 24 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V 3-78 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ + + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Circuit Theorems 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω i1 − i4 15 Ω 8Ω i2 24 V 6Ω + iX i3 10 Ω v 10 Ω − 12 V Mesh 1: or 24i 1 – 8i 2 – 12i 4 – 24 – 12 = 0 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3i 4 = 9 Mesh 2: Mesh 3: or – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 – 6 i 2 + 16i 3 = 0 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 = 0 Mesh 4: or i 4 = 10i X = 10 ( i 2 – i 3 ) 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 Grouping these four independent equations we get: 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 – 3i 4 = 9 = 0 – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 and in matrix form.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

× 10 = 160 = 1.32 w ⎝ 11 ⎠ 121 121 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-79 .. fprintf('i3=%7.2f A \t'. we find v 10 Ω by Ohm’s law....94 A i2= 0. we obtain the simplified circuit below.. we get 4 1 i 10 Ω = -------------. 0 10 −10 −1]. fprintf('\n') i1= 1. I=R\V.5 V The same value is obtained by computing the voltage across the 6 Ω resistor. v 6 Ω = 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 6 ( 0.. 1Ω 4A 10 Ω Applying the current division expression. I(4)).. fprintf('\n').2 162 -------p 10 Ω = i 10 Ω ( 10 ) = ⎛ ----.2f A \t'. −8 29 −6 −15. fprintf('i4=%7. I(2)).13 – 0.. Voltage-to-current source transformation yields the circuit below.Answers to Exercises We find the currents i 1 through i 4 with the following MATLAB code: R=[6 −2 0 −3. fprintf('i2=%7....× 4 = ----. V=[9 −24 0 0]'. 0 −3 8 0 .05 = 0. that is..05 A i4= 0.05 ) = 0. 2Ω 6A 8A 6Ω 6A 10 Ω 3Ω By combining all current sources and all parallel resistors except the 10 Ω resistor. I(3)). I(1)).2f A \t'..A 11 1 + 10 and thus 4. fprintf('i1=%7.2f A \t'. v 10 Ω = 10i 3 = 10 × 0.. that is..13 A i3= 0.48 V 7.79 A Now.⎞ × 10 = -------.

A 25 ΣR and thus 48 2 2304 2 p 20 Ω = i ( 20 ) = ⎛ ----.v 1 – ----.v 3 = 12 3 30 20 Node 2: 3-80 − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − − + + 24 V . Current-to-voltage source transformation yields the circuit below.+ --------------.= 0 4 6 12 15 or 1 7 3 -. 36 V 3 2 v 2 15 Ω 12 Ω 6Ω 18 A × y v3 × x + 1 v1 4Ω 12 A Node 1: v3 – v2 v3 v1 v1 – v2 ---.⎞ × 20 = ----------.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . We also form the combined node as shown on the circuit below.73 w ⎝ 25 ⎠ 625 9.Circuit Theorems 8. v 2 .× 20 = 73.v 2 + ----.– 12 + --------------.+ ---. 48 Σv i = -----.= ----. We remove R LOAD from the rest of the rest of the circuit and we assign node voltages v 1 . and v 3 . 2Ω − 20 Ω 12 V + 3Ω 12 V i From this series circuit.

I=[12 −18 36]'.⋅ 15 –1 v1 v2 v3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 12 – 18 36 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I We find the voltages v 1 through v 3 with the following MATLAB code: G=[1/3 −3/20 7/30.2f V \t'. we will group these three independent equations.2f V \t'. fprintf('\n').v 3 = – 18 20 12 15 Also..v 3 = 12 30 3 20 311– ----.v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36 and in matrix form. V(3)). V=G\I.v 2 – ----.= – 18 12 15 or 311– ----.+ --------------. fprintf('v2=%7.v 1 – ----. However.Answers to Exercises v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------. v 1 – v 3 = 36 For this problem. v2= -136..00 V Thus.v 2 + ----. for convenience.2f V \t'. fprintf('v1=%7.v 1 + ----.– ----3 20 1. 1 3 -.v 1 + ----. and we could find it by Gauss’s elimination method. express these in matrix form.00 V v TH = v 3 = – 36 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-81 . fprintf('v3=%7.00 V ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3= -36. 1 0 −1]. V(1)). and use MATLAB for their solution.v 2 – ----. we are interested only in the value of v 3 which is the Thevenin voltage v TH . fprintf('\n') v1= 0.3– ----. 7 1 3 -.----12 20 1 0 G 7 ----30 1– ----.. −1/12 3/20 −1/15. V(2)).

4 Ω 2. − + 36 V 2. For maximum power transfer. R LOAD = 2.4 Ω b.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .Circuit Theorems To find R TH we short circuit the voltage source and we open the current sources.4 Ω 36 V a.4 Ω Now. Power under maximum power transfer condition is 3-82 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . − + R LOAD = 2. we connect the load resistor R LOAD at the open terminals and we get the simple series circuit shown below. 12 Ω 4Ω 15 Ω 6Ω × x R TH × y We observe that the resistors in series are shorted out and thus the Thevenin resistance is the parallel combination of the 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors.4 Ω and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as shown below. 4 Ω || 6 Ω = 2. The circuit then reduces to the resistive network below. that is.

Then.4 ⎠ 10.= ------------.= ----------. 20i X ---------. We assign a node voltage Node 1 and a mesh current for the mesh on the right as shown below.+ i X = 5i X 4 or 6i X = 5i X but this can only be true if i X = 0 .4 + 2. a RN iX b To find R N we insert a 1 A current source as shown below.4 = 7.= 0 RN RN RN RN Thus.⎞ × 2.= -----. the Norton current source is open as shown below.+ i X = 5i X 4 Mesh on the right: ( 15 + 5 )i X = v 1 and by substitution into the node equation above.Answers to Exercises 36 . v OC v ab 5 × iX 5×0 i N = -------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-83 .5 × 2. v1 1 4Ω 5iX iX b iX 15 Ω 5Ω iX a At Node 1: v1 ---.2 2 2 p MAX = i R LOAD = ⎛ -------------------.4 = 135 w ⎝ 2.

v A + ----.= v B 4 15 or 19 16 ----. we will use MATLAB for their solution.v A – 16 v B = 0 ----60 15 4 1 – ----.v B = 0 60 15 At Node B: vB – vA vB ---------------.= 1 15 5 or 1 4 – ----. we are interested only in the value of v B which we could find by Gauss’s elimination method.v B = 1 15 15 3-84 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ---------------.+ ---.+ ---------------.v B = 1 15 15 For this problem.v A – ----.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 19 ----. However.= 5i X 4 15 But v B = ( 5 Ω ) × i X = 5i X and by substitution into the above relation vA vA – vB ---.v A + ----. for convenience.Circuit Theorems vA A 4Ω 5iX iX b iX v B 15 Ω 5Ω B iX 1A a At Node A: vA vA – vB ---.

19 16 ----. V(2)).00 V vB= 23. v 1 12 Ω –1 v 2 15 Ω v3 + 4Ω 12 A − –1 v' 18A 6Ω –1 The nodal equations at the three nodes are 16v 1 – 12v 2 = 12 – 12v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = 0 – 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 0 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-85 . The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents. we can find the Norton equivalent resistance from the relation 11.= ----. V=G\I. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 1.. fprintf('\n'). Let v' 18A be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone.75 V V ab VB R N = ------.– ----60 15 1 4.2f V \t'.⋅ – ----. V(1)).----15 15 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ G vA vB ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 0 1 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I –1 We find the voltages v 1 and v 2 with the following MATLAB code: G=[19/60 −16/15.= 23... fprintf('vB=%7. fprintf('\n') vA= 80. −1/15 4/15]. fprintf('vA=%7. I=[0 1]'.2f V \t'.Answers to Exercises and in matrix form.75 Ω I SC 1 Now.

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3

– 4v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = 0 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Since v 2 = v' 18A , we only need to solve for v 2 . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v 2 – 5v 3 = 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v 2 – 35v 3 = 21 – 25 v 2 + 35v 3 = 0

**and by addition of these we get
**

21 v 2 = v' 18A = ----- V 17

Next, we let v'' 18A be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.

vA 12 Ω

–1

v B 15 Ω

–1

vC

+

4Ω

–1

v'' 18A 18 A −

6Ω

–1

**The nodal equations at the three nodes are
**

16v A – 12v B = 0 – 12v A + 27v B – 15v C = – 18 – 15 v B + 21v C = 0

or

3-86

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

4v A – 3v B = 0

– 4v A + 9v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Since v B = v'' 18A , we only need to solve for v B . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v B – 35v C = – 42 – 25 v B + 35v C = 0

**and by addition of these we get
**

– 42 v B = v'' 18A = -------- V 17

Finally, we let v''' 18A be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.

v X 12 Ω

–1

v Y 15 Ω

–1

vZ

+

4Ω

–1

v''' 18A −

6Ω

–1

24 A

**The nodal equations at the three nodes are
**

16v X – 12v Y = 0 – 12v A + 27v Y – 15v Z = 0 – 15 v B + 21v Z = 24

or

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-87

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

4v X – 3v Y = 0

– 4v X + 9v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 8

Since v Y = v''' 18A , we only need to solve for v Y . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v Y – 35v Z = 0 – 25 v Y + 35v Z = 40

**and by addition of these we get
**

40 v Y = v''' 18A = ----- V 17

and thus

--------- -------- ----v 18A = v' 18A + v'' 18A + v''' 18A = 21 + – 42 + 40 = 19 = 1.12 V 17 17 17 17

This is the same answer as in Problem 1.

12. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 2. Let v' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

12 Ω 15 Ω

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and the circuit is further simplified to the one shown below.

3-88

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The voltage v' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

144 4 v' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 12⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Next, we let v'' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. The letters A, B, and C are shown to visualize the circuit simplification process.

15 Ω A 12 Ω B 15 Ω A A B 12 Ω 4Ω 18 A C A 12 || 15 Ω B

+

4Ω 18 A C 6Ω v'' 6 Ω −

+

v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω

+

v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω C 4Ω 18 A

The voltage v'' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

– 216 4 v'' 6 Ω = ----------- × ( – 18 ) × 6 = ----------- V 5 4+6

Now, we let v''' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-89

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

12 Ω

15 Ω

+

4Ω 6Ω

v''' 6 Ω 24 A

−

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and voltage v''' 6 Ω is computed by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

288 4 v''' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 24⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Finally, we let v 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 36 V voltage source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. +

A 12 Ω 36 V − 15 Ω B A 4Ω

iv

iv

12 Ω

+

4Ω C 6Ω v −

6 Ω

C 6Ω

+

+

v −

iv 6 Ω

−

36 V

15 Ω B

**By application of the voltage division expression we find that
**

v

iv 6 Ω

6 = ----------- × ( – 36 ) = – 108 -------4+6 5

iv 6 Ω

Therefore,

v 6 Ω = v' 6 Ω + v'' 6 Ω + v''' 6 Ω + v 144 216 288 108 108 = -------- – -------- + -------- – -------- = -------- = 21.6 V 5 5 5 5 5

This is the same answer as that of Problem 2. 13. The circuit for Measurement 1 is shown below.

3-90

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

R S1 v S1 1Ω

+

− 48 V R LOAD1

i LOAD1 16 A

**Let R eq1 = R S1 + R LOAD1 . Then,
**

v S1 ----R eq1 = ---------------- = 48 = 3 Ω 16 i LOAD1

For Measurement 3 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 1 and the load current is given as – 5 A . Therefore, for Measurement 3 we find that

v S1 = R eq1 ( – 5 ) = 3 × ( – 5 ) = – 15 V

**and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 2 is shown below.
**

R S2 v S2 1Ω

+

− 36 V R LOAD2

i LOAD2 6A

**Let R eq2 = R S1 + R LOAD2 . Then,
**

v S2 36 R eq2 = ---------------- = ----- = 6 Ω i LOAD2 6

**For Measurement 4 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 2 and v S2 is given as
**

– 42 V . Therefore, for Measurement 4 we find that v S2 42 i LOAD2 = ---------- = – ----- = – 7 A 6 R eq2

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 5 is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-91

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

R S1

+

v S1 15 V

1Ω R S2

1Ω v S2 v LOAD

i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

Replacing the voltage sources with their series resistances to their equivalent current sources with their parallel resistances and simplifying, we get the circuit below.

i LOAD 0.5 Ω 33 A R LOAD 1Ω

**Application of the current division expression yields
**

0.5 i LOAD = ---------------- × 33 = 11 A 0.5 + 1

**and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 6 is shown below.
**

R S1 1Ω R S2 A vA 1Ω v S2 i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

We observe that i LOAD will be zero if v A = 0 and this will occur when v S1 = – 24 . This can be shown to be true by writing a nodal equation at Node A. Thus,

v A – ( – 24 ) v A – 24 ------------------------ + ---------------- + 0 = 0 1 1

+

−

+

− 18 V −

v S1

+

−

+

− 24 V

3-92

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

or v A = 0 Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Switch

S1

Switch

S2 v S1 (V) v S2 (V) i L (A)

Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

48 0 -15 0 15 −24

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5 −7 11 0

**14. The power supplied by the voltage source is
**

p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 ( 100 + 80 ) = 86, 400 w = 86.4 Kw

**The power loss on the 1st floor is
**

p LOSS1 = i 1 ( 0.5 + 0.5 ) = 100 × 1 = 10, 000 w = 10 Kw

2 2

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

2nd Floor Load

**The power loss on the 2nd floor is
**

p LOSS2 = i 2 ( 0.8 + 0.8 ) = 80 × 1.6 = 10, 240 w = 10.24 Kw

2 2

**and thus the total loss is
**

Total loss = 10 + 10.24 = 20.24 Kw

Then,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-93

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Output power = Input power – power losses = 86.4 – 20.24 = 66.16Kw

and

66.16 Output % Efficiency = η = ----------------- × 100 = ------------ × 100 = 76.6% 86.4 Input

**This is indeed a low efficiency. 15. The voltage drop on the second floor conductor is
**

v cond = R T i 2 = 1.6 × 80 = 128 V 0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

2nd Floor Load

**and thus the full-load voltage is
**

v FL = 480 – 128 = 352 V

Then,

v NL – v FL 480 – 352 % Regulation = ---------------------- × 100 = ----------------------- × 100 = 36.4% 352 v FL

This is a very poor regulation. 16. We assign node voltages and we write nodal equations as shown below.

3-94

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

v1 3Ω − − 12 V v2 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω v5 v 1 = 12 v2 – v1 v2 v2 – v3 --------------- + ---- + --------------- = 0 3 3 6 v3 – v2 v3 – v5 v4 – v5 v4 – v5 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 3 10 4 7+8 v 3 – v 4 = 20i X

2 where i X = ---- and thus

+

−

v3

20i X

v4

combined node 7Ω

+

iX

10 Ω

4Ω

+

v LOAD

i LOAD RL

− 8Ω

v 6

10 v 5 = ----- v 2 3 v5 v5 – v3 v5 – v4 v5 – v4 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 10 4 7+8 5

**Collecting like terms and rearranging we get
**

v1 –1 5 –1 ----- v 1 + -- v 2 + ----- v 3 3 6 3 = 12 = 0

–1 ----------------- v 2 + 13 v 3 + 19 v 4 – 19 v 5 = 0 30 60 60 3 10 – ----- v 2 3 + v3 – v4 = 0

19 37 1– ----- v 3 – ----- v 4 + ----- v 5 = 0 60 60 10

and in matrix form

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-95

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

1 –1 ----3 0 5 -6 –1 0 ----3 ----0 – 10 3 0 0 0 0 –1 ----0 0 3 13 19 19 ----- ----- – ----30 60 60 1 –1 0

v1 v2 ⋅ v3 v4 v5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V =

12 0 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I

1- ----- 37 0 – ----- – 19 ----10 60 60 G

**We will use MATLAB to solve the above.
**

G=[1 0 0 0 0;... −1/3 5/6 −1/3 0 0;... 0 −1/3 13/30 19/60 −19/60;... 0 −10/3 1 −1 0;... 0 0 −1/10 −19/60 37/60]; I=[12 0 0 0 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf('\n');... fprintf('v1 = %7.2f V \n',V(1));... fprintf('v2 = %7.2f V \n',V(2));... fprintf('v3 = %7.2f V \n',V(3));... fprintf('v4 = %7.2f V \n',V(4));... fprintf('v5 = %7.2f V \n',V(5));... fprintf('\n'); fprintf('\n')

v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 Now,

= = = = =

12.00 13.04 20.60 -22.87 -8.40

V V V V V

v4 – v5 ) ----------------------------------------i LOAD = --------------- = – 22.87 – ( – 8.40 - = – 0.96 A 15 8+7

and

v LOAD = 8i LOAD = 8 × ( – 0.96 ) = – 7.68 V

3-96

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

vin vout Electronic Amplifier Figure 4. radio. image. telephony.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers T his chapter is an introduction to amplifiers.1 where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. television. 4. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. or radar. such as voltage.1. electric or magnetic field strength.2. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. Symbol for electronic amplifier An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. f (t) t Figure 4. It discusses amplifier gain in terms of decibels (dB) and provides an overview of operational amplifiers.2. Numerous formulas for the computation of the gain are derived and several practical examples are provided. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-1 . pressure. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. their characteristics and applications. A signal that changes with time 4. and so on. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 4. sound. temperature. current. A typical signal which varies with time is shown in figure 4.1 Signals A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. current.

Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or v out G v = -------v in (4. to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. By definition. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1000000 4-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers An amplifier can be classified as a voltage amplifier. 4. Thus for a voltage amplifier. For instance.1) The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). the common (base 10) logarithm of a number x will be denoted as log ( x ) while its natural (base e) logarithm will be denoted as ln ( x ) . Note 1: Throughout this text. p out dB = 10 log --------p in (4.3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. current amplifier. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels ( dB ) . it means that the output is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. the output is equal to the input. we use absolute values of power. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . voltage and current when these are expressed in dB. We must remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. or power amplifier. if an amplifier has a gain of −100 (dimensionless number). For instance.2) Therefore. Therefore.

For instance. Likewise.= 20 log v in v out -------v in 2 (4. the dB values for voltage and current ratios become: v out 2 dB v = 10 log -------.2 Compute the gain in dB v for the amplifier shown in Figure 4.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these.3 . Amplifier for Example 4.5 .1 Solution: p out dB w = 10 log --------. if we let R = 1 . 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 . Amplifier for Example 4.3. v in 1v v out 2v Figure 4.4. p in 1w p out 10 w Figure 4. given that log 2 = 0. we can estimate other values. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1.1 Compute the gain in dB w for the amplifier shown in Figure 4. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1.4.3.4) Example 4.Decibels Also.= 10 log 10 = 10 log 10 = 10 × 1 = 10 dBw ----1 p in Example 4.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-3 . Since y = log x = 2 log x and p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R .= 20 log i in i out ------i in (4.3) and i out 2 dB i = 10 log ------.25 = 2.

In + − Σ Gain Amplifier Out In + − Feedback Circuit Partial Output Feedback Σ Gain Amplifier Feedback Path Out Entire Output Feedback Figure 4.6. Gain amplifiers used with feedback In Figure 4.707 Bandwidth v out ω1 ω2 ω Figure 4. Alternately. v out = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. At these frequencies. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half-power points. the magnitude of the output voltage v out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 4. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies respectively. This summing point may 4-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . for example. 1 0.707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half-power points. or portion of it. Consider.3 = 6 dBv -1 v in 4. and for R = 1 and v = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.6.6.707 or i = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters. is combined with the input signal.3 = 20 × 0. Typical bandwidth of an amplifier As shown above. the power is “halved”.5. that is.707 . They derive their name from the fact that power p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R .= 20 log 2 = 20 log 0. the power is 1 ⁄ 2 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: v out dB v = 20 log -------. the symbol Σ (Greek capital letter sigma) inside the circle denotes the summing point where the output signal. Most amplifiers are used with a feedback path which returns (feeds) some or all its output to the input as shown in Figure 4.5.

i. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. Practically. The positive (+) sign below the summing point implies positive feedback which means that the output. differentiation. analog-to-digital conversion or vice versa. 4.e. Figure 4.The Operational Amplifier be also indicated with a large plus (+) symbol inside the circle. the negative (−) sign implies negative feedback which means that the output.7.8 shows the internal construction of a typical op amp. is subtracted from the input. Symbol for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. This figure also shows terminals V CC and V EE . Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. is added to the input. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. or portion of it. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. integration etc. addition. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. 4. and so on. diodes. 1 2 − + 3 Figure 4..5 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp is the most versatile electronic amplifier. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 . and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. Typically. Operation to be performed.7. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition. Its symbol is shown in Figure 4. capacitors. V CC is +15 volts and V EE is −15 volts. integration. all amplifiers use used with negative feedback since positive feedback causes circuit instability. For this reason it is referred to as differential input.6 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1. or portion of it. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. single ended output amplifier. multiplication. On the other hand. Very good stability 6.

the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------. For the circuit of Figure 4.8.9. Internal Devices of a Typical Op Amp An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers VCC 1 NON-INVERTING INPUT 2 INVERTING INPUT 3 OUTPUT 1 2 3 VEE Figure 4. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 4.9.= – ------v in R in (4.5) 4-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Circuit of Inverting op amp − + − + v out Note 2: The resistor R connected between the non-inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device.9. hence the name inverting amplifier.10. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100. Thus.5). and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain. Example 4.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 . Therefore. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. For example. It will be omitted in our subsequent discussion. As shown in the formula of (4. the output will be 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input.An Overview of the Op Amp Rf R in v in + − R Figure 4. the output will be −100 volts DC. given that v in = 1 mV . For AC (sinusoidal) signals. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input.9. should not be interpreted as open circuits. Note 3: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 4. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa.

3 4-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10.11.11.= – ------------------20 KΩ R in or Gv = –6 and since v out G v = -------v in the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 or v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.3 Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 vIN = 1 mV vOUT = −6 mV Time Figure 4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.

the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in .4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. 8 6 v OUT / v IN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 vOUT = −6sint vin = sint Time Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 .14. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. that is. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 4.12. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.13. given that v in = sin t mV .= – ------------------.12.4 An op amp is said to be connected in the non-inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non-inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter. In our subsequent discussion.13. Circuit for Example 4. Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------.An Overview of the Op Amp Example 4.= – 6 20 KΩ R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.

For example. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.14. hence. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4.6). if the input is 0. in the non-inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal. Example 4.15. Circuit for Example 4. Thus. For AC signals the output will be in-phase with the input. the output will be +75 mV DC . the output will be also negative. For example.5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 .5 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.5 Solution: The voltage gain G v is 4-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . given that v in = 1 mV .14. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. the output will be 10 V AC and in-phase with the input. Circuit of non-inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 4.15. the gain for this op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore. the name non-inverting amplifier. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + − − R + + v out − Figure 4. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------.6) As indicated by the relation of (4.= 1 + ------v in R in (4.

that is. 8 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 vOUT = 7 mV vIN = 1 mV Time Figure 4.17.16.6 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid.= 1 + ------------------. the voltage gain G v is the same as before.An Overview of the Op Amp v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------.16. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.17.6 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.= 1 + ------. given that v in = sin t mV . v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------. Circuit for Example 4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.= 1 + ------.5 Example 4.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.= 1 + ------------------.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 . Therefore. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4.

= 1 v in (4.18. An example will be given in Section 4.19. the op amp circuit of Figure 4.19 it is called unity gain amplifier.7) and thus v out = v in (4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.19. For example. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC . The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it.8) For this reason. Circuit of unity gain op amp + R + − + v out For the circuit of Figure 4.8. − v in − Figure 4.6 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 4. the output will also be 2 mV AC .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.18. and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC . 8 6 vOUT = 7sint vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time vIN = sint Figure 4. 4-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.19.

falls to 0. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors.21. Frequency response for amplitude of a low-pass filter In Figure 4. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.20. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters. An op amp low-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.Active Filters 4.21. and as mentioned before. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 . A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff ) frequency denoted as ω C .4 0.8 |vOUT / vIN| Half-Power Point 0. vin Figure 4.7 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors.2 0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4.20 and its frequency response in Figure 4. A low-pass active filter vout Low Pass Filter Frequency Respone 1 Ideal 0. capacitors and inductors.21. the gain G v . this is the half power or the – 3 dB point.6 0.707 × Gv . In contrast. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. that is. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low-pass filter characteristics.

i. the gain G v .0 0. falls to 0.24 and its frequency response in Figure 4.707 × G v . the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high-pass filter characteristics. An op amp band-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. Frequency response for amplitude of a high-pass filter In Figure 4.0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4. A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .707 × Gv . An op amp high-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. vin Figure 4. An op amp band-pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. the half power or the – 3 dB point.25. falls to 0.23.4 0.22. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency.23.22 and its frequency response in Figure 4. A high-pass active filter vout High-pass Filter Frequency Response 1.8 Ideal Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| 0. that is.6 0.23..2 0. 4-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in .e.

4 0. An op amp band-stop filter is shown in Figure 4. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band.3 0.9 0.6 0. falls to 0.5 0.26 and its frequency response in Figure 4.707 × G v .8 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 .2 0. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-pass filter A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .1 0 Ideal Half-Power Points Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| Realizable ω ω ωcω1 ω2 Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.Active Filters vin vout Figure 4. An active band-pass filter Band Pass Filter Frequency Response 1 0.25.7 0.27.24. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.

1 0 Ideal Half-Power Half-Power PointPoints Realizable |vOUT / vIN| ω1 ωc ω2 ω ω Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.4 0. the power supplies will not be shown. KCL and KVL.7 0. For circuits containing op amps.3 0. For simplicity. The currents into both input terminals are zero b. The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. An active band-elimination filter Band-Elimination Filter Frequency Response 1 0.2 0. superposition.6 0. we can apply Ohm’s law. 4-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .26.8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. That is. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-elimination filter 4.8 0. When analyzing an op amp circuit. we must remember that in any op-amp: a.5 0.27.9 0. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers vin vout Band Elimination Active Filter Circuit Figure 4.

28 is called inverting op amp. Rf R in v in + − i R Figure 4. Example 4. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f . Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.= – ------v in R in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 . this is discussed in electronic circuit analysis books.28. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4.28. Also.= – ------v in R in i − + − + v out (4.9) below.9) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp.v in R in or v out Rf G v = -------. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits We will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation.7 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. v out = – R f i where v in i = ------R in and thus Rf v out = – ------. From the circuit of Figure 4.

31. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.30. as mentioned in Chapter 1.30.10) below. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and. Input and output parts of the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 4.10) 4-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit of non-inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.8 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp Example 4. + v in − R in − + Rf ------.= 1 + ------v in R in (4. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4.29 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground.v in R in + − v out Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 4.31 is called non-inverting op amp. Rf R in − + v in − + + v out − Figure 4.29. v in+ − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 4. the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS).

33.+ -------------------.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R Rf R f ⎠ in in Rearranging.32. therefore.11) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals.+ --------------------. Relation (4.+ ---.10) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.= 0 R in Rf (4.11) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------. we get Rf v out G v = -------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 .= 1 + ------v in R in and its equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 4.= 0 Rf R in or 1 1 ⎛ ------. Non-inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 4. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in . The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS. + R in i1 v1 v2 v in − Rf − − i2 + + − + v out Figure 4.32.

= 1 v in (4. the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain 4-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⎞ v . letting R f → 0 . the non-inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of the non-inverting op amp Example 4.9 If. out f We will obtain the same result if we consider the non-inverting op amp gain G v = --------.= 1 + ------.. - v R v in R in Then.33. then v out = v in .34.13) Proof: With R in open and R f shorted.34. prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------. Circuit of Figure 4.32 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).12) and thus v out = v in (4. − v in − + + − + v out Figure 4. in the non-inverting op amp circuit of the previous example.⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.

With the load connected. With the load R LOAD reconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits amplifier or voltage follower. Circuit for Example 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-21 . It is also called buffer amplifier because it can be used to “buffer” (isolate) one circuit from another when one “loads” the other as we will see on the next example. Insert a buffer amplifier between a and b and compute the new voltage v LOAD across the same load R LOAD 12 V 7 KΩ a × R LOAD 5 KΩ b × + − 5 KΩ v in Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. a × R LOAD 5KΩ b × Figure 4. compute the voltage v LOAD across the load R LOAD c. With the load R LOAD disconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 4. compute the open circuit voltage v ab b.36.37.10 For the circuit of Figure4. With the load R LOAD disconnected.× 12 = 5 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ b. Example 4.36.35.35 a.10 Solution: a.10 with the load disconnected 12 V 7 KΩ + − 5 KΩ v in The voltage across terminals a and b is 5 KΩ v ab = --------------------------------.

14) 4-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 4.38. × 12 V a − + R LOAD 5 KΩ 7 KΩ + v LOAD = v ab = 5 V − + v in − 5 KΩ 5V × b Figure 4. ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------.⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ (4. Circuit for Example 4. With the insertion of the buffer amplifier between points a and b and the load.38. Example 4.10 with the insertion of a buffer op amp From the circuit of Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers a × R LOAD 5KΩ b × Figure 4.10 with the load reconnected 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ v LOAD = -----------------------------------------------------. we observe that the load R LOAD “loads down” the load voltage from 5 V to 3. Prove that for this circuit. the circuit now is as shown in Figure 4.39 is called summing circuit or summer because the output is the summation of the weighted inputs.38.16 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ 12 V 7 KΩ + − 5 KΩ v in Here.11 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.37. c.× 12 = 3.16 V and this voltage may not be sufficient for proper operation of the load. we observe that the voltage across the load is 5 V as desired.+ --------.

39.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 Rf − + + v in 1 − R in 2 + + v out − v in 2 − Figure 4. Alternately. Example 4.+ -------. Circuit for Example 4. Then.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 R f and solving for v out we get (4. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal. we get v in 1 v in 2 v out --------. Two-input summing op amp circuit Proof: We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero. R in 1 10 KΩ v in 1 R in 2 Rf − 1 MΩ + R in 3 + 1 mV 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV + v out − − + − + − 30 KΩ v in 3 10 mV Figure 4.40.12 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4.+ --------.12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 .40.14). and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded. we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone.15) Next. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted. Rf R in 1 v in 1 10 KΩ 1 MΩ − + R in 3 30 KΩ v out 1 − + − 1 mV R in 2 20 KΩ + Figure 4.12 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (4.42. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone.41. Then by superposition. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. The circuit of Figure 4. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. 4-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 First. v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone.42 as a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.41.43. Circuit for Example 4.

× v in 2 = ---------------. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------.× 4 mV = 2. The circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.42.16) Finally.43.4 mV = 242.4 mV (4.44. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted.12 with v in 2 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV R in 3 − + To v ( + ) + 30 KΩ − Figure 4.4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 .45. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 + − 4 mV R in 3 30 KΩ 1 MΩ − + + v out 2 − Figure 4.44 is also a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.

13 For the circuit shown in Figure 4.17).16) and (4. and R f .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 1 MΩ − + + v out 3 − 30 KΩ − + v in 3 10 mV Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.15). from (4.44.45. 4-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .× v in 2 = ---------------. (4. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone Then.4 mV Example 4. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242.× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV (4.12 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ + v in 3 − 10 mV − To v ( + ) Figure 4. R 3 . R 2 .17) Therefore.46. derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 . R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------.4 + 404 = 546.

13 Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 4.⎟ v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 Rf ⎝ R1 Rf ⎠ or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 .⎞ v = v in + -----------⎝R ⎠ 1 Rf R1 Rf 1 or R f v in + R 1 v out ⎛ R 1 + R f⎞ ⎜ ---------------.+ -------------------.46.47.13 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ---------------.+ ---. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 4. R1 v1 v2 Rf − + v out − + − v in R2 R3 + Figure 4.= 0 R1 Rf or v out 1.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R1 Rf − + + − v in R2 R3 v out − + Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.1⎛ ----.47.

20) we get R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------.( R 1 + R f ) R2 + R3 Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.– ----R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R1 v in and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 R v out G v = -------.20) Equating the right sides of (4. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit.9 Input and Output Resistance The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. we get v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f -------.19) and since v 2 = v 1 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 + Rf (4.22) 4-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. vS R in = ---iS (4.18) At node v 2 : v 2 – v in v 2 ---------------.= -----------------------------f v in R1 ( R2 + R3 ) (4.21) 4.18) and (4.= ----------------------------.= ----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or R 3 v in R f v in + R 1 v out = ----------------.+ ----.= 0 R2 R3 or R 3 v in v 2 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.19) as R 3 v in v 1 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4. we rewrite (4.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 . a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Problem 8. we want i S to be as small as possible. Example 4. say 100 .24) we observe that R in = R 1 (4.49. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i S which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v S . Circuit for Example 4. for a large gain. we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible. it follows that vS i S = ----R1 (4. desirable to make R 1 as high as possible. Of course. Obviously. vS R in = ---iS (4. this is an impractical value.48. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ . However.15 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp shown in Figure 4. R1 vS − Rf iS − + + + v out − Figure 4.14 Solution: By definition. Fortunately. accordingly.25) It is therefore. Example 4.23) and (4.24) From (4.14 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 4.Input and Output Resistance Therefore.47 in terms of R 1 and R f .23) and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground. the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ .

Therefore.= --. Rf v in iX 100 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 4.15 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground). and we treat v in as the source voltage. that is. It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example.49. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. 4-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .15 Solution: In the circuit of Figure 4. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current.49.= 0 iX iX By definition.26) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance.50. not the source voltage v S . Circuit for Example 4. Circuit for Example 4. In this case.49. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit. Therefore. v in 0 R in = -----. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp. we apply a test (hypothetical) current i X as shown in Figure 4. v OC R out = -------i SC (4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf 100 KΩ v in − + + v out − Figure 4.

29) reduces to v LOAD = G v v in and by comparison with (4. v LOAD 5 KΩ -------------.× G v v in R out + R LOAD (4. − R out + +v − out Figure 4.51.28) R LOAD v LOAD = -------------------------------. the load voltage v LOAD is R LOAD v LOAD = -------------------------------.Input and Output Resistance Example 4. v out = v OC = G v v in (4.× v out R out + R LOAD (4.51. Partial circuit for Example 4.27) and (4.27) With a load R LOAD connected at the output terminals.27). Compute the output resistance R out . relation (4.28) and from (4.16 The output voltage of an op amp decreases by 10% when a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output terminals.16 With no load connected at the output terminals.29) Therefore. Solution: Consider the output portion of the op amp shown in Figure 4. we see that v LOAD = v OC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-31 .= 0.29) that as R out → 0 .9 = -----------------------------v OC R out + 5 KΩ and solving for R out we get R out = 555 Ω We observe from (4.

and so on.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. It is normally expressed in decibel (dB) units where by definition dB = 10 log p out ⁄ p in • Frequency response is the band of frequencies over which the output remains fairly constant. image. radio. or portion of it. telephony. • The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. or radar. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2.707 of its maximum value. i. They are also known as half-power points.. current. sound. television. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. • The lower and upper cutoff frequencies are those where the output is 0. elec- tric or magnetic field strength. • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. Operation to be performed. A unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3.e. integration etc. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. addition. • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. Very good stability 6. al that changes with time. diodes. 4-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . capacitors. • The gain of an non-inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. is fed back to the input. • Most amplifiers are used with feedback where the output.10 Summary • A signal is any waveform representing a fluctuating electric quantity. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. • Op amps are also used as active filters. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal. such as voltage.

R o = v OC ⁄ i SC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. to the short circuit current which is the current that flows through a short circuit connected at the output terminals.707 × G v . • A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . • A summing op amp is a circuit with two or more inputs. while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. falls to 0.Summary • A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency. R in = v S ⁄ i S • The output resistance (not to be confused with the load resistance) is the ratio of the open circuit voltage when the load is removed from the circuit. • A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . • The input resistance is the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. that is. that is. falls to 0. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. • A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .707 × Gv . where the maximum value of G v which is unity.

53 v in = 6 V . none of the above R in Rf − v in − + R + + v out − Figure 4. – 4 V D. 4 V E. and R f = 3 KΩ . R in = 1 KΩ . Circuit for Question 2 4-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Question 1 2.52.52 v in = 2 V . Then v out will be A. R in = 2 KΩ .53. 1 KΩ B. This will be obtained if the feedback resistor R f has a value of A.11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 3 KΩ D. 2 KΩ C. 9 V C. none of the above R in v in + − Rf − + − + v out Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4. In the op amp circuit of Figure 4. 4 KΩ E. and it is desired to have v out = 8 V . In the circuit of Figure 4. – 9 V B.

In the circuit of Figure 4. 0 V C. ∞ V B. In the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 3 4.55 i S = 4 mA and R = 3 KΩ . – 10 V E. none of the above − + R iS − + v out Figure 4.55. none of the above Rf − iS + − + v out Figure 4. Then v out will be A. ∞ V B. In the circuit of Figure 4. and R LOAD = 6 KΩ . Then v out will be A.56 v in = 4 V . 0 V C. 10 V D. R in = 12 KΩ . R f = 18 KΩ .54. Circuit for Question 4 5.54 i S = 2 mA and R f = 5 KΩ .Exercises 3. – 12 V E. indeterminate D. Then i will be Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 .

none of the above R in v in + − − Rf i R LOAD + + v out − Figure 4. – 4 ⁄ 3 mA D.57. 4 ⁄ 3 mA E. 1 mA C. – 2 V B.57 v in = 1 V and all resistors have the same value. – 4 V D. 2 V C. 4 V E. none of the above Rf − R in 1 Rf − R in 1 2 2 v in − + + + v out − + Figure 4. Then v out will be A. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 1 mA B.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A.56. Circuit for Question 6 4-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Question 5 6.

In the circuit of Figure 4. and R in = R f = 1 KΩ . Circuit for Question 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 . – 10 V C. Then v out will be A. Then v out will be A.58 v in1 = 2 V .58. v in2 = 4 V . 8 V E. Circuit for Question 7 8. – 5 V B. none of the above 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v in + − 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + 10 KΩ + v out − Figure 4.Exercises 7. – 2 V B. none of the above R in Rf +v − − in 1 + v in 2 − + − + v out Figure 4. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 90 V E. 2 V C.59.59 v in = 30 V . – 8 V D. – 15 V D.

40 A C. 400 A E. none of the above 4 KΩ v in + − R in 4 KΩ − + 2 KΩ + 2 KΩ v out − 1 KΩ Figure 4. 4 KΩ D. the current i is A. none of the above + 5Ω 2A vX − 10 Ω + i − 40v X Figure 4. the input resistance R in is A. 1 KΩ B. Network for Question 10 4-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – 40 A B. 8 KΩ E. 2 KΩ C.60. Network for Question 9 10.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 9.61. For the circuit of Figure 4. – 400 A D. For the circuit of Figure 4.60.61.

and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 . R in 1 . Answer: 4µA − + 60 mV 4 KΩ i 5KΩ 5 KΩ + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ Figure 4. compute v out 2 . R in 2 .62. v in 2 . For the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources and their internal resistances.– --------.63. Answer: – 0.63.Exercises Problems 1. For the circuit of Figure 4.62. Circuit for Problem 2 3.64.– --------. and v in 3 respectively. in3 in2 in1 Answer: v out = R f ⎛ --------.9 V v in 1 3 KΩ 10 mV − + 27 KΩ − 10 KΩ − v ou t1 − 90 KΩ + + v in 2 − + + − + v out 2 Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4. compute i 5KΩ .⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 v v v Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 . and the feedback resistance R f .

4-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .66.66 (b). Answer: 3. Circuit for Problem 3 4. For the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Problem 4 5.64. For the circuit of Figure 4.66 (a) can be represented by its equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4.75 KΩ R2 R1 v in+ − v out − + v out − + (a) + v in − R1 − R2 v ----+ R 1 in v out − + (b) Figure 4. compute v out .65. Answer: – 40 mV 10 KΩ 50 KΩ − + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − Figure 4. The op-amp circuit of Figure 4.65.67 (c). compute the value of R L so that it will receive maximum power.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R in1 − R in2 R in3 Rf + + vout − + v in1 − + v in2 − v in3 − + Figure 4.

compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in .69. Circuits for Problem 5 6.Exercises 20 KΩ 2 KΩ v in+ − − 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ + v out R LOAD − (c) Figure 4.67.69. Answer: 20 mV 84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ − + + − + 72 mV 5 KΩ v 5KΩ − Figure 4.68. Answer: – ( 2 ⁄ 37 ) R3 40 KΩ R2 R1 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ + 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Figure 4.68. For the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Problem 6 20 KΩ v out − + 7. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 . For the circuit of Figure 4. compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem.

70. show that the gain is given by v out R5 1 G v = --------.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ v in R1 4 R3 R5 R4 R1 + v in − Figure 4.70. For the circuit of Figure 4.R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 8.= – ----. Circuit for Problem 8 R2 + v out − 4-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

= – -. C For v in = 2 and v out = 8 .+ --------------------------------------. E All current flows through R and the voltage drop across it is 4 mA × 3 KΩ = 12 V . D All current flows through R f and the voltage drop across it is – ( 2 mA × 5 KΩ ) = – 10 V 4.mA 3 6 KΩ 18 KΩ + 12 KΩ 3 6.Answers to Exercises 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-43 . the output of the first op amp is 2 V and the output of the second is 4 V . Therefore. it follows that v out = 12 V also. R f = 3 KΩ 2. v in = 30 V . A v out = – R f ⁄ R in × v in = – 9 V 3. Therefore. D The gain of each of the non-inverting op amps is 2. C v out = – ( 18 ⁄ 12 ) × 4 = – 6 V . Since this circuit is a unity gain amplifier. Then v out will be 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v A v in + − 10 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + v out − We now attach the remaining resistors and the entire equivalent circuit is shown below. B We assign node voltage v A as shown below and we replace the encircled port by its equivalent. v out = – 2 + 8 = 6 V 8. Thus. i LOAD = v out ⁄ R LOAD = – 6 V ⁄ 6 KΩ = – 1 mA . E By superposition.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. Applying KCL at the plus (+) terminal of v out we get 4 –6 V –6 V–4 V 1 i = ------------. v out 1 due to v in1 acting alone is – 2 V and v out 2 due to v in2 acting alone is 8 V . Therefore. 7.= – 1 – -. the gain must be G v = 4 or 1 + R f ⁄ R in = 4 . 5.

this circuit is an attenuator. v out = – 2v A = – 10V NOTE: For this circuit. C The voltage gain for this circuit is 4 KΩ ⁄ 4 KΩ = 1 and thus v out = – v in . This circuit is presented just for instructional purposes.+ ---. Op amps are not configured for attenuation.= 0 10 10 5 and thus v A = 30 ⁄ 6 = 5 V Therefore. the magnitude of the voltage is less than the magnitude of the input voltage.= 0 4 4 or v = 0 Then v in i = ------------4 KΩ 4-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + vA − A 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 KΩ + + − v out 2v A − + v in 30 V − Application of KCL at Node A yields v A – 30 v A v A – ( – 2v A ) ---------------. not an amplifier. 4 KΩ v in + − i R in 2 KΩ 1 KΩ v 4 KΩ − + + 2 KΩ v out − v – v in v – ( – v in ) -------------. 9. A better and simpler attenuator is a voltage divider circuit. The voltage v at the minus (−) input of the op amp is zero as proved below.+ ---------------------. Therefore.+ --------------------------.

× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier. Then. i = – 400 ⁄ 10 = – 40 A Problems 1. A For this circuit. We assign R LOAD .= 4 KΩ v in ⁄ 4 KΩ 10. − + 60 mV 4 KΩ + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 + v LOAD − i 5KΩ + − 5 KΩ 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = --------------------------------. v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then 90 v out2 = ⎛ 1 + ----. we get v LOAD = v 1 = 20 mV Then Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-45 . and v LOAD as shown below.9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2.Answers to Exercises and v in R in = -----------------------. v 1 .⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0. v X = – 10 V and thus 40v X = – 400 V .

( – v in3 ) R in3 Then.v in1 R in1 We observe that the minus (−) is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 .= 4 × 10 A = 4 µA 3 R LOAD 5 KΩ 5 × 10 3. We assign voltages v − and v + as shown below. 10 KΩ v − 50 KΩ − v+ + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − 4-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --------------. v in3 v in2 v in1 v out = R f ⎛ --------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers –3 v LOAD –6 20 mV 20 × 10 i 5KΩ = --------------. Also.v in2 R in2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 and v out3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – --------. By superposition v out = v out1 + v out2 + v out3 where v out1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – --------.– --------.= ---------------------.– --------.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 4. v out2 Rf = – --------.

21) using MATLAB: R1=10000. Vout=(R1*R3-R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0. Rf=50000.v – ------------------.= 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ or 1 6 ------------------.⎞ – ------------------.---------------------1 ------------------.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------.+ -------------------. 15 KΩ .⎛ 80 × 10 . By Thevenin’s theorem Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-47 . Vin=40*10^(−3).= 0 40 KΩ 20 KΩ or 3 -------------------.0400 5.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3 − 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 At the plus (+) terminal v+ v + – 40 mV --------------------------. and R LOAD resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below.– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 or v out = – 40 mV Check with (4. We attach the 5 KΩ . R2=20000.Answers to Exercises At the minus (−) terminal v − – 40 mV v − – v out --------------------------.+ ---------------. R3=40000.v + = 2 × 10 – 6 3 40 × 10 or ---------------------v + = 80 × 10 3 –3 Since v + = v − we equate the nodal equations and we get 6 .

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × + v in − 2 KΩ + − 10v in 15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = -----------------------------------.5v in R TH = ----------------------------. 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × i SC + − 10v in We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus – 10v in –3 i SC = --------------.75 KΩ 4-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 3.= – 2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ Then – 7.75 KΩ R LOAD v TH + − Therefore.75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below.5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source.( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ or v TH = – 7. R TH = 3. for maximum power transfer we must have R LOAD = R TH = 3. we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.

⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------. When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below. This is a non-inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below.⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the value of the VCVS is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎜ 1 + ------.Answers to Exercises 6. + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------. 12 KΩ a v ab − b 84 KΩ + − 72 mV i + + 6v 5KΩ − By KVL ( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV or 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = -------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ ) Also Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-49 .⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we get the circuit below. 84 KΩ 12 KΩ ×a + − 72 mV 4 KΩ 5 KΩ + + v 5KΩ − ×b − 6v 5KΩ To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor.⎞ v .

12 KΩ + 4 KΩ a i SC b 84 KΩ 6 µA 12 KΩ 84 KΩ − 72 mV 4 KΩ a i SC b Now 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.µA 29 10.= -----------------.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = ----------------------------------------.= 58 KΩ i SC 126 ⁄ 29 and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below.v 5KΩ 4 or 3 v 5KΩ – -.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 = 72 mV – 9 mV + -. v OC 252 R TH = -------.5 KΩ and by the current division expression 126 10. a R TH = 12 KΩ + − v TH = 252 mV 5 KΩ b 4-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 KΩ + 4 KΩ Therefore.v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4 and thus v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown on the left below.× 6 µA = -------. We also perform voltage-source to current-source transformation and we get the circuit on the right below.

+ ---------------.v out 4 Equating the right sides we get 5 1 ----. 5 v 5KΩ = -------------.+ ---------------⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 1 200 KΩ 40 KΩ Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields 1 v 1 = ----.+ ---------------.v out 4 14 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-51 .+ ------------------.= 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ or v in v out 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------.= 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ or 5 v 1 = – -.+ ---------------.( v in + 5v out ) 14 Node 2: 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ---------------.+ ----------------.× 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5 7.+ ---------------. R3 40 KΩ 40 KΩ R4 v 2 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R2 + R1 v 1 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Node 1: v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.⎞ v = ------------------.( v in + 5v out ) = – -.Answers to Exercises Finally.

v out = – ----.= – ----v in 37 8.v in R1 Node 2: v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.+ ----. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ------------------.v out R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 4-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 0 R1 R3 or R3 v 2 = – ----.+ ----.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R R5 R4 R5 ⎠ 2 3 or 1 v 2 = ----------------------------------------------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 37 1 ----.+ ------------. v2 R3 R4 R5 R1 + v in − v1 R2 + v out − Node 1: 0 – v in 0 – v 2 -------------.= 0 R3 R5 R4 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.v in 28 14 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out 2 G v = -------.+ ----.

v out = – ----.= – ----.Answers to Exercises Equating the right sides we get R3 1 ----------------------------------------------.v in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 R1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out R5 1G v = --------.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-53 .R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers NOTES 4-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

their voltage-current relationships. The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are referred to as lines of magnetic flux. The effects of the inductance and capacitance properties can best be stated in simple differential equations since they involve the changes in voltage or current with time.1 Energy Storage Devices In the first four chapters we considered resistive circuits only. 5. Procedures for analyzing circuits with inductors and capacitors are presented along with several examples.2 Inductance Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current. that is. and energy stored in inductors and capacitors. Figure 5. power absorbed.1 shows a simple loop of wire and its magnetic field represented by the small loops. We will see through some examples that will be presented later in this chapter. that inductance and capacitance have an effect on an electric circuit as long as there are changes in the voltages and currents in the circuit. when current flows in an electric circuit the conductors (wires) connecting the devices in the circuit are surrounded by a magnetic field. circuits with resistors and constant voltage and current sources. However. in every circuit there are two other properties present and these are the inductance and the capacitance. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance T his chapter is an introduction to inductance and capacitance. resistance is not the only property that an electric circuit possesses. Thus. Figure 5. or by the right-hand rule if electron current flow is assumed. We will study inductance first. 5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 .1. Magnetic field around a loop of wire The direction of the magnetic field (not shown) can be determined by the left-hand rule if conventional current flow is assumed.

5-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . λ = Li (5.2) and (5. that is. Symbol for inductor * In the first four chapters we have used the subscript LOAD to denote a voltage across a load.1) Now. and the resistance of a such load as R LOAD to avoid confusion with the subscript L which henceforth will denote inductance. + vL − iL L Figure 5. Figure 5.3) Alternately.2) where the constant of proportionality L is called inductance in webers per ampere. if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn. We will continue using the subscript LOAD for any load connected to a circuit. We also recall Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction which states that v = dλ ----dt and from (5.3. the current through the wound coil produces a denser magnetic field and many of the magnetic lines link the coil several times. Magnetic field around several loops of wire The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and.4) (5. denoted as λ . The symbol and the voltage-current* designations for the inductor are shown in Figure 5. the total flux.3). is called flux linkage.2. the inductance L is defined as the constant which relates the voltage across and the current through a device called inductor by the relation of (5. we define a linear inductor one in which the flux linkage is proportional to the current through it. Then.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance In a loosely wound coil of wire such as the one shown in Figure 5. di v = L ---dt (5.4).3. λ = Nϕ (5.2. a current through a load.

8) where i L ( t 0 ) . We can also express (5. Since vL volts L = -----.Inductance For an inductor. and it is referred to as the initial condition. Obviously. more often denoted as i L ( 0 ) . v L has a non-zero value only when i L changes with time. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5. is the current flowing through the inductor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 .5) where v L and i L have the indicated polarity and direction.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 .7) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or i(t) i ( t0 ) di L ∫ t t0 v L dt 1 i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt or iL ( t ) 1 = -L ∫ t t0 v L dt + iL ( t0 ) (5.= --------------------amperes di L --------------------sec onds dt (5.8) as 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫ 1 v L dt = -L –∞ t ∫ 1 v L dt + -L –∞ 0 ∫0 vL dt t (5. The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L -----di L dt (5.v L dt L 1 = -L (5.5) as di L 1 = -.6) we can say that one henry is the inductance in a circuit in which a voltage of one volt is induced by a current changing at the rate of one ampere per second.

i = mt + b where m is the slope of the straight line segment.1 The current i L ( t ) passing through a 50 mH inductor is shown in Figure 5.10) At t = 2 ms . The flux linkage λ is directly proportional to the current.4. (5. t = 9 ms . Compute the flux linkage λ at t = 2.10) yields i = – 5 mA . then from (5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance where the first integral on the right side represents the initial condition. and 11 ms b. Waveform for Example 5. 5. the flux linkage is 5-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . by inspection.2) λ = N ϕ = Li Therefore. Example 5.1 Solution: a. t = 5 ms . 9.4. is 25 mA . The slope m is --------------------m = – 20 – 25 = – 15 3–0 and thus i 3 ms t=0 = – 15 t + 25 (5. and b is the i – axis intercept which. Compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. a. we need to compute the current i at t = 2 ms . Then. and t = 11 ms For time interval 0 < t < 3 ms .1) and (5.

12) and therefore at t = 5 ms . and the flux linkage is λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 10 –3 × ----. λ t = 9 ms = Li = – 125 µWb (5.µWb 3 500 (5.15) and with (5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 .= ----3–0 3 and thus 35 i = ----.14) Also. Then. i = 10 ⁄ 3 mA .4. i = mt + b where 15 – ( – 20 ) 35 m = ------------------------.5t – 70 (5.13) Using the same procedure we find that i 8 ms t = 6 ms = – 12.16) Likewise. i = – 20 mA as seen in Figure 5.5 t + 90 (5.Inductance λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 × ( – 5 ) × 10 –3 and λ t = 2 ms = – 250 µWb (5. Thus.t + b 3 To find b we use the fact that at t = 3 ms .t – 55 3 (5. i 10 ms t = 8 ms = 7.15). the straight line equation for the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms is i 6 ms t = 3 ms 35 = ----. 35 – 20 = ----.× 3 + b 3 from which b = – 55 .× 10 3 or λ t = 5 ms = -------.11) For the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms .

These were found in part (a) as (5. λ t = 11 ms = Li = 125 µWb (5.18) b.21) slope vL 6 < t < 8 ms = – 12.5 ) = – 625 mV (5.5 t + 30 (5.12).5 mA ⁄ ms = – 2.5 mA ⁄ ms = 7. (5.× ( – 15 A ⁄ s ) = – 750 mV A⁄s (5.20) = 35 ⁄ 3 mA ⁄ ms = 35 ⁄ 3 A ⁄ s –3 vL 3 < t < 6 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 6 < t < 8 ms × ( 35 ⁄ 3 ) = 583. (5. Then.5 = 375 mV (5.5 ) = – 125 mV = 0 (5.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope × ( – 2.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 8 < t < 10 ms × ( – 12.17) and with (5.22) = 7. that is.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i 12 ms t = 10 ms = – 2.5 A ⁄ s –3 vL 8 < t < 10 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 10 < t < 12 ms × 7.15).5 mA ⁄ ms = – 12.17).19) 0 < t < 3 ms 0 < t < 3 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 3 < t < 6 ms v--------.23) slope vL 10 < t < 12 ms = – 2.10). (5. Since di L v L = L -----dt to compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms .14).24) 12 < t < 14 ms 5-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and (5. slope vL slope vL –∞ < t < 0 –∞ < t < 0 = 0 = L × slope = 0 = – 15 mA ⁄ ms = – 15 A ⁄ s –3 (5. compute the slope of the straight line segments for this interval. we only need to differentiate.3 mV (5.17).

650 0 -4. vL(t) t -5.850 0 -4. Compute and sketch the current which flows through this inductor in the interval – 5 < t < 5 ms vL ( t ) 0.500 −0.000 0 -4.750 0 -4.25) We now have all values given by (5.Inductance vL 12 < t < 14 ms = L × slope = 0 (5.375 0.75 ⁄ 3 2 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) −0.750 Figure 5.500 0 Voltage waveform for Example 5.700 0 -4.5.625 0.2 The voltage across a 50 mH inductor is as shown on the waveform of Figure 5.500 0.250 −0.6.550 0 -4.900 0 -4.1 800 Voltage (mV) 400 0 t (ms) -400 -800 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 . and it is given that the initial condition is i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA . Voltage waveform for Example 5.6.800 0 -4.19) through (5.1 Example 5.375 −0.600 0 -4.25) to sketch v L as a function of time.950 0 -4.5.125 (V) 1. We can do this easily with a spreadsheet such as Excel as shown in Figure 5. Waveform for Example 5.125 −0.625 −0.250 0.

25 × 10 ) + 20 × 0 + 25 × 10 ⎠ –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = – 20 × 10 –3 = – 20 mA that is.2 The same result can be obtained by graphical integration.75 ) dt + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ – 0.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Solution: The current i L ( t ) in an inductor is related to the voltage v L ( t ) by (5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 3 ms . that is. vL 0 < t < 3 ms = – 0. iL –∞ < t < 0 = 25 mA From the given waveform. Example 5.75 V Then. Thus.8) which is repeated here for convenience.75t ⎝ = – 45 × 10 3 0 × 10 ⎞ –3 –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = 20 ( – 2. 5-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt + i L ( t 0 ) where i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA is the initial condition. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 t (ms) Figure 5. the current has dropped linearly from 25 mA at t = 0 to – 20 mA at t = 3 ms as shown in Figure 5.7.7. iL 1 = ---------------------–3 0 < t < 3 ms 50 × 10 ∫0 3 ms ( – 0.

the current has decreased linearly from 15 mA at t = 6 ms to – 10 mA at t = 8 ms as shown in Figure 5.750 × 3 × 10 ) + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = – 20 mA and the value of i L 3 < t < 6 ms . iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 t (ms) Figure 5.8.Inductance iL 3 ms 1 = -. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 . t = 3 ms = – 20 mA now becomes our initial condition for the time interval Continuing with graphical integration.2 For the time interval 6 < t < 8 ms .( Area t = 6 ) + initial condition L t = 8 ms = 20 ( – 0. Inductor current for 0 < t < 6 ms .( Area t = 3 ) + initial condition L t = 6 ms 1.( Area t = 0 ) + initial condition L t = 3 ms = 20 ( – 0.9.75 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ --------. we get iL 8 ms 1 = -.625 × 2 × 10 ) + 15 × 10 –3 –3 = – 10 mA Therefore. Example 5.× 3 × 10 ⎞ – 20 × 10 = 15 mA ⎝ 3 ⎠ and now the current has increased linearly from – 20 mA at t = 3 ms to 15 mA at t = 6 ms as shown in Figure 5. we get iL 6 ms 1 = -.8.

for the time interval 10 ms < t < 12 ms we get iL 12 ms 1 = -.10.( Area t = 10 ) + initial condition L t = 12 ms = 20 ( – 0.375 × 2 × 10 ) – 10 × 10 –3 –3 = 5 mA that is.9. 5-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example 5. Finally.( Area t = 8 ) + initial condition L t = 10 ms = 20 ( 0.125 × 2 × 10 ) + 5 × 10 –3 –3 =0 that is.11.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 t (ms) Figure 5. the current has decreased linearly from 5 mA at t = 10 ms to 0 mA at t = 12 ms and remains at zero for t > 12 ms as shown in Figure 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 8 ms . the current has increased linearly from – 10 mA at t = 8 ms to 5 mA at t = 10 ms as shown in Figure 5.2 For the time interval 8 ms < t < 10 ms we get iL 10 ms 1 = -.

3 Power and Energy in an Inductor Power in an inductor with inductance L is found from Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-11 . This can be observed from the voltage and current waveforms for this and the previous example.10. 6. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time. Example 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 10 ms .2 confirms the well known fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously.11. We observe that the voltage across the inductor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 0.2 Example 5.2 iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. 10.Power and Energy in an Inductor iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 t (ms) Figure 5. that is. However. 8. Inductor current for 0 < t < 12 ms . 5. and 12 ms . 3. the current through the inductor never changes instantaneously. Example 5.

Since vL di L L -----dt d ( cons tan t ) dt = = L = 0 * By steady state conditions we mean the condition (state) where the voltages and currents.26) and the energy in an inductor. that is. Electric circuits that contain inductors can be simplified if the applied voltage and current sources are constant as shown by the following example. Example 5. designated as W L is the integral of the power. Then.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance di L di L p L = v L i L = ⎛ L ⎞ i L = Li L ⎝ dt ⎠ dt (5. have subsided. Transients will be in Chapter 10. and v 3 . v 2 .27) Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). WL t i ( t ) di L i(t) t p L dt = L = i L dt = L i L di L t0 t0 i ( t0 ) d t i ( t0 ) ∫ ∫ ∫ or WL i(t) 1 1 2 2 2 = -.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting i L = 0 at t = 0 .Li L = -. Solution: Since both the voltage and the current sources are constant. the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. we get the energy stored in an inductor as 1 2 W L ( t ) = -.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 t0 2 i ( t0 ) t or 2 2 1 W L ( t ) – W L ( t 0 ) = -. 5-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . after steady-state*conditions have been reached. compute v 1 . after some transient disturbances.12. the voltages and the currents in all branches of the circuit will be constant after steady-state conditions have been reached. compute the power absorbed and the energy consumed by the 5 mH inductor.Li L ( t ) 2 (5.3 For the circuit shown in Figure 5.

13 where the 3 Ω and 6 Ω parallel resistors have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor. Circuit for Example 5.Power and Energy in an Inductor 6Ω 4Ω 40 mH 3Ω 25 mH 9Ω 5Ω + − v3 15 A − + 35 mH v2 8Ω + − 24 V 30 mH 5 mH + v1 − 12 Ω 20 mH 10 Ω 60 mH 15 mH Figure 5. let us first find v A and v B using nodal analysis.28) At Node v B Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-13 .13. The given circuit then reduces to the one shown in Figure 5. v 1 = 0 since the 12 Ω resistor was shorted out by the 60 mH inductor.13.. At Node v A .+ ---.⎝ 4 9 7⎠ A 7 B (5. all voltages across the inductors will be zero and therefore we can replace all inductors by short circuits. Circuit for Example 5.-.3 after steady-state conditions have been reached Now. v A – 24 v A v A – v B ---------------.12.-. To find v 2 and v 2 . vA 4Ω 9Ω 5Ω 2 Ω vB + v2 − + v3 15 A 8Ω + − 24 V + v1 − − Figure 5.3 then. in Figure 5.+ ---------------. by inspection.= 0 4 5+2 9 or ⎛ 1 + 1 + 1⎞ v – 1 v = 6 --.

1 2 1 v3 2 808 ⁄ 11 2 –3 W 5 mH = -. L N in Figure 5.211 J 5. ….14 (b) where the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.= 0 5+2 8 or 1 1 1 – -.29) We will use the MATLAB code below to find the solution of (5. v A = 360 ⁄ 11 V v B = 808 ⁄ 11 V v 2 = v A – v 2 = – 448 ⁄ 11 V v 3 = v 2 = 808 ⁄ 11 V and p 5 mH = v 5 mH × i 5 mH = 0 × i 5 mH = 0 that is.v A + ⎛ -.– 15 + ---.29). disp(V(1)). 5-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ --⎞ v B = 15 . format rat % Express answers in rational form G=[1/4+1/9+1/7 −1/7.⎞ = 0.Li 5 mH = -.14 (a) so that the current i will be the same for both circuits.14 (a) and 5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Seq in terms of L 1.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance vB vB – vA ---------------. p 5 mH = 0 watts Also. disp('vA=').28) and (5. V=G\I. −1/7 1/7+1/8].4 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors Consider the circuits of figures 5.5 × 5 × 10 × ⎛ ------------------⎞ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 2 2 ⎝8⎠ or W 5 mH = 0. disp('vB=').⎝ 7 8⎠ 7 (5. L 2.L ⎛ ---. I=[6 15]'. disp(V(2)) vA= 360/11 vB= 808/11 Therefore.

….= v S dt dt dt or di ( L 1 + L 2 + … + L N ) ---.15 (a) and 5.Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors + vS L1 − + L2 − − + LN − vS + + − + − i (a) i (b) L Seq − Figure 5. di di di L 1 ---.31) Equating the left sides of (5. inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5. iS + v − i1 L1 (a) i2 L2 iS iN LN + v − (b) L Peq Figure 5.+ L 2 ---.30) From the circuit of Figure 5.15. we will consider the circuits of Figures 5.14.14 (a).15 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same for both circuits. Next.15 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits.32) Thus.15 (a) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-15 .14 (b). We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Peq in terms of L 1. di L Seq ---.30) and (5. L N in Figure 5.31) we get: L Seq = L 1 + L 2 + … + L N (5. L 2.= v S dt (5.= v S dt (5.+ … + L N ---. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.

16.33) From the circuit of Figure 5.16.+ … + ----.1⎛ ---.4 5-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ---.35) and for the special case of two parallel inductors L1 L2 L Peq = ----------------L1 + L2 (5.15 (b) 1 ---------L Peq ∫– ∞ v d t t = iS (5.+ ---.⎞ S ⎝L L2 L N⎠ – ∞ 1 ∫ (5. Example 5.t 1.4 For the network of Figure 5. inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do.34) we get: 11.11---------.t ---v dt + ---v dt + … + ----v dt = i S LN –∞ L2 –∞ L1 –∞ ∫ ∫ ∫ or 1.t 1.34) Equating the left sides of (5.+ … + ----L Peq L1 L2 LN (5.t v dt = i 1. replace all inductors by a single equivalent inductor. Network for Example 5. 35 mH L eq 45 mH 125 mH 30 mH 40 mH 60 mH 120 mH 90 mH 15 mH Figure 5.33) and (5.36) Thus.= ---.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or 1.

A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. Similarly. In a simple circuit we can represent the entire capacitance with a device called capacitor.17. let us consider the simple series circuit of Figure 5. a n d a l s o 45 mH || 90 mH = 30 mH . 75 mH L eq 30 mH 125 mH 40 mH 10 mH Figure 5.18.16 5. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. and L eq = 30 mH + 62.5 mH Figure 5. we find that 60 mH || 120 mH = 40 mH .5 Capacitance In Section 5. Simple circuit to illustrate a charged capacitor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-17 . 30 mH || 15 mH = 10 mH . just as we considered the entire inductance to be concentrated in a single inductor. 40 mH + 35 mH = 75 mH .2 we learned that inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow.18. The network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5. L eq 92. capacitance is associated with an electric field.Capacitance Solution: Starting at the right end of the network and moving towards the left end.5 mH as shown in Figure 5. RS S C vS − + Figure 5.17.19 where the device denoted as C .17. ( 40 mH + 35 mH + 10 mH ) || 125 mH = 62. Now.5 mH .5 mH = 92. is the standard symbol for a capacitor. with reference to Figure 5. First step in combination of inductances Finally.19.

The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F and since 5-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . However. Thus. At the same time.19. electrons which were present in the upper plate of the capacitor will move towards the positive terminal of the voltage source. Figure 5. an electric field has been established between the plates of the capacitor. the voltage source will force electrons from its negative terminal through the conductor to the lower plate of the capacitor and it will accumulate negative charge. The distribution of the electric field set up in a capacitor is usually represented by lines of force similar to the lines of force in a magnetic field.38) where i C and v C in (5. This action leaves the upper plate of the capacitor deficient in electrons and thus it becomes positively charged. Electric field between the plates of a capacitor We observe that the electric field has an almost uniform density in the area directly between the plates. q = Cv (5. Therefore.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance When the switch S closes in the circuit of Figure 5. + + + + + + − − − − − − Figure 5. but it decreases in density beyond the edges of the plates.20 shows the distribution of the electric field between the two plates of a capacitor. in an electric field the lines of force start at the positive plate and terminate at the negative plate.= ( Cv ) dt dt or dv C i C = C -------dt (5.38) obey the passive sign convention. whereas magnetic lines of force are always complete loops.37) and recalling that the current i is the rate of change of the charge q. The charge q on the plates is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. we have the relation dq d i = ----.20.

Example 5. the voltage across a capacitor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 .38) as 1 dv C = --.Capacitance iC amperes C = ------.= --------------------volts dv C -------------------sec onds dt (5. We can also write (5.41) as 1 v C ( t ) = --C 1 i C dt = --C –∞ t ∫ ∫ 1 i C dt + --C –∞ 0 ∫0 iC dt t where the initial condition is represented by the first integral on the right side.5 The waveform shown in Figure 5.39) we can say that one farad is the capacitance in a circuit in which a current of one ampere flows when the voltage is changing at the rate of a one volt per second.i C dt C (5. Compute and sketch the voltage across this capacitor for the time interval 0 < t < 4 ms given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 . By separation of the variables we rewrite (5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-19 . and denoted as v C ( 0 ) .21 represents the current flowing through a 1 µF capacitor.41) where v C ( t 0 ) is the initial condition.40) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or vC ( t ) 1 dv C = --C vC ( t0 ) ∫t t 0 i C dt 1 v C ( t ) – v C ( t 0 ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt or 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt + v C ( t 0 ) (5. that is.

5 Solution: The initial condition v C ( 0 ) = 0 .Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) 1.75 −1.00 Figure 5. Waveform for Example 5.50 −0.50 −0.25 −0.21.22.5 5-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .00 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.00 0.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 1 ⎞ = ------------------.25 (V) ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 0 vC ( 0 ) −0.25 −0.75 0.75 −1.22.25 (mA) 1 0 2 3 4 t (ms) −0. Straight line segment for 0 < t < 1 ms of the voltage waveform for Example 5. Next. 0 ) on the v C ( t ) versus time plot of Figure 5.50 0. vC ( t ) 1.22. vC t = 1 ms 1 = --C –3 ∫0 1 × 10 –3 i C dt + or vC t = 1 ms 1 = --.75 0.( 1 × 10 –3 × 1 × 10 –3 ) = 1 volt –6 ⎠ 1 × 10 and this value establishes the second point of the straight line segment passing through the origin as shown in Figure 5. establishes the first point at the coordinates ( 0.50 0.

24. the capacitor voltage then decreases linearly from 1 volt at t = 1 ms to 0 volts at t = 2 ms as shown in Figure 5.5 There is no need to calculate the values of the capacitor voltage v c at t = 3 ms and at t = 4 ms because the waveform of the current i c starts repeating itself at t = 2 ms . Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 2 ms of Example 5.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-21 .23.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5. the capacitor voltage v c waveform of figure (b) starts repeating itself also as shown in Figure 5.23.Capacitance This value of 1 volt at t = 1 ms becomes our initial condition for the time interval 1 < t < 2 . vC ( t ) 1.50 0.25 −0.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 –3 ⎞ +1 ⎠ 1 –3 –3 = ------------------.50 −0.75 0. Accordingly.00 0.75 0.( – 1 × 10 × ( 2 – 1 ) × 10 ) + 1 = 0 volts –6 1 × 10 Thus. vC ( t ) 1.75 −1.25 (V) −0.50 −0.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.25 (V) −0.24.50 0.25 −0. and the initial conditions and the areas are the same as before.75 −1. we get vC t = 2 ms 1 = --. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 4 ms of Example 5.00 0. Continuing.

Cv c 2 1 2 2 = -.Cv C ( t ) 2 (5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Example 5. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. Referring to the current and voltage waveforms for this example. of course.6 In the circuit of figure 5. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time as shown in Figure 5. equations (5.6 Power and Energy in a Capacitor Power in a capacitor with capacitance C is found from dv C ⎞ pC = vC iC = vC ⎛ C ⎝ dt ⎠ and the energy in a capacitor. 5.27) and (5.25.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting v C = 0 at t = 0 . It was stated earlier that the current through an inductor and the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously.5 has illustrated the well known fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously.21. a physical impossibility.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 or 1 2 2 W C ( t ) – W C ( t 0 ) = -. However.42) Like an inductor. These facts can also be seen from the expressions of the energy in an inductor and in a capacitor. Example 5.24. denoted as W C is the integral of the power. 2. that is. the voltage and current sources are constant. 3. WC t t0 = ∫t t 0 p C dt = C i(t) i ( t0 ) ∫ v(t ) 0 v(t) vC dv C dt = C dt ∫ v (t ) vC dvc 0 v(t) 1 2 = -. then the energies W L and W C would also change instantaneously but this is. that is. we observe that the current through the capacitor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 1.42) where we observe that if the current in an inductor or the voltage across a capacitor could change instantaneously. the voltage across the capacitor never changes instantaneously. and 4 ms in Figure 5. 5-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get the energy stored in a capacitor as 1 2 W C ( t ) = -.

the voltages across the inductors will be zero and the currents through the capacitors will be zero.26 by first exchanging the 15 A current source and resistor R 8 for a voltage source of 15 × 8 = 120 V in series with R 8 as shown in Figure 5. Thus. R1 4Ω C1 R2 7Ω R3 2Ω 1 µF L3 5Ω C2 30 mH 15 A C3 R7 3 µF 5Ω R8 i L1 L 1 40 mH R 4 R6 8Ω − 24 V + L2 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω v C2 + − 2 µF L4 L5 25 mH 60 mH 20 mH Figure 5.25. R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω + − 24 V v C2 + − Figure 5.Power and Energy in a Capacitor a.6 We can simplify the circuit of figure 5. Compute the power and energy in the 2 µF capacitor. First simplification of the circuit of Example 5. R eq = ( 4 + 2 ) || ( 7 + 5 ) = 4 Ω . The voltage and current sources are constant. Circuit for Example 5. we can replace the inductors by short circuits and the capacitors by open circuits and the given circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 5. Compute i L1 and v C2 b. after steady-state conditions have been reached.26.6 Solution: a. Therefore.27. But Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-23 .26. We also combine the series-parallel resistors R 1 through R 4 . thus.

Circuit for computation of i L1 and v C2 for Example 5. disp(I(1)). −6 14]. V=[24 −120]'.28. disp(‘i1=’).6 We can apply superposition here. shown in Figure 5. is found.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance now we observe that the branch in which the current i L1 flows has disappeared. we will write two mesh equations and we will solve using MATLAB. R=[20 −6.27.27. however. Instead. These in matrix form are 20 – 6 i 1 = 24 – 6 14 i 2 – 120 Solution using MATLAB: format rat. disp(I(2)) i1= -96/61 i2= -564/61 Therefore. disp(‘i2=’).28 R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω − 24 V + 6Ω − + v C2 Figure 5. I=R\V. this presents no problem since we can apply the current division expression once i. The simplified circuit then is i + R eq 4Ω R6 R8 + v C2 8Ω − 24 V i1 R5 10 Ω 6Ω − i2 + − 120 V Figure 5. Final simplification of the circuit of Example 5. with reference to the circuit of Figure 5.6 5-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

p 2 µF = v 2 µF × i 2 µF = v C2 × 0 = 0 and 2808 2 1 2 –6 W 2 µF = -.03 V ⎝ 61 61 ⎠ 61 b.525 A ( 4 + 2 ) + ( 7 + 5 ) ⎝ 61⎠ 61 and 96 564 2808 v C2 = 6 ⎛ – ----.29 (a) so that the current i will be the same in both circuits. + − + C1 − vS + − C2 − (a) vS i + CN − i (b) + + − C Seq Figure 5.43) From the circuit of Figure 5.29.+ … + ------.29 (b) in which the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.+ ----.Capacitance Combinations (4 + 2) --------i L1 = ---------------------------------------.29 (a) and 5.⎞ ⎝C C C ⎠ 1 2 N ∫– ∞ i d t = vS (5. C N in Figure 5.× ⎛ – 96⎞ = – 32 = – 0. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.+ -------.⎞ = ----------. We want to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Seq in terms of C 1.29 (b) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-25 .Cv 2 µF = 0. C 2.5 × 2 × 10 × ⎛ -----------⎞ = 2 mJ ⎝ 61 ⎠ 2 5.= 46.7 Capacitance Combinations Consider the circuits of figures 5.29 (a). v C1 + v C2 + … + v CN = v S or 1 ----C1 ∫ 1 i dt + ----C2 –∞ t ∫ 1 i dt + … + ------CN –∞ t t ∫–∞ i dt t = vS or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----. ….

= i S dt (5.44) Equating the left sides of (5. iS + v − i1 C1 (a) i2 C2 + iN CN iS v − (b) C Peq Figure 5. dv C Peq ----. we will consider the circuits of figures 5.45) and for the special case of two capacitors in series C1 C2 C Seq = -----------------C1 + C2 (5.30 (a) and 5.48) Equating the left sides of (5.44) we get: 1 1 1 1 ---------.47) From the circuit of Figure 5.30 (a).Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 1---------C Seq ∫–∞ i dt t = vS (5. C 2.= i S dt (5.46) Thus capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do.+ … + ------C Seq C1 C2 CN (5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Peq in terms of C 1. C N in Figure 5.43) and (5.48) we get: 5-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or dv dv dv C 1 ----.30.30 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits.= ----. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5.47) and (5. Next.= i S dt dt dt or dv ( C 1 + C 2 + … + C N ) ----.+ ----.+ … + C N ----.30 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same in both circuits. ….30 (b).+ C 2 ----.

T he network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5. and 8 µF || 12 µF = 20 µF .µF 31 4 µF 6 µF C eq 20 µF Figure 5.32. 15 µF 30 µF C eq 560 -------. t h e s e r i e s c o m b i n a t i o n o f 10. 10 µF 560 -------. 4. 15 µF in series with 30µF = 10µF . First step in combination of capacitances N e x t .33.7 Solution: Starting at the right of the network and moving towards the left. C eq 20 µF Figure 5. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5.Capacitance Combinations C Peq = C 1 + C 2 + … + C N (5.31. capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. Network for Example 5. the series combination of 20 µF and 20 µF yields C eq = 10 µF as shown in Figure 5. we find that 3 µF || 1 µF = 4 µF .33.49) Thus.16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-27 . Finally. and 6µF capacitors y i e l d s 60 ⁄ 31 µF a n d 60 ⁄ 31 µF || 560 ⁄ 31 µF = 20 µF . replace all capacitors by a single equivalent capacitor.µF 31 2 µF 1 µF 3 µF 8 µF 12 µF 4 µF Figure 5.31. Example 5.32. 2 µF || 4 µF = 6 µF .7 For the network of Figure 5.

3 and 5.34. mesh or any other method of analysis as we learned in Chapter 3.8 At Node 1: v 1 = v S1 At Node 2: v2 – v1 d 1 --------------.6 the voltage and current sources were constant and therefore. we need N – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4 nodal equations. v1 R1 v S1 − v2 v4 C L v3 R2 + v S2 + v0 − Figure 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. Example 5. Thus. R1 v S1 − C L + v S2 + − R2 Figure 5.34.8 Write nodal and mesh equations for the circuit shown in Figure 5.8 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms In Examples 5.35. However.35.8 Solution: Nodal Analysis: We assign nodes as shown in Figure 5.( v 2 – v 4 ) + -dt L R1 ∫– ∞ ( v 2 – v 3 ) d t v3 = 0 t = 0 At Node 3: 1 -L ∫–∞ ( v3 – v2 ) dt + -----R2 t 5-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 5. the steadystate circuit analysis could be performed by nodal. Nodal analysis for the circuit of Example 5. if the voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities we must apply KCL or KVL in general terms as illustrated by the following example.+ C ---.

5. we assign currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 5. the total flux. the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring.36. if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn.8 For Mesh 1: 1 R 1 i 1 + --C ∫–∞ ( i1 – i2 ) dt – vS1 – vS2 t t = 0 For Mesh 2: 1 dL ---.Summary At Node 4: v 4 = – v S2 Mesh Analysis: We need M = B – 1 = 6 – 5 + 1 = 2 mesh equations. the initial conditions are included in the limits of integration. the voltage-current relationship is v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) • The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H. denoted as λ . R1 v S1 − C L + i1 v S2 + − R2 i2 Figure 5. is called flux linkage. λ = N ϕ • For an inductor. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb). Alternately. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-29 . • The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and. Thus.i 2 + R 2 i 2 + v S2 + --C dt ∫– ∞ ( i 2 – i 1 ) d t = 0 In both the nodal and mesh equations.36. • The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux. Then. we can add the initial condition terms and replace the lower limit of integration – ∞ with zero in the integrodifferential equations above. • Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 5.9 Summary • Inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow.

q = Cv • In a capacitor. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. • A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. • Like an inductor. • The charge q on the plates of a capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance • The energy stored in an inductor is W L ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Li L ( t ) • The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. • Capacitance is associated with an electric field. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. • Inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. an inductor behaves like a short circuit. • Capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. 5-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . in general. • In a circuit that contains inductors and/or capacitors. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. • The energy stored in a capacitor is W C ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Cv C ( t ) • The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. the nodal and mesh equations are. • Capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do. a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. integrodifferential equations. Thus. if the applied voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. the voltage-current relationship is i C = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) • The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F. • Inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do.

are unpredictable E. µF B. None of the above 4. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that A. Farad D. Ohm C. v = L ( di ⁄ dt ) D. Farad B. Coulomb E.10 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. start at the negative plate and end at the positive plate D. λ = Nϕ B. start at the positive plate and end at the negative plate C. Ohm C. None of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-31 . are complete loops B. None of the above 3.Exercises 5. None of the above 2. The unit of capacitance is the A. v = dλ ⁄ dt E. Weber E. mH D. In an electric field of a capacitor. The unit of inductance is the A. the lines of force A. λ = Li C.

neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. None of the above 8. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. The energy in an inductor is A. the current cannot change instantaneously C. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Ci ) B. dissipated in the form of heat E.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. The energy in a capacitor is A. In a capacitor A. In the circuit of Figure 5. None of the above 7. In an inductor A. v C i C D. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Li ) B. None of the above 6. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Cv ) C. the current cannot change instantaneously C.37 after steady-state conditions have been established. the current i L through the inductor will be 2 2 2 2 5-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Lv ) C. dissipated in the form of heat E. v L i L D. None of the above 9. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E.

The current i L flowing through a 10 mH inductor is shown by the waveform of Figure 5. Circuit for Question 9 A. – 10 V D. 2. 0 V B.Exercises iL 5 mH 5Ω iS 5 A Figure 5. Compute and sketch the voltage v L across this inductor for t > 0 b.38. a.39. Circuit for Question 10 A.37. ∞ V C. In the circuit of Figure 5. 5 A E. the voltage v C across the capacitor will be + − + C 2 µF R 5Ω vS − 10 V Figure 5.38 after steady-state conditions have been established. None of the above 10. ∞ A C. None of the above Problems 1. 0 A B.5 A D. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = 50 µw Answer: t = 5 ms Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-33 . 10 V E.

56 ms 3.41.4 mJ b. Answer: 1 mJ 5-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . compute the total energy stored in the series combination of the resistor. Compute and sketch the voltage v C across this capacitor for t > 0 b.5 cos 5t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 . and inductor at t = 10 ms if: a. Answer: 3. i ( t ) = 0. and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. For the network of Figure 5.40. Answer: 50 µJ vC ( t ) + − i(t) R 5Ω L 0.1e – 100t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = – 10 V . The current i C flowing through a 1 µF capacitor is given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA . i ( t ) = 0. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = – 5 mw . Network for Problem 3 4. For the circuit of Figure 5. Waveform for Problem 1 2.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance c. Answer: 23. compute the energy stored in the 5 mH inductor at t = 1 s given that i ( 0 ) = 0 .85 ms c. capacitor.39. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = – 50 µw Answer: t = 25 ms 10 iL (mA) 40 0 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) −10 Figure 5.4 mH C 100 µF Rest of the Network Figure 5. Answer: 7.40. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = 5 mw .

43. Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 5. replace all capacitors with an equivalent capacitance C eq and then compute the energy stored in C eq at t = 1 ms given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 in all capacitors. Circuit for Problem 5 6. C1 R1 L2 C2 L1 + − vS ( t ) R2 Figure 5. Answer: 10 pJ 10 µF 3 µF 6 µF 8 µF iS ( t ) 10 µA Figure 5.44.44.43.42. For the circuit of Figure 5. Circuit for Problem 6 7. Write nodal equations for the circuit of Figure 5. C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − R1 C2 L Figure 5.Exercises i(t ) + − 5 mH 3 mH 10 mH 7 mH v S ( t ) 10e – t mV Figure 5. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-35 .41.42. Circuit for Problem 4 5.

A 9. Thus. and power waveforms are shown below.11 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. a. D 4. E – 5 A 10. B 5.= 10 mV –3 ∆t 10 × 10 s 20 ms 10 Likewise. vL 10 ms 0 –3 ∆i L A – 3 10 × 10 = L × slope = L ------. vL vL 40 ms 20 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 = L × slope = 10 × 10 vL 50 ms 40 [ – 10 – ( 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. C 3. A 6. In an inductor the voltage and current are related by v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) = L × slope .= 10 × 10 × ---------------------------. B 8. 5-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . B 7. D Problems 1. we need to compute the slope of each segment of the given waveform and multiply it by L .= 10 mV –3 ( 60 – 50 ) × 10 s –3 The current. E Henry 2.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. voltage.= – 10 mV –3 ( 40 – 20 ) × 10 s –3 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 vL 10 ms 0 = L × slope = 10 × 10 [ 0 – ( – 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------.

we observe that p L = v L i L = 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 5 ms c. The voltage v C ( t ) across this capacitor is found from 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 3 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 3 6 ∫0 ( 10 t –3 ) cos 100τ dτ + 0 = 10 ∫0 10 cos 100τ dτ = -------. a.sin 100τ 100 t = 10 sin 100t 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-37 . From the power waveform above. For this problem C = 1 µF = 10 –6 F and the current i C is a sinusoid given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA as shown below. we observe that p L = v L i L = – 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 25 ms 2. From the power waveform above.Answers to Exercises 10 10 mH 0 iL (mA) 40 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) iL ( t ) −10 vL 10 (mV) + vL ( t ) − 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t (ms) −10 pL ( µ w ) 100 A pL = vL iL 20 0 10 30 40 50 60 t (ms) B −100 b.

10 sin ----.t = 10 sin 100t or 2π ⁄ T = 100 and T = 2π ⁄ 100 or T = π ⁄ 50 2π T b. vC ( t ) (V) 10 10 sin 100t π -------100 – 10 T π ----50 Now. ωT = 2π or ω = 2π ⁄ T . Then. Since v C ( t ) is a sine function and i C ( t ) a cosine function.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) ( mA ) cos 100t t (s) and the waveform of v C ( t ) is shown below. the first time after zero that their product will be positive is in the interval 0 < t < π ⁄ 200 where we want p C = v C i C = 5 mw or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( 10 cos 100t ) = 5 × 10 –3 –3 w or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( cos 100t ) = 5 w Recalling that 5-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

WT). it is dissipated in the form of heat.× 0.85 ms 200 200 400 –1 c.Li L + -.1e – 100t and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 4 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 4 ∫0 0.= --------.× 10 × ( – 10e ) 2 2 = 2.Answers to Exercises sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that p C = 5 sin 200t = 5 w or sin 200t = 1 or sin 1 π⁄2 π t = -------------. a.1 – 100τ – 100τ = --------------------.85 + 15. Thus.e – 10 = 10e – 100 0 0 t = 10 – 10e – 10 or v C ( t ) = – 10e – 100t Then. fprintf(' \n') WT= 0. The time where p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time is 7.85 + 5π = 7.5 × 10 [ ( 0. There is no energy stored in the resistor. 1 2 1 2 W T = W L + W C = -.0034 J b.1*exp(−1))^2+((−10)*exp(−1))^2).4 mJ –4 –1 2 –1 2 We’ve used MATLAB as a calculator to obtain the answer. p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time at t = 7.85 ms after t = π ⁄ 200 s or after t = 1000π ⁄ 200 ms = 5π ms .4f J'. that is.71 = 23. fprintf(' \n').= -------.56 ms 3.Cv C 2 2 where i L = i ( t ) = 0.4 × 10 × ( 0.00785 s = 7.1e t – 100τ dτ – 10 – 100t 10 × 0. fprintf('WT=%7. the total energy is stored in the capacitor and the inductor. For this part Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-39 .1e ) + -. Therefore. that is.= 0. WT t = 10 ms 1 –3 – 100t 2 1 –4 – 100t 2 = -.5*10^(−4)*((0. WT=2.1e ) + ( – 10e ) ] = 3.

1 –4 2 1 –4 2 W T = W L + W C = -. W 5 mH t=1 s t=1 s = 2.4 × 10 × ( 0.× 5 × 10 ( 1 – e ) 2 ∫0 t e dτ = – e –τ –τ t 0 =e –τ 0 t = 1–e –t Then. + v S ( t ) 10e iL ( t ) 10 mH –t − mV The current i L ( t ) is i L ( t ) = -1 L ∫0 t 1 –3 v S dτ + i L ( 0 ) = ---------------------.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i L = i ( t ) = 0. Starting with the right side and proceeding to the left.× 10 × ( sin 5t ) 2 2 = 0.5 × 10 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 –4 cos 5 t + sin 5 t 2 2 = 0.× 10 × 10 –3 10 × 10 1 –3 –t 2 = -.5 × 10 –3 × ( 1 – e ) ≈ 1 mJ –1 2 6. We assign node voltages v 1 . 4. 10 || 10 = 5 . v1 C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − v2 R1 C2 v3 L Then. the series-parallel combination of 7 + 3 = 10 . and v 3 as shown below. 5-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v 2 .5 cos 5t ) + -.5 cos 5t mA and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 × 10 t 0 4 –4 ∫0 5 cos 5τ dτ + 0 t = sin 5τ = sin 5t Then.05 mJ = 50 µJ We observe that the total power is independent of time.× 0. and 5 + 5 = 10 mH reduces the given circuit to the one shown below.

Answers to Exercises v1 = vS v2 d d C 1 ---.+ C 2 ---.= 0 dt dt R1 v3 – v1 d1 --------------.( v 2 – v 1 ) + C 2 ---.( v 3 – v 2 ) + -dt L R2 ∫–∞ v3 dτ t = 0 7. We assign mesh currents i 1 .( i3 – i2 ) + R2 i3 dt t d = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-41 . C1 R1 + − vS ( t ) i2 L2 C2 L1 i1 R2 i3 Then. and i 3 as shown below.+ L 2 ---. i 2 . 1----C1 ∫ 1i 1 dτ + R 1 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + ----C2 –∞ t ∫– ∞ ( i 1 – i 3 ) d τ t = vS di 2 dR 1 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + L 1 -----.( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 dt dt 1 ----C2 ∫–∞ ( i3 – i1 ) dτ + L2 ----.( v 2 – v 3 ) + ----.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance NOTES 5-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

2 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs We can apply the circuit analysis methods which we have learned in previous chapters to circuits where the voltage or current sources are sinusoidal. that is. In Chapters 1 through 4 we considered circuits that consisted of excitations (active sources) and resistors only as the passive devices. R . or a sinusoidal. the response is the voltage or current at the output of a circuit. Generally. and the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-1 . It is assumed that the reader is familiar with sinusoids and complex numbers. but we need to specify what the output of a circuit is. this may be the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it. We used various methods such as nodal and mesh analyses. susceptance.1. impedance and admittance are also defined. if the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. inductors and capacitors behave entirely different as we will see in our subsequent discussion. we say that a circuit is “excited” or “driven” by a constant. However. when the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. or an exponential function of time.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 6.1. it is strongly recommended that Appendix B is reviewed thoroughly before reading this chapter. and ω where the subscript p is used to denote the peak or maximum value of a time varying function. 6. inductive and capacitive circuits. Example 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis T his chapter is an introduction to circuits in which the applied voltage or current are sinusoidal. Reactance. we will consider the simple series circuit of Example 6. Another term used in circuit analysis is the word response. Thus the response may be anything we define it as a response.1 Excitation Functions The applied voltages and currents in electric circuits are generally referred to as excitations or driving functions. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems to find the desired response such as the voltage and/or current in any particular branch. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but different amplitude and phase. The time and frequency domains are defined and phasor relationships are developed for resistive. derive an expression for v C ( t ) in terms of V p . an inductor behaves like a short circuit and a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. the response will also be some constant value. 6. The circuit analysis procedure for these circuits is the same for DC and AC circuits. If not. C . In Chapter 5 we learned that when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached. Thus. if the excitation is a constant voltage or current. To find out how easy (or how difficult) the procedure becomes. superposition.

+ v C = v S = V p cos ωt dt (6.2) yields – AωRC sin ( ωt + θ ) + A cos ( ωt + θ ) = V p cos ωt (6. Circuit for Example 6.1 Solution: By KVL.2) must have the form v C ( t ) = A cos ( ωt + θ ) (6.2) As we know. C .1.1) we get dv C RC -------. R . dv C v R = RC -------dt and by substitution into (6. and ω .3) where the amplitude A and phase angle θ are constants to be determined from the circuit parameters of V p .1) where v R = Ri = Ri C and dv C i C = C -------dt Then. Substitution of (6. vR + vC = vS (6. differentiation (and integration) of a sinusoid of radian frequency ω results in another sinusoid of the same frequency ω . the solution of (6. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sine symbol inside the circle denotes that the excitation is a sinusoidal function. Accordingly.3) into (6.4) and recalling that sin ( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 6-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

equating like terms and. the imaginary part is just as “real” as the real part of the complex number but it is defined on a different axis. The complex excitation function does not imply complexity of a circuit. Complex numbers are discussed in Appendix B. Thus we display the real part of a complex function on the axis of the reals (usually the x-axis). solving for amplitude A and phase angle θ we get: Vp –1 v C ( t ) = -------------------------------. there is nothing “imaginary” about this value. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-3 . We will see on the next section that the complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits. Thus.2 which consists of resistors. and it is driven (excited) by a sinusoidal voltage source v S ( t ) .cos ( ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ) 2 1 + ( ωRC ) (6.5) Obviously. it just entails the use of complex numbers. if v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) then dv = – ω A sin ( ω t + θ ) dt and if i ( t ) = B sin ( ω t + φ ) then di = ω B cos ( ω t + φ ) dt Let us consider the network of Figure 6. 6. using the above procedure is impractical.4) as – AωRC sin ωt cos θ – AωRC cos ωt sin θ + A cos ωt cos θ – A sin ωt sin θ = V p cos ωt Collecting sine and cosine terms. inductors and capacitors. after some more tedious work. We should remember also that when we say that the imaginary part of a complex number is some value. and the imaginary part on the imaginary axis or the y-axis. analyzing circuits with sinusoidal excitations when they contain capacitors and/or inductors.3 The Complex Excitation Function We recall that the derivatives and integrals of sinusoids always produce sinusoids of the same frequency but different amplitude and phase since the cosine and sine functions are 90 degrees out-of-phase.The Complex Excitation Function we rewrite (6. In other words.

1. As we stated previously. Inductors and Capacitors vS ( t ) Figure 6. that is. find the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 6.3 using the complex excitation method.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Linear Network Consisting of Resistors.3. the real component is the response due to cos ω t and the imaginary component is the response to sin ω t We will use Example 6. Circuit for Example 6. the nodal and mesh equations for such circuits are integrodifferential equations. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. As we know from Chapter 5. † This topic is also discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications by this author 6-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . in this text.2 Repeat Example 6. we use the v LOAD and i LOAD notations to avoid confusion with the voltage v L across and the current i L through an inductor. In this text.6) and therefore.2 to illustrate the ease by which we can obtain the response of a circuit. which is excited by a sinusoidal source. jωt approach. we will represent all sinusoidal variations in terms of the cosine func- Example 6. General presentation of a network showing excitation and load Let us also define the voltage across the load as v LOAD ( t ) * as the response. using the complex function Ae tion.2 * Some textbooks denote the voltage across and the current through the load as v L and i L respectively.2. and it is shown in differential equations textbooks† that the forced response or particular solution of these circuits have the form v LD ( t ) = A cos ( ω t ) + B sin ( ω t ) We also know from Euler’s identity that A cos ω t + jA sin ω t = Ae jωt LOAD i LOAD ( t ) + v LOAD ( t ) − (6.

1. we simply multiply both sides by e we get VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) –1 Vp .e –1 j ω RC + 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] 1+ω R C 1+ω R C e This expression above shows the response as a function of the maximum value of the excitation.+ v C = V p e dt (6.The Complex Excitation Function Solution: Since cos ωt = Re { e jωt } we let the excitation be vS ( t ) = Vp e jωt and thus the response will have the form vC ( t ) = VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) As in Example 6.= --------------------------------------------------------------.( V C e ) + VC e = Vp e dt or ( j ω RC + 1 )V C e j ( ωt + ϕ ) = Vp e jωt The last expression above shows that radian frequency ω is the same for the response as it is for the excitation.7) or dj ( ωt + ϕ ) j ( ωt + ϕ ) jωt RC ---.= -------------------------------. therefore we only need to be concerned with the magnitude and the phase angle of the response. since the excitation is the real part of the complex excitation.j [ ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ] = -------------------------------. If we wish to express the response in complete form. Accordingly. we use Euler’s identity on both Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 . its radian frequency and the circuit constants R and C . we can eliminate the radian frequency ω by dividing both sides of that expression by e jωt and thus the input-output (excitation-response) relation reduces to ( jωRC + 1 )V C e jϕ = Vp from which VC e jϕ –1 Vp Vp Vp – j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] = ---------------------.e 2 2 2 1+ω R C jωt and Finally. dv C jωt RC -------.

and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . In summary. Thus.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sides and equating reals parts. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. we will denote the time domain as the t – domain . the t – domain .3 Transform the sinusoid v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) to its equivalent jω – domain expression. Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2.8) = A ∠( θ – 90° ) (6. we must first convert it to a cosine function. Example 6. If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function.9) where M represents a phasor (rotating vector) voltage V or current I∗ . Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it.cos [ ω t – tan ( ω RC ) ] 2 2 2 1+ω R C The first part of the above procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase relationship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) and in the jω – domain it is expressed as M = Ae j ( θ – 90 ) ° Vp –1 (6. to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. we have v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 60° – 90° ) or ° ⎧ j ( 100t – 150 ) ⎫ v ( t ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 150° ) = Re ⎨ 10e ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 6-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get v C ( t ) = V C cos ( ω t + φ ) = ------------------------------. Solution: For this example. For brevity. the second part where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as frequency-domain to timedomain transformation.

multiply and divide sinusoids of the same frequency using phasors as illustrated by the following example. Example 6. Solution: First. adding the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponent of the above expression we get i ( t ) = 120e and finally we extract the real part from it. Compute the sum i ( t ) = i1 ( t ) + i2 ( t ) . we express the given phasor in exponential form.4 Transform the phasor I = 120 ∠– 90° to its equivalent time-domain expression. we extract these from the bracketed term on the right side of the above expression. ° ⎧ j ( ωt – 90 ) ⎫ i ( t ) = Re ⎨ 120e ⎬ = 120 cos ( ω t – 90° ) = 120 sin ω t ⎩ ⎭ j ( ωt – 90 ) ° We can add. subtract. Example 6. that is. Extract the real part from it. Then. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. I = 120 ∠– 90° = 120e – j90 ° Next. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2. and we get the phasor V as V = 10e – j150 ° = 10 ∠– 150° The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 .The Complex Excitation Function Since the jω – domain contains only the amplitude and phase.5 It is given that i 1 ( t ) = 10 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) and i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) .

1. inductive and capacitive circuits as R .4 Phasors in R.+ j ------⎞ + 5 ⎛ – -----. i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 45 ° – 90° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 135 ° ) Next. L . 6-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. we get i ( t ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) Also. We will now derive V and I phasor relationships in the jω – domain . We know from Ohm’s law that v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) where the resistance R is a constant. L. and C devices. 2 2 2 2 I = I 1 + I 2 = 10 ∠45° + 5 ∠– 135 ° = 10 ⎛ -----. that is. We will show that this relationship also holds for the phasors V R and I R shown in circuit 6. we express i 2 ( t ) as a cosine function.4 (a) we let v R ( t ) be a complex voltage. is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we will represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. that is. 6.4 (b). and C respectively. in our subsequent discussion we will designate resistive. and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. and C Circuits The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . we perform the t – domain to jω – domain transformation and we obtain the phasors I 1 = 10 ∠45° and I 2 = 5 ∠– 135 ° and by addition.4 (a) below where the load is purely resistive.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Solution: As a first step. L . V and I phasor relationship in R branches Consider circuit 6.+ j ------⎞ = 5 ∠45° ⎝ 22⎠ and finally transforming the phasor I into the t – domain . for brevity.– j ------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2⎠ or 2 2 I = 5 ⎛ -----. we will prove that V R = RI R Proof: In circuit 6. We must always remember that phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain .

find i R ( t ) when v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 .Phasors in R.12) Therefore. we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = RI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = RI p ∠φ Since the phasor current I is in-phase with the voltage V (both I and V have the same phase φ ). obeys Ohm’s law also. we let V p ∠φ = V R and I p ∠φ = I R and it follows that V R = RI R (6. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = RI p e (6.4. Example 6.11) to the jω – domain .10) and since R is a constant.6 For the network of Figure 6.5. the phasor V and I relationship in resistors. and C Circuits vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) − vR ( t ) VS IR + VR − v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) = V p cos ( ω t + θ ) ( a ) t – domain network V R = RI R ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.11) Transforming (6. Voltage across a resistive load in t – domain and jω – domain j ( ωt + φ ) Vp e = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6. and the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor. it will produce a current of the same frequency ω and the same phase φ * whose form will be Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) and by Ohm’s law. L. * The phase will be the same since neither differentiation nor integration is performed here.

= ------------------------. since the resistance R is a constant.= -------------------------------------------. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I R = 8 ∠– 165° A ⇔ i R ( t ) = 8 cos ( 377t – 165° ) = 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A Alternately.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) R=5Ω v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) − vR ( t ) Figure 6.= 8 ∠– 165° A R 5 Therefore.5.6 (b) is 6-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt ( a ) t – domain network − vL ( t ) VS IL V L = j ω LI L + VL − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. that is. v R ( t ) ⇔ V R transformation as follows: v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 377t – 165° ) ⇔ V R = 40 ∠– 165° Then.6 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i. V and I phasor relationship in L branches Consider circuit 6.e.. VR 40 ∠– 165° I R = -----.6. vR ( t ) 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) i R ( t ) = ----------.6 (a) below where the load is purely inductive. Voltage across an inductive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V L and I L shown in circuit 6. Voltage across the resistive load of Example 6.= 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A 5 R 2. we can compute i R ( t ) directly from the t – domain expression for v R ( t ) .

we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = j ω LI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = j ω LI p ∠φ and letting V p ∠φ = V L and I p ∠φ = I L we get V L = j ω LI L (6.( I p e ) = jωLI p e dt (6.16) to the jω – domain . Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = L ---.15) and since then.6 (a) we let v L ( t ) be a complex voltage. Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.7 For the network of Figure 6. the current through the inductor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt (6.14) and recalling that if x ( t ) = sin ( ωt + φ ) then dx ⁄ dt = ω cos ( ωt + φ ) .17) The presence of the j operator in (6.e. differentiation (or integration) does not change the radian frequency ω or the phase angle φ . Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6. transforming (6. v L ( t ) ⇔ V L transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 .Phasors in R.. Example 6.16) Next. find i L ( t ) when v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) . and C Circuits V L = j ω LI L (6. L. that is.17) indicates that the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by 90° . that is.13) Proof: In circuit 6.7.

that is.8 (a) below where the load is purely capacitive. V and I phasor relationship in C branches Consider circuit 6.= 40 ∠– 165° = 4 ∠– 255° = 4 ∠105° A –3 10 ∠90° jωL j10 × 10 Therefore. Voltage across the inductive load of Example 6.8 (b) is I C = jωCV C (6. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) dv C i C ( t ) = C -------dt ( a ) t – domain network − vC ( t ) VS IC I C = j ω CV C + VC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6. Voltage across a capacitive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V C and I C shown in the network of Figure 6. 6-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) vL ( t ) − L = 5 mH v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) Figure 6.8.8 (a) we let v C ( t ) be a complex voltage. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I L = 4 ∠105° A ⇔ i L ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2t + 105° ) = 4 sin ( 2t – 165° ) A 3.7 v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 2t – 165° ) ⇔ V L = 40 ∠– 165° mV and –3 VL ----------------------------------------------------------------------I L = --------.18) Proof: In circuit 6.= ( 40 ∠– 165° ) × 10 .7.

e.Phasors in R. v C ( t ) ⇔ V C transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 .19) Next. and C Circuits Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) then the current through the capacitor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) dv C i C ( t ) = -------dt and since then Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = C ---. Voltage across the capacitive load of Example 6. find i C ( t ) when v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) .8 For the circuit shown below.20) The presence of the j operator in (6.. L.( V p e ) = j ω CV p e dt (6. we obtain the phasor relationship Ip e jφ = jωCV p e jφ or I p ∠φ = j ω CV p ∠φ and letting I p ∠φ = I C and V p ∠φ = V C we get I C = j ω CV C (6. transforming (6.9. vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) vC ( t ) − C=106 nF v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) Figure 6.8 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i. Example 6.26) indicates that the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° .19) to the jω – domain .

4 ∠45° mA ⇔ i C ( t ) = 3.5 Impedance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.4 × 10 –3 × 1 ∠– 45° = 3.4 ∠45° mA Therefore.⎞ I = V S ⎝ jωC⎠ 6-14 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ .∫ i dt C –∞ vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) + vC ( t ) = vS ( t ) di 1 t .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) ⇔ V C = 170 ∠– 45° Then.+ --. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain R L I C = 3. I C = jωCV C = j × 60π × 106 × 10 –3 –9 × 170 ∠– 45° = 1 ∠90° × 3.Ri ( t ) + L ---.10.10 (b).I jωC VR + VL + VC = VS 1RI + jωLI + --------. R L vS ( t ) V + v (t) − + v (t) − C + v (t) S R L C i (t) − + I VR −+ VL − C + − VC ( a ) t – domain network v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) di v L ( t ) = L ---dt 1 t v C ( t ) = --. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a series RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1⎛ R + jωL + --------.4 × 10 ∠45° = 3.I = V S jωC Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.10 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6.∫ i dt = v S ( t ) dt C – ∞ ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network V R = IR V L = jωLI 1 V C = --------.4 cos ( 60 π + 45° ) mA 6.

21) is referred to as Ohm’s law for AC Circuits. i.26) (6.21) Expression (6.⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ωC ⎠ (6. is VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------.22) in polar form as Z = 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω C⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω L – ------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 .= – j ------ωC jωC and thus 1Z = R + j ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⎝ ω C⎠ (6. the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω).26) by I we obtain the impedance which.25) (6.22) We can also express (6. Like resistance.e.= -----.j -2 j j j j then 1 1 --------. X = X L + X C = ωL – 1 ⁄ ω C XL = ω L XC = 1 ⁄ ω C (6. that is.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC (6.= – j -. We can express the impedance Z as the sum of a real and an imaginary component as follows: Since j1 = 1 ⋅ .24) The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .23) We must remember that the impedance is not a phasor. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C .Impedance and dividing both sides of (6. The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C ..= --. by definition. 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC (6.27) The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).

12. the impedance can be expressed as Z = R + jX = R + j ( X L – X C ) = R + ( X L – X C ) ∠ tan [ ( X L – X C ) ⁄ R ] 2 2 –1 (6. Phasor circuit for Example 6.9 Solution: If we attempt to solve this problem in the time-domain directly. V S = ZI S VS + 5Ω −+ I − j10 Ω C + − −j100 Ω Figure 6. Here. find the current i ( t ) given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) .28) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2. ω = 100 rad ⁄ s and thus j ω L = jX L = j100 × 0.12 6-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we can show that impedances combine as resistances do. vS ( t ) − + 5Ω − + 100 mH C + i (t) − 100 µF R L v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) Figure 6. But as we now know. we will need to solve an integrodifferential equation. Example 6.11.1 = j10 Ω and 11 1--------.9 For the circuit below.= – jX C = – j ---------------------------------------.12.= – j100 2 2 –6 ωC jωC 10 × 10 × 10 Also.9 From the phasor circuit of Figure 6.− Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis In terms of reactances. a much easier solution is with the transformation of the given circuit to a phasor circuit. Circuit for Example 6.= – j ------. V S = 100 ∠– 30° and the phasor circuit is as shown in Figure 6.

+ jωC⎞ V = I S ⎝ ⎠ jωL ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (6.14 ∠– 86.∫ v dt L –∞ iG ( t ) + iL ( t ) + iC ( t ) = iS ( t ) dv 1 t .11 ∠[ – 30° – ( – 86.= 1.82° ⇔ i ( t ) = 1. by definition Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 . The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a parallel RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1 ⎛ G + --------.11 cos ( 100t + 56.82 ) 6.13 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6.14 ∠– 86.∫ v dt = i S ( t ) dt L – ∞ R L C + V R L C iC ( t ) IR IL IC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network IS I G = GV I C = jωCV 1 I L = --------.29) by V . we obtain the admittance.29) Dividing both sides of (6.+ -. + v (t) iS ( t ) iR ( t ) iL ( t ) − ( a ) t – domain network i G ( t ) = Gv ( t ) dv i C ( t ) = C ----dt 1 t i L ( t ) = -.V = I S jωL Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.82° Z Therefore.82° ) ] 90.6 Admittance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.82° 2 2 –1 and VS 100 ∠– 30° I = -----.11 ∠56.Gv ( t ) + C ----. that is.13 (b). I = 1.13.= ------------------------------------.Admittance Z = 5 + j10 – j100 = 5 – j90 = 5 + 90 ∠ tan ( – 90 ⁄ 5 ) = 90.V jωL IR + IL + IC = IS 1 GV + jωCV + --------.

we can express the admittance Y as the sum of a real component and an imaginary component as follows: 1Y = G + j ⎛ ω C – -----..30) Here we observe that the admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R .37) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2.⎞ ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 (6. In terms of susceptances.= G + --------.35) (6.+ jωC = -V jωL Z Phasor Voltage (6. The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive susceptance B L .33) The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B .36) 2 –1 (6. that is.34) (6. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the 1 conductance G and the imaginary part is ω C – -----. Like conductance. that is.⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ (6. the admittance Y it is not a phasor. ωL 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL (6.32) Like the impedance Z . As with the impedance Z . B = BC + BL = ω C – 1 ⁄ ω L BC = ω C BL = 1 ⁄ ω L The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . 6-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . the admittance Y can be expressed as Y = G + jB = G + j ( B C – B L ) = G + ( B C – B L ) ∠ tan [ ( B C – B L ) ⁄ G ] 2 –1 (6. we can show that admittances combine as conductances do.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis IS 1 1 Phasor Current Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------.= ---.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.31) and in polar form Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.

⋅ -------------. How should their real and imaginary terms be related so that they will be equivalent? R Z L C Y G L C Figure 6.14.= G + jB = -------------. their impedances Z or admittances Y must be equal.1. Networks for Example 6.Admittance Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. Therefore.10 Solution: For these circuits to be equivalent. The dual quantities we have encountered thus far are listed in Table 6.= -----------------.= -----------------. R X 1 R – jX R – jX 1 1 Y = -.38) is worth memorizing.1 Dual quantities Series Voltage Resistance Thevenin Inductance Reactance Impedance Example 6. Example 6.= -------------.38) Relation (6.– j -----------------2 2 2 2 2 2 R + jX R – jX Z R + jX R +X R +X R +X and equating reals and imaginaries we get R G = -----------------2 2 R +X and –X B = -----------------2 2 R +X (6.15. TABLE 6.11 Compute Z and Y for the network of Figure 6.10 Parallel Current Conductance Norton Capacitance Susceptance Admittance Consider the series and parallel networks shown in Figure 6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 .14.

9° jωL Since the impedance is the reciprocal of admittance. Network for Example 6. Z2 Z3 ( 10 + j5 ) ( 20 – j16 ) ( 11.18 ∠26.+ jωC = 4 – j2 + j5 = 4 + j3 = 5 ∠36. and Z 3 = 20 – j16 Then.7° ) Z = Z 1 + ----------------.9 ° = 0.25 = 10.2° 6-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .87 + j6. Y R2 −j16 Ω C2 Figure 6. it follows that 1 1 Z = -.6° ) ( 25.16 – j0. L1 j13 Ω C1 −j8 Ω R1 L2 j5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω Z.12 Y 5 ∠36.17 where Z 1 = j13 – j8 = j5 .16.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Z. Thus.96 ∠8° = j5 + 8.= j5 + ---------------------------------------------.61 ∠– 38.2 ∠– 36.12 Solution: Let the given network be represented as shown in Figure 6.9° Example 6.11 Solution: Since this is a parallel network.= 0.95 ∠– 20.87 + j1. 1 Y = G + --------.15.25 = 8.= j5 + --------------------------------------------------------------------------Z2 + Z3 10 + j5 + 20 – j16 31.85 ∠35. Y G 4Ω –1 L – j2 Ω –1 C –1 j5 Ω Figure 6. Z 2 = 10 + j5 . Verify your answers with MATLAB.1° = j5 + 8. Network for Example 6.12 Compute Z and Y for the circuit shown below.= -------------------. it is easier to compute the admittance Y first.

They behave entirely different. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 . inductors and capacitors do not behave like short circuits and open circuits respectively as they do when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached. in general.2° Check with MATLAB: z1=j*5.12 and 1 1 Y = -.092 ∠– 35.0531i 6.7 Summary • Excitations or driving functions refer to the applied voltages and currents in electric circuits.17. Typically response is the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it.8737+ 6.0. • The procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase rela- tionship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. Y Z2 Z3 Figure 6.2537i y=1/z % Find admittance y y = 0. • Circuit analysis in circuits where the excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid is very difficult and thus impractical in the t – domain .531 Z 10. z=z1+(z2*z3/(z2+z3)) % Find impedance z z = 8.0754 – j0.Summary Z1 Z.= 0.= -----------------------------. • A response is anything we define it as a response.85 ∠35. Simplified network for Example 6.2° = 0.0753. z2=10+j*5. the response will also be some constant value. • If the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. • If the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. • The complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits when excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid. • If the excitation is a constant voltage or current. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but with different amplitude and phase. z3=20−j*16.

and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . • Phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain • In the jω – domain the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor • In the jω – domain the current through an inductor lags the voltage across that inductor by 90° • In the jω – domain the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across that capacitor by 90° • In the jω – domain the impedance Z is defined as VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------. we denote the time domain as the t – domain . is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. it is convenient to convert it to a cosine function using the identity m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) before converting it to the jω – domain . Extract the real part from it. • If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω). • Impedance is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R . that is. • The t – domain to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. • The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. • The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. L .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • The procedure where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as fre- quency-domain to time-domain transformation. 6-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. and C devices.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC • Like resistance. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3.= -----. and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . • For brevity. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2.

• In the jω – domain the admittance Y is defined as IS Phasor Current 1 1 Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------.= ---.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.Summary 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC • In polar form the impedance is expressed as Z = –1 2 1 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ωC ω C⎠ • The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .+ jωC = -Phasor Voltage V jωL Z • The admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R .= G + --------. The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive suscep- tance B L . that is. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 . • The unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) . that is. 1 X = X L – X C = ωL – ------ωC • The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).. • The admittance Y is a complex quantity whose real part is the conductance G and the imaginary 1part is ω C – -----.. The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . ωL –1 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL • The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B .⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 • The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . 1B = B C – B L = ω C – -----ωL • In polar form the admittance is expressed as Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.e. i.

• Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. • In phasor circuit analysis. Similarly. 6-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and when we deal with conductance and susceptance we must think of devices in parallel. this value is not impedance. the ratio i ( t ) ⁄ v ( t ) is not admittance.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Admittances combine as conductances do. the admittance is always the reciprocal of the impedance • The ratio V ⁄ I of the phasor voltage to the phasor current exists only in the jω – domain and it is not the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) in the t – domain . conductance is not necessarily the reciprocal of resistance. Although the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) could yield some value. Whenever we deal with resistance and reactance we must think of devices in series. and suscep- tance is not the negative reciprocal of reactance. However.

v ( t ) = 300 cos ( 15t – 15 ° ) B. all voltages and all currents in that circuit will be of the same A. none of the above 4. and phase angle θ . independent and dependent sources with resistors and inductors only C. A series RLC circuit contains two voltage sources with values v 1 ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10t + 45° ) and v 2 ( t ) = 200 sin ( 5t – 60 ° ) . and capacitors E. independent and dependent sources with resistors only B. Phasor voltages and phasor currents can be used in the t – domain if a circuit contains A. inductors. and capacitors. V = 120e C. v ( t ) = 100 cos ( 5t + 105° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 . and the circuit contains resistors. amplitude A but different radian frequency ω and different phase angle θ B. independent and dependent sources with resistors. The sinusoid v ( t ) = 120 sin ( ω t + 90° ) in the jω – domain is expressed as A.8 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. phase angle θ but different amplitude A and different radian frequency ω D. amplitude A same radian frequency ω and same phase angle θ E. inductors. V = 120e D.Exercises 6. independent and dependent sources with resistors and capacitors only D. radian frequency ω but different amplitude A and different phase angle θ C. V = 120e j ( ωt + 90° ) jωt j90° j0° E. none of the above 2. V = 120e B. If the excitation in a circuit is a single sinusoidal source with amplitude A . radian frequency ω . We can transform this circuit to a phasor equivalent to find the cur- rent by first replacing these with a single voltage source v ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) whose value is A. none of the above 3.

5 Ω and the inductance of that coil is L = 5.5t + 15° ) E.1° V 6-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis C. none of the above 2Ω j0. 1 + j1 B. 12 + j ----37 D.5 Ω Z eq −j2 Ω 2Ω Figure 6. If a current of i ( t ) = 4 cos ωt A flows through that coil and operates at the frequency of f = 60Hz . none of the above 5. 4 – j 1. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7.18 is A. 1 – j1 C. 2 + j0 E. the phasor voltage V across that coil is A. none of the above 7.5t – 15 ° ) D. The equivalent impedance Z eq of the network of Figure 6. 16 + j ----73 73 37 2----C. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7. 2 – j2 E. The equivalent admittance Y eq of the network of Figure 6.18.18 is A. The resistance of a coil is R = 1. – j1 D.3 mH . 10 ∠53.5 6 ----B. Network for Questions 5 and 6 6.

A conductance with value G = 0. 5. 5 sin ( ωt + 53.2° ) E. none of the above 8.6 cos ( ωt + 45° ) E. A resistor with value R = 5 Ω is in series with a capacitor whose capacitive reactance at some particular frequency ω is – jX C = – 5 Ω .8 ∠45° V E. 6.2° ) D. 3 cos ωt + j3 sin ωt B. 6 ∠0° V C. The t – domain voltage across this series combination is A. none of the above 10. A phasor voltage with value V = 10 ∠0° is applied across this parallel combination. 5 cos ( ωt + 53. A phasor current with value I = 8 ∠0° A is flowing through this series combination. – sin ωt E. cos ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) B.3 Ω . – cos ωt D. 80 cos ωt B. none of the above 9.3 Ω –1 –3 is in parallel with a capacitor whose capacitive suscep–1 tance at some particular frequency ω is jB C = j0. 80 sin ωt C. If the phasor I = je A. 56. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications j(π ⁄ 2) . 56.Exercises B. 3 cos ωt – j 3 sin ωt C. then in the t – domain i ( t ) is 6-27 . The t – domain total current through this parallel combination is A. sin ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) C.6 cos ( ωt – 45° ) D.3 × 10 ∠90° V D.

00 mA at 1. At what frequency f is the network of Figure 6. that is.62 mA I i (mA) i = 15. Express the sinusoidal voltage waveform of Figure 6.20. Circuit for Problem 1 2.21 operating if it is known that v S = 120 cos ω t V and i = 12 cos ( ω t – 36. the current at t = 1 ms Answers: i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA . and two values are known as indicated.94 ms 0 t (ms) Figure 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Problems 1. Compute i ( 1 ) . 23.62 V 0.605 ms I = 5.000 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t (ms) Figure 6. find A . The current i ( t ) through a device decays exponentially as shown by the waveform of Figure 6.1° ) v (V) −2. Answer: v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36. Circuit for Problem 2 3.9° ) A ? Answer: f = 5. Circuit for Problem 3 6-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and θ .20.19.18 as v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) . ω .21.27 mA at 3.2 ms 1.533 KHz R 8Ω 1 mH L C 1 µF vS i Figure 6. that is.

22.5 mH Figure 6. v S = V cos ( 2000t + θ ) V and the symbols V and A inside the circles denote an AC voltmeter* and ammeter respectively. Answer: C = 89.22. it will suffice to say that these instruments indicate the magnitude (absolute) values of voltage and current. Network for Problem 4 5.23. Find the value of the capacitor.Exercises 4. is it possible to adjust the variable resistor R 1 and the variable capacitor C so that Z IN and Y IN have the same numerical value regardless of the operating frequency? If so. Assume that the ammeter has negligible internal resistance. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 .6 µF A R vS Other Part of the Network 2Ω V L C 0. if C = 1 F and R 1 = 1 Ω vS Other Part of the Network ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Figure 6. what are these values? Answer: Yes. Network for Problem 5 * Voltmeters and Ammeters are discussed in Chapter 8. For the circuit shown on Figure 6.23. The variable capacitor C is adjusted until the voltmeter reads 25 V and the ammeter 5 A. In the circuit of Figure 6. For this exercise.

0000-0. E 3 – j0.E Phasors exist in the jω – domain only 2. B 3. D 4. z2=2*(−2j)/(2−2j).94 ms 0 t (ms) θ or 6-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 This value is obtained with the MATLAB code z1=2+0. ω = 2πf or ω = 2π × 10 ⁄ 2π = 1000 r ⁄ s 3 3 3 Next. C Problems 1. 5.3 × 10 –3 = j2 Ω Z = 1.5 + j2 = 2. to find the current we must apply superposition. we find the phase angle θ from the figure above observing that π ⁄ 2 + θ = 2.2 ms 1.28 ms .9 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. Therefore. A ω = 2πf = 2π × 60 = 377 r ⁄ s .13° . E The voltage sources v 1 ( t ) and v 1 ( t ) operate at different frequencies. Then. The t – axis crossings define half of the period T. Thus.2 + 0.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis 6. V = ZI = 2. C 7. D 10. and one period is T = 6.94 = 3. jX L = jωL = j × 377 × 5.13° 8.5j.5 ∠53.62 V 0.2 ms v (V) −2. z=z1+z2 z = 3.14 ms . T ⁄ 2 = 2. C 9.13° × 4 ∠0° = 10 ∠53.5000i 6.5 ∠53.28 = 10 ⁄ 2π . The frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T = 10 ⁄ 6.

27 or 15 –3 ln ⎛ --------.1° ) or 1. we find the amplitude A by observing that at t = 0 .1° ---------------------------------. v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.27 or e 1. v ( 0 ) = 1. i t = 1.– π –3 π rad 2 2 6.Answers to Exercises 2π rad 180° –3 .395 × 10 α ⎝ 5.605 × 10 )α –3 or e – ( 1.= -------------------–3 5.1° ) 2.2 × 2 × 180° – π = 126.27 ) × 10 α = -------------------------------------------. Then.27 ⎠ or ln ( 15 ⁄ 5.1° – 90° = 36.62 V .1° Therefore.2ms – π = 2. The decaying exponential has the form i ( t ) = Ae mA where the time is in ms and thus for this problem we need to compute the values of A and α using the given values.28 Finally.000 × 10 )α –3 Division of the first equation by the second yields Ae 15 mA ------------------------------------.000 × 10 )α Ae – ( 1.62 = A cos ( 0 + 36.= 750 1.605 × 10 )α + ( 3.27 mA – ( 3.000 × 10 )α –3 –3 15 = --------5. that is.62 A = --------------------.⎞ = 1.395 3 and thus i ( t ) = Ae Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 750t mA 6-31 .27 mA = Ae – ( 3.395 × 10 α –3 15 = --------5.-2 6.605 ms – αt = 15 mA = Ae – ( 1. v = 1.2 × 10 s × ------------------------------.× ------------.605 × 10 )α –3 and i t = 3.000 ms = 5.28 × 10 s = 2.= 2 V cos 36.--θ = 2.

25 e –3 or A = 0.9° A .050 A = 50mA Therefore. I = 12 ∠– 36.9° I 12 ∠– 36. R 8Ω L jωL C 1 µF –3 6 vS I j– ------ωC In the jω – domain V S = 120 ∠0° V .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis To find the value of A we make use of the fact that i 5. VS 120 ∠0° V Z = ----.= 10 ∠36.27 × 10 -------------------------– 2.27 = Ae t = 3 ms –3 = 5. Then. jωL = j10 ω .27 mA .= -------------------------------. and – j ⁄ ωC = – j10 ⁄ ω Then.9° A and Z = 10 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) 2 2 2 or R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 or 8 + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 2 or ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 36 2 or ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC = 6 or 6-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – 750 × 3 × 10 or A = 5. i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA = 23.62 mA and i t = 1 ms = 50e – 750 × 10 –3 3. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below.

9° and 120 ∠0° I = ----------------------.9° 4. 765 r ⁄ s 2 3 6 9 and ω 34. Since the instruments read absolute values.= 0 L LC or ω – 6 × 10 ω – 10 = 0 2 3 9 Solving for ω and ignoring the negative value.= 12 ∠– 36.= 5. and impedance.9° 10 ∠36.765 – 28.765 Z = R + j ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ( ωC ) ) = 8 + j ( 34. 533 Hz = 5. phasor current. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-33 .= ---------------------------.Answers to Exercises 2 6 1ω – -.765 ) = 8 + j6 = 10 ∠36.+ ------------------------. 765 r ⁄ s f = ----. we are only need to be concerned the magnitudes of the phasor voltage.= 34.765 . 5.6 µF The second root of this polynomial is negative and thus it is discarded.⎞ ⎝ ⎠ C × 25 625 × 10 250 × 10 = 100 + 25 – ------------------------. r=roots(p) and this yields C = 89. – j ⁄ ωC = – j28. we get -----------------------------------------------------------------------ω = 6 × 10 + 36 × 10 + 4 × 10 .= 625 2 C C –4 –8 and after simplification we get 500C + 250 × 10 C – 625 × 10 2 –4 –8 = 0 Using MATLAB. V = Z I = 25 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) × 5 –4 2 2 2 or V 2 2 2 2 5 × 10 = 25 = [ R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) ] × 25 = 4 + ⎛ 1 – ------------------. we get p=[500 250*10^(−4) −625*10^(−8)].ω – -----. We group the series devices as shown below. Thus.533 KHz 2π 2π Check: jωL = j34.

Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Z1 Z2 Thus Z 1 = R 1 + jω .+ jω + --.⎞ + jω = ( R + 1 ) + j ⎛ ω – ------.= --------------------------------------------------Z IN ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Therefore.= R 1 + 1 + j ⎛ ω – ------.= --------------------------------------------------R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) [ ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) ] = [ R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ] ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) = R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC R1 11 R 1 – j ------.= --------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC and at any frequency ω R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC 1 Y IN = ------. and Z1 ⋅ Z2 ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Z IN = ----------------.= ω – ------ωC ωC From the first equation above we get C = 1 F and by substitution of this value into the second equation we get R 1 = 1 Ω 6-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.⎞ 1 ⎝ ⎝ 1 C⎠ ⎝ ωC ⎠ ωC ⎠ 2 2 Equating reals and imaginaries we get 1 R 1 + --.⎞ ⎝ ωC ωC ⎠ C R1 11 ⎛ R + --.⎞ + j ⎛ ω – ------. the right sides of Z IN and Y IN must be equal.= R 1 + 1 C R1 1ω – ------. if the condition Y IN = Z IN is to hold for all frequencies. Z 2 = 1 – j ⁄ ( ωC ) . ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC --------------------------------------------------.

3° Z 3 = 8 – j3 = 8. phasor diagrams are introduced. 7.1. and then we write the nodal equations in terms of these impedances. for convenience.3° Z 2 = 2 + j3 = 3.1 Nodal Analysis The procedure of analyzing a phasor* circuit is the same as in Chapter 3. Circuit for Example 7.544 ∠– 20. Z 2. Example 7. mesh analysis.1 VB Solution: As before.1. and Z 3 as shown.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis T his chapter begins with the application of nodal analysis. The following example illustrates the procedure. Then. and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in phasor circuits.1 Use nodal analysis to compute the phasor voltage V AB = V A – V B for the circuit of Figure 7. and the input-output relationships for an RC low-pass filter and an RC high-pass filter are developed.6° * A phasor is a rotating vector Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-1 . we designate the devices in series as Z 1. and we write nodal equations at the other two nodes A and B .211 ∠–56. Also.2.606 ∠56. except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities. we choose a reference node as shown in Figure 7. Z 1 = 4 – j6 = 7. superposition. VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.

3° ) 3.211 ∠– 56.⎞ V – ---.V A – -----------------------------.277 ∠– 56.708 ∠– 26.258 ∠– 26.+ -----------------.6° ---------------------------------. at V B : VB – VA VB ------------------.2) Next.= – 10 ∠0° Z2 Z3 or 7-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3° 6 – j3 -------------------.1 By application of KCL at V A .V = 5 ∠0° ----------------⎝ Z1 Z2 ⎠ A Z B 2 and by substitution for Z 1 and Z 2 we get 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------.0 ∠0° A 6.V B = 5 ∠0° ( 7.V = 5 ∠0° ⎝Z Z ⎠ A Z2 B 1 2 (7.+ -----.6° )V A – ( 0.606 ∠56. Nodal analysis for the circuit for Example 7.V A – ( 0.2.606 ∠56.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° (7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis VB 2Ω Z2 Z1 VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.3 ) ( 3.277 ∠– 56.= 5 ∠0° Z2 Z1 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ---.1) or 1⎛ Z 1 + Z 2⎞ V – ----.V – ( 0.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26 ∠0° ( 0. VA VA – VB -----.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26.277 ∠– 56.+ ---.

Nodal Analysis 1 1.277 ∠– 56.⎞ ⎝Z Z ⎠ 1 2 1 – ---Z2 2 3 VA 1 – ---Z2 1 1 ⎛ ---.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.325 ∠– 35.5) and thus with (7. please refer to Appendix A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 .7° – ( 0.6° )V A – ( 0.⎞ V B = – 10 ∠0° ⎝Z Z2 Z3 ⎠ 2 (7.5) the system of equations is ( 0.810 ∠35. We rewrite (7.+ ---.⎞ V B ⎝Z Z ⎠ = 5 – 10 (7.1) and (7.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.3° )V A + ( 0.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.1– ---.7) and D2 V B = ----- ∆ (7.V A + ⎛ ---.V A + --------------------------------------------------------------------------.8) The determinant ∆ is * If unfamiliar with MATLAB.2) and (7.3) In matrix form (7.3° )V A + --------------------------------.258 ∠– 26.325 ∠– 35.3° ) ( 8.6) We find V A and V B from D1 V A = ----- ∆ (7.V A + ⎛ -----------------⎞ V B = 10 ∠180° ⎝ Z2 Z3 ⎠ Z2 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 1 – -----------------------------.544 ∠–20.277 ∠– 56.+ ---.3° )V A + ( 0.3) are 1 1 ⎛ ---.277 ∠– 56.4) We will follow a step-by-step procedure to solve these equations using Cramer’s rule.606 ∠56.6° ) 3.V B = 10 ∠180° 30.3° 10 – ( 0.606 ∠56.3) as Z2 + Z3 1 – ---.V B = 10 ∠180° ( 3.277 ∠– 56.+ ---. and we will use MATLAB®* to verify the results.

169 0.084 ∠– 62.85 = 30. 7-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3° = – 24.570 + j21.685 0.277 ∠– 56. we get D1 1.5 ∠48. disp('Va = ').155 + 0. disp(Vab).= --------------------------------. disp(Va).305 ) = – 0.277 ∠– 56.948 + ( – 1.307 + j1. % Elements of matrix Z I=[5 −10]'.8° ) Also.217 + j1.325 ∠– 35. Vb = V(2) are also acceptable % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp fprintf(' \n').769 – j1. D1 = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.1).780 – j1.7) and (7.= ------------------------------.374 ∠99.9° = – 4.9° Therefore.258 ∠– 26.7° + 2. V AB = V A – V B = – 4.277 ∠– 56.625 ∠– 35. disp('Vb = ').7° ) = ( 0. % Column vector I V=Z\I.277 ∠– 56.169 ) = 20.003 = 1.3° ) ( 0.1).3 ) = ( 0.6° ) ( 10 ∠180° ) – ( – 0.358 + j0. % Va = V(1).277 ∠– 56.320 – j0.258 ∠– 26.780 – j1. z2 and z3 Z=[1/z1+1/z2 −1/z2.277 ∠– 56.3° ) 10 ∠180° ( 0.071 ) = ( 0.003 = 0.9° V B = ----.570 + j21.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ∆ = ( 0.8).277 ∠– 56.3° ) – ( 0.= 22.4° + 1.7° ) = 1. z2=2+j*3.062 – j0.1° V A = ----.258 ∠– 26.5° Check with MATLAB: z1=4−j*6. Vb=V(2.3° ) 10 ∠180° = ( 0.537 + j2.152 ) = – 1.807 ∠– 177. % Define z1. disp('Vab = '). −1/z2 1/z2+1/z3]. z3=8−j*3.074 ) – ( – 0.8° ∆ and D2 1.325 ∠– 35.= 24. disp(Vb).077 ∠– 112.6° ) – ( 0. fprintf(' \n').023 – j0.3° = ( – 2.039 – j0.325 ∠– 35.358 ∠179.3° ) ⋅ ( – 0.062 ∠– 2.277 ∠– 56.6° ) 5 ∠0° – ( 0.258 ∠– 26.7° ) – ( 0.6° ) ⋅ ( 0.385 ∠– 56.21 + j22.161 ∠101.062 ∠– 2.3° ) ] = ( 1.685 – ( – 24.1° and D2 = ( 0. Vab=Va−Vb.580 ∠153.325 ∠– 35.7° ) – ( 10 ∠180° ) [ – ( 0.8° ∆ Finally.358 ∠179.357 = 1. by substitution into (7.7° ) = ( 5 ∠0° ) ( 0.770 ∠123.374 ∠99.6 ) – ( 0. Va=V(1.3° ) – ( 0.062 ∠– 2.3° ) ( 5 ∠0° ) = 2.

we should accept the MATLAB values as more accurate. and Z 3 .4 with the mesh currents assigned in a clockwise direction. for Mesh 1. for convenience. although it only displays four decimal places in the short (default) number display format. Accordingly. By inspection.2 Mesh Analysis Again. use mesh analysis to find the voltage V 10A .Mesh Analysis Va = -4. and we write mesh equations in terms of these impedances. 7. We observe that the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source is the same as the voltage across the 8 Ω and – j 3 Ω series combination.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 . the procedure of analyzing a phasor circuit is the same as in Chapter 3 except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities. MATLAB performs calculations with accuracy of 15 decimal places. 2Ω 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7.2 Solution: As in the previous example. The following example illustrates the procedure. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source.4138 .3. Z 2. that is.2759 + 20. Example 7.2 For the circuit of Figure 7.6552i Vb = -22.1.6897i These values differ by about 10% from the values we obtained with Cramer’s rule where we rounded the values to three decimal places. we denote the passive devices in series as Z 1. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 7. I 1 = 5 ∠0° (7.3.0345i Vab = 18.1379 + 19.

disp(i2).10).10) Also. disp(i3). 7-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the voltage across the 10 ∠0° A current source is V 10A = Z 3 ( I 2 – I 3 ) = ( 8 – j3 ) ( 7. −(4−j*6) 14−j*6 −(8−j*3).586 – j1. fprintf(' \n').* Z=[1 0 0. i3=I(3).12) We use MATLAB for the solution of 7.12. I 3 = 10 ∠0° (7. disp('i2 = ').0345i i3 = 10 Therefore.1.11) are written as 1 – ( 4 – j6 ) 0 I1 5 0 0 ( 14 – j6 ) – ( 8 – j3 ) I 2 = 0 – 10 0 1 I3 (7. i1=I(1). V=[5 0 10]'.038 We observe that this is the same value as that of the voltage V B in the previous example. disp('i3 = '). * As we experienced with Example 7. 0 0 1]. in our subsequent discussion we will use MATLAB for the solution of simultaneous equations with complex coefficients.2 By application of KVL around Mesh 2. (7. disp(i1). by inspection for Mesh 3. I=Z\V. disp('i1 = ').11) and in matrix form. and (7.417 – j1.5862 . Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 7. Accordingly. fprintf(' \n'). i1 = 5 i2 = 7.035 – 10 ) = – 22. (7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Z2 4Ω Z1 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω I1 I2 2Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 I3 V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. – Z 1 I 1 + ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )I 2 – Z 3 I 3 = 0 or – ( 4 – j6 ) I 1 + ( 14 – j6 )I 2 – ( 8 – j3 )I 3 = 0 (7.1.4. i2=I(2). the computation of phasor voltages and currents becomes quite tedious.9).

Then.5 ∠0° = ------------------------------------. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V ' C2 C2 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7. the superposition principle is most useful when a circuit contains two or more independent voltage or current sources.5 ∠0° = 2.3 Solution: Let the phasor voltage across C 2 due to the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone be denoted as V ' C2 . and that due to the 10 ∠0° A current source as V '' C2 . Circuit for Example 7. Example 7. the current I ' C2 through C 2 is 7.3 Use the superposition principle to find the phasor voltage across capacitor C 2 in the circuit of Figure 7.5.3° 4 – j6 I ' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.3 with the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone By application of the current division expression. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.6.5. V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 With the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone.6.211 ∠–56.367 ∠– 33. 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω C2 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.1° 15.3 Application of Superposition Principle As we know from Chapter 3.232 ∠– 23.2° 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 The voltage across C 2 with the 5 ∠0° current source acting alone is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 .Application of Superposition Principle 7. The following example illustrates the application of the superposition principle in phasor circuits.

213 ∠86.6° ) = ( 13.3 with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone and by application of the current division expression.784 + j13.094 + j7. Example 7. 7-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .240 = 7.873 ∠113.949 + 0.367 ∠– 33. the current I '' C2 through C 2 is 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 I '' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.878 – j5. apply Thevenin’s theorem to compute I X and then draw Norton’s equivalent circuit.1° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 2.15) 7. with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone.784 + j13.1° ) = 7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.14) Addition of (7.404 ∠176.878 – j5.1° = – 3.6 = 0.232 ∠– 23.2° The voltage across C 2 with the 10 ∠0° current source acting alone is V '' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 4.13) with (7.367 ∠– 33.708 ∠– 26.189 or V C2 = – 3.102 ∠– 123.6° 15.949 (7.10 ∠180° = 4.7.4 For the circuit of Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V ' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 2. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V '' C2 C2 4Ω –j 6 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.4 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems These two theorems also offer a very convenient method in analyzing phasor circuits as illustrated by the following example.7.1° (7.189 ) (7.14) yields V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 = – 3.6° = ------------------------------------.404 ∠176.404 ∠176.6° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 4.8. Circuit for Example 7.13) Next.( – 10 ∠0° ) 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 6.

17). The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 7.4° = 34 + j68 50 – j100 111.4 Solution: With the 100 Ω resistor disconnected. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.9.170 ∠0° = 156.10.9.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 85 Ω IX 170 ∠0° V 100 Ω j200 Ω 50 Ω – j100 Ω Figure 7.18) Next.17) Then. 85 Ω V1 170 ∠0° V j200 Ω – j100 Ω V2 50 Ω Figure 7. from (7. 200 ∠90° j200 V 1 = ---------------------. V TH = V OC = V 12 = V 1 – V 2 = 144 + j61.13 – ( 34 + j68 ) or V TH = 110 – j6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 .170 ∠0° = --------------------------------------.21 ∠– 3.13 217. Circuit for Example 7.170 ∠0° = ----------------------------.31 ∠67° 85 + j200 (7. we find the Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH by shorting the 170 ∠0° V voltage source.16) and (7.8 ∠( – 63.4 )° (7. Circuit for Example 7.87 = 110.6 ° (7.46 ∠23° = 144 + j61.4 with the 100 Ω resistor disconnected By application of the voltage division expression.8.16) and 50 50 V 2 = ---------------------.170 ∠0° = 76 ∠63.

85 × j200 50 × ( – j100 ) Z TH = ---------------------.11.11.1200e+002 + 1.5 ∠5.4° Ω The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis X 85 Ω X j200 Ω – j100 Ω Y 50 Ω X j200 Ω 50 Ω Y Figure 7.12.4 with the voltage source shorted 85 Ω – j100 Ω Y ZTH 50 Ω – j100 Ω j200 Ω 85 Ω We observe that the parallel combinations j200 || 85 and 50 || j100 are in series as shown in Figure 7. X j200 Ω ZTH 50 Ω Y Figure 7.0 + j10.6 = 112. Circuit for Example 7. Network for the computation of Z TH for Example 7. 7-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10.11. Zth=85*200j/(85+200j) + 50*(−100j)/(50−100j) Zth = 1.0598e+001i or Z TH = 112.+ -----------------------------85 + j200 50 – j100 and with MATLAB.4 −j100 Ω 85 Ω From Figure 7.

4° Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 .4° A Z TH + 100 Ω (7.5 ∠5.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ZTH 112 Ω j10.13. Norton’s equivalent is obtained from Thevenin’s circuit by exchanging V TH and its series Z TH with I N in parallel with Z N as shown in Figure 7. V TH I X = -------------------------------.0582i that is.19) The same answer is found in Example C.98 ∠– 9° A Z TH 112.87 We find I X using MATLAB: Vth=110−6. fprintf(' \n').= ---------------------------------. Simplified circuit for computation of I X in Example 7. disp('Ix = ').6j.4 With the 100 Ω resistor connected at X-Y.5 ∠5.87 Y Figure 7.6 Ω IX 100 Ω Y Figure 7.12.6 Ω X VTH = 110.6° I N = --------.14.4° and Z N = Z TH = 112.21∠−3. Thevenin equivalent circuit for Example 7.5160 . X 112 Ω j10.18 of Appendix C where we applied nodal analysis to find IX . Thus.21 ∠– 3. Zth=112+10.0.516 – j0. disp(Ix). Ix = 0. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 7.058 = 0.87j. fprintf(' \n').519 ∠– 6.4 VTH = 110−j6.13.= 0. V TH 110.6° = 110−j6. Ix=Vth/(Zth+100).= 0.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis

IN

ZN

Figure 7.14. Norton equivalent circuit for Example 7.4

**7.5 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
**

Other circuits such as those who contain op amps and op amp equivalent circuits can be analyzed using any of the above methods. Example 7.5 Compute i X ( t ) for the circuit below where v in ( t ) = 2 cos ( 30000 ω t ) V .

2Ω 50 Ω 10 Ω

iX ( t )

v in ( t )

8Ω 0.2 mH

+

−

vC ( t )

+

− 5v ( t ) C

4Ω

10 ⁄ 3 µF

Figure 7.15. Circuit for Example 7.5

**Solution: As a first step, we perform the t – domain , to jω – domain transformation. Thus,
**

jX L = j ω L = j0.2 × 10

–3

× 30 × 10 = j6

3

and

1 1 – jX C = – j ------- = – j ------------------------------------------------- = – j10 ωC 3 10 –6 30 × 10 × ----- × 10 3

Also,

V IN = 2 ∠0°

and the phasor circuit is shown in Figure 5.16.

7-12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
**

V1

2Ω

V2

10 Ω 8Ω j6 Ω

50 Ω

V3

IX

+

−

V IN 2 ∠0°

+

−

VC −j10 Ω

+

− 5V C

4Ω

Figure 7.16. Phasor circuit for Example 7.5

At Node

:

V1 V 1 – V C V 1 – 5V C V 1 – 2 ∠0° ------------------------- + ------------- + ------------------ + ---------------------- = 0 2 10 50 8 + j6

(7.20)

and since

3 1 8 –j 6 8 –j 6 4 1 ------------- = ------------- ⋅ ---------- = ---------- = ----- – j ----8 + j6 8 – j 6 100 50 50 8 + j6

**the nodal equation of (7.20) simplifies to
**

3 ⎛ 35 – j -----⎞ V – 1 V = 1 ∠0° -----⎝ 50 50⎠ 1 5 C

(7.21)

At Node

:

VC – V1 VC ------------------ + ---------- = 0 10 – j10

or

111 – ----- V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V C = 0 ⎝ 10 10⎠ 10

(7.22)

At Node

:

V 3 = 5V C

**We use MATLAB to solve (7.21) and (7.22).
**

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176 - 1.7546i

magIx = 2.75 A

theta = -39.64 deg

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-13

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Therefore,

I = 2.75 ∠– 39.6° ⇔ i ( t ) = 2.75 cos ( 30000t – 39.6° )

**Example 7.6 Compute the phasor V out for the op amp circuit of Figure 7.17.
**

−j5 Ω 4Ω 5Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V −j10 Ω 10 Ω V out

Figure 7.17. Circuit for Example 7.6

**Solution: We assign phasor voltages V 1 and V while observing that V out = V
**

+ +

as shown in Figure 7.18, and we apply KCL at these nodes,

**V1 4Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V 5Ω −j10 Ω V
**

+

10 Ω

V out

Figure 7.18. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 7.6

At Node

:

V 1 – 4 ∠0° V 1 – V out V 1 – V out V1 ------------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------- = 0 4 – j10 – j5 5

or

39 ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V – ⎛ 1 + j 1 ⎞ V -- -= 1 ∠0° ⎝ 20 10⎠ 1 ⎝ 5 5 ⎠ out

(7.23)

At Node

,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-14

Phasor Diagrams

V2 = V

+

= V out

and thus,

V out V out – V 1 V out – V 1 ---------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- = 0 5 – j5 10

or

1 1 1 3 – ⎛ -- + j -- ⎞ V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -- ⎞ V out = 0 ⎝5 5 ⎠ ⎝ 10 5 ⎠

(7.24)

**Solving (7.23) and (7.24) with MATLAB we get:
**

format rat G=[9/20+j*3/10 −1/5−j*1/5; −1/5−j*1/5 3/10+j*1/5]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf(' \n');disp(‘V1 = ’); disp(V(1,1)); disp(‘Vout = ’); disp(V(2,1)); format short magV=abs(V(2,1)); thetaV=angle(V(2,1))*180/pi; fprintf('magIx = %5.3f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

V1 = 68/25 - 24/25i magIx = 2.750 A Therefore,

**Vout = 56/25 - 8/25i theta = -39.64 deg
**

V out = 2.263 ∠– 8.13°

(7.25)

7.6 Phasor Diagrams

A phasor diagram is a sketch showing the magnitude and phase relationships among the phasor voltages and currents in phasor circuits. The procedure is best illustrated with the examples below. Example 7.7 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.19. +

VS I

2Ω j3 Ω

− +

−

VR

VL VC

+

− −j5 Ω

Figure 7.19. Circuit for Example 7.7

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-15

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Solution: Since this is a series circuit, the phasor current I is common to all circuit devices. Therefore, we assign to this phasor current the value I = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.20. Then,

V R = ( 2 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = 2 ∠0° V V L = ( j3 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = j3 = 3 ∠90° V V C = ( – j 5 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = – j5 = 5 ∠– 90 ° V V S = V R + ( V L + V C ) = 2 – j2 = 2 2 ∠– 45° VL VR VL+VC VC Figure 7.20. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 7.7 I = 1∠0°

VS=VR+(VL+VC)

**Example 7.8 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.21. +
**

V IS − IR

10 Ω

IL

j20 Ω

IC −j10 Ω

Figure 7.21. Circuit for Example 7.8

Solution: Since this is a parallel circuit, the phasor voltage V is common to all circuit devices. Therefore let us assign this phasor voltage the value V = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference phasor as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.22. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Diagrams

I R = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 = 100 ∠0° mA I L = 1 ∠0° ⁄ j20 = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 20 ∠90° = 50 ∠– 90 ° m I C = 1 ∠0° ⁄ ( – j 10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 ∠– 90 ° = 100 ∠90° mA I C + I L = 50 ∠90° mA I S = I R + ( I C + I L ) = 100 + j50 = 111.8 ∠26.6° IC IC+IL IS=IR+(IC+IL) V = 1∠0° IR IL Figure 7.22. Phasor diagram for Example 7.8

We can draw a phasor diagram for other circuits that are neither series nor parallel by assigning any phasor quantity as a reference. Example 7.9 Compute and sketch all phasor voltages for the circuit of Figure 7.23. Then, use MATLAB to plot these quantities in the t – domain . +

VS VR1

2Ω

−

+ +

VL

j3 Ω

−

+

5Ω

IR2 VR2

−j5 Ω −

VC

−

Figure 7.23. Circuit for Example 7.9

**Solution: We will begin by selecting I R2 = 1 ∠0° A as our reference as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 7.24. Then,
**

V R2 = 5 Ω × I R2 = 5 × 1 ∠0° = 5 ∠0° V L = j3 Ω × I R2 = 3 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 3 ∠90° V C = V L + V R2 = 5 ∠0° + 3 ∠90° = 5 + j3 = 5.83 ∠31°

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-17

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

VC ----------------------V R1 = 2 Ω × I R1 = 2 ( I C + I R2 ) = 2 ⎛ ------- + I R2⎞ = 2 ⎛ 5.83 ∠31° + 5 ∠0° ⎞ ⎝ 5 ∠– 90° ⎠ ⎝ – j5 ⎠ = 2.33 ∠121° + 10 ∠0° = – 1.2 + j2 + 10 = 8.8 + j2 = 9 ∠12.8°

and

V S = V R1 + V C = 8.8 + j2 + 5 + j3 = 13.8 + j5 = 14.7 ∠20° V C = 5.83 ∠31° V S = 14.7 ∠20° V L = 3 ∠90° V R1 = 9 ∠12.8° V R2 = 5 ∠0° I R2 = 1 ∠0° A

Figure 7.24. Phasor diagram for Example 7.9

Now, we can transform these phasors into time-domain quantities and use MATLAB to plot them. We will use the voltage source as a reference with the value V S = 1 ∠0° , and we will apply nodal analysis with node voltages V1, V2, and V3 assigned as shown in Figure 7.25.

V1 + VR1 − V2 + VL − V3 j3 Ω IR2 2Ω + VS + 5Ω VR2 VC − − −j5 Ω 1 ∠0° V Figure 7.25. Circuit for Example 7.9 with the voltage source taken as reference

**The node equations are shown below in matrix form.
**

1 –1 -2 0 0 1 - 1⎛ 1 + ------- + ---- ⎞ -⎝ 2 – j5 j3 ⎠ 1– ---j3 G 0 1– ---j3 1- -⎛ ---- + 1 ⎞ ⎝ j3 5 ⎠ V1 V2 V3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 1 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I Orchard Publications

The MATLAB code is as follows:

7-18

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications

Phasor Diagrams

% Enter the non-zero values of the G matrix G(1,1)=1; G(2,1)=−1/2; G(2,2)=1/2−1/5j+1/3j; G(2,3)=−1/3j; G(3,2)=−1/3j; G(3,3)=1/3j+1/5; % % Enter all values of the I matrix I=[1 0 0]'; % % Compute node voltages V=G\I; % VR1=V(1)−V(2); VL=V(2)−V(3); % Compute magnitudes and phase angles of voltages magV1=abs(V(1)); magV2=abs(V(2)); magV3=abs(V(3)); phaseV1=angle(V(1))*180/pi; phaseV2=angle(V(2))*180/pi; phaseV3=angle(V(3))*180/pi; magVR1=abs(VR1); phaseVR1=angle(VR1)*180/pi; magVL=abs(VL); phaseVL=angle(VL)*180/pi; % % Denote radian frequency as w and plot wt for 0 to 2*pi range wt=linspace(0,2*pi); V1=magV(1)*cos(wt-phaseV(1)); V2=magV(2)*cos(wt-phaseV(2)); V3=magV(3)*cos(wt-phaseV(3)); VR1t=magVR1*cos(wt-phaseVR1); VLt=magVL*cos(wt-phaseVL); % % Convert wt to degrees deg=wt*180/pi; % % Print phasor voltages, magnitudes, and phase angles fprintf(' \n'); % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp disp('V1 = '); disp(V(1)); disp('V2 = '); disp(V(2)); disp('V3 = '); disp(V(3)); disp('VR1 = '); disp(VR1); disp('VL = '); disp(VL); fprintf('magV1 = %4.2f V \t', magV1); fprintf('magV2 = %4.2f V \t', magV2); fprintf('magV3 = %4.2f V', magV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('phaseV1 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV1); fprintf('phaseV2 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV2); fprintf('phaseV3 = %4.2f deg', phaseV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVR1 = %4.2f V \t', magVR1); fprintf('phaseVR1 = %4.2f deg ', phaseVR1); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVL = %4.2f V \t', abs(VL)); fprintf('phaseVL = %4.2f deg ', phaseVL); fprintf(' \n'); % plot(deg,V1,deg,V2,deg,V3,deg,VR1t,deg,VLt) fprintf(' \n');

**V1 = 1 V2 = 0.7503 - 0.1296i
**

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

V3 = 0.4945 - 0.4263i VR1 = 0.2497 + 0.1296i VL = 0.2558 + 0.2967i magV1 = 1.00 V phaseV1 = 0.00 deg magVR1 = 0.28 V magVL = 0.39 V and with these values we have

v S ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) = cos ω t v 2 ( t ) = 0.76 cos ( ω t – 9.8° ) v 3 ( t ) = 0.65 cos ( ω t – 40.8° ) v L ( t ) = 0.39 cos ( ω t + 49.2° )

magV2 = 0.76 V phaseV2 = -9.80 deg phaseVR1 = 27.43 deg phaseVL = 49.24 deg

magV3 = 0.65 V phaseV3 = -40.76 deg

v R1 ( t ) = 0.28 cos ( ω t + 27.4° )

**These are plotted with MATLAB as shown in Figure 7.26.
**

1

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0

-0 .2

-0 .4

-0 .6

-0 .8

-1

v1 ( t ) = vS ( t ) v2 ( t ) v R1 ( t ) v3 ( t )

vL ( t )

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Figure 7.26. The t – domain plots for Example 7.9

7.7 Electric Filters

The characteristics of electric filters were introduced in Chapter 4 but are repeated below for convenience. Analog filters are defined over a continuous range of frequencies. They are classified as low-pass, highpass, band-pass and band-elimination (stop-band). Another, less frequently mentioned filter, is the all-pass

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Basic Analog Filters
**

or phase shift filter. It has a constant amplitude response but is phase varies with frequency. This is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 0-9709511-3-2, by this author. The ideal amplitude characteristics of each are shown in Figure 7.27. The ideal characteristics are not physically realizable; we will see that practical filters can be designed to approximate these characteristics. In this section we will derive the passive RC low and high-pass filter characteristics and those of an active low-pass filter using phasor analysis.

V out --------V in 1

PASS BAND

V out --------V in

STOP (CUTOFF) BAND

1

STOP BAND PASS BAND

ωc Ideal low− pass filter V out --------V in

ω

ωc Ideal high− pass filter

ω

1

STOP BAND PASS BAND STOP BAND

V out --------V in

1

PASS BAND STOP BAND PASS BAND

ω1

ω2

ω

ω1

ω2

ω

Ideal band− pass Filter

Ideal band − elimination filter

Figure 7.27. Amplitude characteristics of the types of filters

A digital filter, in general, is a computational process, or algorithm that converts one sequence of numbers representing the input signal into another sequence representing the output signal. Accordingly, a digital filter can perform functions as differentiation, integration, estimation, and, of course, like an analog filter, it can filter out unwanted bands of frequency. Digital filters are discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications by this author, Orchard Publications.

**7.8 Basic Analog Filters
**

An analog filter can also be classified as passive or active. Passive filters consist of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. Active filters are, generally, operational amplifiers with resistors and capacitors connected to them externally. We can find out whether a filter, passive or active, is a low-pass, high-pass, etc., from its the frequency response that can be obtained from its transfer function. The procedure is illustrated with the examples that follow. Example 7.10 Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses of the series RC network of Figure 7.28, and sketch their characteristics.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

+

V in −

R

C

+

−

V out

Figure 7.28. Series RC network for Example 7.10

**Solution: By the voltage division expression,
**

1 ⁄ jωC V out = -------------------------- V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC

**and denoting the ratio V out ⁄ V in as G ( jω ) , we get
**

V out 1 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------1 + jωRC V in 2 2 2 ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC ) 1 = -------------------------------- ∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 1+ω R C

(7.26)

The magnitude of (7.26) is

V out 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C

(7.27)

**and the phase angle θ , also known as the argument, is
**

V out θ = arg { G ( jω ) } = arg ⎛ ---------⎞ = – atan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠

(7.28)

We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( jω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.27) at ω = 0 , ω = 1 ⁄ RC , and ω → ∞ . Thus, as ω → 0 , G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC , G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.707 and as ω → ∞ , G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 To obtain a smooth curve, we will use a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω . This is shown in Figure 7.29 where, for convenience, we let

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω by evaluating of (11. to the amplitude characteristics of a low-pass filter.040 0. as ω → 0 .Basic Analog Filters RC = 1 .98418 0.220 |G(jω)| 1 0.9998 0. θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We use Excel to plot θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω . although not a good one.31 where. Amplitude characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.11 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 . ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . and sketch their characteristics. This is shown in Figure 7.080 0.99288 0. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ .200 0.100 0.99034 0..30.4 0. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . i.120 0.060 0. ω → – ∞ and ω → ∞ . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . + V in − C R V out − + Figure 7.99504 0.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0.020 0.707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.e.98058 0.8 0. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .30 is also a series RC circuit.160 0.3) at ω = 0 . The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation. Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses.140 0.000 0. Thus. again for convenience. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . where the positions of the resistor and capacitor have been interchanged. we let RC = 1 Example 7.180 0.29. ω 0.9992 0.9982 0.11 The network of Figure 7. RC network for Example 7.99682 0.6 0.98744 0.97664 Series RC Low-pass Filter Frequency Response |G(jω)| 1 0.

18 85.94 -11.= -------------------------------.84 -11.16 85.78 -11.j ωRC + ω R C G ( j ω ) = --------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ (7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.74 θ 85.20 85.76 -11.21 85.14 85.82 -11.00 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 1------RC –1 ------RC 2 RC = 1 4 6 8 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.20 85.23 85.16 85.24 85.96 -11.92 -11.13 Series RC Low-Pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90.00 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45.17 85.29) The magnitude of (7.31) 7-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out ωRC ( j + ωRC ) j ωRC .19 85.∠ atan ⎛ ----------.80 -11. is 1 θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ⎛ ----------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 2 2 2 1 1+ω R C 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.88 -11.00 -11.86 -11.30) and the phase angle or argument.= ----------------------.00 0.31.15 85.22 85.00 -90.00 -45.= ---------------------------------------.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 1 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.98 -11.29) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------1 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7. Phase characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter Solution: R V out = -------------------------.90 -11.= ------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 1 2 2 2 ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ⎛ ----------.

θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ .8 0. G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.13865 0.32. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .15799 0. as ω → 0 .707 and as ω → ∞ .040 0. to the amplitude characteristics of a high-pass filter.05989 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .02 0. ω 0.100 0.11915 0..020 0. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .17715 0.180 0. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ . θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° Figure 7.6 0.200 0.707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0.31) at ω = 0 . Thus.000 0.32 shows G ( j ω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω where RC = 1 . where RC = 1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 .Basic Analog Filters We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.4 0.060 0. and ω → ∞ .30) at ω = 0 .07975 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC . Thus.120 0. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω .0995 0. i. as ω → 0 . The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation. Amplitude characteristics of a series RC high-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.21486 Series RC High-Pass Filter |G(jω)| versus ω |G(jω)| 1 0.160 0.140 0.33 shows the phase angle θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω .220 |G(jω)| 1E-07 0. G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . and ω → ∞ .03997 0.080 0. by evaluating (7. although not a good one. G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 Figure 7.e. ω → – ∞ .19612 0.

Phase characteristics of an RC high-pass filter 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.860 -11.920 -11.880 -11.940 -11.820 -11.980 -11.8603978 -4.8196102 -4.827713 -4.8686381 Series RC High-pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45 0 -45 -90 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 RC=1 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.840 -11. such as those we discussed in Chapter 4.8440004 -4.7954638 -4. Example 7.740 θ -4.8115345 -4.780 -11.835843 -4. C 2 10 nF v2 v out 25 nF R2 R1 200 kΩ v in C1 40 kΩ v1 R3 50 kΩ Figure 7.9 Active Filter Analysis We can analyze active filters.+ -------------------.8034858 -4.+ ----------------------.8521853 -4.32) 7-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7636417 -4.760 -11.33.7715577 -4.34. Low-pass filter for Example 7.12 Solution: We write the phasor circuit nodal equations as follows: At Node : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – v 2 v1 ----------------.12 Compute the approximate cut-off frequency of the circuit of Figure 7.800 -11.+ --------------.7874686 -4.= 0 R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C1 ) R1 R2 (7.960 -11.000 -11.34 which is known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active low-pass filter. using phasor circuit analysis.7794999 -4.900 -11.

= ----------------------R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C2 ) (7.^(−6).abs(Gjw))./(2.2 × 0. we get v out 1 --------. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.*w.1v in R 1 ⎛ ----.37) and now we can use MATLAB to find and plot the magnitude of (7.^(−3).34) into (7. We observe that the half-power point for this plot is 0.^2−5.33) reduces to v 1 = ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) v out and by substitution of (7.37) with the following code. relation (7.36) or v out –1 G ( j ω ) = --------. The plot is shown in Figure 7. rearranging.*w+5).v in 1 ⎠ 3 2 ⎝ R R1 R2 R3 R 2 out 1 (7.1. hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').+ j ω C ⎞ ( – j ω R C ) – ----.32). ylabel('|Vout/Vin|').+ ----.5. and collecting like terms.+ ----.34) (7.33) and since v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ----.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------–6 2 v in 2.*10. Radian Frequency') (7. semilogx(w.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11.+ j2.35 where we see that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 700 rad ⁄ s .35) or v out 1 --------.5 × 10 ω ( – j5 × 10 × 10 ω ) – ----------------⎝ ⎠ 3 4 20 × 10 4 × 10 (7.5 × 10 ω – j5 × 10 –3 ω + 5 w=1:10:10000.Active Filter Analysis At node : v2 – v1 C2 --------------.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 ⎛ –8 ⎞ 4 –8 1 1 v in 2 × 10 -------------------.141 .+ ----.*j.*10.707 = 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 .v = ----. grid. Gjw=−1.+ j ω C 1 ⎞ ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) – ----⎝ R ⎠ R2 R3 R2 1 By substitution of given values of resistors and capacitors. we get: 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.

and Norton’s theorem can also be applied to phasor circuits. 7-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . impedances. Radian Frequency |Vout/Vin| 0.12 7.18 0.16 0. • Phasor diagrams are sketches that show the magnitude and phase relationships among several pha- sor voltages and currents.10 Summary • In Chapter 3 we were concerned with constant voltage and constant current sources. and so on before writing nodal or mesh equations. In this chapter we were concerned with alternating voltage and alternating current sources. the first step is to select one phasor as a reference. • Whenever a branch in a circuit contains two or more devices in series or two or more devices in parallel. • The use of complex numbers make the phasor circuit analysis much easier. z 2 .2 0. • The RC low-pass and RC high-pass filters are rudimentary types of filters and are not used in prac- tice. and admittances.02 0 10 0 10 1 Radian Frequency w 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure 7. • Nodal analysis. the principle of superposition.1 0. mesh analysis.12 0. usually with zero phase angle.06 0. They serve as a good introduction to electric filters.35.14 Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. When constructing a phasor diagram.04 0. it is highly recommended that they are grouped and denoted as z 1 . Plot for the magnitude of the low-pass filter circuit of Example 7.08 0. resistances and conductances.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 0. and all other phasors must be drawn with the correct relative angles. • MATLAB can be used very effectively to perform the computations since it does not require any special procedures for manipulation of complex numbers. Thevenin’s theorem.

50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . In the circuit of Figure 7.11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 1 + j0 A D. none of the above IS 1 ∠0° A + j0. 1 + j0 V C.38 the voltage across the capacitor C 2 is A. 0 – j2 A C.36. 8 × 10 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) V B.36 the phasor voltage V is A. 0 + j2 A B.5 Ω V − −j Ω 1Ω Figure 7. none of the above VS 2 ∠0° V I 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω −j1 Ω j1 Ω Figure 7. 2 + j0 V B. 1 + j V E. In the circuit of Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. 1 – j 0 V D.Exercises 7.37 the phasor current I is A. Circuit for Question 2 3. Circuit for Question 1 2. 2 + j2 A E.37.

40 is A.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. D. D. 10 ∠– 53.13° V D. 32 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) 32 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) E.38. The Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Question 3 4. 4 sin 2000t B. none of the above iS ( t ) 1Ω i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t Figure 7.39 the current i C ( t ) through the capacitor is A. Circuit for Question 4 iC 500 µF 0. 10 ∠– 90° V B. 10 ∠– 45° V E. none of the above L1 vS ( t ) 4Ω 3 mH C1 500 µF L2 2 mH C2 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) 100 µF Figure 7.5 mH 5. In the circuit of Figure 7.39. 50 cos ( 2000t + 45° ) V 50 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) V E. 4 sin ( 2000t + 180° ) C.13° V C. none of the above 7-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 10 ∠53.

5 ∠– 90° V B. 5 ∠– 45° V C.40. 4 ∠– 53.Exercises 4Ω VS 10 ∠0° V j2 Ω A −j5 Ω B Figure 7. 0 + j20 V 5Ω is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 . Circuit for Question 7 8. 4 – j 2 Ω D.41.42 the phasor voltage V R A. In the circuit of Figure 7.1° V D.40 is A. The Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7. 2 + j4 Ω B. 20 + j0 V B. none of the above 7. – j 5 Ω E. In the circuit of Figure 7.41 the phasor voltage V C is A. 4 + j2 Ω C. 4 ∠53. Circuit for Questions 5 and 6 6. none of the above VS 20 ∠0° V IX + − 4Ω j3 Ω + − IX −j4 Ω 4IX V Figure 7.1° V E.

0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. In the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Question 8 9. 4 + j0 V C. none of the above IS + 4Ω j4 Ω VX − + 5 Ω VR − 5Ω 2V X A 4 ∠0° A Figure 7.1° ) V 7-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) V B. 80 – j80 V E.53 cos ( ωt – 45 ° ) V C. 4 – j 0 V D. 2 + j0 V B. 0. Circuit for Question 9 10. 20 + j20 V D.42.43 the phasor voltage V OUT 2 is A. In the circuit of Figure 7. 2 cos ωt V D. 1 + j1 V E. none of the above j5 Ω V IN 1 ∠0° − V OUT 1 V OUT 2 10 Ω –j 5 Ω 10 Ω Figure 7. 1.44 the t – domain voltage v AB ( t ) is A.5 cos ( ωt + 53.43.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 . none of the above A j2 Ω 2Ω VS −j Ω 2Ω 2 ∠0° V B Figure 7. i S ( t ) = 2 cos 1000t A . Compute v AB ( t ) and i C ( t ) . For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 1 2.44.46 given that v S ( t ) = 12 cos ( 1000t + 45° ) V .Exercises E. Write mesh equations and use MATLAB to compute i L ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7. A 8Ω 20 mH 6Ω iC ( t ) 1000 ⁄ 6 µF 2Ω iS ( t ) 7Ω 5Ω B Figure 7. Circuit for Question 10 Problems 1.46.47 given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10000t + 60° ) V .45. Write nodal equations and use MATLAB to compute i C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7. 4Ω 2Ω vS ( t ) 10 Ω 5Ω + − iC ( t ) 20 Ω 5 mH 100 µF Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 2 3.45.

For the circuit of Figure 7. find the value of Z LD which will receive maximum power. Circuit for Problem 4 5.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 4Ω 10 Ω 2Ω 5Ω + − v (t) S 20 Ω 2 mH iL ( t ) 10 µF Figure 7.50. v S2 ( t ) = 20 cos 1000t V .48. Plot v C ( t ) using MATLAB or Excel.49. Use superposition to find v C ( t ) . and i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t A . it is given that v S1 ( t ) = 40 cos ( 5000t + 60° ) V and v S2 ( t ) = 60 sin ( 5000t + 60° ) V . For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 3 4.49. 7-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . find v C ( t ) if v S1 = 15 V . 10 Ω 1 mH 2 mH v S1 + + − + 500 µF − vC ( t ) 5Ω iS ( t ) v S2 ( t ) − Figure 7. For the circuit of Figure 7.47.48. Circuit for Problem 5 6. L1 2 mH R1 10 Ω R2 25 Ω L2 5 mH + v S1 ( t ) − 20 µF + vC ( t ) − + − v S2 ( t ) Figure 7.

Exercises + vS − ZS Z LD Figure 7.53. Circuit for Problem 8 9.50.52.51. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 . For the op amp circuit of Figure 7. 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − 20 Ω j5 −j10 Figure 7. draw a phasor diagram which shows the voltage and current in each branch.52.51. v in ( t ) = 3 cos 1000t V . For the circuit of Figure 7. Find v out ( t ) . For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 6 8. to what value should the load impedance Z LD be adjusted so that it will receive maximum power from the voltage source? Z LD 10 Ω 5Ω 4Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 6 7.

53. Circuit for Problem 9 7-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C R2 R1 v in ( t ) 1 KΩ v out ( t ) 3 KΩ Figure 7.

the equivalent impedance is z2 ⋅ z3 ( 1 – j1 ) ( 1 + j1 ) -Z eq = z 1 + --------------.Answers to Exercises 7.V . jωL 1 = j6 .= ---------j = 1 – j -.-tion -----. jωC = j1 Ω .= 1 + j0 or ( 1 + j )V C = 1 or V C = ---------. and the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 3 . 2 VS 8 + j0 4 – j4 32 – j32 8 + j0 I = ----. IS 4 ∠0° A 1Ω –1 IC j1 Ω –1 – j1 Ω –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 . – j ⁄ ωL = – j1 Ω .12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. D 4 cos 2000t ⇔ 4 ∠0° .⋅ ------------.× --------.= 1 + j0 A Z 2 + j0 3. L1 VS + 8 ∠0° V − 4Ω C1 j6 Ω −j1 Ω L2 j4 Ω C2 I −j5 Ω Z = 4 + j6 – j1 + j4 – j5 = 4 + j4 . E V = V L + V C where V L = 1 ∠0° × j1 ⁄ 2 = j1 ⁄ 2 V and V C is found from the nodal equaVC VC 1 1 1–j 1– . C Denoting the resistor in series with the voltage source as z 1 . and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below. B 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) = 8 cos 2000t ⇔ 8 ∠0° V .= 1 + 2 = 2 + j0 2 1 – j1 + 1 + j1 z2 + z3 and VS 2 + j0 I = ----.= 1 – j1 .+ -----. 4 + j4 4 – j4 32 Z 4 + j4 50 ∠– 45° ⇔ 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –1 –1 and thus V C = – j5 × ( 1 – j ) = 5 – j5 = –1 4. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 .= ------------------.= ------------.= ------------. jωL 2 = j4 .= 1 + ------------------------------------.= ------------. G = 1 ⁄ R = 1 Ω . the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 2 . 1 –j 1+j 1–j 2 2 2 V = j1 ⁄ 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 – j1 ⁄ 2 = 1 ⁄ 2 + j0 V 2. Therefore.

B V OUT 1 = – ----. A We write the nodal equation at Node A for V AB as 7-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . E V X = ------------. B By the voltage division expression – j5 50 ∠– 90° -----------------------------------------V TH = V AB = -----------------------.= 4 ∠– 36.9° = 4 ∠53.⋅ ------------.9° .= --------------------.= 16 ∠– 36.⋅ I S = -----------------------. Thus.= 4 – j2 -------------------------------------------------) 4 – j3 4 + j3 25 4 – j3 4 + j2 – j5 20 ∠0° 20 ∠0° 7.1° V 4 + j2 – j5 5 ∠– 36.9° 4 – j3 6. 10 – j20 4 + j3 100 – j50 Z TH = ( – j5 ) ( 4 + j2 .= 10 ∠– 53.⋅ 10 ∠0° = 5 ∠– 90° × 10 ∠0° = ----------------------.= j1 × 4 ∠0° = 1 ∠90° × 4 ∠0° = 4 ∠90° A jωC + Y 1 j1 + 1 – j1 and thus i S ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) A 5.= -------------------. D I X = ---------------.= 10 – j20 = ------------------.9° and 4I X -------------------------I C = ------.+ j ------⎞ = 80 + j80 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 9.∠45° = 2 32 ∠45° 4 + j4 32 ∠45° 32 and VR 5Ω 2 2 = 2V X × 5 = 20 × 32 ∠45° = 20 32 ⎛ -----.9° 4 + j3 5 ∠36. 4I X = 16 ∠– 36.= ---------------------.× 4 ∠0° × j4 = ----------------------. C We short the voltage source and looking to the left of points A and B we observe that the capacitor is in parallel with the series combination of the resistance and inductance.× V OUT 1 = – j 2 × 2 ∠0° = 2 ∠– 90 ° × 2 ∠90° = 4 ∠0° = 4 + j0 –j 5 10.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Denoting the parallel combination of the conductance and inductance as Y 1 = 1 – j1 and using the current division expression for admittances we get jωC j1 I C = --------------------.1° 4 ∠– 90° – j4 64 × 32 4 64 ∠90° 8.× 1 ∠0° = j2 × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° 10 j5 and V OUT 2 10 = – ------.

89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) Problems 1.⎞ V = 2 ∠90° -⎝2 2 + j2 ⎠ AB 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° V AB = -----------------------------------------------.89 ∠45° and in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 1.= --------------------------.+ --------.+ ------------------.= 0 –j 2 2 + j2 1 ⎛ 1 + j + ------------. We transform the current source and its parallel resistance to a voltage source series resistance.= 0 z2 z1 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.06 ∠45° or V AB = 1. and z 3 = ( 8 – j 6 ) Ω We observe that V A = V AB = V AC + V CB = V AC + 10 ∠0° V and V B = 0 .+ --. z 2 = ( 15 + j20 ) Ω .+ ---------. and we draw the phasor circuit below. A z2 8Ω j20 Ω z1 6Ω 5Ω IC z3 – j6 Ω 8Ω + 15 Ω − C VS 10 ∠0° V B For this phasor circuit.+ ---------------------------. jωL = j10 × 20 × 10 3 3 –6 3 –3 = j20 Ω and – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ⁄ 6 × 10 ) = – j6 .+ --. we combine the series resistors.⎞ V = --------------.= ----------------------1⁄2+j+1⁄4–j⁄4 3 ⁄ 4 + j3 ⁄ 4 1.⎞ V = 10 ∠0° --------------⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ A 1 1 1 10 ∠0° ⎛ 1 + ------------------. V S = 2 ∠0° × 5 = 10 ∠0° V . z 1 = 5 Ω . At Node A.= 2 ∠0° -⎝ 5 15 + j20 8 – j 6 ⎠ A 5 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 .Answers to Exercises V AB – 2 ∠0° V AB V AB ---------------------------. V A – V B V A – 10 ∠0° V A – V B ------------------.+ ------------.

2f deg \t'.26° 0.1 ° + 0.1 cos 36.9° + j0.1° 10 ∠– 36.+ -----------------.26° = 0.+ -----------------z2 z1 z3 z7 7-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 6.= 6.55 ∠– 5.6 – j0. fprintf(' \n').55 cos ( 1000 + 5.1° – j0.2 + ----------------------...6 0.028 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------.04 cos 53.655 cos ( 1000 + 31.26° Then. magVA = 6.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° V A = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.55 V 3 –4 phaseVA = -5.+ -------------------------25 ∠53.7° 10 ∠– 36.1 × 0. z2=15+20j..26 deg 3 –3 2.9° z3 and i C ( t ) = 0.2 + 0.1° + 0.1 × 0.8 + j0.1 sin 36.55 ∠– 5.26° ) .04 × 0. fprintf(' \n').= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 0..04 sin 53.= ---------------------------------0.angle(VA)*180/pi). fprintf('magVA = %5.2 + 0.1 ∠36.= 6.04 ∠– 53.9° 1 0.7° ) Check with MATLAB: z1=5. Also.. fprintf('phaseVA = %5.. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 5 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω = j5 and z7 z3 10 Ω 20 Ω 2Ω VS + − 12 ∠45° V1 V2 z5 5Ω V3 IC z 6 – j 10 Ω j5 Ω z4 z2 Node V 1 : V1 – VS V1 – V2 V1 V1 – V3 -----------------. z3=8−6j.2f V \t'. fprintf(' \n').abs(VA)). VA=(10+0j)/(z1*(1/z1+1/z2+1/z3)).+ ----.8 + 0.9° 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.304 + j0.9° 2 ∠0° = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0.305 ∠5.2 + 0. VA ------------------------------I C = -----.655 ∠31.04 × 0.

.V 3 = 0 ⎝z ⎠ z3 z5 z4 z5 3 Node V 3 : V3 – V2 V3 – V1 V2 – V3 -----------------..+ --. disp(V(2)). V1 = 5.Answers to Exercises or 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. disp('Ic='). z2=20. I=[Vs/z1 0 0]'..8789i Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 .. Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3+1/z7 −1/z3 −1/z7. fprintf(' \n')..+ -----------------.. disp(phaseIc).+ --.V S z1 0 0 1– --z5 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations.+ ----.+ --...V 2 + ⎛ --... disp(V(1))..+ --.+ --. disp('V2=')..1.V 1 – --.+ --.+ --.V – --.. z4=5j. Vs=12*(cos(pi/4)+j*sin(pi/4)).⎞ V 2 – --.1– --...⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 3 4 5 1 – --z7 1 – --z5 1.. phaseIc=angle(Ic)*180/pi..⎞ V 3 = 0 ⎝z z7 z5 z6 z7 ⎠ 5 and in matrix form 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --. magIc=abs(Ic). disp(Ic)..+ -----------------.+ --. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIc='). z7=2..+ --. z6=−10j.. % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4....+ --. Ic=V(3)/z6. V=Y\I.= 0 z4 z3 z5 or 111 1 1 – --.+ -----------------.+ --.⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 5 6 7 1 – --z3 1– --z7 V1 ⋅ V2 = V3 1 --. disp('phaseIc=').4.+ --.9950 .V 1 + ⎛ --.1⎛ --.. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5 −1/z5. disp('V3='). disp(V(3)).V = --.. z5=5.+ --. z3=10.⎞ V – --.. disp('V1=').+ --. −1/z7 −1/z5 1/z5+1/z6+1/z7]. disp(magIc).V ⎝z ⎠ 1 z3 2 z7 3 z1 S z2 z3 z7 1 Node V 2 : V2 – V1 V2 V2 – V3 -----------------..⎞ ⎝z z z z ⎠ 1 2 3 7 1 – --z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.1.= 0 z5 z7 z6 or 111.

4.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V2 = 5.69 phaseIc = 50.5960i V3 = 5.5355i magIc = 0.69 cos ( 1000t + 50.9658 .4203i Ic = 0.3552 .46 Therefore.46° ⇔ i C ( t ) = 0.46° ) A 3.4420 + 0.69 ∠50. I C = 0.0. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 2 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω 4 –6 4 –3 = j20 and z7 I2 z 3 10 Ω 2Ω z5 5Ω + − V S = 100 ∠60° I1 z2 I3 20 Ω z4 IL j20 Ω I4 z6 – j10 Ω Mesh I 1 : ( z 1 + z 2 )I 1 – z 2 I 3 = V S Mesh I 2 : ( z 1 + z 2 + z 7 )I 2 – z 3 I 3 – z 5 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 3 : – z 2 I 1 – z 3 I 2 + ( z 2 + z 3 + z 4 )I 3 – z 4 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 4 : – z 5 I 2 – z 4 I 3 + ( z 4 + z 5 + z 6 )I 4 = 0 and in matrix form 7-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

.4345 ..Answers to Exercises z1 + z2 0 –z2 0 0 z1 + z2 + z7 –z3 –z5 –z2 –z3 z2 + z3 + z4 –z4 0 –z5 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'.. fprintf(' \n').. disp(I(2))..9157i IL= -3. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIL='). I1 = 5. disp('I3='). % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4. Vs=100*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)).... disp(I(4)).. phaseIL=angle(IL)*180/pi.82° ⇔ i L ( t ) = 3. 0 −z5 −z4 z4+z5+z6].. z7=2. Z=[z1+z2 0 −z2 0. disp(magIL)...3. disp('I2=').. z4=20j.82° ) 4... z2=20.81 cos ( 10 t – – 153. magIL=abs(IL). z5=5. z6=−10j.2369i I4 = 7...5527 + 0.4110i I2 = 4..0214 + 0. 0 z3+z5+z7 −z3 −z5. disp('I4=').. disp(phaseIL). disp('phaseIL=').. z3=10.. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL 1 = j5 × 10 × 2 × 10 jωL 2 = j5 × 10 × 5 × 10 3 3 3 –3 4 = j10 = j25 –6 –3 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 20 × 10 ) = – j10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 .1..4150.81 ∠– 153.6787i magIL = 3.4364 + 1. disp(I(3)).. disp(IL). disp('IL=').82 Therefore. I L = 3.81 phaseIL = -153..7028i I3 = 4.. −z2 −z3 z2+z3+z4 −z4... disp(I(1)). disp('I1=')....... I=Z\V. IL=I(3)−I(4).

z1 V S1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω + − 40 ∠60° V z3 – j 10 Ω + − V' C By KCL V' – V S1 V' V' C C C -------------------.+ ----.+ --.= --------------------------------C z1 1.1⎛ --.1. 7-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . with V S2 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.76 – j5.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1.2962i Therefore. V' = 36.1⎛ --. z2=−10j.1. With V S1 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.⎞ z1 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs1=40*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)). z3=25+25j. V1c=Vs1/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3) V1c = 36. and V'' C is the C C capacitor voltage due to V S2 acting alone.+ --.30 V C Next.⎞ ⎛ 1 + z 1 + --.+ --.7595 .+ --.⎞ V' = V S1 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S1 V S1 V' = -------------------------------------------.+ ----.5. z1=10+10j.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω j25 Ω V S1 + − 40 ∠60° V – j 10 Ω + − VC + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V We let V C = V' + V'' C where V' is the capacitor voltage due to V S1 acting alone.

31 V Then. disp('Vc=V1c+V2c').2962i V2c = -3..+ --..1777 .16 deg and v C ( t ) = 43. fprintf('magVc = %4.+ --....7595 .35° C phaseVc = -39.5.angle(Vc)*180/pi)..Answers to Exercises z1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω z3 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V By KCL V'' V'' V'' – V S2 C C C -----. Vc=V1c+V2c.31 ∠27..abs(Vc)).3519i magVc = 43..27.... fprintf('phaseVc = %4. disp(V2c). fprintf(' \n'). V2c=Vs2/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).+ -----. V1c = 36.2f deg \t'.. disp('V1c = ').22.. fprintf(' \n').+ --.2962j.31 cos ( 5000t – 27. V1c=36. fprintf(' \n').. V C = V' + V'' C = 33.= 0 z3 z1 z2 1 1 1 ⎛ --. z2=−10j. z3=25+25j.+ --..7595−5.58 – j27..⎞ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=60*(cos(pi/6)−j*sin(pi/6)).. disp(V1c).= --------------------------------C z3 1 1 1 ⎛ z 3 + --.2f V \t'.+ 1 ⎞ z 3 ⋅ ⎛ --.+ --------------------.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z3 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------.5818 . disp(Vc).0557i Vc = V1c+V2c Vc = 33.35° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-45 . disp('Vc = ').. disp('V2c = ')... z1=10+10j.. fprintf(' \n').35 = 43.

7-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . an AC (sinusoidal) voltage source. This circuit is excited by a DC (constant) voltage source. Therefore. the capacitor voltage C due to all three sources acting simultaneously will be V C = V' + V'' + V''' C C C With the DC voltage source acting alone. Let V' be the capacitor voltage due to v S1 acting alone. we will apply the superposition principle. and V''' the capacitor voltage due to i S ( t ) acting alone. Then.⋅ 15 = 5 V DC 10 + 5 5Ω v'C ( t ) = 5 V DC and Next.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 5. 10 Ω + V' C VR + 5Ω + − 15 V 5Ω − − By the voltage division expression V' = V R C 5 = -------------. and an AC current source of different frequency. after steady-state conditions have been reached the inductors behave like short circuits and the capacitor as an open circuit and thus the circuit is simplified as shown below. with the sinusoidal voltage source v S2 ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 1 L 1 = j10 × 1 × 10 jω 1 L 2 = j10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j1 Ω = j2 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 1 C = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 2 Ω –4 and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below. V'' the capacitor voltage due to v S2 ( t ) C C acting alone.

V2c=Vs2/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3).9 ° and v'' ( t ) = 3.1.⎞ ⎛ 1 + --.97 ∠– 62.1⎛ --.+ -----. z1=10+j.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------. z2=−2j.= ---------------------------------C z1 z1 1..2f V \t'.+ --..54 = 3.81 – j3.97 cos ( 1000t – 62.+ --.abs(V2c)).+ --. disp('V2c = '). fprintf(' \n'). V2c = 1.9° ) C Finally.+ --.Answers to Exercises z1 V S2 j1 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z3 j2 Ω + − 20 ∠0° V z2 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C By KCL V'' – V S2 V'' V'' C C C --------------------.. fprintf(' \n').⎞ z1 ⋅ ⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=20+0j.angle(V2c)*180/pi). disp(V2c).1⎛ --.97 V phaseV2c = -62.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1.3. fprintf(' \n').+ -----. fprintf('magV2c = %4. fprintf('phaseV2c = %4.1.91 deg Then..2f deg \t'. with the sinusoidal current source i S ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 2 L 1 = j2 × 10 × 1 × 10 jω 2 L 2 = j2 × 10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j2 Ω = j4 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 2 C = – j ⁄ ( 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 1 Ω –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-47 .. V'' C = 1.5362i magV2c = 3..+ --. z3=5+2j.8089 .

79 deg Then.= --------------------------------C z3 1.12 = 3..+ --. V3c=Vs3/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).1170i magV3c = 3. fprintf('magV3c = %4. V3c = -1.+ --.9° ) + 3.97. z3=5+4j. deg=wt*180/pi.97 cos ( 1000t – 62.43 ∠– 114.1⎛ --.angle(V3c)*180/pi)...1.2*2*pi).43 V phaseV3c = -114. fprintf(' \n').*cos(wt−62.+ ---------------------.8° ) C C These waveforms are plotted below using the following MATLAB code: wt=linspace(0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below where the current source and its parallel resistance have been replaced with a voltage source with a series resistor.abs(V3c))..8 ° C or v''' ( t ) = 3.2f V \t'.2f deg \t'. V1c=5.43 cos ( 2000t – 114. z1=10+2j.4395 .43 cos ( 2000t – 114.+ --.44 – j3.⎞ ⎛ z 3 + --./180). fprintf(' \n'). V''' = – 1. z2=−j.+ 1 ⎞ z3 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs3=20+0j. disp(V3c).+ ------.*pi. V2c=3.9..3.+ --. z1 j2 Ω 10 Ω z3 5Ω j4 Ω z2 –j 1 Ω + − V''' C + V S3 − 20 ∠0° V By KCL V''' V''' V''' – V S3 C C C ------. fprintf(' \n').⎞ V''' = V S3 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z3 1 V S3 V S3 V''' = -------------------------------------------. 7-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp('V3c = ').= 0 z1 z2 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.8° ) C and v C ( t ) = v' C + v'' ( t ) + v''' ( t ) = 5 + 3. fprintf('phaseV3c = %4..

we will express them as Z S = Re { Z S } + jIm { Z S } and Z LOAD = Re { Z LOAD } + jIm { Z LOAD } where Re and Im denote the real and imaginary components respectively.V2c. Since Z S and Z LOAD are complex quantities.Answers to Exercises V3c=3. that is. when the imaginary parts of Z LOAD and Z S cancel each other. From the above expression we observe that p LOAD will be maximum when the denominator is minimum and this will occur when Im { Z LOAD } = – Im { Z S } .8. p LOAD simplifies to p LOAD v S ⋅ R LOAD = ----------------------------------2 ( R S + R LOAD ) 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-49 .43. deg.deg.*pi.*cos(2./180). plot(deg. We want to maximize p LOAD = i 2 LOAD vS ⋅ Z LOAD = ---------------------------------.V1c.V1c+V2c+V3c) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 vC ( t ) v' C = 5 V DC v''' ( t ) C 0 100 v'' ( t ) C 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 6.V3c.*wt−114.⋅ Z LOAD 2 ( Z S + Z LOAD ) 2 2 v S ⋅ Z LOAD = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 [ Re { Z S } + jIm { Z S } + j ( Re { Z LOAD } + jIm { Z LOAD } ) ] The only that can vary are Re { Z LOAD } and Im { Z LOAD } and we must consider them independently from each other. Under this condition.deg.

we will compute Z TH using the relation Z TH = V OC ⁄ I SC where V OC is the open circuit voltage. Therefore. as we found in Chapter 3. For this.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and. and other similar problems involving the maximum power transfer theorem. for maximum power transfer R LOAD = R S . we will begin our computations with the Thevenin voltage. when Z LOAD is adjusted to be equal to the complex conjugate of Z S . we only need to compute Z TH . We disconnect Z LOAD from the circuit at points X and Y as shown below. The remaining circuit then is as shown below. to find Z TH we remove Z LOAD and we short the voltage source. V TH and I SC is the current that would flow between the terminals when the load is replaced by a short. it is best to replace the circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. that is. X z3 z1 z2 z4 z5 z6 Y We observe that z 1 is in parallel with z 2 and this combination is shown as z 12 in the simplified circuit below. 7-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For this problem. X z3 z 12 z4 z5 z6 Y But this circuit cannot be simplified further unless we perform Wye to Delta transformation which we have not discussed. Moreover. This and the Delta to Wye transformation are very useful in threephase circuits and are discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications by this author. the load impedance Z LOAD will receive maximum power when Z LOAD = Z S∗ that is. Therefore. Thus. 7.

with Z LOAD disconnected the circuit simplifies to that shown below. Thus.V 1 + ⎛ --. z4=5j.+ -----------------.+ ----.+ --..⎞ V 2 ⎝z z3 z4 z5 ⎠ 3 and with MATLAB Vs=170.+ ----.V = ----.= 0 z3 z4 z5 1 1 1 1 – --. 4Ω X 10 Ω 2 V2 z4 j5 Ω – j 10 Ω 5Ω Y VY z5 + VS − z1 z2 1 V z3 1 20 Ω 170 ∠0° Now.+ ----.⎞ V – --.+ --.+ --.= 0 z1 z3 z2 VS 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --.. z2=20.Answers to Exercises X 4Ω 10 Ω Z LD Y 5Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° We will replace the remaining circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. z1=4.+ --. z3=10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-51 . z5=5−10j.2 1 ⎝z z3 z1 z2 z3 ⎠ 1 At Node 2: V2 – V1 V2 V2 -----------------. we will find V TH = V XY = V X – V Y = V 1 – ( V 2 – V R 5Ω ) At Node 1: V1 – VS V1 V1 – V2 -----------------..

91° Next.. VX=V1. disp(V2). fprintf(' \n').Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3 −1/z3.91 deg Thus. V=Y\I.85 V phaseVTH = -6. fprintf(' \n'). I=[Vs/z1 0]'. V1=V(1).. V1 = 1. disp('V2 = ')...1731e+002 + 1. fprintf('magVTH = %4. z1 4Ω a X 10 Ω I SC Y I4 5Ω + VS 20 Ω b z2 I2 z3 z4 j5 I3 z5 z6 −j10 − I 1 170 ∠0° We will write four mesh equations as shown above but we only are interested in phasor current I 4 . disp(V1). Observing that a and b are the same point the mesh equations are ( z1 + z2 ) I1 – z2 I2 = VS – z2 I1 + ( z2 + z3 + z4 ) I2 – z4 I3 – z3 I4 = 0 – z4 I2 + ( z4 + z5 + z6 ) I3 – z5 I4 = 0 – z3 I2 – z5 I3 + ( z3 + z5 ) I4 = 0 and in matrix form z1 + z2 –z2 0 –z2 z2 + z3 + z4 – z4 –z3 0 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 –z5 0 –z3 –z5 z3 + z5 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 7-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2f deg '...1538e+001i V2 = 44. we must find I SC from the circuit shown below. V TH = 127.2692e+002 .2f V '.. V2=V(2). disp('V1 = ').5385e+001i magVTH = 127...angle(VTH)*180/pi). −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5].. VTH=VX−VY. fprintf('phaseVTH = %4..85 ∠– 6. VY=(5/z5)*V2. disp('VTH = '). disp(VTH)..2308+46. fprintf(' \n').abs(VTH)).1.1538i VTH = 1.

. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'.6.0084 . 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − I4 I 20 I 10 20 Ω I5 j5 IL −j10 IC We choose I 5 as a reference.. we let I 5 = 1 ∠0° A Then. disp('ZTH ='). fprintf(' \n').3.09 + j6.18 ∠– 63.. for maximum power transfer there must be Z LOAD = Z∗ or TH Z LOAD = 18.4728i ZTH = 18..5223 + 1. V L = V 5 + V C = 5 ∠0° + 10 ∠– 90° = 5 + ( – j10 ) = 5 – j10 = 11.6745 .0520 + 10. −z2 z2+z3+z4 −z4 −z3.2... disp('I1 = '). disp('I4 ='). that is. ZTH=VTH/I4.92−15. fprintf(' \n').09 – j6. disp(I2). disp(I3). z4=5j. disp(I4)..39j.7302i I4 = 6. I=Z\V. z2=20. I1 = 15. Z=[z1+z2 −z2 0 0. z1=4. Z TH = 18. We assign phasor currents as shown below.43 Ω 8. 0 −z3 −z5 z3+z5]. I3=I(3)..3094 . disp('I2 = ').. z3=10. I4=I(4)..Answers to Exercises With MATLAB Vs=170. disp(I1). z6=−10j. I1=I(1).6300i I2 = 10.. z5=5.43 Ω and by Problem 6. disp(ZTH).4° V and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-53 .4260i Thus. 0 −z4 z4+z5+z6 −z5. VTH=126.1559i I3 = -1. disp('I3 = '). V 5 = 5 ∠0° V and since I C = I 5 V C = I C ⁄ ( – j10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⋅ 10 ∠– 90° = 10 ∠– 90° V Next. I2=I(2)..

18 ∠– 63. However.7° V The magnitudes (not to scale) and the phase angles are shown below.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis I L = V L ⁄ j5 = ( 11.73 ∠– 109. I 4 = I 20 + I 10 = – 0.25 – j2 ) = – 5 – j8 V Finally.4° ) ⁄ ( 5 ∠90° ) = 2.7° to show the voltage source V S as reference at 0° as shown below. V S = V 4 + V 20 = – 5 – j8 – 5 – j20 = – 10 – j28 = 29.25 – j A Also.24 ∠– 153. it would be more practical if we rotate it by 109. I5 = IC I20 I4 VL VC V 20 I10 V4 V 10 VS IL 7-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4° = – 2 – j A Now I 10 = I L + I 5 = – 2 – j + 1 = – 1 – j = 2 ∠– 135° A and V 10 = 10 × 2 ∠– 135° = 10 × ( – 1 – j ) = – 10 – j10 V Continuing we find V 20 = V 10 + V L = – 10 – j10 + 5 – j10 = – 5 – j20 V and I 20 = V 20 ⁄ 20 = ( – 5 – j20 ) ⁄ 20 = – 0. I4 IL V 10 V4 VS VL I10 I20 I5 = IC V 20 V C The phasor diagram above is acceptable.25 – j2 A and V 4 = 4I 4 = 4 × ( – 1.25 – j – 1 – j = – 1.

= -----------------------1.+ --. disp(Vout). fprintf('magVout = %5.32 = 7. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where z 1 = R 1 = 1 KΩ ..13 deg and v out ( t ) = 7.7600 + 4.2f V \t'. fprintf(' \n').3200i magVout = 7. z2=3000. and z 3 = – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 0.--⎝z ⎝z z3 ⎠ z3 ⎠ 2 2 and with MATLAB Vin=3.76 + j4. Vout=−Vin/(z1/z2+z1/z3).⎞ --.⎞ V OUT = ----------⎝z z1 z3 ⎠ 2 or – V IN – V IN V OUT = --------------------------------.13° ) V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-55 .+ --. Vout = -5.angle(Vout)*180/pi).Answers to Exercises 9. z3=−4000j.abs(Vout)). z 2 = R 2 = 3 KΩ . fprintf('phaseVout = %5.1⎛ z1 + z1 ⎞ z 1 ⋅ ⎛ --.. z1=1000.. disp('Vout = ')..+ ---------------------.= 0 z1 z2 z3 and since V = 0 the above relation reduces to – V IN 1 1 ⎛ --.2f deg \t'.+ ---------------------.25 × 10 ) = – j4 KΩ z3 z2 1 KΩ z1 V IN = 3 ∠0° V V OUT 3 KΩ V 3 –6 Application of KCL yields V – V IN V – V OUT V – V OUT -----------------.2 cos ( 1000t + 143. V OUT = – 5. fprintf(' \n').13° V phaseVout = 143.20 V Thus.2 ∠143.. fprintf(' \n')..

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis NOTES 7-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

cos(ωt+θ) cosωt θ T T T T T T T T Figure 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 . and energy. instantaneous and average power.1 are examples of periodic functions of time. Examples of periodic functions of time Other periodic functions of interest are the square and the triangular waveforms. and Instruments T his chapter defines average and effective values of voltages and currents. power. 8. and complex power. Complex Power. It also discusses electrical instruments that are used to measure current.1) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. The sinusoidal and sawtooth waveforms of Figure 8. voltage.1. the power triangle. resistance.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. power factor.1 Periodic Time Functions A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (8.

1 Solution: By definition.3. Example 8.( cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----.3.2 Average Values The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) such as that shown in Figure 8.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 2π 8-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1 V ave = -T ∫0 T 1 v ( t ) dt = -----ωT 2π 0 ∫0 ωT Vp V p sin ω t d( ωt ) = ----2π 0 2π ∫0 2π sin ω t d( ω t ) Vp = ----. A continuous time function f ( t ) is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) d t b 1 b = ----------. and Instruments 8.2. Complex Power. where V p denotes the peak (maximum) value of the sinusoidal voltage.( area a ) b–a (8. f (t) a b t Figure 8.1 Compute the average value of the sinusoid shown in Figure 8.2 over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b.2) The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period.( – cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----. Waveform for Example 8. v(t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 π /2 π 3π /2 ω t (r) 2π −V p T Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

its average value is found from 1 I ave = ----2π ∫0 2π 1 I p sin ω t d( ω t ) = ----2π 0 π ∫0 π I p sin ω t d( ω t ) + ∫π 2π 0 d( ω t ) Ip Ip π = ----.3) Then.2 Solution: This waveform is defined as ⎧ I p sin ω t i(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π (8. the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform is equal to its peak value divided by π . in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) . the instantaneous power is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .( – cos ω t 0 ) = ----.cos ω t 2π 2π Ip Ip = ----. 8. Waveform for Example 8.3 Effective Values The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as the current which produces heat in a given resistance R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Current (I) I p sin ω t π T 2π Radians Figure 8.5) Also. Example 8.Effective Values as expected since the net area of the positive and negative half cycles is zero.4) In other words.[ 1 – ( – 1 ) ] = --2π π (8. that is.2 Compute the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8. Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (8.4.4.

and Instruments p(t) = R i 2(t) (8. For example. Complex Power.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and also I ave = 0 . Waveforms to illustrate that ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 Caution 2: In v ( t ) = V p cos ω t and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + ϕ ) . P ave = 0 . On the other hand.7) Equating (8. The waveform of Figure 8. However. then V ave = 0 .5) with (8. i2ave = 0 and sqrt(i2ave) = 0 Figure 8. general.8) Caution 1: In general. ( i ave ) 2 implies that the average value of the function must first be found and then the average must be squared.6) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T 0 R Ri dt = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt (8.5 illustrates this point.7) we get R RI eff = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt or 1 2 I eff = -T ∫0 i T 2 dt or 1 -T I eff = ∫ T i 0 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 (8. if 8-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. sqrt(ave(i2)) ≠ 0 ave(i2) ≠ 0 0 i2 i iave = 0. P ave ≠ V ave × I ave . ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 since the expression ave ( i 2 ) implies that the function i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is then to be found.5.

707 × Peak = 120 V Peak (Max) Value = 170 V 90 180 Time (Degrees) 270 360 Peak (Max) Value = −170 V Peak-to-Peak Value = 340 V Figure 8. RMS Value = 0.( cos 2 φ + 1 ) 2 we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 .6.6.Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids T T T 1 P ave = -T ∫ 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ v ( t )i ( t ) dt = 0 1 -T ∫ ( V p cos ωt ) [ I p cos ( ωt + ϕ ) ] dt ≠ 0 0 8. and the RMS values as V RMS and I RMS . Definitions of V p – p . The value from positive to negative peak will be denoted as V p – p and I p – p . Their notations and relationships are shown in Figure 8. 1 2 I RMS = -T ∫0 T 2 1 i dt = ----2π ∫0 2π I p cos ( ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) 2 2 and using the identity 1 2 cos φ = -. V RMS . We will denote the peak values of voltages and currents as V p and I p respectively.4 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids Now. and I RMS in terms of V p and I p Let i = I p cos ( ω t – θ ) then. I p – p . we will derive an expression for the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of a sinusoid in terms of its peak (maximum) value.

Example 8.-----------------------------) 4π 2 I p sin ( 4 π – θ ) – sin ( – θ ) 2π + ( ω t 0 ) = ----. 8-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .sin 4 π cos θ – cos 4 π sin θ + sin θ = ----.7.7. and Instruments I RMS 2 Ip = ----4π 2 2 ∫0 2π cos ( 2 ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) + 2π 0 ∫0 2π d( ω t ) 2 I p sin ( 2 ω t – θ = ----. in other words. the period T is as shown in Figure 8. Waveform for Example 8. we get 0 I RMS 2 Ip Ip .+ 2 π 4π 2 (8. it is dependent on the amplitude of the sinusoid only.9). Ip I RMS = -----.= 0.--------------------------------------------------------------------------.+ 2 π = ----.10) We observe that the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency and phase angle.3 Solution: By inspection.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.3 Compute the I ave and I RMS for the sawtooth waveform shown in Figure 8.9) Using the trigonometric identities sin ( x – y ) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y and – sin ( – α ) = sin α by substitution into (8. Complex Power.707I p 2 FOR SINUSOIDS ONLY (8.---------------------------------------------------.8.( 2 π ) = ---4π 4π 2 2 2 Ip 1 2 2 and therefore. i(t) 10 A t Figure 8.

if i = I 0 + I 1 cos ( ω 1 t ± θ 1 ) + I 2 cos ( ω 2 t ± θ 2 ) + … + I N cos ( ω N t ± θ N ) (8.= ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) × 10 × T = 5 A T Period To find I RMS we cannot use (8.---. this is for sinusoids only. Then.8).12) or I RMS = 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + -.8. Thus.⎟ ⎝T ⎠ T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 0 3 1 ⎛ 100 T ⎞ = -.I + -. I 2 ….5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies The RMS value of a waveform which consists of a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies.RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies i(t) 10 A t T Figure 8.⎜ -------. I RMS 2 T 1 = -T ∫0 T 1 i ( t ) dt = -T 2 ∫0 T 3 2 1 ⎛ 10 t⎞ dt = -.77 A -------3 3 8.13) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-7 . is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid. I N represent the amplitudes of the sinusoids.⎛ 100 ⋅ t ⎞ ----. Accordingly.10). Then.11) where I 0 represents a constant current.⎜ -------.⎟ = 100 -------T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 3 or I RMS = 10 100 = -----. Defining the period for the waveform of Example 8. and I 1.I + … + -.I 2 1p 2 2p 2 Np (8.3 The average value is Area ----------------------------------I ave = ----------------. the RMS value of i is found from I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 (8.= 5.⋅ ----. we must use the definition of the RMS value as derived in (8.

ISBN 0-9709511-3-2 by this author.10.12) 1 ωt −1 Figure 8. (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.14) b. and Instruments Example 8. 1 π 2π ωt −1 Figure 8.⎛ sin ω t + -. Complex Power. Fourier series analysis textbooks* show that the square waveform above can be expressed as 4 1 1 i ( t ) = -. Waveform for Example 8. a.4 Find the I RMS value of the square waveform of Figure 8.9. Determination of the period to the waveform of Example 8.4 Then.[ ω t 0 + ω t 2π 2π ] π 1 = ----.[ π + 2 π – π ] = 1 2π I RMS = 1 or (8. 2 1 I RMS = -T ∫ 1 i 2 dt = ----2π 0 T ∫0 2π 2 1 i d( ω t ) = ----2π ∫0 π 1 d( ω t ) + 2 ∫ π ( –1 ) 2π 2 d( ω t ) 1 π = ----.9 by application of (8. the period T = 2π is as shown in Figure 8.sin 3 ω t + -.sin 5 ω t + …⎞ ⎠ π⎝ 3 5 * Such a textbook is Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.4 Solution: By inspection.15) 8-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9.

16) is good considering that higher harmonics have been neglected.⎛ -. Then from (8. 8.17) as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-9 .I RMS = -.6 Average Power and Power Factor Consider the network shown in Figure 8. and it is equal to 0.707 times its peak value.⎛ -.11.Average Power and Power Factor and as we know.e. As we know p = vi that is.16) The numerical accuracy of (8. We want to find an expression for the average power absorbed by the load. then i LOAD ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + θ ) . ins tan tan eous power = ins tan tan eous voltage × ins tan tan eous current and the instantaneous power p LOAD ( t ) absorbed by the load is p LOAD ( t ) = v LOAD ( t ) × i LOAD ( t ) = V p I p cos ω t × cos ( ω t + θ ) (8.15). if v LOAD ( t ) = V p cos ω t . Network where it is assumed that i LOAD ( t ) and v LOAD ( t ) are out-of-phase We will assume that the load current i LOAD ( t ) is θ degrees out-of-phase with the voltage v LOAD ( t ) ..12) and (8..707 × I p . 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 4 .17) Using the trigonometric identity 1 cos x cos y = -.[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we express (8.97 π 2 2⎝ 3 ⎠ 2⎝ 5 ⎠ (8.( 1 ) + -.11. that is.⎞ + -. the RMS value of a sinusoid is a real number independent of the frequency and the phase angle. i. I RMS = 0. R Rest of the Circuit + i LOAD ( t ) vS ( t ) Load v LOAD ( t ) − Figure 8.⎞ + … = 0.0 + -.

and Instruments Vp Ip p LOAD ( t ) = ---------. the phase angle θ = 0° .21) and it is imperative that we remember that these relations are valid for circuits with sinusoidal excitations.cos θ 2 (8.22) 8. Then.[ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) + cos θ ]⎞ dt ⎝ 2 ⎠ Vp Ip = ---------2T ∫0 T Vp Ip ( [ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) ] ) dt + ---------2T ∫0 cos θ dt T (8.21) is known as the power factor and thus P ave LOAD Power FactorLOAD = PF LOAD = cos θ LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------V RMS LOAD I RMS LOAD (8.19) We observe that the first integral on the right side of (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. being a constant. The term cos θ in (8.18) and the average power is 1 P ave LOAD = -T ∫0 T 1 p LD dt = -T ∫0 T Vp Ip ⎛ ---------.19) as P ave LOAD = V RMS LOAD I RMS LOAD cos θ (8. denoting that resistive branch with the subscript R we have: 8-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 Average Power in a Resistive Load The voltage and current in a resistive branch of a circuit are always in phase. V p Ip P ave LOAD = ---------. Therefore. that is. and the second integral.20) and (8. has an average value of that constant.20) and using the relations Vp V RMS = -----2 and Ip I RMS = -----2 we can express (8.19) is zero.[ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 (8. Complex Power.

the instantaneous power is zero only at specific instants.8 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads With inductors and capacitors there is a 90° phase difference between the voltage and current. Circuit for Example 8.= --------------------------------. Obviously.---------. Example 8.23) or P ave R V RMS R 1 Vm R 1 2 2 = ---------------. that is.25) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-11 . θ = 90° and therefore.= -------------------------. and the capacitor. and the power factor cos θ will be within 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 . if the load of a circuit contains resistors. the phase angle θ between V RMS LOAD and I RMS LOAD will be within 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° . we need to find the current I and its phase relation to the source voltage V S .5 For the circuit of Figure 8. Then.= -. the inductor. the average power absorbed by the resistor. inductors and capacitors.I p R R 2 R 2 R 2 2 (8. denoting that inductive or capacitive branch with the subscript X we get: P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 Of course. VS 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° I = ----.12.= I RMS R R = -.= ------------------. 10 Ω j20 Ω I V S = 170 ∠0° – j 10 Ω Figure 8.5 Solution: Since this is a series circuit.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads P ave R = V RMS R I RMS R cos 0° = V RMS R I RMS R (8. find the average power supplied by the voltage source.= 12 ∠– 45° 10 + j10 10 + j20 – j10 Z 10 2 ∠45° (8.24) 8.11.

035 = 22.138 + j19.24) we find that the average power absorbed by the resistor is 1 2 1 2 P ave R = -. using (8.cos θ = -----------------------. and Instruments Relation (8.086 ∠101.414 – j1.27) are in close agreement. Complex Power.655 = 20.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Circuit for Example 8.9° VA 4Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω (8.13. find the power absorbed by each resistor.6 and V B = – 22. Example 8. Check: The average power delivered by the voltage source is Vp Ip ( 170 ) ( 12 ) P ave SOURCE = ---------.707 Therefore.13. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the current sources.6 For the circuit of Figure 8.29) Then. 8-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 where we found that V A = – 4.28) VB 5 ∠0° A −j6 Ω −j3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 8.26) The average power absorbed by the inductor and the capacitor is zero since the voltages and currents in these devices are 90° out-of-phase with each other.27) and we observe that (8.( 12 ) 10 = 720 w 2 2 (8.25) indicates that I p = 12 A . and the power factor is cos θ = cos ( – 45° ) = 0. θ = – 45° .4 ° (8.707 = 721 w 2 2 (8.440 ∠– 177.I p R R = -. Solution: This is the same circuit as in Example 7.26) and (8.0.

= ---------------------------------------.× 8.= 2.627 × 8 = 27.086 × 5 = ------------------------.32) The voltages across the current sources are the same as VA and VB but they are 101.4 ° ) 2 2 22.4 ° I 8 Ω = ------------.440 × 10 = ---------------------------.34) indicate that both current sources supply power to the rest of the circuit.786 ∠158.690 32.70 w 2 2 p2Ω (8.7 ° 8 – j3 8.33) and (8.786 × 4 = 15.3° 4 – j6 and 1 1 2 2 P ave 4 Ω = -.30) Also.cos θ 2 = ----------------------.440 ∠– 177.2° 7.983 ∠88.54 ∠– 20.31) Likewise.cos ( – 177.= ---------------------------------------.627 ∠– 156.× ( – 0.= 8.× 2.4° out-of-phase respectively with the current sources as shown by (8.4 ° .61 ∠56.61 ∠56. the power absorbed by the 5 A source is Vp Ip VA 5 A P ave 5 A = ---------.3° 3.276 + j20.35 w 2 (8.7° 2 + j3 3. Therefore. VA -----------------------------------I 4 Ω = ------------.29).3° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 2 Ω = -.9° ) 2 2 20.9° and – 177.08 w 2 (8.086 ∠101.52 w 2 2 p4Ω (8. Then. VB 22.33) and the power absorbed by the 10 A source is Vp Ip V B 10 A P ave 10 A = ---------.206 ) = – 10.999 ) = – 112.I ( 8 Ω ) = -.× ( – 0.430 ∠145.I ( 2 Ω ) = -.983 × 2 = 80.9° = 2.28) and (8.34) The negative values in (8.61 w 2 2 p8Ω (8. we let θ 1 = 101.21 ∠– 56.= -----------------------------------.cos ( 101.6° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 8 Ω = -.cos θ 1 = -------------------.0° I 2 Ω = ------------------.I ( 4 Ω ) = -.= 20. Check: Total average power absorbed by resistors is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-13 .× 2.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads VA – VB 18.9° and θ 2 = – 177.

Complex Power. we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----. P ave 1 = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.14.35 = 122.dt = ------------------–3 R 2 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 10 sin 10 π t --------------------------------.14. It is found as follows: T = 2 ms = 2 × 10 –3 s ωT = 2π ω 3 2π = ----.dt = -R T ∫0 i R dt 2 T (8.43 w Thus. the total average power supplied by the current sources is equal to the total average power absorbed by the resistors.08 + 10. Waveform for Example 8.70 + 15.7 Compute the average power absorbed by a 5 Ω resistor when the voltage across it is the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.52 + 27. 8.9 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal.35) Example 8.7 Solution: We first need to find the numerical value of ω . Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Voltage (V) 10sinωt 1 2 t (ms) Figure 8. and Instruments 80.= 10 π T and thus 10 sin ωt = 10 sin 10 π 3 Then.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.+ 5 2 2 3 ∫ 10 2 × 10 –3 –3 0 dt 8-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .61 = 123.83 w and the total average power supplied by current sources is 112. The small difference is due to rounding of fractional numbers.

⎟ ⎟ 3 2 × 10 π ⎠ and since sin 2n π = 0 for n = integer .16. the last term of the expression above reduces to P ave = 5 w 8.14. that is. this refers to the phase angle of the current through the load with respect to the voltage across this load as shown in Figure 8.Lagging and Leading Power Factors or 100 P ave = ---------------------–3 10 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 1 -. Leading power factor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-15 .( 1 – cos 2 × 10 3 πt )dt = 5 × 10 3 2 10 –3 ∫0 10 –3 dt – ∫0 10 –3 cos 2 × 10 π t dt 3 ⎛ 3 3 sin 2 × 10 π t = ⎜ 5 × 10 t – -----------------------------⎜ 3 2 × 10 π ⎝ = 5 × 10 10 0 3 –3 3 –3 ⎞ sin 2 × 10 π × 10 – --------------------------------------------. the cosine of the angle θ 1 . Lagging power factor In Figure 8. This refers to the phase angle of the current through the load with respect to the voltage across this load as shown in Figure 8. Again. θ1 V LOAD I LOAD Figure 8.15.14.16.10 Lagging and Leading Power Factors By definition an inductive load is said to have a lagging power factor. The term “inductive load” means that the load is more “inductive” (with some resistance) than it is “capacitive”. But in a “purely inductive load” θ 1 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 1 = cos 90° = 0 By definition a capacitive load is said to have a leading power factor. cos θ 1 is referred to as lagging power factor and it is denoted as pf lag. I LOAD θ2 V LOAD Figure 8.

Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and it is denoted as Q . The term “capacitive load” means that the load is more “capacitive” (with some resistance) than it is “inductive”.36) This relation can be represented by the so-called power triangle.37) (8.11 Complex Power .17 (a) shows the power triangle of an inductive load. and Figure 8. the cosine of the angle θ 2 . Thus. and Instruments In Figure 8. Figure 8. The product V RMS × I RMS × sin θ is referred to as the reactive power. The reactive power is expressed in volt – amperes reactive or VAR . Complex Power. for either triangle of Figure 8. The apparent power is expressed in volt – amperes or VA .Power Triangle We recall that 1 P ave = -.39) (in VARs) (in VAs) 8-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . P real = P ave θ Pa Q θ −Q Pa P real = P ave (a) Power Triangle for Inductive Load (b) Power Triangle for Capacitive Load Figure 8. that is. the product V RMS × I RMS is referred to as the apparent power. Power triangles for inductive and capacitive loads In a power triangle.17. But in a “purely capacitive load” θ 2 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 2 = cos 90° = 0 8. P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ = P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS (in watts) (8.16 (b) shows the power triangle for both a capacitive load.16. and it is denoted as P a . cos θ 2 is referred to as leading power factor and it is denoted as pf lead.17.38) (8.V p I p cos θ = V RMS I RMS cos θ 2 (8.

18.8 with the line resistances combined From the circuit of Figure 8. Circuit for Example 8. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 8. the average power delivered to the load b. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-17 . that is. the relation of (8.19. R line = 2 Ω VS I RMS 480 ∠0° V RMS Z LD Load 10 + j10 Figure 8.8 For the circuit shown in Figure 8. the apparent power supplied by the voltage source d. For this reason.Complex Power . find: a.40) where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. Circuit for Example 8.41) is known as the complex power. the power factor of the load e.19.8 Load 10 + j10 Solution: For simplicity. the power factor of the line plus the load R line = 1 Ω VS 480 ∠0° V RMS R line = 1 Ω Figure 8. the average power absorbed by the line c.19 where the line resistances have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor. Example 8.Power Triangle The apparent power P a is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ (8.18.

8° 15. this additional current creates larger i 2 R 8-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . as we have seen.12 Power Factor Correction The consumer pays the electric utility company for the average or real power.8 Then. The power factor of the line plus the load is P ave line + P ave LOAD P ave total 1889 + 9443 pf ( line + LOAD ) = cos θ ( line + LOAD ) = ---------------------.= ----------------------------.= --------------------------------------.73 ) 13354 e. The apparent power supplied by the voltage source is P a source = V S RMS I RMS = 480 × 30.750 Kw d.56 ) ( 30.20. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 8.707 ( 480 ∠0° – 2 ( 30.443 Kw 2 2 b.= -------------. This additional current must be furnished by the utility company which must provide larger current-carrying capacity if the voltage must remain constant. a low power factor (larger angle θ ) demands more current. the current lags the voltage as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 8.= -----------------------------.= 30.73 ∠– 39.= ------------------------------------------V RMS LOAD I RMS P a LOAD 9443 9443 9443 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.77 P a source 14750 P a source 8.= 0.889 Kw 2 2 c. The average power delivered to the load is P ave LOAD = I RMS Re { Z LOAD } = ( 30.8° ) ) × 30.73 ) × 2 = 1889 w = 1. The power factor of the load is P ave LOAD 9443 pf LOAD = cos θ LOAD = -----------------------. not the apparent power and.= ---------------------------------------------------. and Instruments V S RMS 480 ∠0° 480 ∠0° I RMS = --------------------------. Complex Power.73 ( 434. a.= ----------------------------.73 ) × 10 = 9443 w = 9.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.8° VS I Figure 8.73 ∠– 39. The average power absorbed by the line is P ave line = I RMS R line = ( 30.8° 2 + 10 + j10 R line + Z LD and therefore.73 = 14750 w = 14. Moreover. – 39.20.= 0.62 ∠39.

22. The power factor correction procedure is illustrated with the following example.9 In the circuit shown in Figure 8. Solution: The power triangles for the existing and desired power factors are shown in Figure 8.21 must be modified as shown in Figure 8. will accomplish this. it is evident that a load.85 . For this reason.9° –1 1 Kw θ2 Q2 Q1 θ 2 = cos 0. the circuit of Figure 8.22. Obviously. Accordingly. 1 Kw θ1 θ 1 = cos 0.21.8 lag It is desired to “raise” the power factor of the load to 0. facility engineers must install the appropriate equipment to raise the power factor.Power Factor Correction losses in the utility’s transmission and distribution system.23.95 lagging. typically lower than 0. the resistance of the lines between the voltage source and the load and the internal resistance of the source are considered small.2° –1 This is what we have This is what we want Figure 8. and must be connected in parallel with the existing load. VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz Figure 8. and thus can be neglected. say Q 3 . Circuit for Example 8.21. the Q 3 load must be capacitive.8 = 36. electric utility companies impose a penalty on industrial facility customers who operate at a low power factor. Compute the size and the rating of a capacitor which.95 = 18. Accordingly. in opposite direction of Q 1 must be added. Example 8. Power triangles for existing and desired power factors Since the voltage across the given load must not change (otherwise it will affect the operation of it). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 . when added across the load.9 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.

not any 4.85 µF capacitor will do. the VAR value of Q 2 must be reduced to Q 2 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 18. 8-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --------. and Instruments VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz IC Capacitive Load with Leading pf 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.85 µF 2 π f XC 2 π ( 60 ) ( 547 ) ω XC However. we can choose a 5 µF capacitor rated at 700 volts or higher.= -----------------------------. the capacitor must be capable of withstanding a maximum voltage of V C max = 2 × 480 = 679 V and for all practical purposes.= 547 Ω 0.8 lag Figure 8. Q 1 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 36. the added capacitive load must be a vector Q 3 such that Q 3 = Q 1 – Q 2 = 750 – 329 = 421 VAR The current I C through the capacitive load is found from Q3 = IC VC = IC VS Then.95 .88 A 480 V S RMS and VC 480 X C = -----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.23. Circuit for power factor correction For the existing load.9° = 750 VAR and for the desired pf = cos θ 2 = 0.= 0.88 IC Therefore.= --------------.2° = 329 VAR Therefore.= 4.= -------. the capacitive load must consist of a capacitor with the value 1 1 1 C = ---------. Complex Power. Q3 421 I C = ---------------.

voltmeters measure voltage. A typical oscilloscope is shown in Figure 8. Rotation of the coil is restrained by a helical spring so that the motion of the coil and the pointer which is attached to it.26.Instruments 8. DC ammeters and voltmeters read average values whereas AC ammeters and voltmeters read RMS values. The basic meter movement consists of a permanent horse shoe magnet. In such a case. and Figure 8. an electromagnet which typically is a metal cylinder with very thin wire wound around it which is referred to as the coil.13 Instruments Ammeters are electrical instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. Ammeters. we can use a low range milliammeter with a shunt (parallel) resistor as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 . Voltmeters.25 shows a typical digital type VOM. Figure 8. Figure 8. wattmeters measure power. The coil is free to move on pivots. a torque is produced that tends to rotate the coil.24 shows a typical analog type VOM. and a control spring.24. is proportional to the current in the coil. A typical analog VOM An ammeter measures current in amperes. milliammeters. For currents less than one ampere. exceeds the range of the instrument. Often. We will see how a digital VOM can be constructed from an analog VOM equivalent at the end of this section. ohmmeters measure resistance. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. a milliammeter or microammeter may be used where the former measures current in milliamperes and the latter in microamperes. and watt-hour meters measure electric energy. Ohmmeters. the electric current to be measured. we cannot directly measure a current of 5 to 10 milliamperes with a milliammeter whose range is 0 to 1 milliampere. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. and when there is current in the coil. An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. For example.

26.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and R S is the shunt resistance. In Figure 8.25. A typical oscilloscope 8-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I M is the current through the meter.27. Figure 8. A typical digital VOM Figure 8.27 I T is the total current to be measured. Complex Power. R M is the milliammeter internal resistance. where the circle with mA represents an ideal milliammeter (a milliammeter with zero resistance). I S is the current through the shunt resistor. and Instruments shown in Figure 8.

therefore.27. Circuit for Example 8. that is. the shunt resistor R S is in parallel with the milliammeter branch. the milliammeter has a full-scale current I fs of 1 mA .R M IS (8. IT = IM + IS (8. then IM R S = ----. that is. the total current entering the circuit is 5 mA and the milliammeter range is 0 to 1 milliampere.27.28. and its internal resistance is 40 Ω . we observe that the sum of the current flowing through the milliammeter I M and the current I S through the shunt resistor is equal to the total current I S . Milliammeter with shunt resistor R S RM From the circuit of Figure 8. RM IM = RS IS and since we normally need to calculate the shunt resistor.42) Example 8. that is. the voltages across these parallel branches are equal.28.41) Also.10 In the circuit of Figure 8.Instruments IT IM IT mA RS IS Figure 8. IM =Maximum allowable current through the milliammeter I fs = 1 mA IT IM mA RM 40 Ω RS IS Figure 8.10 IT Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 . Compute the value of the shunt resistor R S .

Circuit for a multi-range ammeter/milliammeter A voltmeter. Therefore. Complex Power.e.R M = -. I S = I T – I M = 5 – 1 = 4 mA The required value of the shunt resistor is found from (8. Figure 8. that is.42). i. IT + RS A IM RM − IT IS Figure 8. this is one-fourth the value of the milliammeter internal resistor of 40 Ω . a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 8.29.29 shows the circuit of a typical multi-range ammeter/milliammeter. A multi-range ammeter/milliammeter is an instrument with two or more scales. measures voltage in volts. and Instruments Solution: The maximum current that the milliammeter can allow to flow through it is 1 mA and since the total current is 5 milliamperes. the 10 Ω resistor will allow four times as much current as the milliammeter to flow through it. Typically. as stated earlier. IM 1 R S = ----. the remaining 4 milliamperes must flow through the shunt resistor.× 40 = 10 Ω IS 4 Check: The calculated value of the shunt resistor is 10 Ω .30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with R M V M = voltmeter full scale reading 8-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

– R M IM (8. we only need to compute the value of the external resistor R V so that the voltage across the series combination will be 1 volt full scale.11 Design a voltmeter which will have a 1 volt full-scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere fullscale and internal resistance 100 Ω . Typical voltmeter circuit For the circuit of Figure 8.31. IM ( RM + RV ) = VM or VM R V = -----.Instruments RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM = Voltmeter range IM mA + RM VM RV − Figure 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 .30. IM mA + 100 Ω RM VM RV − Figure 8. Example 8. from (8.43).30. Solution: The voltmeter circuit consists of the milliammeter circuit and the external resistance R V as shown in Figure 8.43) Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. Then. Circuit for Example 8.31.11 Here.

9 kΩ 100 Ω mA 900 Ω 1V RM 10 V IM = 1 mA fs VM − An Ohmmeter measures resistance in Ohms. the resistor R X whose resistance is to be measured. 8-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the 0 (zero) point appears on the right-most point of the Ohmmeter scale. Figure 8. In the series type Ohmmeter. Circuit for a multi-range voltmeter RM Zero Adjust RX ∞ 0 Figure 8.– 100 = 1000 – 100 = 900 Ω –3 IM 10 (8. is in parallel with the Ohmmeter circuit.32. and Instruments VM 1 R V = -----. and the current is zero when R X is infinite (open circuit). I VS + − mA + Figure 8.33. we only need to attach a 900 Ω resistor in series with that milliammeter.– R M = --------. Complex Power. and the infinity symbol appears on the left-most point of the scale. For this reason.33 that for the series type Ohmmeter. 99. the current I is maximum when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit).33.9 kΩ 100 V I 9.34 shows the circuit of a shunt (parallel) type Ohmmeter where the resistor R X whose value is to be measured. Circuit for a series type Ohmmeter We observe from Figure 8. is connected in series with the Ohmmeter circuit shown in Figure 8.44) Therefore.32 shows a typical multi-range voltmeter. Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. to convert a 1 milliampere full-scale milliammeter with an internal resistance of 100 Ω to a 1 volt full-scale voltmeter.

This balance occurs when R1 R3 ----. and another resistor. the 0 (zero) point appears on the left-most point of the Ohmmeter scale. and the infinity symbol appears on the right-most point of the scale. for the shunt type Ohmmeter. say R 4 .R 3 R1 (8. is the unknown resistor whose value is to be measured. the current through the milliammeter circuit is zero when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit) since all current flows through that short. However.35. that is.Instruments VS + − mA RX I RM Zero Adjust 0 ∞ Figure 8.45) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 . the current through the milliammeter branch is maximum.34. until there is no current flow through the meter of this circuit. when R X is infinite (open circuit). An instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accurately is the Wheatstone Bridge shown in Figure 8. say R 3 is adjusted until the bridge is balanced. For this reason. R1 + − VA R2 µA R4 0 µA VS R3 VB − + Figure 8.34 we see that.= ----R R2 4 from which the value of the unknown resistor is found from R2 R 4 = ----.35. Wheatstone Bridge Circuit One of the resistors. Circuit for a parallel type Ohmmeter From Figure 8.

Then. Compute the value of the unknown resistor R 4 .36.37. its value is 120 Ω . relation (8. R2 200 R 4 = ----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.12 Solution: When the bridge is balanced. and Instruments Example 8. W = Pt in watt-hours. when the current through the meter is zero. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. We will discuss the flash converter only because of its simplicity. Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Wheatstone Bridges are also used to accept or reject resistors whose values exceed a given tolerance. 8-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .R 3 = -------. that is. where W is the product of the average power P in watts and time t in hours.36. and when this occurs. A watt-hour meter is an instrument which measures electric energy W .12 In the Wheatstone Bridge circuit of Figure 8. Electric utility companies use kilowatt-hour meters to bill their customers for the use of electricity. This and the other types are discussed in digital circuits textbooks. resistor R 3 is adjusted until the meter reads zero. It is constructed with two sets of coils. There are different types of analog-to-digital converters such as the flash converter. slope converter and tracking converter. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. 600 Ω + − VA R2 200 Ω R1 µA R4 R3 120 Ω VB 0 VS µA − + Figure 8. As shown in Figure 8. comparators (denoted as triangles). a current coil and a voltage coil where the interacting magnetic fields of these coils produce a torque which is proportional to the V × I product. the flash type ADC consists of a resistive network. the time-window converter.45) holds. Because of their great accuracy. and an eight-to-three line encoder. A wattmeter is an instrument which measures power in watts or kilowatts. Circuit for Example 8.× 120 = 40 Ω 600 R1 When measuring resistance values. that is. Complex Power.

5 V 3V 1.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the inverse operation.0 to less than 10.5 V 4. Typical analog-to-digital converter Analog Input A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 B1 B0 Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 .5 V 7.38 shows a four-bit R-2R ladder network and an op-amp connected to form a DAC.0 to less than 4.5 to less than 6.2 V.0 to less than 7.0 V 3. it converts digital values to equivalent analog values.0 V 6.37.5 V 0V − ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER Overflow A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Analog Input 8-to-3 Encoder B2 B1 B0 Comparator VX VY − + − + − − + + − − + Ai Inputs Output VX = VY Previous Value VX > VY Ai = 0 VX < VY Ai = 1 + + − + − − + + For Example.5 V 10.5 V 9V 7.5 V 1.Instruments 12 V Supply 12 V 10.5 to less than 9. if Analog Input = 5. Figure 8.5 to less than 3.5 V 6V 4.0 V 9. that is. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 Figure 8.

is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) dt b 1 b = ----------.14 Summary • A periodic time function is one which satisfies the relation f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. and Instruments DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER 2R R 2R (lsb) B0 R R 2R − 2R 2R 2R B1 B2 B3 (msb) + V out − + − 1 Volt Switch Settings: For Logic “0” (ground) positioned to the right For Logic “1” (+5 V) positioned to the left With the switches positioned as shown. A typical digital-to-analog converter 8.38.( area a ) b–a • The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period. lsb = least significant bit msb = most significant bit Figure 8. • A half-wave rectification waveform is defined as ⎧ A sin ω t f(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π 8-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power. • The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. B3 B2 B1 B0 = 0100 Negative reference voltage is used so that the inverting op amp’s output will be positive.

= I RMS R R R 2 • The average power in inductive and capacitive loads is P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 • If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal. and cos θ is known as the power factor defined within the range 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 .dt = -T R ∫0 i R dt 2 T • An inductive load is said to have a lagging power factor and a capacitive load is said to have a leading power factor. I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 • For circuits with sinusoidal excitations the average power delivered to a load is Vp Ip P ave LOAD = ---------.707I p • For sinusoids of different frequencies.Summary • The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as I eff = 1 -T ∫ T i 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 0 • For sinusoids only.cos θ = V RMS 2 LOAD I RMS LOAD cos θ where θ is the phase angle between V LOAD and I LOAD and it is within the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° . we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----. • The average power in a resistive load is P ave R V RMS R 2 = ---------------. I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 = 0. • In a power triangle P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ (in watts) (in VARs) (in VAs) Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-31 .

• An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. also known as complex power. • A Wheatstone Bridge is an instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accu- rately. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. Complex Power. When measuring resistance values. • Ohmmeters are instruments used to measure resistance. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. • Voltmeters are instruments used to measure voltage.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Ohmmeters. • Watt-Hour meters are instruments used to measure energy. is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. 8-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • Voltmeters. • Wattmeters are instruments used to measure power. • A power factor can be corrected by placing a capacitive load in parallel with the load of the cir- cuit. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. • DC ammeters and DC voltmeters read average values • AC ammeters and AC voltmeters read RMS values. that is. and Instruments • The apparent power P a . milliammeters. • Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. Ammeters. Voltmeters must always be connected in par- allel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. • Ammeters are instruments used to measure current in electric circuits.

15 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. The RMS value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 5 A E. none of the above 2. The average value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. The average value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. 5 × 2 A C. 12 ⁄ 2 V B. 12 × 2 V E. none of the above 3. 6 V B. 12 × 2 V E. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. 12 ⁄ 2 V D. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. none of the above 4. 12 V D. 12 V C.Exercises 8. The RMS value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. 5 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 . 5 × 2 A C. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 6 × 2 ⁄ 2 V C.

The voltage across a load whose impedance is Z = 75 + j38 Ω is 115 V RMS.39.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 352.44 w C. The RMS value of the waveform of Figure 8. Waveform for Question 7 A. 176. 10 ⁄ 2 V 8-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 157.40 is i (A) 10 1 3 t (s) Figure 8.67 w E.40. 6 V E. 16 V C.3 w D. and Instruments E. 71. none of the above 6.39 is v (V) 24 4 8 12 Figure 8. The average value of the waveform of Figure 8.33 w B. The average power absorbed by that load is A. Waveform for Question 6 A. 24 V B. 12 V D. none of the above 7. Complex Power. none of the above 5.

Exercises B. A load with a leading power factor of 0. L = 1 mH . and C = 10 µF . 10 × 3 V E. 0 w E. none of the above 9. If the average power absorbed by a load is 500 watts and the reactive power is 500 VAR . none of the above 10.85 by adding A. an inductor is series with the load D. 250 VA D.60 can be corrected to a lagging power factor of 0. none of the above 8. a capacitor in series with the load E. 0 VA B. A current with a value of i = 5 cos 10000t A is flowing through a load that consists of the series combination of R = 2 Ω . 5 w D. 500 VA C. 10 w C. 10 ⁄ 3 V D. 500 × 2 VA E. the apparent power is A. a capacitor in parallel with the load B. 10 × 2 V C. an inductor in parallel with the load C. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 . 25 w B. The average power absorbed by this load is A.

42. b. The current i L ( t ) through a 0.5 H inductor is given as i L ( t ) = 5 + 10 sin t A . The average values of the current. Waveform for Problem 2 3. It sends out one of these pulses every 1 ms . v( t) V 15 5 t(s) 0 Figure 8. Compute the RMS value of i ( t ) = 10 + 2 cos 100t + 5 sin 200t 5. Complex Power. 2. 8-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The RMS values of the current and voltage. The power output during the transmission of a pulse. Compute the RMS value of the voltage waveform of Figure 8.41.42. b. It transmits for 5 µs and then rests. voltage and power for this inductor. Compute: a. A radar transmitter sends out periodic pulses. Compute the average and RMS values of the voltage waveform of Figure 8. Compute: a. The energy transmitted in each pulse.41. Waveform for Problem 3 4.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments Problems 1. The average output power of this transmitter is 750 w . v( t) A V t(s) 0 Figure 8.

44.43.43. R 2. v s ( t ) = 100 cos 1000t V. Compute the largest RMS value that the variable voltage source V S can be adjusted to. VS ZIN PCB Figure 8. 10 mA 980 Ω IT + 100 mA R1 R2 mA IM RM =20 Ω 1A − IT R3 Figure 8. For the circuit of Figure 8. Multi-range ammeter for Problem 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 . the meter full scale is 1 mA . Network for Problem 7 8.45. R 3.44. otherwise it will be damaged. the input impedance of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω and the board must not absorb more that 200 mw of power. Circuit for Problem 6 7. Compute the average power delivered (or absorbed) by each device. vS ( t ) 2Ω 3 mH 5Ω 200 µF Figure 8. For the multi-range ammeter/milliammeter shown in Figure 8. For the circuit of Figure 8. Compute the values of R 1.45. and R 4 so that the instrument will display the indicated values.Exercises 6.

through the resistor R to point D . and returns to the other terminal point F of the input voltage source. Compute the value indicated by the DC voltmeter. I Diode − Allows current to flow in the indicated direction only B A vIN F D3 D1 D2 D − vOUT R + C D4 DC Voltmeter V E Figure 8. 8-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .47. through diode D 3 to point E . and Instruments 9.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. The input and output voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 8.46 is known as full-wave rectifier. and returns to the other terminal point A of the input voltage source. Complex Power.47.46. through diode D 4 to point C . The circuit of Figure 8. current flows from point A to point B . the voltage drop is approximately 0. Input and output waveforms for the network of Problem 9 * For silicon type diodes. through the diode D 1 to point B .7 volt. through D 2 to point C . During the negative input half cycle. through the resistor R to point D . Network for Problem 9 v in (t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 ω t (r) Vp Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Figure 8. During the positive input half cycle. There is a small voltage drop v D across each diode* but it can be neglected if v in » v D . current flows from point F to point E.

Also.5 ---. E Z = 75 + j38 = 84.37 × cos ( – 26.16 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. C 8. i L = 5 + 10 sin t .= 0.08 ∠26. Likewise. D 10. B Problems L 1. A 9. B 2. I RMS = 115 ∠0° ⁄ 84.( 5 + 10 sin t ) = 5 cos t di dt d dt a.Answers to Exercises 8. v L ave = -T T ∫0 T 5 cos t dt = 0 .54 w 6. A 5. it follows that T T 0 ∫0 T 1 1 5 dt = -.∫ 10 sin t dt = 0 . v L = L -----.87° ) = 140.87° = 1. 1 = -T 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p L dt = -T ∫0 T 1 v L i L dt = -T ∫0 5 cos t ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 50 sin t cos t ) dt and using sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that 50 sin t cos t = 25 sin 2t and thus 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 25 sin 2t ) dt = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 . B 7.87° and thus P ave = V RMS ⋅ I RMS cos θ = 115 × 1.5T = 5 A .08 ∠26. 1 i L ave = -T 1 -T ∫0 T 1 i L dt = -T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 1 and since -. D 3.87° . C 4.37 ∠– 26.

and Instruments b.06 V 3. From the waveform below we observe that Period = T = 5τ and since V ave = Area ⁄ Period = ( 15τ + 20τ ) ⁄ 5τ = 7 V Also.54 V 2.707 × 5 = 3.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Complex Power.( 225τ + 125τ – 25τ ) = 65 5τ and thus V RMS = 65 = 8. 1 2 I L RMS = -T 1 = -T 1 = -T ∫0 ∫0 T 2 i L dt T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 2 25 2 [ 5 ( 1 + 2 sin t ) ] dt = ----T ∫0 T ( 1 + 4 sin t + 4 sin t ) dt 2 1 T 2 1 T ----------------------Using sin x = 1 – cos 2x and observing that -. v( t) V 15 τ 5 4τ T 0 1 2 V RMS = -T t(s) ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = ----5τ ∫0 τ ( 15 ) dt + 2 ∫τ 5τ 1 2 ( 5 ) dt = ----. 8-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .66 A For sinusoids V RMS = V p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0.⎛ t T⎝ T 0 25 4 T + -.( T + 2T ) = 75 and I L RMS = T 2 ⎠ 75 = 8.∫ 4 sin t dt = 0 and -.707V p and since V p = 5 it follows that V RMS = 0.t 0⎞ = ----. We choose the period T as shown below.∫ cos 2t dt = 0 we get 2 T 0 T 0 25 2 I L RMS = ----.

The RMS value of sinusoids with different frequencies is given by (8. Then. v ( t ) = -----.= A ⁄ 6 24 2 and V RMS = 6 2 A ⁄ 6 = -----. The effective (RMS) value of a sinusoid is a real number that is independent of frequency and phase angle and for current it is equal to I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 .13). Since Area Area P ave = 750 w = ----------------. For this problem I RMS = 2 1 2 1 2 10 + -. A 5 µs 1 2 t(s) For this problem we do no know the amplitude A of each 5 µs pulse but we know the average power of one period T = 1 s .A = 0.2 + -.t 3 3T 2 0 2 4A = -------.Answers to Exercises v( t) A V 2A v ( t ) = -----T t(s) 0 T T 2A Using the straight line equation y = mx + b we find that for 0 < t < T ⁄ 2 .= ----------Period 1s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 .t . The waveform representing the transmitter output pulses is shown below. 1 2 V RMS = -T ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = -T T⁄2 ∫0 T⁄2 2 1 ⎛ 2A t⎞ dt + ------⎝T ⎠ T ∫ 4A 0 ⋅ dt = -------3 T⁄2 T T 2 ∫0 T⁄2 t dt 2 4A 3 = -------.7 A 5.41A 6 4.5 = 2 2 100 + 2 + 12.5 = 10.

. and Instruments it follows that a.+ --... Vc=Vs/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3). disp('I2 = ').. Energy transmitted during each pulse is Area of each pulse = 750 w ⋅ s b.⎞ V = V S ----⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 or VS V C = -------------------------------z1 z1 ⎛ 1 + --. disp(Vc). VS – VC I 2 Ω = -----------------z1 VC I C = -----z1 VC I L = -----z3 and with MATLAB Vs=100...+ --.. The phasor equivalent circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 3 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ 10 × 2 × 10 3 –4 = j3 Ω and = – j5 Ω z1 2 Ω VS VC j3 Ω IL 5Ω I2 Ω IC z2 – j5 Ω z3 100 ∠0° By application of KCL VC – VS VC VC -----------------. disp(angle(I2)*180/pi).. disp(abs(I2)). disp(angle(Vc)*180/pi).... disp(I2). disp('phaseVc = '). fprintf(' \n'). disp('magI2 = '). Complex Power. z3=5+3j. Ic=Vc/z2.= 0 z1 z2 z2 or 1 1 1 ⎛ --. I2=(Vs−Vc)/z1. IL=Vc/z3....⎞ ⎝ z z ⎠ 2 3 Also.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.. The power during the transmission of a pulse is P = W ⁄ t = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 µs = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 × 10 –6 = 150 × 10 w = 150 Mw 3 –3 6 6.+ -----. disp('Vc = '). z2=−5j.. 8-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..+ -----.. disp('phaseI2 = '). z1=2. disp(abs(Vc)).+ --. disp('magVc = ').

I p R 2 Ω = 0.0068i magIc = 15.43° as shown by the phasor diagram below.4 w 2 Also. disp('IL = ').07 × cos 27.0588 phaseIL = -40.07 ) × 2 = 197..8.. disp(Ic).43° VS Therefore. disp('phaseIL = ').5 × ( 14....4802i magI2 = 14.2290 phaseIc = 80. I2 Ω θ = 27.4350 Ic = 2. disp('magIL = ').7636 The average power delivered by the voltage source V S is computed from the relation 1 P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = -. disp(angle(Ic)*180/pi). disp('phaseIc = '). disp(abs(IL)). disp(abs(Ic)). 1 2 2 P 2 Ω ave = -.2002 IL = 9.V p I p cos θ 2 where θ = 27.× V S × I 2 Ω cos θ = 0.0341-12.8909 .9604i magVc = 76. 1 P S ave = -. disp(IL). Vc = 75. disp('magIc = ').Answers to Exercises disp('Ic = ').5921 + 15.43° = 624.1452 phaseVc = -9.7998 I2 = 12. disp(angle(IL)*180/pi)...0647 phaseI2 = 27.97 w 2 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .5 × 100 × 14.4829 + 6..5266i magIL = 13..

41 = P S ave = 624. Complex Power. i(t) ZIN vS ( t ) PCB Let and Then.06 ) × 5 = 426. Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω or Z IN = Z IN ∠θ = – 1( – 100 ) 2 2 100 + 100 ∠ tan -------------------. and Instruments 1 2 2 P 5 Ω ave = -. Let us consider the t – domain network below.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.2 w 2 and therefore we must find the phase angle θ . Since θ appears also in the jω – domain .2 w .97 + 426.5 × ( 13.[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we get Vp Ip p = ---------. p = v S i = V p I p cos ωt ⋅ cos ( ωt + θ ) v S = V p cos ωt i = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) and using 1 cos x ⋅ cos y = -.[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] ≤ 0.I L R 5 Ω = 0. we can find its value from the given input impedance. we must satisfy the condition Vp Ip p = ---------.[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 We require that the power p does not exceed 200 mw or 0.= 100 2 ∠– 45° 100 8-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .41 w 2 Check: P 2 Ω ave + P 5 Ω ave = 197.4 w The average power in the capacitor and the inductor is zero since θ = 90° and cos θ = 0 7. that is. that is.

414 2 8. V p I p = 0. 980 Ω 10 mA + R1 9 mA R2 20 Ω mA 1 mA R3 10 mA − Then.76V RMS = -----.[ cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) + cos ( – 45° ) ] 2 The maximum power p occurs when cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) = 1 .= 4.Answers to Exercises and in the t – domain Vp Ip p = ---------.2 w 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Then.707 or Vp = 33.07 V 1. With the switch at the 10 mA position.707 and now we can express I p in terms of V p using the relation Z IN = 100 2 and I p = V p ⁄ Z IN and by substitution 2 ----------------------------V p = 0.4 ⁄ 1.76 and Vp 5. 9 × 10 ( R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ) = ( 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or ----------R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 1000 (1) 9 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 .14 = 5. Vp Ip 2 p max = ---------.= -----------. the circuit is as shown below.⎛ 1 + ------⎞ = 0.4 × 100 2 = 33.14 1. that is.

and Instruments With the switch at the 100 mA position. 99 × 10 ( R 2 + R 3 ) = ( R 1 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 + 99R 2 + 99R 3 = 1000 (2) With the switch at the 1 A position. Complex Power. 999 × 10 R 3 = ( R 1 + R 2 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 – R 2 + 999R 3 = 1000 (3) Addition of (1) and (3) yields 1000 10000 1000R 3 = ----------. the circuit is as shown below. 980 Ω 100 mA + 99 mA R3 10 mA − 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω Then.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or 8-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the circuit is as shown below. 980 Ω 1A + 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω 1A − 999 mA R3 Then.

( 1 + 1 ) = -------π π As expected.cos ωt π Vp 2V p = ----. The period of the full-wave rectifier waveform is taken as π. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 . DC instruments indicate average values. Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Vp π 2π π ωt = 0 Then. this average is twice the average value of the half-wave rectifier waveform of Example 8.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or -------R 2 + R 3 = 100 (5) 9 Substitution of (4) into (5) yields R 2 = 10 Ω (6) and substitution of (4) and (6) into (1) yields R 1 = 100 Ω (7) 9.Answers to Exercises 10 R 3 = ----.2.Ω (4) 9 Addition of (1) and (2) yields 1000 10000 100R 2 + 100R 3 = ----------. Therefore.( – cos ωt ) π 0 0 π Vp = ----. v OUT ave 1 = -π ∫ π Vp V p sin ωt d( ωt ) = ----. the DC voltmeter will read the average value of the voltage v OUT across the resistor.

Complex Power.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments NOTES 8-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the initial condition is i ( 0 ) = I 0 . integrating both sides and using the initial condition.1 where the desired response is the current i. that is. that is. two common methods are the separation of variables method and the assumed solution method. The natural response is also referred to as the transient response. 9. and it is given that at t = 0 .1 The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Let us find the natural response of the circuit of Figure 9. so that the variables i and t are separated.+ Ri = 0 dt (9.1. the circuit is source-free. we get R di ---.Chapter 9 Natural Response T his chapter discusses the natural response of electric circuits. We will consider both.dt L i Next. − R + L + i − Figure 9. and we seek the circuit’s natural response. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RL circuit Application of KVL yields vL + vR = 0 or di L ---.1) Here.1).= – -. 1. Separation of Variables Method Rearranging (9. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 .The term natural implies that there is no excitation in the circuit. that is.1). As we know. i = I 0 . we seek a value of i which satisfies the differential equation of (9. we need to find the natural response which in differential equations terminology is the complementary function.

i ( 0 ) = I 0 .1) indicates that the solution must be a function which. when added to its first derivative will become zero. An exponential function will accomplish that and therefore. if A = 0 or s = – ∞ . Now.1). s = – R ⁄ L is the only logical solution. and by substitution into (9. we assume a solution of the form i ( t ) = Ae st (9.t L or R iln --. it must satisfy the differential equation (9. 2.1) yields 0 = 0 and that at t = 0 .σ 0 L or R ln i – ln I 0 = – -. Integration yields ln i i I0 R t = – -. if (9. Assumed Solution Method Relation (9. Then.Chapter 9 Natural Response ∫0 i1 t -. or if s = – ∞ . Thus.3) is a solution. we get i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t x (9.t L I0 Recalling that x = ln y implies y = e . Therefore. then every response is zero and this represents a trivial solution. we get: RAe + sLAe st st = 0 or ⎛ s + R ⎞ Ae st = 0 -⎝ L ⎠ The left side of the last expression above will be zero if A = 0 .3) where A and s are constants to be determined. both the differential equation and the initial condition are satisfied.2) into (9. But.= – -.di = – R dσ -L 0 I i ∫ where σ is a dummy variable. by substitution. or if s = – R ⁄ L .3) we get i ( t ) = Ae –( R ⁄ L ) t 9-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2) Substitution of (9.

2. Plot for i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 in a series RL circuit From Figure 9. Next.7 0. Then.2 we observe that at t = 0 .dt ⎝ I 0 ⎠ R –( R ⁄ L ) t R = – -.0 0. Thus. i ⁄ I 0 = 1 .2.e = – -L L t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – R ⁄ L Next.3 0.8 0 –( R ⁄ L ) t (9. 1. The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of i ⁄ I 0 evaluated at t = 0 .9 0. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation i( t) = – R t + 1 -------L I0 and at t = τ . we rewrite it as i ( t .⎞ .2 0. and i → 0 as t → ∞ .6 0.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit We must now evaluate the constant A .8% 13. I 0 = Ae or A = I 0 and therefore.4) Percent i(t) / I 0 0. i ( t ) = I0 e as before. This is done with the use of the initial condition i ( 0 ) = I 0 .4 0.= e –( R ⁄ L ) t ) ------I0 and sketch it as shown in Figure 9. d i ---.⎛ --.0 0 1 e−(R/L) t i(t) / I 0 = −(R / L) t +1 36.1 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 .5 0. i ⁄ I 0 = 0 . that is. we define the time constant τ as the time required for i ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.5% 5% Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.

in how many seconds after t = 0 has the a. that is. current i ( t ) has reached ½ of its initial value? b. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.5) Evaluating (9. Circuit for Example 9.4) at t = τ = L ⁄ R . we get – ( R ⁄ L )τ –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) –1 i(τ) -------.= e = e = e = 0. energy stored in L has reached ¼ of its initial value? c.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 9.368I 0 (9.8% of its initial value. 9-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . power dissipated in R has reached ¾ of its initial value? − 10 Ω R + L 10 mH + Solution: From (9.τ + 1 L or L τ = -R Time Cons tan t for RL Circuit (9.Chapter 9 Natural Response R 0 = – -.1 i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . the response has dropped to approximately 36. i − Figure 9.2. in one time constant. we find that i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5τ .3.3. Example 9. Then.2). it reaches its final value after five time constants.6) Therefore.368 I0 or i ( τ ) = 0.

LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 2 2 4 4⎝ 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t = 1⁄4 = 1⁄4 e – 2000t – 2000t = ln ( 0.W L ( 0 ) = -.5 ) = – 0.5I 0 = I 0 e – ( 10 ⁄ 10 × 10 –3 )t = I0 e – 1000t or e – 1000t = 0. –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 -. we start with the fact that the instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor is p R = i R R .LI 0 2 and 2 1 1 1 .Li ( t ) 2 and at t = 0 . c. The current i ( t ) will have reached ½ of its initial value when 0. I 0 = i L ( 0 ) .The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit a. To find the power dissipated in R when it reaches ¾ of its initial value.5 or – 1000t = ln ( 0.-. and since for the given circuit i ( t ) = iR ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 then. 2 1 W L ( 0 ) = -.⎛ -.25 ) = – 1. Then.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4⎝ 2 4 Therefore.L ( I 0 e .Li ( t ) = -. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 .⎛ -.386 and t = 693 µs This is the same answer as in part (a) since the energy is proportional to the square of the current. To find the energy stored in L which reaches ¼ of its initial value. t = 693 µs b.) = -.W L ( t ) = -.693 and therefore. we start with 1 2 W L ( t ) = -.

7) where i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just before a switch is opened or closed. Example 9. Also.W R = 3 W L ( 0 ) = 1 Li ( t ) = 1 L ( I 0 e -. and the capacitor behaves as an open circuit. from part (b) above.2 In the circuit of Figure 9. when the excitations are constant. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 .75 ) = – 0. 1 2 W L ( 0 ) = -. in our subsequent discussion.Chapter 9 Natural Response p R = I 0 Re 2 –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t and the energy dissipated (in the form of heat) in the resistor is WR = ∫0 ∞ p R dt = I 0 R 2 ∫0 ∞ e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t 2 L –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t dt = I 0 R ⎛ – ------⎞ e ⎝ 2R⎠ ∞ 0 1 2 = -.⎛ -. v R ( 0 ) . at steady state conditions the inductor behaves as a short circuit.LI 0 2 Also.288 and t = 144 µs In some examples and exercises that follow. and i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just after the change has occurred.LI 0 2 and thus 2 –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 3 3 1 2 -. iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + − + (9.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4 4 4⎝2 2 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t – 2000t = 3⁄4 = 3⁄4 e – 2000t = ln ( 0. and v R ( 0 ) − + 9-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .--) = -.4. As we know from Chapter 5. the initial condition may not be given directly but it can be found from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and therefore. the expression “long time” will mean that sufficient time has elapsed so that the circuit has reached its steady-state conditions. Find i L ( t ) for t > 0 .

2 A We also observe that vR ( 0 ) = 0 − At t = 0 .5. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.5.2 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9.2 Solution: We are not given an initial condition for this example.2A − + and thus the initial condition has now been established as I 0 = 3. the 32 V source and the 10 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.4. Circuit at t = 0 − − + vR ( t ) 10 Ω + − 32 V − − iL ( t ) Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.6.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit t = 0 + vR ( t ) − iL ( t ) 20 Ω 1 mH S 10 Ω + − 32 V Figure 9. however.5. Circuit at t = 0 + + + vR ( t ) − 1 mH 20 Ω iL ( t ) + Figure 9. at t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 20 Ω resistor. we see that i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 32 ⁄ 10 = 3. Circuit for Example 9.2 at t = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 . Circuit for Example 9.6.

At t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 24 Ω and 48 Ω resistors. the switch S has been closed for a long time and opens at t = 0 . i 48 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 4Ω t = 0 S 30 Ω 24 Ω + − + − 72 V 60 Ω 1 mH i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) 48 Ω i 48 ( t ) Figure 9.= 3 A 4 + 60 || 30 4 + 20 − 9-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2e – ( 20 ⁄ 10 –3 )t or i L ( t ) = 3.8.3 In the circuit shown in Figure 9. i 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c. i L ( t ) for t > 0 b. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = --------------------------.Chapter 9 Natural Response For the circuit of Figure 9.2 ) + or v R ( 0 ) = – 64 V + We observe that v R ( 0 ) ≠ v R ( 0 ) Example 9.6. Find: a.7.= -------------. iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t = 3. Then.7.3 Solution: a.2e – 20000t and v R ( 0 ) = 20 ( – I 0 ) = 20 ( – 3. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.

3 at t = 0 From (9.2).× 3 = 2 A 30 + 60 9 and thus the initial condition has been established as I 0 = 2 A At t = 0 . iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R eq ⁄ L ) t where R eq = ( 60 + 30 ) || (24+48) = 40 Ω and thus i L ( t ) = 2e – ( 40 ⁄ 10 )t –3 or i L ( t ) = 2e Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 40000t 9-9 .9. Circuit at t = 0 30 Ω 24 Ω + + 60 Ω 1 mH 48 Ω i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) i 48 ( t ) + Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit for Example 9.9.3 at t = 0 − and by the current division expression.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -. the 72 V source and the 4 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. 60 6 − − i L ( 0 ) = ----------------.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Circuit at t = 0 4Ω − 30 Ω iT ( 0 ) − + − 72 V 60 Ω iL ( 0 ) − Figure 9.8.

8) and with dv C i C = C -------dt and vC i R = ----R by substitution into (9.10. we obtain the differential equation 9-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the initial condition is v ( 0 ) = V 0 .8). iC + iR = 0 (9. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit By KCL. i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs ( 24 + 48 ) = ---------------------------------------------------.e = – 16. that is.3 mA 9 and i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs ( 30 + 60 ) = ---------------------------------------------------.373 mA 9 9. v C = V 0 .[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 100 µs or i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs 12 – 40000t = ----.( – 2e ) 27 t = 200 µs 10 – 8 = – ----.e = – 0. we will find the natural response of the RC circuit shown in Figure 9. and it is given that at t = 0 .10 where the desired response is the capacitor voltage v C .( – 2e ) 27 t = 100 µs 8 –4 = – -.Chapter 9 Natural Response Also.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 200 µs or i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs 15 – 40000t = ----.2 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit In this section. iC iR vC ( t ) R + C − Figure 9.

11. v C ⁄ V 0 = 1 .dt ⎝ V 0 ⎠ 1 – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = – ------. We observe that at t = 0 .10) Following the same reasoning as with the RL circuit.11) as vC ( t ) – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t ----------. i.= e V0 and we sketch it as shown in Figure 9.e.9) Ae Ase + --------. and i → 0 as t→∞ The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 evaluated at t = 0 . the natural response of the RC circuit is vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 0 (9..The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit dv C v C -------.= 0 RC st st or 1⎛ s + -------⎞ Ae st = 0 ⎝ RC⎠ (9.= 0 dt RC (9.9) As before.e = – ------RC RC t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) Next. v C ( t ) = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t The constant A is evaluated from the initial condition.+ ------. Therefore. we assume a solution of the form v C ( t ) = Ae st and by substitution into (9. (9. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 .10) will be satisfied when s = – 1 ⁄ RC and therefore. v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = Ae or A = V 0 . we define the time constant τ as the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.⎛ ----.⎞ .11) We express (9. that is. d vC ---.

In the examples that follow.8% 13.368V 0 (9.4 0.Chapter 9 Natural Response 1.8 0.0 0.11.11.= – ------.= e = e = e = 0. it reaches its final value after five time constants.6 0.14) Therefore.τ + 1 RC (9. the response has dropped to approximately 36.13) Evaluating (9.11) at t = τ = RC .12) or τ = RC Time Cons tan t for R C Circuit (9. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9. in one time constant. v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 = 0 . we will make use of the fact that vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) − + (9. we find that v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5 τ .9 0. we get vC ( τ ) – τ ⁄ RC – RC ⁄ RC –1 -----------. 10 = – ------.5% 5% 2 3 Time Constants 4 5 Figure 9. Then.2 0.t + 1 RC V0 and at t = τ .8% of its initial value.3 0.15) 9-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 0.0 0 1 Percent vc(t) / V0 e−(1/RC) t vc(t) / V0 = −(1/RC) t +1 36. that is.7 0. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit vC ( t ) 1-----------.368 V0 or v C ( τ ) = 0.5 0.

i ( 0 ) .12.= 50 V 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 50 V .4 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9.13 we see that 60 V − + − v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 50 KΩ × i ( 0 ) = 50 × --------------------------------------.4 Solution: At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.4 In the circuit of Figure 9. and opens at t = 0 . Find v C ( t ) for t > 0 . Circuit for Example 9.11).14. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit at t = 0 − − i (t) 50 KΩ vC ( t ) 10 KΩ + − 60 V − Figure 9.13. and i ( 0 ) . the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time.13. t = 0 10 µF S 10 KΩ − + i (t) 50 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 60 V Figure 9. From (9.= 1 mA 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ + At t = 0 the 60 V source and the 10 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. We also observe that − 60 V i ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 .The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Example 9.12.

v 10 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 6 KΩ t = 0 S 30 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + − + − 72 V 60 KΩ + 40 ----. Circuit for Example 9.= 1 mA R 50 KΩ We observe that i ( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) . v C ( t ) = 50e – ( 1 ⁄ 0. v C ( t ) for t > 0 b. This is true because the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously. Find: a.µF + 9 v 60 ( t ) − − + vC ( t ) v 10 ( t ) 10 KΩ − Figure 9.5 – 2t Then. Circuit for Example 9.5 In the circuit of Figure 9.5 9-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 at t = 0 + where RC = 50 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 . Example 9.15.= ---------------.15.Chapter 9 Natural Response Circuit at t = 0 + i (t) 50 KΩ + − 10 µF vC ( t ) Figure 9.14.5 )t = 50e and V0 + 50 V i ( 0 ) = ----. hence. the voltage across the resistor must be the same at t = 0 and at t = 0 . v 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c.

we get 60 KΩ 1 − − i 10 ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.= 2 mA 6 KΩ + 60 KΩ || 60 KΩ 6 KΩ + 30 KΩ and using the current division expression.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Solution: a. Circuit for Example 9. At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open and the circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.16. Circuit for Example 9.16.5 at t = 0 − From the circuit of Figure 9. the 72 V source and the 6 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. Circuit at t = 0 6 KΩ 30 KΩ − − 20 KΩ iT ( t ) + 60 KΩ + − 72 V v 60 ( t ) v C ( t ) − − + + 10 KΩ i 10 ( t ) v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9. v C ( 0 ) = ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) ⋅ i 10 ( 0 ) = 30 V − − and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 30 V At t = 0 . Circuit at t = 0 30 KΩ + + 20 KΩ + v 60 ( t ) − 40 ----.µF 9 60 KΩ + − + vC ( t ) 10 KΩ v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9.× 2 = 1 mA 60 KΩ + 60 KΩ 2 Then.= -----------------------------------.17.16. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = ----------------------------------------------------------.17.5 at t = 0 + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 .

11).5 × 10 × ----.( 30e ) 3 = 20e t = 100 ms –1 = 7.35 V Example 9.1 9 and v C ( t ) = 30e – ( 1 ⁄ 0.⋅ v C ( t ) 30 KΩ + 60 KΩ t = 100 ms or v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms – 10t 2 = -.× 10 = 0. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ R eq C ) t where R eq = ( 60 KΩ + 30 KΩ ) || ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) = 22.36 V c.5 KΩ Then.⋅ v C ( t ) 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ t = 200 ms or v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 1 – 10t = -.6 9-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .18. What would then the energy in the capacitor be after two time constants? C + − 10 µF vC ( t ) R Figure 9. v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms 60 KΩ = --------------------------------------. v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 10 KΩ = --------------------------------------. 3 40 –6 R eq C = 22. it is known that v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 25 V . a.1 )t = 30e – 10t b. To what value should the resistor R be adjusted so that the initial rate of change would be – 200 V ⁄ s ? b.18. Circuit for Example 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response From (9.6 For the circuit of Figure 9.( 30e ) 3 = 10e t = 200 ms –2 = 1.

5 KΩ b.Summary Solution: a. if the initial rate (slope) is to be – 200 V ⁄ s .8% of its initial value. then dv C -------dt – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t 100000 = ⎛ – ----------------.2 µJ 2 9. The capacitor voltage decays exponentially as vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and with the given values. after approximately 5 time constants. v C ( t ) = 25e – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t Now. that is. the energy after two time constants will be WC t = 2τ –6 2 1 2 = -.38 V Therefore.38 = 57. and its value is τ = L ⁄ R • In one time constant the natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit has dropped to approximately 36.3 Summary • The natural response of the inductor current i L ( t ) in a simple RL circuit has the form iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 denotes the value of the current in the inductor at t = 0 • In a simple RL circuit the time constant τ is the time required for i L ( t ) ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. • The initial condition I 0 can be established from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and thus i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) − + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 .⎞ 25e ⎝ ⎠ R t=0 t=0 2.Cv C = 5 × 10 × 3.= – 200 R 6 and solving for R we get R = 12. After two time constants the capacitor voltage will drop to the value of v C ( 2 τ ) = 25e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )2τ = 25e – ( 2RC ⁄ RC ) = 25e –2 = 3.5 × 10 = – --------------------. it decays to zero. • The natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit reaches its final value.

• The initial condition V 0 can be established from the fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously and thus v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) − + 9-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is.Chapter 9 Natural Response • The natural response of the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) in a simple RC circuit has the form vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t where V 0 denotes the value of the voltage across the capacitor at t = 0 • In a simple RC circuit the time constant τ is the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. • The natural response of capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit reaches its final value.8% of its initial value. and its value is τ = RC • In one time constant the natural response of the capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit has dropped to approximately 36. it decays to zero after approximately 5 time constants.

2e D. 2e – 100t – 50t A A C. Circuit for Question 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 . the reciprocal of second. In the circuit of Figure 9. the microsecond E. s E. none of the above 2. the second B.e.e. In a simple RC circuit the unit of the term 1 ⁄ RC is A.19. At t = 0 . The current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is –1 –1 τ is A.. i.Exercises 9. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes.. the millisecond C. In a simple RL circuit the unit of the time constant A. e – 50t A E. the millisecond D. dimensionless B. the reciprocal of second. the microsecond D. s C. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9. none of the above 3. 2 A B.19 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.4 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. i.

Circuit for Question 4 5.2 w E. 10e – 0. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9.1t V E.21. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes.21 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.20. 0 w B. In the circuit of Figure 9. The power absorbed by the inductor at t = +∞ will be A. 10 V B. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. The voltage v C ( t ) for all t > 0 is A. 10e V D. Circuit for Question 5 9-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .20 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. 1 w C. 10e – 10t –t V C. 2 w D. At t = 0 . none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response 4. At t = 0 . In the circuit of Figure 9. 0.

22 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.01 µs E. 10 mw E.22. 0 w B. 100 s C. Circuit for Question 6 7. none of the above 9. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. In a simple RL circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true τ is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 . The power absorbed by the capacitor at t = +∞ will be A.Exercises 6. 100 s B. At t = 0 . 5 w D. 10 12 τ is s s D. 10 w C. In a simple RL circuit where R = 10 MΩ and L = 10 µH the time constant A. none of the above 8. In the circuit of Figure 9. 10 – 12 E. 0. 100 µs D.01 s C. In a simple RC circuit where R = 10 MΩ and C = 10 µF the time constant A. 1 s B. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9. 0.

v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) E. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) D. Compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms 9-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . at t = 0 switch S 1 opens while S 2 closes.24. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) C. Problems 1. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) D. In the circuit of Figure 9.23.23. Compute the current i S2 ( t ) through switch S 2 for t > 0 3Ω t = 0 S1 − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + 8Ω 5Ω i S2 ( t ) + − 15 V 6Ω 10 Ω t = 0 S2 2. In the circuit of Figure 9.5 mH Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Then. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) C. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) E. 10. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) B. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time and both are opened at t = 0 . none of the above. In a simple RC circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true A. switch S 1 has been closed for a long time and switch S 2 has been open for a long time. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) B.Chapter 9 Natural Response A. none of the above.

At t = 0 S 1 and S 2 are opened and S 3 is closed. Compute the current i L ( t ) for t > 0 . while switch S 3 has been open for a long time. switch S 1 has been closed and S 2 has been open for a long time. In a series RL circuit.25. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time. In the circuit of Figure 9. 10 KΩ 1 KΩ S1 3 mH t = 0 t = 0 S2 2 KΩ − + + − v in1 t = 0 S3 iL ( t ) + 5 KΩ 10 mV + v in2 v out − 10 KΩ − 20 mV Figure 9.2e – 2000t V and the current i L at t = 0 is i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA .26.24. Circuit for Problem 2 3.25. In the circuit of Figure 9. At t = 0 switch S 1 is opened and S 2 is closed.Exercises 12 V 2Ω S2 t = 0 8Ω 16 Ω S1 t = 0 + − 6Ω iL ( t ) 10 ⁄ 3 mH 12 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V 4Ω Figure 9. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-23 . 4. Circuit for Problem 4 5. Compute the voltage v C2 ( t ) for t > 0 . the voltage v L across the inductor is v L = 0. Compute the values of R and L for that circuit.

Circuit for Problem 6 7. In the circuit of Figure 9. switch S has been open for a long time and closes at t = 0 . 2 KΩ A t = 0 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ S B 4 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 24 V 8 KΩ Figure 9.27.27. Compute i SW ( t ) for t > 0 100 Ω 6 mH S 10 µF t = 0 6Ω + 36 V − 3Ω i SW ( t ) Figure 9. Compute the voltage v C ( t ) across the capacitor for t > 0 .Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ S1 S2 t = 0 + − 12 V v C1 ( t ) + 6 µF t = 0 + − − v C2 ( t ) 3 µF 10 KΩ 50 KΩ Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 7 9-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . In the circuit of Figure 9.28. Circuit for Problem 5 6.26. switch S has been in the A position for a long time and at t = 0 is thrown in the B position. and the energy stored in the capacitor at t = 1 ms .28.

The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.+ 8 = 10 Ω and attaching the rest of the circuit 3+6 3+6 to it we get the circuit below. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-25 . E τ = L ⁄ R = [ volt ⁄ ( ampere ⁄ sec ond ) ] ⁄ [ volt ⁄ ampere ] = sec ond ( s ) 2. 3Ω 8Ω 6Ω 15 V × x 10 Ω y × 5Ω iL ( 0 ) − − + − Replacing the circuit above with its Thevenin equivalent to the left of points x and y we find 6 3×6 that v TH = ----------. A 6. A 7. B 3. D 10. C 5.Answers to Exercises 9. D 8.⋅ 15 = 10 V and R TH = ----------. 10 Ω v TH 10 V R TH 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) − + − 5Ω By voltage-source to current-source transformation we get the circuit below. D 4. C Problems 1. B 9.5 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.

5 mH + + We observe that the closed shorts out the 6 Ω and 8 Ω resistors and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.5 A − + The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. i L ( 0 ) = 0.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 Ω 10 Ω − 1A − 5Ω 5Ω iL ( 0 ) and by inspection. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the mesh equations are 20i 1 – 4i 3 = 24 16i 2 – 6i 3 – 8i 4 = – 12 – 4i 1 – 6i 2 + 20i 3 – 10i 4 = 0 8i 2 – 10i 3 + 30i 4 = 0 Then. that is. the initial condition has been established as i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.5 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 5 ⁄ 2.5 A 2.5e – 2000t A 2.5 A . i L ( 0 ) = i 3 – i 4 − 9-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 × 10 )t –3 + Thus for t > 0 .5e = – 0.5 A 2. 5Ω i S2 ( t ) i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0. 8Ω 6Ω i S2 ( t ) 5Ω Closed Switch i L ( 0 ) = 0. i S2 ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – I 0 e − = – 0.

.mH 3 Thus for t > 0 . I(1)). 0 −8 −10 30].2f A \t'.36 A iL0 = 0. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 0.2f A \t'. 0 16 −6 −8.10 A Therefore..26 A i4 = -0.1e – 5000t A and iL t = 0... fprintf(' \n').2f A \t'. fprintf('i2 = %4. I=R\V..Answers to Exercises 12 V 16 Ω 2Ω i2 6Ω + − iL ( 0 ) − 8Ω + − 24 V 4Ω i1 i3 10 Ω 12 Ω i4 and with MATLAB R=[20 0 −4 0.2f A \t'.. I(4)). fprintf(' \n'). fprintf('i1 = %4.1 A Shown below is the circuit at t = 0 and the steps of simplification. i1 = 1.. 20/3 Ω iL ( 0 ) 12 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω + + − + 6Ω 4Ω iL ( 0 ) 10 Ω + 8Ω 10 ----. V=[24 −12 0 0]'.03 A i3 = -0. I(3)−I(4)).4 ms = 0. fprintf(' \n')...7 mA Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 . i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0..1e –2 = 0.15 A i2 = -1. fprintf('iL0 = %4. I(2)).mH 3 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) 20/3 Ω + 10 ----. fprintf('i4 = %4.0137 A = 13. fprintf('i3 = %4. iL0=I(3)-I(4).2f A \t'.mH 3 10 ----... −4 −6 20 −10. I(3)).

.9 x 10 1 -3 3.⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ that was developed in Example 4.7 0..8 0.. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and using the relation ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------.4 0.2 0.01: 1)*10^(−3). 5 0.4 0..2e + − – 2000t for t > 0 + L − vL iL R and with i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA .*10.2 0 0 0.1.8 0.iLt). from R ⁄ L = 2000 . From the figure below v L = Ri L = 0. t=(0: 0.6 0.^(−3).2 = 20 Ω Also.Chapter 9 Natural Response To compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms we use MATLAB as shown below.6 0. iLt=0.*t).01 = 10 mH − 4..2e or R = 0.*exp(−5000. plot(t.1 0. grid x 10 -4 1 0.11 we have 9-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..3 0.2 ⁄ 10 –2 –3 –0 = 0. by substitution R ( 10 × 10 ) = 0.+ --------. L = 20 ⁄ 2000 = 0.

2V − 3 mH − 15 KΩ + Then for t > 0 iL ( t ) = I0 e ( R ⁄ L )t + i ( 0+ ) L + = 40 × 10 e – 6 ( 15 × 10 ⁄ 3 × 10 )t 3 –3 = 40e – 5 × 10 t 6 µA with the direction shown. when a circuit is excited by a constant (DC) source.+ ------------------. + 3 mH − + + + iL ( 0 ) 10 KΩ 5 KΩ − 0.Answers to Exercises 10 KΩ 1 KΩ − + v in1 iL + − 10 mV 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ v in2 v out − + − 20 mV –2 2 × 10 10 v out = – 10 KΩ ⎛ ------------.2 V ⎝ 1 KΩ 2 KΩ ⎠ –2 –2 and − –6 --------------i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = i 5 KΩ = – 0. As we’ve learned in Chapter 5. − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 . 5.⎞ = – 10 × 2 × 10 = – 0. after sufficient time has elapsed the capacitor behaves as an open and thus the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is 12 V as shown.2 V = – 40 × 10 A = – 40 µA 5 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 40 µA with the direction shown. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.

+ + 9-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6 KΩ − v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = v 6KΩ = --------------------------------.= 2 µF C1 + C2 6+3 –6 – 10t Then. 12 V + − + v C1 C1 6 µF – ( 1 ⁄ RC eq ) + − 3 µF 50 KΩ + − v C2 ( t ) C2 Now. 1 ⁄ RCeq = 1 ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 2 × 10 ) = 10 and thus v C2 ( t ) = 12e 6.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ + − 12 V 10 KΩ C1 6 µF + − v C1 ( 0 ) = 12V − The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where the 12 V represents the voltage across capacitor C1 .× 24 = 12 V 6 KΩ + 6 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 12 V .= ----------. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 2 KΩ 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ 24 V − 4 + − + − vC ( 0 ) − Then. v C2 ( t ) = v C1 e C1 ⋅ C2 6×3 where v C1 = 12 V and C eq = -----------------.

Cv C ( t ) 2 × 144e – 20t t = 1 ms = 360 × 10 e − = 0.35 mJ 7. 6Ω − 100 Ω + + 36 V − 3Ω iL ( 0 ) vC ( 0 ) − − 36 V Then.5 × 5 × 10 1 ms – 6 – 20t t = 1 ms –6 = 12e – 10t . R eq C = 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 WC 1 ms 4 –6 = 0.1 . The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.+ 16 = 4 + 16 = 20 KΩ 12 + 6 and the circuit for t > 0 reduces to the one shown below. 1 2 = -.Answers to Exercises 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 8 KΩ 6 KΩ + − vC ( 0 ) + Series and parallel resistances reduction yields 12 × 6 R eq = [ ( 8 KΩ + 4 KΩ ) || 6 KΩ ] + 16 KΩ = -------------. 1 ⁄ R eq C = 10 and v C ( t ) = V 0 e = 0. i L ( 0 ) = ----------------------. Also. 5 µF 20 KΩ + − vC ( t ) – 10t Now.= 4 A and v C ( 0 ) = 3 × i L ( 0 ) = 3 × 4 = 12 V − − − (6 + 3) Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-31 .

Chapter 9 Natural Response The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the current i SW ( t ) through the switch is the sum of the currents due to the 36 V voltage source. 100 Ω 10 µF + + + 6Ω + 36 V − + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH + − i SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + 3Ω We will apply superposition three times. With the i L ( 0 ) = 4 A current source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω and 100 Ω resistors are shorted out and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) where iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t + . Thus for t > 0 : I. R ⁄ L = 3 ⁄ ( 6 × 10 ) = 500 and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – 4e – 500t –3 9-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . due to i L ( 0 ) = 4 A . L = 6 mH . we have i' SW ( t ) = 36 ⁄ 6 = 6 A II. I 0 = 4 A . the circuit is as shown below. R = 3 Ω . With the 36 V voltage source acting alone where i L = 0 (open) and v C = 0 (shorted). 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 + 36 V − 3Ω 6 mH i' SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 Since the 100 Ω is shorted out. and due to v C ( 0 ) = 12 V .

12e – 1000t A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 . With the v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 12 V voltage source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω resistor is shorted out. + 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 6 mH 3Ω i''' SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + and thus vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t = 12e – [ 1 ⁄ ( 100 × 10 ) ]t –5 = 12e – 1000t – 1000t . Then. i''' SW ( t ) = v C ( t ) ⁄ 100 Ω = 0.12e Therefore. the total current through the closed switch for t > 0 is i SW ( t ) = i' SW ( t ) + i'' SW ( t ) + i''' SW ( t ) = 6 – 4e – 500t + 0.Answers to Exercises 6Ω 100 Ω + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH i SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 V 3Ω III.

Chapter 9 Natural Response NOTES 9-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

and its response to that excitation is analyzed. its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 10. without the subscript 0. that is. 10. 1 u0 ( t – t0 ) t0 t 0 ⎧0 u0 ( t – t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < t0 t > t0 Figure 10. In this text we will reserve this designation for any input.1. Waveform for u 0 ( t ) u0 ( t ) In the waveform of Figure 10.The term “forced” here implies that the circuit is excited by a voltage or current source. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t – t 0 ) * In some books. the unit step function u 0 ( t ) changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = 0 .that is.1) It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 10.2.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits T his chapter discusses the forced response of electric circuits.1.1 The Unit Step Function u 0 ( t ) A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity.1. if the function jumps from one value to another without taking on any intermediate values. the unit step function is denoted as u ( t ) . Then. But if it changes at t = t 0 instead. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 . A well-known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * that is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 (10.2. 1 0 Figure 10. the forced response is added to the natural response to form the total response.

4. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t + t 0 ) Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 10. t (a) –A u0 ( t ) Au 0 ( – t ) Au 0 ( – t + T ) Τ 0 −A –A u0 ( t – T ) (b) −A 0 −A t −Τ 0 (c) –A u0 ( t + T ) t A A 0 Τ Τ 0 −A (h) (e) Au 0 ( – t – T ) A 0 (d) t t −Τ 0 (f) t 0 −A –A u0 ( –t ) (g) t t −Τ 0 −A (i) t –A u0 ( – t + T ) –A u0 ( – t – T ) Figure 10.5.5.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Likewise.3. Other forms of the unit step function Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions such as the rectangular pulse shown in Figure 10. it is denoted as u 0 ( t + t 0 ) 1 −t0 0 u0 ( t + t0 ) t ⎧0 u0 ( t + t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < –t0 t > –t0 Figure 10.3. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions 10-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . if the unit step function changes from 0 to 1 at t = – t 0 as shown in Figure 10. 1 u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – 1 ) 1 u0 ( t ) 0 t 0 t 1 0 t –u0 ( t – 1 ) Figure 10. This pulse is represented as u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) .4.

3) Line segment expressed as has height A . Then. starts at t = 2T . starts at t = 3T . it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions.6 as a sum of unit step functions. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. and terminates at t = 2T .2) through (10. can be denoted as 24u 0 ( t ) V . or triangular. or any other recurring pulse. as in Figure 10. and so on. This segment can be v 3 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] (10.5) Thus. v(t) A T 2T 3T 0 −A t Figure 10. and terminates at t = 3T . starts at t = T . a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 . can be described as v ( t ) = ( V m cos ωt )u 0 ( t – t 0 ) V . and terminates at t = T on the time axis. or sawtooth. on the time axis.2) The line segment has height – A . Also. starts at t = 0 .3 . Example 10.The Unit Step Function The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. if the excitation in a circuit is a rectangular.5.6. 2T. Square waveform for Example 10.6 can be expressed as the summation of (10. This segment can be expressed as v 2 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] (10. this segment can be expressed as v1 ( t ) = A [ u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – T ) ] (10. This segment can be v 4 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.4) Line segment expressed as has height – A . a sinusoidal voltage source v ( t ) = V m cos ωt V that is applied to a circuit at t = t 0 .5). that is.1 Express the square waveform of Figure 10.1 Solution: The line segment has height A . 3T . The vertical dotted lines indicate the discontinuities at T. For example. the square waveform of Figure 10. Likewise. and terminates at t = 4T .

2 Solution: This pulse has height A . Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 10.3 and 10. it starts at t = – T ⁄ 2 .4 (b).3 Express the symmetric triangular waveform shown in Figure 10.3 Solution: As a first step.7.8.7 as a sum of unit step functions. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 10.6) Combining like terms. and terminates at t = T ⁄ 2 . 1 v(t) −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10.8) Example 10. i(t) A −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10. 10-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we derive the equations of the linear segments and shown in Figure 10.2 Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 10. with reference to Figures 10. we get v ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – 2u 0 ( t – T ) + 2u 0 ( t – 2T ) – 2u 0 ( t – 3T ) + … ] (10. Therefore. we get ----i ( t ) = Au 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – Au 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ = A u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ (10.8 as a sum of unit step functions.7) Example 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) + v3 ( t ) + v4 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] +A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.9.

9) and for line segment .9) and (10. Waveform for Example 10.11) Example 10. we first find the equations of the linear segments Figure 10.4 Express the waveform shown in Figure 10. 2 -v 2 ( t ) = ⎛ – -.9.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + -. 2 -v 1 ( t ) = ⎛ -.10.⎞ – u 0 ( t ) + ⎛ – -. and shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – -.5 . Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10.4 Solution: As in the previous example.t + 1 T T/2 0 t Figure 10.The Unit Step Function v(t) 1 2 -.t + 1 T −T/2 2 – -.10 as a sum of unit step functions.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ( t ) ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝T ⎠ (10.⎞ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10. v(t) 3 2 1 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10. we get v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) 2 T 2 T = ⎛ -.10).11.8 For line segment .10) Combining (10.

denoted as u 1 ( t ) . we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + 3 [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( – t + 3 ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets.2 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 ( t ) The unit ramp function. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – 2 ( t – 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) – t u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( t – 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) (10.13) where τ is a dummy variable. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 3u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 3u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) or v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) + [ – ( 2t + 1 ) + 3 ]u 0 ( t – 1 ) + [ – 3 + ( – t + 3 ) ]u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) and combining terms inside the brackets. We will discuss the unit ramp function first. 10-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10. is defined as u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t (10.10 Following the same procedure as in the previous examples.12) Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function and the unit impulse or delta function. 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v(t) 3 2 2t + 1 1 –t+3 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10.

then u 0 ( t ) must be the derivative of u 1 ( t ) .7 .u n ( t ) n dt (10.u 1 ( t ) = u 0 ( t ) dt (10.15) Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function.---. For example. integrating u 0 ( t ) twice and multiplying by 2 .12.e.13) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 ( t ) from – ∞ to t as shown in Figure 10. ⎧0 u3 ( t ) = ⎨ 3 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u3 ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u 2 ( τ ) d τ t (10. Area under the unit step function from – ∞ to t Therefore. ⎧0 un ( t ) = ⎨ n ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or un ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u n – 1 ( τ ) d τ (10. 1 Area = 1τ = τ = t τ t Figure 10.17) and in general. i.The Unit Ramp Function We can evaluate the integral of (10.14) and since u 1 ( t ) is the integral of u 0 ( t ) .. 1d . d ---.19) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t t<0 t≥0 (10. we define u 2 ( t ) as ⎧0 u2 ( t ) = ⎨ 2 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u2 ( t ) = 2 ∫– ∞ u 1 ( τ ) d τ t t (10.u n – 1 ( t ) = -.18) Also.12.16) Similarly.

13 (b) is the derivative of Figure 10. The study of discrete-time systems is based on this property.3 The Delta Function δ ( t ) The unit impulse or delta function.22) or f ( t )δ ( t – a ) = f ( a )δ ( t ) (10. 10-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and area equal to 1 .13. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . with unbounded amplitude.20) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 (10. The function of Figure 10.13 (a). Representation of the unit step as a limit. 1 ⁄ 2 ε becomes unbounded.13 (a) becomes the unit step as ε → 0 .21) To better understand the delta function δ ( t ) . Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property.13 (a). where we see that as ε → 0 . The Sampling Property of the Delta Function states that f ( t )δ ( t ) = f ( 0 )δ ( t ) (10. in the limit. 1 −ε Area =1 −ε 0 ε 0 Figure (a) ε t 1 2ε Figure (b) t Figure 10. Figure 10. zero width.23) that is. let us represent the unit step u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. It is generally defined as ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ where t = u0 ( t ) (10. but the area of the rectangle remains 1 . multiplication of any function f ( t ) by the delta function δ ( t ) results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10. Therefore. denoted as δ ( t ) . we can think of δ ( t ) as approaching a very large spike or impulse at the origin.

The proofs of (10. The unit step u 0 ( t ) is called Heavyside(t) and the delta function δ ( t ) is called Dirac(t).24) that is. t = 5 s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.24) and additional properties of the delta function are beyond the scope of this book.5 s b. Shown below are examples of how they are being used. t = – 0. Compute v out at: a.5 s c. These are designated by the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work.The Delta Function The Sifting Property of the Delta Function states that ∫–∞ f ( t )δ ( t – α ) dt ∞ = f(α ) (10. They are provided in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. syms k a t u=k*sym('Heaviside(t-a)') % Create unit step function at t=a u = k*Heaviside(t-a) d=diff(u) % Compute the derivative of the unit step function d = k*Dirac(t-a) int(d) % Integrate the delta function ans = Heaviside(t-a)*k Example 10. if we multiply any function f ( t ) by δ ( t – α ) and integrate from −∞ to +∞. Orchard Publications 2001. t = 1.9 . we will obtain the value of f ( t ) evaluated at t – α . the inputs are applied at different times as indicated.5 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. ISBN 09709511-3-2 by this author. MATLAB has two built-in functions for the unit step and the delta functions.14.22) through (10.

10-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V 0 1 2 3 u0 ( t – 3 ) t(s) v in 2 = 0.15. the input circuit becomes as shown in Figure 10.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0. exchanging the current source and its parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 3 KΩ 50 KΩ − Rf + − + 6 KΩ + v in 1 + v in 2 − 5 KΩ v out − i in Figure 10.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 0 1 u0 ( t – 1 ) t(s) [ u0 ( t + 1 ) + u0 ( t – 2 ) ] −1 0 1 2 t(s) a.5 s only the signal due to i in is active.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V v in 2 = 0.5 Solution: Let us first sketch the step functions for each of the inputs.14. v in 1 = 0. At t = – 0. therefore.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 1 = 0. Circuit for Example 10.

10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf − 50 K Ω + − −0.17.17. Circuit for computation of v out 1 50 v out 1 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH1 = – 35 × ( – 0.11 . we get the network of Figure 10.7 V Figure 10. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.16.15 with its Thevenin equivalent. At t = 1.25) b.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.7 V 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 2 KΩ v TH1 = V 2 KΩ = ---------------------------------.2 V v TH1 + + v out 1 − Figure 10.7 ) = – 0.16. Input to the circuit of Example 10.2 V 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ 2 KΩ × 5 KΩ R TH1 = ---------------------------------.The Delta Function To op amp’s inverting input 5 KΩ 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − + −0.2 mV ) = 7 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ (10.( – 0. 3 KΩ 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ 5 KΩ 2 KΩ −0.2 V Figure 10.5 when i in is acting alone Replacing the circuit of Figure 10.15.5 when i in is acting alone Now. we can compute v out 1 with the circuit of Figure 10.5 s the active inputs are i in = 0.= 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 7 KΩ + − + v TH1 − −0.

the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10. To op amp’s inverting input 6 KΩ 3 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0.5 ) = ----. Thus.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 2 = 0.18. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10. with the input v in 2 acting alone.V 42 + v out 2 − + Figure 10.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to i in acting alone.( 0.18.5 V − ----5 42 V Figure 10.20.20. 3 KΩ 5 K Ω = 15 ⁄ 8 K Ω 15 ⁄ 8 5 6 KΩ 15/8 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH2 = v ( 15 ⁄ 8 ) KΩ = --------------------.5 V Figure 10. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH2 − 5----. we can compute v out 2 with the circuit of Figure 10.19. we get the network of Figure 10. Circuit for computation of v out 2 10-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 when v in 2 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10.19. Input to the circuit of Example 10.V 15 ⁄ 8 + 6 42 R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0.18 with its Thevenin equivalent. we will find the output due to v in 2 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Now.

13 . At t = 5 s the active inputs are v in 1 = 0.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10.8 V Figure 10. Thus.⎞ = – 25 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ ⎝ 42 ⎠ 6 (10.The Delta Function 50 5----v out 2 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH2 = – 35 × ⎛ ----. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10. we can compute v out 3 with the circuit of Figure 10.5 s is 17 v out 1 + v out 2 = 7 – 25 = ----.21 with its Thevenin equivalent.26) Therefore.22. we will find the output due to v in 1 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.8 ) = ----. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.22.( 0.26) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 1. Input to the circuit of Example 10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.21.23.V 30 ⁄ 11 + 3 21 R TH 3 = R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0. To op amp’s inverting input 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. we get the network of Figure 10.27) c.21.V ----6 6 (10.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V and v in 2 = 0. 6 KΩ 5 K Ω = 30 ⁄ 11 kΩ 30 ⁄ 11 10 3 KΩ 30 /11 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH3 = v ( 30 ⁄ 11 ) KΩ = -----------------------. with the input v in 1 acting alone.25) and (10.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Now.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to v in 2 acting alone.8 V − 10 ----21 V Figure 10. from (10.

26) and (10.23.+ Ri = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10.V 6 3 6 (10.= – -------. di L ---.24 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH3 − 10 ----21 V + v out 3 − + Figure 10.24 (a). Here.29) 10.– ----.24. that is.⎞ = – ----.30) 10-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The switch in Figure 10. from (10. Circuit for computation of v out 3 10 50 50 v out 3 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH3 = – 35 × ⎛ ----. V S is constant.4 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10. the inductor current i L ( t ) will be referred to as the total response.V ⎝ 21 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ 3 (10. We will derive an expression for the inductor current i L ( t ) = i ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is i L ( 0 ) = 0 . R − t = 0 R + VS − i(t) (a) L + VS u0 ( t ) − i(t) (b) L Figure 10. Circuits for derivation of the total response i L ( t ) = i ( t ) We start by applying KVL.24 (b).28) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 5 s is 25 50 125 v out 2 + v out 3 = – ----.28) Therefore.

The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The initial condition states that i L ( 0 ) = 0 . we get L L – -.ln V S R R or L – -. Thus.ln ( V S – 0 ) = 0 + k R or L k = – -. at t = 0 + L – -.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t + k R Ldi (10.32) represents the constant of integration of both sides and it can be evaluated from the initial condition.33) Therefore.= V S – Ri dt or Ldi ---------------. separating the variables. we must solve the differential equation di L ---. we get L – -.+ Ri = V S dt − (10. i ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 . thus for t < 0 . rearranging (10. and integrating we get: di L ---.= ∫ dt V S – Ri and referring to a table of integrals.32) The constant k in (10.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t – -.31) It is shown in differential equations textbooks that a differential equation such as the above.15 .32).32).[ ln ( V S – Ri ) – ln V S ] = t R or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.ln V S R and by substitution into (10.= dt V S – Ri or ∫ ----------------. can be solved by the method of separation of the variables. and as we stated in the previous chapter iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + (10.

t L VS or V S – Ri –( R ⁄ L ) t ----------------.– ----.e u (t) ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10. This value represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit. 10-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .ln ---------------.e R R The general expression for all t is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ i ( t ) = ⎛ ----. The amplitude of the natural response is – V S ⁄ R and depends on the values of V S and R .34) consists of two terms. i ( t ) total = i ( t ) or i total = i f + i n (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits V S – Ri L – -. and the exponential term – ----.34) We observe that the right side of (10.35) forced response + i ( t ) natural response Now.– ----.35).24 to find the complete (total) response i total by the summation of the forced and the natural responses as indicated in (10.= – -.= e VS or Ri = V S – V S e –( R ⁄ L ) t or VS VS –( R ⁄ L ) t i ( t ) = ----. that is.e – ( R ⁄ L )t that has the same form as that of the previous V R chapter which we call the natural response. The forced response V S ⁄ R is a result of the application of the excitation (forcing) function V S u 0 ( t ) applied to the RL circuit. let us return to the RL circuit of Figure 10. V S ⁄ R which is constant called the S forced response.= t R VS or V S – Ri R ln ---------------. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response or com- plete response.

+ Ae R or VS A = – ----R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. we need to find the natural response.36) Next. Circuit for derivation of the natural response i n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response i n has the exponential form i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t (10. R VS u0 ( t ) = 0 in L Figure 10. the total response is VS – ( R ⁄ L )t i total = i f + i n = ----. This is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in the circuit of Figure 10.+ Ae R (10. VS i f = ----R (10. from the circuit of Figure 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The forced response i f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.26.26.38) yields VS 0 i ( 0 ) = 0 = ----.25 where we let t → ∞ R − VS u0 ( t ) Short Circuit as t → ∞ + if L Figure 10.25. Circuit for derivation of the forced response i f Then.38) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) Substitution of the initial condition into (10.25.37) Therefore.17 .

Exponential Rise in RL Circuit 1.27. This is V R V R done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.6 -0.27.τ L R or τ = -L R 10-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .e separately and then add these. VS i ( t ) = ----R and thus VS VS ----. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and L as follows: The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ L is found from d---. at t = τ .0 0.34).38) is rewritten as V S V S – ( R ⁄ L )t ⎞ u (t) .8 -1.⋅ ----.2 -0.632VS / R i(t) = VS / R −(VS/ R) e−Rt / L Time Constants −(VS / R) e−Rt / L Percent VS / R 0.6 VS / R i(t) = (VS / L) t 0.= -.0 -0.4 0. and total responses in a series RL circuit The time constant τ is defined as before.= ----. Curves for forced.27.( i total ) dt R V S –( R ⁄ L ) t .and – ----. S S –( R ⁄ L ) t We can sketch i total easily if we sketch ----.39) and this is the same as (10.e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10.i total = ⎛ ----.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with this substitution (10.4 -0.0 τ Figure 10.e L R VS = ----L t=0 t=0 Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10. natural.– ----.8 0.2 0.

6 For the circuit of Figure 10. from (10. compute the energy stored in the 10 mH inductor at t = 100 ms . in one time constant has reached 63. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10.– ----.632 ----R (10. Example 10. Circuit of Example 10.( 1 – 0.= ----.40) Therefore. Circuit for Example 10. Also.28.29 where the 3 Ω resistor is shorted out by the inductor.29.368 ) i ( τ ) = ----.6 for t < 0 From the circuit of Figure 10.6 Solution: For t < 0 .The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit as before.e R R R R or VS i ( τ ) = 0.28.( 1 – e ) = ----.41) 10.39) VS V S V S –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) VS –1 .19 .2% of its final value. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10. the current in a series RL circuit which has been excited by a constant source. − ----i L ( 0 ) = 12 = 2 A 6 and this value establishes our initial condition as iL ( 0 ) = 2 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + (10.29. 6Ω + − 12 V iL ( t ) Figure 10.

the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.31. Circuit of Example 10.32.6 for determining the natural response The natural response of RL circuit of Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits For t > 0 . 6Ω 10 mH 3 Ω || 6 Ω = 2 Ω in 3Ω in 10 mH 2Ω Figure 10. It is shown in Figure 10.6 under steady-state conditions By inspection.30.31 where the voltage source and its series resistance have been exchanged for an equivalent current source with a parallel resistor.42) To find i n we short the voltage source and open the current source. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 10. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5A Figure 10. 2A 10 mH 5A if Figure 10.30.6 for t > 0 We will find i L ( t ) from the relation iL ( t ) = if + in The forced component i f is found from the circuit at steady state conditions.32 is i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t = Ae – ( 2 ⁄ 10 × 10 )t –3 10-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i f = 2 – 5 or if = –3 A (10.32. The resistors have been shorted out by the inductor. Circuit of Example 10. Circuit of Example 10.

Here.Li L = -. i total = i f + i n = – 3 + Ae – 200t (10.5 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10.21 .44) we get i total = ( – 3 + 5e – 200t )u 0 ( t ) (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or i n = Ae – 200t (10. Circuits for derivation of the total response v C ( t ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. We will derive an expression for the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 .10 × 10 ⎛ – 3 + 5e ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 t = 100 ms t = 100 ms = 5 × 10 –3 ( – 3 + 5e – 20 2 ) = 45 mJ –3 2 (10.33.43) The total response is the summation of (10.42). that is.45) and the energy stored in the inductor at t = 100 ms is –3 – 200 × 100 × 10 ⎞ 1 2 1 WL = -.44) Using the initial condition of (10. R − t = 0 C R VS + − + − (t) vC − VS u0 ( t ) (b) + + v (t) − R C + − vC ( t ) (a) Figure 10. the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) will be referred to as the total response. V S is constant.42) and (10.33 (a). we get i L ( 0 ) = 2 = – 3 + Ae + –0 or A = 5 Finally.43).46) 10. by substitution into (10.

that is. we must solve the differential equation dv C RC -------.51).49) Rearranging. v C ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 . we get dv C RC -------.dt RC vC – VS or ∫ ----------------.= – ------. we get: RCdv C = ( V S – v C )dt or dv C 1 ----------------.50) 1 ln ( v C – V S ) = – ------.47). vR + vC = VS u0 ( t ) (10.48) The initial condition states that v C ( 0 ) = 0 . Then.dt vC – VS or dv C 1= – ------. vC – VS = e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t + k = e e k – ( 1 ⁄ ( RC ) ) t = k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 10-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ v C = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10.dt RC ∫ (10.47) and since dv C i = i C = C -------dt we can express v R as dv C v R = Ri = RC ------dt By substitution into (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The switch in Figure 10. separating variables and integrating. We start by applying KVL.33 (b).33 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.t + k RC where k represents the constant of integration of both sides of (10.+ v C = V S dt − (10. thus for t < 0 .

33 to find the complete (total) response by summing the forced and the natural responses indicated in (10. we observe that the solution consists of a forced response and a natural response.51) + The constant k 1 can be evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 where by substitution into (10.49) is vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t )u 0 ( t ) (10. v C ( t ) complete response = v C ( t ) forced response + v C ( t ) natural response or v C total = v C f + v C n (10. The forced response v C f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.23 . the solution of (10..51) we get vC ( 0 ) = 0 = VS – k1 e + 0 or k1 = VS Therefore. let us return to the RC circuit of Figure 10.e. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response. The amplitude of the exponential term natural response is – V S . from the circuit of Figure 10.53) Now.53).34 where we let t → ∞ R + − vCf VS u0 ( t ) Open Circuit as t → ∞ Figure 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or vC = VS – k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t − (10. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.52) As with the RL circuit of the previous section. i. The constant term V S is the voltage attained across the capacitor as t → ∞ and represents the steady-state condition since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit.34. Circuit for derivation of the forced response v C f Then.34.

The time constant τ is defined as before.55) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 Substitution of the initial condition into (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vCf = VS (10.52). This is done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.55) is rewritten as vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t )u 0 ( t ) (10. We can sketch v C total easily if we sketch V S and – V S e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t separately and then add these.55) yields v C ( 0 ) = 0 = V S – Ae + 0 or A = –VS With this substitution (10. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and C as follows: 10-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .35.36.56) and this is the same as (10.54) Next. we need to find the natural response and this is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in Figure 10. R C VS u0 ( t ) = 0 vCn Figure 10.35. Circuit for derivation of the natural response v C n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response v C n has the exponential form v C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and thus the total response is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t (10.

0 VC / V S vC(t) = (VS / RC) t 0. vC ( t ) = VS and thus VS V S = ------. Also.57) Therefore. and total responses in a series RC circuit The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ RC is found from d ---. the voltage across a capacitor in a series RC circuit which has been excited by a constant source. from (10.6 Percent VC / V S 0. in one time constant has reached 63.0 -0.4 -0.368 ) –1 or v C ( τ ) = 0.56) vC ( τ ) = VS –VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )RC = V S ( 1 – e ) = V S ( 1 – 0.36.2 -0.36.25 .v C ( t ) dt – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = ------.⋅ V S e RC t=0 t=0 VS = ------RC Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10.τ RC or τ = RC as before.2% of its final value. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.632VC / V S vC(t) = VS − VS e−t / RC Time Constants −VS e−t / RC τ Figure 10.4 0.632V S (10.0 0. natural.8 0.8 -1. Curves for forced.6 -0.2 0. at t = τ .The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Exponential Rise in RC Circuit 1.

No initial condition is given so we must assume that sufficient time has elapsed for steady-state conditions to exist for all t < 1 s. ) d.7 at t = 1 + 10-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . ) and i C ( t = 10 min.7 Solution: a. i C ( t ) for t > 1 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA iC ( t ) 10 µF + + − − + C − vC ( t ) 10 KΩ 60 KΩ 20 KΩ Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Example 10. Circuit for Example 10. iC ( t ) 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) V + + C 10 µF 10 KΩ 60 KΩ + − 20 KΩ − vC ( t ) Figure 10. the circuit at t = 1 is as shown in Figure 10. We assume time is in seconds since we are not told otherwise. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) b. Circuit for Example 10. Exchanging the current source and the 10 KΩ resistor with a voltage source with a 10 KΩ series resistor. since there is no voltage or current source present to cause current to flow. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) c.38. v C ( t = 10 min.37 find: a. 38. we get vC ( 1 ) = 0 − and iC ( 1 ) = 0 − b. Then.7 For the circuit shown in Figure 10.37.

The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Now. i.⋅ 60 KΩ = 60 V ( 20 + 10 + 60 ) KΩ Also.2 ) t = Ae – 5t (10. Therefore. if it did.58) c.27 . iC ( t ) dv C = C -------. the current path is through the capacitor which at exactly t = 1 acts as a short circuit since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) = 0 . the voltage across the capacitor would change instantaneously. Instead. The time t = 10 min is the essentially the same as t = ∞ . no current flows through the 60 kΩ resistor at t = 1 .. since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) . and as we know. this is a physical impossibility.38.59) We can evaluate the constant A using (10.= 0 t=∞ dt = iC f + iC n d.2 s Therefore.e. the equivalent resistance is R eq = ( 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ ) || 60 KΩ = 20 KΩ or R eq C = 20 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0.59) where i C ( 1 ) = 3 mA = Ae + –5 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.= 3 mA ( 20 + 10 ) KΩ + − + + − + (10. 90 V v C ( t = 10 min ) = v C ( ∞ ) = v 60 KΩ = ---------------------------------------------. i C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ 0. + 90 V i C ( 1 ) = --------------------------------. For t > 1 iC ( t ) t>1 where from part (c) iC f ( ∞ ) = 0 and i C n = Ae –( 1 ⁄ R eq C) t With the voltage source shorted in the circuit of Figure 10. and at this time the capacitor voltage v C ( t = 10 min ) is constant and equal to the voltage across the 60 KΩ resistor.

. with the switch closed for 15 < t closed < 30 µs the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.e. Compute and sketch the voltage across the capacitor for two repetitive cycles.8 In the circuit shown in Figure 10.39. at the end of the first period when the switch is open.445e – 5t u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits A = 3 × 10 .61) Next.445 ------------------e–5 –3 and by substitution into (10.8 with the switch in the open position For the time period 0 < t open < 15 µs the time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.02 µF Figure 10.40. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω C + + − vC ( t ) − 6V Switch open 0.60) Example 10. Initially.= 0.59).39. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω 350 Ω 6V 0. the switch is actually an electronic switch and it is open for 15 µs and closed for 15 µs . 10-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .71 V (10. Circuit for Example 10.40. the capacitor is discharged. i. Circuit for Example 10.25 KΩ ) × 0. v C ( 0 ) = 0 .40 is τ open = R eq C = ( 1 KΩ + 0.6 = 2.02 µF + C + − (t) vC − Figure 10.41. iC ( t ) t>1 = i C f + i C n = i C n = 0. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = vC f + vC n = VS – VS e – t ⁄ RC = 6 – 6e – 4 × 10 t 4 = 6 – 6e – 0.02 × 10 –6 = 25 µs Thus.8 Solution: With the switch in the open position the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.

56 V 0.29 . we get the circuit shown in Figure 10.42.15 or and by substitution into (10.62) vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 1. is τ closed = R eq C = ( 259 Ω + 250 Ω ) × 0. Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 10.2 ) ( 15 – 15 ) Then.02 × 10 –6 = 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit × VS 1 KΩ x 250 Ω + − 6V Switch closed 350 Ω C + − (t) vC 0.× 6 = 1.56 + 1.41 The time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.71 V – ( 1 ⁄ 10.02 µF v C ( t ) Figure 10.62) and the constant A 1 is evaluated from initial condition at t = 15 µs which by (10.02 µF × y Figure 10.63) At the end of the first period when the switch is closed.42.56 + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10. Circuit for Example 10. VTH RTH 259 Ω 250 Ω C + + − 350V TH = ----------.2 µs The capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 10.8 with the switch in the closed position Replacing the circuit to the left of points x and y by its Thevenin equivalent.41.71 = 1.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.42 where the switch is closed.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 V 1350 350 × 1000 R TH = -------------------------.42 is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 15 ) = 1.62) is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = 2. vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 2.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10. the voltage across the capacitor is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.56 + A 1 e A 1 = 1.= 259 Ω 1350 − 1.

69) and vC ( t ) t = 60 µs = 1.65) as vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.18 – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 30 – 30 ) or and by substitution into (10.70) Repeating the above steps for the third open and closed switch periods.66) At the end of the second period when the switch is open.15 Therefore.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = 1. for 30 < t open < 45 µs when the switch is open.95e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 60 ) (10.e.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.67) we get A 3 = 2.67) The second period when the switch is closed is 45 < t closed < 60 µs Then.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 45 µs = 6 – 4.65) The constant A 2 is computed with (10.71 V (10.18 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 45 – 30 ) = 3. i. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 45 ) = 1.2 ) ( 60 – 45 ) = 2.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.56 + 1. τ open = 25 µs and the capacitor voltage is vC ( t ) = vC f + vCn = 6 + A2 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.56 + 2.64) For the next cycle. we get vC ( t ) 60 < t < 75 µs = 6 – 3.2 ) ( 30 – 15 ) = 1.05 V (10.56 + 2..82 = 6 + A 2 e A 2 = – 4. that is. the time constant τ open is the same as before.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.18e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.65) vC ( t ) 30 < t < 45 µs = 6 – 4.68) and with (10.71) 10-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .82 V (10.56 + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.

43.27e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.6 Summary • The unit step function u 0 ( t ) is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 and it is represented by the waveform below.83 V (10. Capacitor Voltage (V) 4 3 2 1 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Time (µs) Figure 10. • The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltu0 ( t ) age or current source.73) and vC ( t ) t = 90 µs = 2.2 ) ( t – 75 ) (10.Summary and vC ( t ) t = 75 µs = 3. 1 0 • Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions.08 V (10.31 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.72) Likewise.43.56 + 2.74) and using Excel we get the waveform shown in Figure 10. vC ( t ) 75 < t < 90 µs = 1.8 10. Voltage across the capacitor for the circuit of Example 10.

It is defined as dδ ( τ ) = ---.u 0 ( t ) dt or ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ and t = u0 ( t ) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 • In a simple RL circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the current is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ u (t) i ( t ) = i f + i n = ⎛ ----. Since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit. u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t<0 t≥0 t where τ is a dummy variable. i n = ( – V S ⁄ R )e is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = ( V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t –( R ⁄ L ) t • In a simple RC circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the voltage across the capacitor )u 0 ( t ) where the forced response v C f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . that is. that is. v C f = V S .e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 where the forced response i f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t . is defined as the integral of the unit step function. v C n = Ae must be evaluated from the total response. denoted as δ ( t ) . The natural response i n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression.– ----. that is. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . Since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit. It is also expressed as ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t • The unit impulse or delta function. The natural response v C n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. i f = V S ⁄ R . The constant A 10-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • The unit ramp function u 1 ( t ) .

2 ms E. 100 ms C. 0.45. 190 ms D. The forced response component i Lf of the inductor current for the circuit of Figure 10. 10 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.44 the time constant is A.46 is A. 78.33 . 71.5 ms B. For the circuit of Figure 10.44. 16 A B. none of the above 4 KΩ 6 KΩ 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. none of the above 4Ω 2Ω 1 mH + 12u 0 ( t ) V − 12 Ω Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10.Exercises 10.43 µs C. 000 s D. 2.45 the time constant is A. 50 ms B.6 ms E. Circuit for Question 1 2. Circuit for Question 2 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 µF 3. 0.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.

6 A B. 8 V E. 6 – 4 e –5000t A E.47 is A. 6e –5000t A – 5000t A C. Circuit for Question 3 12 Ω 1 mH 4. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. 2 A E. 6 + 6e − D. Circuit for Question 4 5.47. For t > 0 the total response of i L ( t ) is A.46. none of the above 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 32 ⁄ 3 V D. 10 V B. For the circuit of Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C. 2 V C.48 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A . The forced response component v Cf of the capacitor voltage for the circuit of Figure 10. none of the above 10-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6 A D.

12 + 7e – 500t – 200t – 200t − V V V E. For the circuit of Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ + − vC ( t ) Figure 10.35 . 12 V B.48. 10 – 5e C. Circuit for Question 6 7. For t > 0 the total response of v C ( t ) is A. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.50 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A . 20e – 5000t – 5000t − V V V C. 20e B.Exercises 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 32e – 8000t – 8000t V E. Circuit for Question 5 12 Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) 6. 12 – 7e D. – 32e D.49 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V .49. For t > 0 the total response of v L ( t ) is A.

For the circuit of Figure 10.4e – 200t − A – 200t A A C. 3500e D.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF iC ( t ) + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. Circuit for Question 8 9. 3tu 0 ( t ) A B. 3.5t + 4.51.5 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A E. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] + ( – 1. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + ( – 1. 1400e B. Circuit for Question 7 12 Ω 1 mH + − vL ( t ) 8.50. 1.5e – 500t – 500t A E. For t > 0 the total response i C ( t ) is A.5t + 4. 3 [ u 0 ( t ) ] – 3 [ u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A C.5 ) [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A D.51 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . The waveform of Figure 10. none of the above 10-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .52 can be expressed as A.

The waveform of Figure 10. sketch. ( 2 – 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] – ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) ] – ( 2e – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V – αt – αt – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V ) [ u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V E.37 . none of the above vC ( t ) V 2 1 – αt 2e – βt 2 – 2e 1 2 3 t (s) Figure 10.Exercises 3 2 1 t (s) iL ( t ) A 1 2 3 Figure 10.53. 2 ( 1 – e – αt – αt –e – βt )u 0 ( t ) V – βt B. Waveform for Question 9 10. ( 2 – 2e C. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.54. Waveform for Question 10 Problems 1. ( 2 – 2e D.55.53 can be expressed as A. the voltage source v S ( t ) varies with time as shown by the waveform of Figure 10. In the circuit of Figure 10.52. and express v LOAD ( t ) as a sum of unit step functions for 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 s. Compute.

Circuit for Problem 2 3.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) − Figure 10. a.57 (b). the excitation v S ( t ) is a pulse as shown in Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 1 v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 t(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 10. v S ( t ) = 15u 0 ( t ) – 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) V .54. In the circuit of Figure 10. Waveform for Problem 1 2. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) for all t > 0 10-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Compute i L ( t ) for t > 0 .57 (a).56. R 3 KΩ + L − vS ( t ) iL ( t ) 1 mH Figure 10.56.3 ms b. Compute i L ( t ) for 0 < t < 0.55. In the circuit of Figure 10.

39 .58.Exercises iL ( t ) 3Ω 1 mH 6Ω 6Ω 0.59.59. Circuit and waveform for Problem 3 4. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . compute v C ( t ) for t > 0 .57.60. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) for t > 0 . compute v out ( t ) for t > 0 in terms of R . 10u 0 ( t ) A vS 38 Ω + − 24 V 2Ω 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. and v in u 0 ( t ) given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 5 6. In the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 4 5.58.3 (a) (b) t (ms) vS ( t ) V 24 + − vS ( t ) Figure 10. i SW ( t ) S 4Ω vS 6Ω t = 0 + − 20 V 8Ω 1H iL ( t ) Figure 10. C .

R1 v S2 − R2 + 25 KΩ v S1 50 KΩ 50 V + − t = 0 100u 0 ( – t ) V S vC ( t ) − 1 µF v R3 ( t ) R3 C + − + 100 KΩ Figure 10. Compute i C ( t ) for t > 0 .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C R v in u 0 ( t ) v out ( t ) Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10.62.61. In the circuit of Figure 10.60. it is given that v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . iC ( t ) C − R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 6 7. Hint: Be careful in deriving the time constant for this circuit. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . Compute and sketch v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) for t > 0 . Circuit for Problem 7 8. Circuit for Problem 8 10-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .62.61.

C 10. A 9. C 7. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. B 3.41 . D 8. B Problems 1. E 6 – 4e 6. D 2. We replace the given circuit shown below with its Thevenin equivalent.8 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. E 12 V 5.Answers to Exercises 10. 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω – 8000t A × x 10 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) − 10 Ω + 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) + y × v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 − v TH ( t ) v LOAD ( t ) − 1 2 3 4 5 6 t(s) For the Thevenin equivalent voltage at different time intervals is as shown below. C 4.

× 60 = 40 V 3 t>4 s 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s t>4 s and ⎛ 0.5 × 40 ⎜ 0.s 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 ⎝ ----.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits ⎛ 12 v s ( t ) ----⎜ 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ----⎜ 18 s v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ⎜ ----.5 × 80 10 v LOAD ( t ) = ----.v TH ( t ) = 0. Then.× 60 = 40 V 3 2 = -. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and since we are not told otherwise.× 120 = 80 V 3 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s 2 = -. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) 10-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 × ( – 40 ) 20 ⎜ ⎝ 0. v LOAD ( t ) 40 20 0 – 20 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) (V) The waveform above can now be expressed as a sum of unit step functions as follows: v LOAD ( t ) = 20u 0 ( t ) – 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 40u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) – 20u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) = 20u 0 ( t ) + 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 60u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 4 ) 2.× ( – 60 ) = – 40 V 3 2 = -.v s ( t ) 18 2 = -.5 × 40 = 20 V = 40 V = – 20 V = 20 V The waveform of the voltage across the load is as shown below. we will assume that iL ( 0 ) = 0 − − For t > 0 we let i L1 ( t ) be the inductor current when the 15u 0 ( t ) voltage source acts alone and i L2 ( t ) when the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone.5v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 0.

= 5 mA and i L1n = A 1 e 3 KΩ = Ae + Thus. 3 KΩ + 30 V 1 mH − iL ( t ) 6 –( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 2 ) – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 30 Then. 3 KΩ + − 15 V i L1 ( t ) 1 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – 3 × 10 t 6 15 Then.Answers to Exercises 3 kΩ 1 mH vS ( 0 ) = 0 − iL ( 0 ) = 0 − For 0 < t < 2 s the circuit is as shown below. – 3 × 10 ( 2 – 2 ) 6 = i L1 t=2 s = 5 = – 10 + A 2 e mA or A 2 = 15 and 6 i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) mA (2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. i L2 ( t ) = i L2f + i L2n . i L1 ( t ) = i L1f + i L1n where i L1f = ------------. Therefore.= – 10 mA and i L2n = A 2 e = Be 3 KΩ Thus. i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + A 2 e above as i L1 i L2 t=2 s t=2 s – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 6 × 10 t 6 6 mA and the initial condition at t = 2 is found from (1) = 5 – 5e ≈ 5 mA . with the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone the circuit is as shown below.43 . i L2f = ------------. Therefore. i L1 ( t ) = 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 (1) Next. i L1 ( t ) = 5 + A 1 e 0 – 3 × 10 t 6 mA and using the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 0 . we get − i L1 ( 0 ) = 5 + A 1 e mA or A 1 = – 5 .

3 ms iL ( t ) = 2 –2 e – 8000t (1) b.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Therefore.3 ) ] and since we are not told otherwise. that is. the total current when both voltage sources are present is the summation of (1) and (2).3 ) ] vS ( t ) − 1 mH iL ( t ) v TH ( t ) v TH ( t ) = 16 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0.3 ) = A2 e – 8000 ( t – 0.3 ms the circuit is as shown below. For this circuit iL ( t ) = A2 e – ( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 0. For this circuit v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. 3Ω − × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH 8Ω + − iL ( t ) + × v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. For t > 0. that is. For 0 < t < 0. with (1) above we get 3Ω × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH vS ( t ) = 0 iL ( t ) 8Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) × 10-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 16 ⁄ 8 + A 1 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 2 + Ae 0 – 8000t and at t = 0 iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = 0 = 2 + A1 e − or A 1 = – 2 and thus for 0 < t < 0. a.3 ms . we will assume that i L ( 0 ) = 0 . i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) = 5 – 5e = – 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 – 3 × 10 t 6 6 – 10 + 15e mA – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 6 mA + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 3.3 ) (2) and A 2 is found from the initial condition at t = 0.3 ms the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below.3 ) ] Then.

3 ) or A 2 = 1.4 = 1.3 – 0.3 ms = 1.Answers to Exercises iL t = 0. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 20 ⁄ ( 4 + 6 ) = 2 A and thus the initial condition has been established.82e – ( t – 0.3 ms ) The waveform for the inductor current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is shown below.82 = A 2 e – 8000 ( 0.+ 6 = 26 ⁄ 3 Ω 8+4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. Therefore for t > 0.3 ms = 2 – 2e – 8 × 10 × 0.3 × 10 3 –3 = 2 – 2e 2.45 .× 20 = 40 ⁄ 3 V 4+8 and 8×4 R TH = ----------.82 t ( ms ) 0.82 A and by substitution into (2) above iL t = 0.3 4.3 ms i L ( t ) = 1. iL ( A ) 1. 4Ω 6Ω − − vS + − 20 V iL ( 0 ) − For t > 0 the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below where 8 v TH = ----------.82 .

24 + 2. – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 26 ⁄ 3 )t -----------i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 40 ⁄ 3 + Ae = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae 26 ⁄ 3 and A is evaluated from the initial condition.24 – 1.23e – 8.54 + 0. 4Ω vS i SW ( t ) + − 20 V 8Ω 6Ω + − v8 Ω 1H iL ( t ) Now.46e – 8. to find i SW ( t ) we observe that this current flows also through the 8 Ω resistor and this can be found from v 8 Ω shown on the circuit below. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 2 = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 6 ⁄ 13 and thus for t > 0 – 8.46e ) dt – 8. i.54 + 0.67t – 8.67t and 10-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..67t 20 6.( 1.76e = 9.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 4Ω vS Closed Switch 6Ω R TH 26 ⁄ 3 Ω v TH + − 20 V 8Ω + − iL ( t ) 40 ⁄ 3 V 1H iL ( t ) 1H Then.e 13 13 Next.46e = 9.e.46e (1) i L ( t ) = ----.67t d – 8.54 + 0.67 × 0.–( 26 ⁄ 3 )t = 1.+ ----. di L v 8 Ω = v 6 Ω + v L ( t ) = 6i L ( t ) + L -----dt = 6 ( 1.67t – 8.67t ) + 1 × ---.

0 0.01 1.67t v8 Ω – 8. v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 4 + Ae – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) t = 4 + Ae – 500t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. − vS 38 Ω 2Ω + + − 24 V 20 V 50 µF + − 40 Ω vC ( t ) + − 4V 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Now.15 = 1.67t 9. iL ( t ) A 2.16 t 5.47 . At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 24 V and thus the initial condition has been established. (1) and (2) above we have iL ( 0 ) = 2 + i L ( ∞ ) = 1.23e i SW ( t ) = i 8 Ω = --------. vS 38 Ω 2Ω 50 µF + − 24 V + − vC ( t ) The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the current source has been replaced with a voltage source.= 1.54 i SW ( 0 ) = 1.16 and with these values we sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) as shown below. from the initial condition.16 – 0.0 1.= ----------------------------------------.5 t − − i SW ( t ) A 1.16 – 0.15e (2) 8 8 Therefore.24 – 1.01 + i SW ( ∞ ) = 1.Answers to Exercises – 8.5 1.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 24 V = 4 + Ae from which A = 20 we get v C ( t ) = 4 + 20e – 500t − + 0 6. + − C + R v in ( t ) − v− v out ( t ) − + Application of KCL at the minus (−) input yields v − – v in dv C -----------------.= -----dt R or v in dv C -------. For t > 0 the op amp circuit is as shown below.+ C -------.= ------dt RC Integrating both sides and observing that v out ( t ) = – v C ( t ) we get v in v out ( t ) = – ------.t + k RC where k is the constant of integration of both sides and it is evaluated from the given initial condition.t ⎞ u 0 ( t ) ⎝ RC ⎠ and v in ⁄ RC is the slope as shown below. Then. v in v out ( t ) = – ⎛ ------. 10-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Therefore.= 0 dt R and since v − = 0 v in dv C C -------. vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = 0 = 0 + k − + or k = 0 .

= 10 × ( – 8 × 10 e ) dt Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. 175 KΩ − − + + − 150 V 1 µF − vC ( 0 ) − The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the voltage source v S1 is absent for all positive time and the 50 KΩ is shorted out by the closed switch.Answers to Exercises slope = – v in ⁄ RC 7. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 150 V and thus the initial condition has been established. 125 KΩ + + − 50 V 1 µF − vC ( t ) For the circuit above v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 50 + Ae – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 + Ae – 8t and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 150 = 50 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 100 and thus for t > 0 v C ( t ) = 50 + 100e – 8t V To find v R3 ( t ) we will first find i C ( t ) from the circuit below where dv C –6 – 4 – 8t i C ( t ) = C -------.49 .

Instead.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 25 KΩ 1 µF − 50 V 100 KΩ + vC ( t ) + + − v R3 ( t ) − – 4 – 8t – 8t Then.+ ------.= 0 dt RC From the given circuit shown below vC iC ( t ) C R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C v C – 10i C v C i C + ---------------------. that is. vC ( t ) V 150 100 50 t 0 – 80 0 v R3 ( t ) V t 8. dv C v C -------. For this circuit we cannot short the dependent source and therefore we cannot find R eq by combining the resistances R 1 and R 2 in parallel combination in order to find the time constant τ = RC .+ ----R1 R2 or 10-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9) of the previous chapter. v R3 ( t ) = ( 100 KΩ )i C = 10 ( – 8 × 10 e 5 ) = – 80e V The sketches below show v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) as they approach their final values. we will derive the time constant from the differential equation of (9.

= 135 = ----.= 1 = ---------------------------.⎞ v C – ----.+ ----.5625e – 0.⎞ v = 0 -------⎝ R ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ R 1 ⋅ R 2 ⎠ C 1 or R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------.= 0.⎞ ⎛ C dv C⎞ + ⎛ ----------------.3125t and with the given initial condition v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = A = 5 V we get v C ( t ) = 5e – 0.51 .3125 × 5e – 0.+ ----------------------------.3125t and the minus (−) sign indicates that the i C ( t ) direction is opposite to that shown.Answers to Exercises dv C 10 dv C 1 1 C -------.3125 16 432 4 × 108 8 ⁄ 18 τ R eq C ⎛ 1 – 10 ⎞ ⋅ 1 ----⎝ 18 ⎠ and thus v C ( t ) = Ae − – 0.3125t Then.= 0 ⎝R ⎠ dt R 1 dt R2 1 or R1 + R2 10 ⎛ 1 – ----.= 30 ⁄ 216 = ----------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.+ ⎛ ----.⎞ ⋅ C ⎝ R1 ⎠ and from this differential equation we see that the coefficient of v C is 515 × 930 ⁄ 216 1 -----------------------------------.C -------. using dv C i C = C -------dt we find that for t > 0 i C ( t ) = ( 1 ) ( – 0.v C = 0 10 dt ⎛ 1 – ----.3125t ) = – 1.⎞ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ dv C -------.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits NOTES 10-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls. signal processing. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. we choose New and click on M-File. telecommunications. comment lines. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. This takes us to the Editor * EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . save it. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. and environmental applications. and communications. A. From the File menu on the toolbar. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. aerospace. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. finding the roots of a polynomial. electronics. important terms. we see the toolbar on top of the command screen and the prompt EDU>>. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. Inc. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. and making plots. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. and MATLAB functions.

we type the file name without the . The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. 2. variables. Whenever we want to return to the command window. myfile01. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. that is. we use the clc command. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. to get information on graphics. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. we type quit or exit. then. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. if the code performs some matrix operations. we click on the Close button. We should also use a floppy disk to backup our files. Thus. To execute a program. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. if we want to clear all previously entered commands.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Window where we can type our code (list of statements) for a new file. it distinguishes between upper. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. But if we want to clear all previous values. we should use the command clear.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . It is a good practice to save the code in a file name that is descriptive of our code content. Once the code is written and saved as an m-file. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line.m. For example. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. A-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. for example. and equations without exiting. For instance. MATLAB then returns to the command window.m extension at the >> prompt. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. conv(p. For instance. we type help matlab\graphics. variables and equations that we have already used.and lower-case letters. This command erases everything. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive.m. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values. Henceforth. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program.m or any other similar name. or open a previously saved file. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. To get help with other MATLAB topics. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. In other words.

We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. Example A. if the imaginary part is a function. and the roots as roots_ p1.0000 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-3 .3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. A.0000-4.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers. For example. that is.0000i In the above example.0000 3. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) p1 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. we must use the multiplication sign. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a 0 ] . or variable such as cos ( x ) . We can use either i . However.

1. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. The roots are found with the statements below.5014 2. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example A.0000 1. we must enter zero as its coefficient. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6.3202i A. therefore. and the roots as a column vector. * By definition.3366+ 1.3366.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term. and two complex roots.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 2. from a given set of roots.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector. Of course. where we have defined the polynomial as p2.5711 -0.3202i -0.7428 -1.

0000 -4. 4 + j5 and 4 – j5 . Example A.0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-5 . 2. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. Find the coefficients of this polynomial. say r4 . with the given roots as elements of this vector.1. and 4 . r4=[ −1 −2 −3 −4+5j −4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1. – 3. 3.5.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1.0000+ 5.0000 -3. – 2. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. Solution: We form a row vector. with the given roots.0000 Column 5 -4. say r3 .0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -2.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Example A. then.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. Solution: We first define a row vector.

b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q.) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5.1) at x = – 3 . Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2].Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.d) −divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r. the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 A. Example A.r]=deconv(c. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a. Example A.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p. % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and A-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3. % val_minus3=polyval(p5.

p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q. [q.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a.b) function. p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A.r]=deconv(p3.p4) q = 0.r]=deconv(c. Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9]. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12]. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. p1p2=conv(p1.5000 r = 0 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 .d) function.

As noted in the comment line of Example A.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----.p 5 using the polyder(p) function.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 Example A. we can write MATLAB statements in one line.7. Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. as + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 bn x + bn – 1 x Num ( x ) R ( x ) = ------------------. if we separate them by commas or semicolons.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore. d----. A-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx 0 -32 0 8 10 A. q = 0. that is. d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].

9961i -1. using the roots(p) function.9961i roots_den = 1.2108+0. x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .6760+0.9870i -1. that is.4922i -0. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .4186+ 1.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.4922 ) ( x + 1.2108 – j 0.9870 ) ( x + 1.4922i -0.1. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9]. Accordingly.9870 ) ( x + 0.1633 As expected.6760 – j0.1633 ) ( x + 0. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b . We recall that. that is.4922 ) ( x – 1. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 .6760-0. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2.9961 ) and for the denominator. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term. roots_num=roots(num). in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 .9304 ) ( x + 0.Rational Polynomials Example A.0712i -0.4186 – j1.= ------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form.4186.9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------.3370 + j0.0712 ) ( x + 1.0000 2. we have p den = ( x – 1. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6].9961 ) ( x + 0. For the numerator.9870i 1.0712 ) ( x – 2.3370 – j0.3370+ 0.4186 + j1. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.0712i -0.6760 + j0.9304 -1.3370.0.2108 + j0.2108-0. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.

6760−0. For the present. A. Here. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.8372*x+6.1058 (1.4186 −1.4186 + 1.4922i) ans = 3.1058 ) ( x + 1.0186 Thus. 2 2 p num ( x – 4. polynomial coefficients.0712i)*(2.0512 ) ( x + 0.0000 ) ( x + 1. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form. we use the following code: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4.3370+ 0.3370−0.9971)*(x^2+0.2108−0.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.6760+ 0.0512 (−0.9961i)*(−0. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.9971 ) ( x + 0.6740*x+1. We must remember that the conv(p.9304 ) We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® (2.9971 (−0. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x.0186 ) ( x + 1.1058)*(x+1.6740x + 1. and so on.y) command that plots y versus x.3520x + 3.8372x + 6. A-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0712i) ans = 6. y. t.4216x + 1. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often.2108+ 0. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.4922i)*(1.q) function is used with numeric expressions only.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------. that is. For our example. Before using a symbolic expression.9961i) ans = 1. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate). our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3.9870i) ans = 1.9870i)*(−0.

If a statement. while the amplitude was held constant. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.611 51.052 145. so we will use the English letter w instead. Electric circuit for Example A. that is. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second.589 71. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .184 97.717 46.938 469.056 1014.751 120.240 54.182 40.437 222.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90.428 48.122 42. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.286 44. A R V L C Figure A.588 67.182 436.10 TABLE A.088 73.1.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A.665 140.1. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB command window.1.432 38.353 103.339 52.603 81. it can be continued to the next line by typCircuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 .83 266.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.513 62.1 Table for Example A.481 58.032 187.

Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® ing three or more periods. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].938 469.. 48. When this command is executed. For this example.088 73.845].2.182 436.. we use the semicolon (. Of course. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A.10 A-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .122 42.z). and we press <enter>. 1014.2.751 120.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen.588 67.611 51. and continue to enter data.111.665 140. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen.789 71.. as mentioned before.481 58..y) command. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.432 38.104 97...513 62. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis). Also. we simply type w or z.032 187.468.182 40. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z.056. % z=[39.052 145..339 52. This plot is shown in Figure A. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Figure A. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. we use the plot(x. if we want to see the values of w or z or both. 90..830 266.437 222...603 81.240 54. we use plot(w.717 46.353 103.286 44...

and the y-axis as a linear scale. The default* is off. voltage or current.3. except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. The command grid toggles them. changes from off to on or vice versa. that is. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). The grid off command removes the grid. or any plot. If the y-axis represents power. Radian Frequency').z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. and the y-axis in dB (decibels). Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. Likewise. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. We must remember. however. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. our plot is as shown in Figure A.y) command.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. and box on restores the box. or from the Window pull-down menu. We can make the above. we click on the Window pull-down menu. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. The command box toggles them. we press any key. % Replaces the plot(w. To return to the command window. the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale.z). grid.y) command is similar to the plot(x. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 .y) command that is similar to the plot(x.and y-axis respectively. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). The loglog(x. The default is on. we select MATLAB Command Window. We can use the semilogx(x. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. and we select Figure. and the x-axis as a linear scale. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4.y) command. the semilogy(x. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. To see the graph again.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale.

y. Then. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis. and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window. We will illustrate its use with the following example that plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. A-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A. and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse. number_of_values) * With MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 we can add text. For instance. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’).z) command with semilogx(w. It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. The first line of the code below has the form linspace(first_value. and we replace the semilogx(w.dB). The command text(x. last_value. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window. we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v).2. and we press <enter>. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A. using the mouse.3.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). and string is the label which we want to place at that location. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window.

The code for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0.4.75. text(2. 2*pi.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A. 0. u=sin(x+2*pi/3).65. box on. However.4 0. we did not specify line styles. and colors. 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A. These. 60). 0.4.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. plot symbols.u.2 -0.y.x. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types.8 0. v=sin(x+4*pi/3).85.4 -0. Three-phase waveforms In our previous examples. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points. and colors for our plots. text(4. grid on. % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB. 1 0.v). 0. % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0.x. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). markers.65.65. plot(x. or a combination Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 .02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0. % we could have used x=0:0. 'sin(x)').95.6 0.02: 2)*pi instead.6 -0. y=sin(x).2 0 -0.

there is no default marker.s1. and sn are strings specifying color.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. or line style. yn and zn are vectors or matrices. no markers are drawn unless they are selected.'rs−'). Also. where x. The plot3(x.x2.. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional.y3. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A.) where xn.2 Styles..y.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® of these. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.z2. MATLAB has no default color. y and z are three vectors of the same length.y2. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen.s2. The general format is plot3(x1.z1.y. they are drawn on two axes.y1. marker symbol. and plot(x.y. that is.. can be added with the plot(x.2. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next. The default line is the solid line. y and z. we must type plot(x.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.y. colors.y. These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots. TABLE A. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A. plot(x.2 for each additional line in the plot. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line .x3.s3. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.s) command.z3. o x + * s d − : −. A-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

y= x. z= −2. Three dimensional plot for Example A. These operations will be explained in Section A.y.5: 10. grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. x= -10: 0. dot division. in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication.*x.8. plot3(x.3) Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the code below.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A. division. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot.^2−1.5.^3+x+3.and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.5. we can set the limits of the x.11 In a two-dimensional plot.z).Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 .*y. Likewise.

’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x. or on the same line without first executing the plot command. In this case.y. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. H.z) command with two vector arguments. j ) } .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. and y corresponds to the rows.y. % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi . 0: 6). y ( i ).z.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -. grid on and box off are the default states.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters.6. say z = f ( x. ylabel('y-axis.z) commands.^ 2 . It must be placed after the plot(x. Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h. A-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. We can also use the mesh(x. Example A. Z ( i. zlabel('z-axis.y. as in the previous example. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A. V) xlabel('x-axis. For three-dimensional plots.* R . The three-dimensional text(x.8.H]=meshgrid(0: 4. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. volume (cubic meters)'). title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). altitude h (meters)'). These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m./ 3. dot division. mesh(R.y. h ) The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB code where. radius r (meters)').* H) .πr h 3 (A. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables.y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. This must be done for each plot. shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. y ) .Y]=meshgrid(x. This will be explained in Section A.y) or plot3(x.z) on the plot. and dot exponentiation. [R. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ). V = f ( r. n ] = size ( Z ) .

and the plot of Figure A. altitude h (meters) 0 x-axis.n.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m.Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis.p) command following the discussion on multiplication. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m. Volume of a right circular cone. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 . A. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples. division and exponentiation that follows. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A.5.p). This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active.7. radius r (meters) Figure A. are rudimentary. n and p.7. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated threedimensional plots. This. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 y-axis.6. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.n.

a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. division. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' A-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . They are explained in the following paragraphs. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. and the element-by-element multiplication. We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. and then transpose it into a column vector. Thus.2. MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. These are the matrix multiplication. 6. division. and exponentiation. 3. To distinguish between row and column vectors. and thus are called row vectors. 1. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. 6. In Section A. If an array has one column and multiple rows. 11] or as b=[− 1 3 6 11]'. b=[−1. it is called a column vector. and exponentiation. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. An easier way to construct a column vector. 3. is to write it first as a row vector. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials.9 Multiplication. the arrays [ a b c … ] . and exponentiation. division. consisted of one row and multiple columns.

MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. It recognizes that B is a row vector.5) For example. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 A*B 3 4 5].Multiplication. Here. and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. ans = 68 Now.Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. 2. that is. Accordingly. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. Division and Exponentiation be two vectors. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. A*B When these statements are executed. not a row vector. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B. Here. Then. A=[1 2 3 4 5]. This operator is defined below.

*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly. Note: A dot (.) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. whereas dot division (. C. Solution: The MATLAB code for this example is as follows: A-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and exponentiation operators.) and the multiplication. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (. Example A.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5]. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result. Here. division. as the elements of C and D.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® be two row vectors./) and dot exponentiation (.6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. Thus.*).13 Write the MATLAB code that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (.^) are used for element-by-element division and exponentiation. C. C. are used for matrix division and exponentiation.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. As an example. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7].

xmax.* exp(−3 . the eps number.13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0.13') Figure A. we use the special MATLAB function eps. and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots.^2 .* t) . defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 .* exp(−4 ./ (t+1).2 × 10 – 16 . Plot for E xample A.8. ymin and ymax.* t) + t . Plot for Example A. the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.5 5 Figure A.8 shows the plot for this example.y).* t) . is divided by zero when t = – 1 .Multiplication.13 Had we. MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero. Example A.* cos(5 .01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0. division.5 4 4. grid. xlabel('t').5 2 2. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression. It will be used with the next example. title('Plot for Example A.* t)−2 . which is a number approximately equal to 2.01 increments y=3 . The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication.5 1 1. and exponentiation.14 Plot the functions Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 . There are no commas between these four arguments. plot(t. This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot. ylabel('y=f(t)').* sin(2 . say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 .5 t 3 3. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. in this example. Division and Exponentiation t=0: 0. To avoid division by zero.

2 0. title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2'). subplot(224). w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x.25 0.v).2 300 0. % add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221).4 0.w).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® y = sin 2x.100).y). axis([0 2*pi 0 400]).9.8 0. title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2'). title('z=(cosx)^2'). subplot(222). v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points. % lower right of four subplots plot(x. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).3]).4 0.2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0. These subplots are shown in Figure A.z). % upper right of four subplots plot(x.^ 2). subplot(223). z = cos 2x. 1 y=(sinx)2 1 z=(cosx)2 0. Solution: The MATLAB code to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. title('y=(sinx)^2').% upper left of four subplots plot(x.15 200 0. z=(cos(x).^ 2).1 0. Subplots for the functions of Example A.2*pi. axis([0 2*pi 0 0.9. % lower left of four subplots plot(x.8 0.6 0.6 0. % Interval with 100 data points y=(sin(x). axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).05 100 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A. w=y.* z./ (z+eps). v=y. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph.14 A-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

the abs(z). Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. theta is the angle in radians.^5.1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) a. We will also use the polar(theta. 4 6 (A. c. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer. We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r∠θ.8) b. w=0: 1: 2000. denoted as z. for simplicity. and capacitance. a 10 Ω Z ab b Figure A. Solution: The MATLAB code below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab that is.1 . and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b). Example A./ (10 + j ./ (w+eps)))).^ 6 . Electric circuit for Example A.real_part).15 10 Ω 0.10. ylabel('Real part of Z'). % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z). inductance. Division and Exponentiation The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers. plot(w.Multiplication.1 H 10 µF With the given values of resistance. It also produces a polar plot (part c).r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates. xlabel('radian frequency w'). % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 .* (0. where r is the magnitude.10.* w −10.* 10 . the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0./ (w+eps)) . Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates. grid.^ 4 −j . Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. % Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 .

and A. A.15 clearly illustrates how powerful. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z). A. xlabel('radian frequency w'). % Angle is the first argument grid. fast. the code for each of the examples we discussed earlier. Generally. accurate. make up a script file.m extension. A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. plot(w. imaginary.rndz). a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/ Debugger.12. Thus. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta. % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)). and polar plots are shown in Figures A. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z).10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files.15 A-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11. Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the .imag_part). ylabel('Polar Plot of Z'). Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A. Example A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z).11. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z').13 respectively. grid. and flexible MATLAB is. The real.

15 90 120 1015 812 60 609 150 406 30 Polar Plot of Z 203 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A.15 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .13. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A.Script and Function Files 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.12.

x1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax]. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits. and returns that value.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. The first line of a function file must contain the word function.04 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros. that we mentioned earlier. maxima. we can use fmin(f.01 ( x – 1. that is. we will use the following MATLAB functions.– 10 2 2 ( x – 0.x2) minimizes a function of one variable. followed by the output argument.1 and A. It attempts to return a value of x where f ( x ) is minimum in the interval x 1 < x < x 2 . MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign. but since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) . maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. there is no fmax(f. and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. A-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function. or returns NaN if the search fails. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable. fzero(f.^ 3 + cos(3. ∞ ⁄ ∞ . the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x. fmin(f. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. The function name and file name must be the same. We use function files for repetitive tasks.2 ) + 0.+ --------------------------------------. For example.x1. Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only. The string f contains the name of the function to be minimized. such as those in Examples A.m. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x . the equal sign ( = ). but the file name must have the extension . Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function. where f is a string containing the name of a real-valued function of a single real variable.16 Find the zeros. and minima using the following code.1 ) + 0.x1. Example A.2.x2) function in MATLAB. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 . fplot(fcn.m For the next example.x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable.

approximately. y min = – 34 .Script and Function Files x=−1.5 -1 -0. we can use the fplot(fcn.y).5.2 where. y=1.y) command. grid This plot is shown in Figure A. Plot for Example A. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0. Next.2). y max = 90 . and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1.5 0 0.m function m-file with the following code: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0.01) −1.14. fplot('funczero01'.1)^2+0.14. grid The plot is shown in Figure A.2 and x = 0.5 Figure A.1). plot(x.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows.04) −10.16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0.3 .2)^2+0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 .1 where.01)−1/((x−1.5 1 1./ ((x−0.5]). approximately.^ 2 + 0./ ((x−1. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A. As expected. Now.15.5: 0. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01.14 that was obtained with the plot(x.^ 2 + 0.5 1.04)-10. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.01: 1. [−1.

5 . therefore.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies. x1).4f'. we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* .5 rather than the interval – 1.3).20) more precisely.3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f. min_val=fmin('funczero01'.4f \n'.5 0 0.x1. -0. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.5 Figure A.2012 * Local maxima or local minima.5 1 1. 1. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined. and then invoked with that file name.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.x2) function as follows. we specify the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. A-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .x2) function.1919 and r2= 0. 0. if any.15.y) or the fplot(fcn. fprintf(' and r2= %3.x1. The code below must be saved with a file name. When the entire range is considered. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3. It is. advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x.5 -1 -0.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in (A. Plot for Example A. For this example.2). 0. x2= fzero('funczero01'.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) min_val = 1. The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f. x1= fzero('funczero01'. x2) MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0. before displaying the function minimum.

this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function. Same as SHORT.01)−1/((x−1.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number.04)−10).Display Formats This is the value of x at which y = f ( x ) is minimum. We have placed the minus (−) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above.04) −10 y = -34. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default. The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format. The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations. that is.01) −1 / ((x−1. y=1 / ((x−0.% Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x−0.2)^2+0. x=1.01) −1 / ((x−1.0999. we substitute it into f ( x ) .1) max_val = 0. 0. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x. Now. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 .2012. so that the maximum value will be displayed.2) ^ 2 + 0.1) ^ 2 + 0. Of course.1)^2+0. we execute the following code to get the value of x where the maximum y = f ( x ) occurs. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'.04) −10 y = 89.1) ^ 2 + 0. The output format can changed with the format command. We define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y=−(1/((x−0.0999 x=0. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f ( x ) .1812 To find the maximum value. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number.2000 A.2) ^ 2 + 0.

3335 Four decimal digits (default) format long 33.and blank are printed for positive. Imaginary parts are ignored. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.33 two decimal digits format + only + or − or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation Approximation by ratio of small integers. A-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in. If X is a string. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format. The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. format short 33.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits.333 Better of format short or format short e format bank 33. The fprintf(format. Some examples with different format displays age given below. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits.33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3. if %f is used. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. negative and zero elements. FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format. FORMAT RAT Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. the text is displayed. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. Thus. FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. and if %e is used. FORMAT + The symbols +. . FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits.

and thus its value is again A .1 Definition of a Complex Number In the language of mathematics. The basic operations are defined and illustrated by several examples. In this case. another multiplication of the new vector jA by j will produce another 90 ° counterclockwise direction. its value becomes j ( – A ) = – j A . we denote i as j to avoid confusion with current i . the vector A has rotated 180 ° and its new value now is – A .1. The j operator Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . but it has been rotated counterclockwise by 90 ° . if it is given that a vector A has the direction along the right side of the x-axis as shown in Figure B. When this vector is rotated by another 90 ° for a total of 270 ° . the square root of minus one is denoted as i . i = – 1 . and the exponential and polar forms are discussed and illustrated with examples. j = – j .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers T his appendix is a review of the algebra of complex numbers. that is. B. j is an operator that produces a 90-degree counterclockwise rotation to any vector to which it is applied as a multiplying factor. Applications using Euler’s identities are presented. and j = 1 . jA j ( j A ) = j2 A = –A y 2 3 4 A x 2 j ( –j A ) = –j A = A j ( –A ) = j 3 A = –j A Figure B. Essentially.1. we conclude that j = – 1 . In the electrical engineering field. Therefore. multiplication of this vector by the operator j will result in a new vector jA whose magnitude remains the same. A fourth 90 ° rotation returns the vector to its original position. Also. Thus.

Then. a = Re { A } and b = Im { A } where Re { A } denotes real part of A. by the operator j . we change the signs of the components of the subtrahend and we perform addition. Thus. the number A = a + jb where a and b are both real numbers. two complex numbers A and B where A = a + jb and B = c + jd . Find A + B and A – B Solution: A + B = (3 + j4) + (4 – j2) = (3 + 4) + j(4 – 2) = 7 + j2 and A – B = (3 + j4) – (4 – j2) = (3 – 4) + j(4 + 2) = – 1 + j6 * We may think the real axis as the cosine axis and the imaginary axis as the sine axis. is a complex number. Thus. A complex number is the sum (or difference) of a real number and an imaginary number. For subtraction. By definition. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A + B = (a + c) + j(b + d) and A – B = (a – c) + j(b – d) Example B.* An imaginary number is the product of a real number.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Note: In our subsequent discussion. and an imaginary component equal to the sum of the imaginary components. A = B if and only if a = c and b = d . B. r is a real number and jr is an imaginary number.1 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 .2 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers The sum of two complex numbers has a real component equal to the sum of the real components. and the yaxis (ordinate) as the imaginary axis with the understanding that the “imaginary” axis is just as “real” as the real axis. Thus. B-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will designate the x-axis (abscissa) as the real axis. In other words. and B = 4 – j 2 . the imaginary axis is just as important as the real axis. and b = Im { A } the imaginary part of A. For example. and also their imaginary parts are equal. say r . are equal if and only if their real parts are equal.

if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A ⋅ B = ( a + jb ) ⋅ ( c + jd ) = ac + jad + jbc + j 2 bd and since j 2 = – 1 . Example B. Find A ⋅ B Solution: A ⋅ B = ( 3 + j 4 ) ⋅ ( 4 – j 2 ) = 12 – j 6 + j 16 – j 2 8 = 20 + j 10 (B. Find A∗ Solution: The conjugate of the complex number A has the same real component. but the imaginary component has opposite sign. Thus. denoted as A∗ .Multiplication of Complex Numbers B. it follows that A ⋅ B = ac + jad + jbc – b d = ( ac – bd ) + j ( ad + bc ) Example B.4 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . and with an imaginary component of opposite sign. if A = a + jb .1) The conjugate of a complex number. A∗ = 3 – j 5 If a complex number A is multiplied by its conjugate. Then.2 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 and B = 4 – j 2 . if A = a + jb . then A∗ = a – j b . and making use of the fact that j 2 = – 1 . the result is a real number. is another complex number with the same real component.3 Multiplication of Complex Numbers Complex numbers are multiplied using the rules of elementary algebra. Thus. then A ⋅ A∗ = ( a + jb ) ( a – jb ) = a 2 – jab + jab – j 2 b 2 = a + b 2 2 Example B. Thus.3 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . Find A ⋅ A∗ Solution: A ⋅ A∗ = ( 3 + j 5 ) ( 3 – j 5 ) = 3 + 5 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 .

3) by the real positive constant C we get: Ce jθ – jθ jθ = cos θ + j sin θ (B. Find A ⁄ B Solution: Using the procedure of (B.4 Division of Complex Numbers When performing division of complex numbers.⋅ ----.5) B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is desirable to obtain the quotient separated into a real part and an imaginary part.= 0.= -----------------------------------------------------2 2 B B∗ B c + jd ( c + jd ) ( c – jd ) c +d ( ac + bd .5 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 . and it is done by multiplying the denominator by its conjugate. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers B. This procedure is called rationalization of the quotient.= -------------------------------------. Using this procedure.96 + j 0.+ j ---------------------2 2 2 2 c +d c +d (B. we see that the quotient is easily separated into a real and an imaginary part. then. Thus.2).-----------------------------------------------2 2 25 B 25 25 4 + j3 (4 + j3)(4 – j3) 4 +3 B. and B = 4 + j 3 .= -.2) In (B. Multiplying (B.= 12 – j 9 + j 16 + 12 = ---------------.5 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers The relations e and e are known as the Euler’s identities.( bc – ad ) ) = ---------------------.2).= ------------.4) = C cos θ + j C sin θ (B. we get 73 + j4 (3 + j4)(4 – j3) 24 + j 7 A = ------------. A B∗ a + jb ( a + jb ) ( c – jd ) ( ac + bd ) + j ( bc – ad ) A -. we multiplied both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator to eliminate the j operator from the denominator of the quotient.3) = cos θ – j sin θ (B.= ------------------------------------. Example B.= 24 + j ----.28 .

8) Also. and the right side is the rectangular form.7).11) The polar form is essentially the same as the exponential form but the notation is different. that is.7) b C sin θ -. Ce jθ = C ∠θ (B.7) = a +b 2 2 or C = a +b 2 2 (B.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers This expression represents a complex number. we get a + b = ( C cos θ ) + ( C sin θ ) = C ( cos θ + sin θ ) = C Then.12) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-5 .6) is the exponential form.5) and (B. C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (B.6). Equating real and imaginary parts in (B.10) To convert a complex number from exponential to rectangular form. from (B.= --------------.9) To convert a complex number from rectangular to exponential form.6) where the left side of (B.⎞ ⎝a⎠ (B.= tan θ C cos θ a or –1 b θ = tan ⎛ -. and thus Ce jθ = a + jb (B. we get a = C cos θ and b = C sin θ Squaring and adding the expressions in (B. we use the expression 2 2 a + jb = a +b e j ⎛ tan ⎝ –1 b⎞ -a⎠ (B. we use the expressions Ce Ce jθ – jθ = C cos θ + j C sin θ = C cos θ – j C sin θ (B. say a + jb .

12) is the exponential form.2. thetax=angle(x)*180/pi. 4 Im 5 53.2. – 1 + j2 = 2 j ⎛ tan ----.1 ° = 5 ∠53. disp(thetax) 5 53.1° 3 +4 e 2 2 Check with MATLAB: x=3+j*4. The components of 3 + j 4 Then. We must remember that the phase angle θ is always measured with respect to the positive real axis. 4 – j 3 Solution: a. 3 + j 4 b. – 2 – j d. – 1 + j 2 c. disp(magx). The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.3.⎠ ⎝ 3 = 5e j53. and rotates in the counterclockwise direction.1301 b.6° B-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then. and the right side is the polar form. 3 + j4 = –1 j ⎛ tan 4 ⎞ -.⎞ ⎝ –1 ⎠ = 1 +2 e 2 2 –1 5e j116. magx=abs(x).6 ° = 5 ∠116. Example B.1° 3 Re Figure B.6 Convert the following complex numbers to exponential and polar forms: a.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers where the left side of (B. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.

4. magv=abs(v).Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers Im 5 63.6° Re 2 Figure B. The components of – 1 + j 2 Check with MATLAB: y=−1+j*2. Im 206. disp(magy).6° = 5 ∠206. The components of – 2 – j Then.9 ° = 5 ∠– 36.3.⎠ 2 2 4 = 5e j323.5.4.2361 -153.4°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B.9 ° 4 +3 e ⎝ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-7 . The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.6° = 5e j ( – 153. –2 –j 1 = –1 j ⎛ tan – 1 ⎞ ----⎝ –2 ⎠ 2 2 2 +1 e = 5e j206.6° 5 Re −153.4 ° Check with MATLAB: v=−2−j*1. magy=abs(y). 4 –j 3 = –1 j ⎛tan – 3⎞ ----.4° −1 116. thetay=angle(y)*180/pi.1° = 5e –j36.2361 116. disp(thetav) 2. thetav=angle(v)*180/pi. Then. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. disp(magv).6° −2 26.5651 c.4 )° = 5 ∠– 153.1 ° = 5 ∠323.4349 d. disp(thetay) 2.

disp(thetaw) 5 -36. the exponential and polar forms are most convenient when we multiply or divide complex numbers.1° −36.6.5 ) = – 1. Solution: We recall that – 1 = j 2 . Therefore. we multiply the magnitudes and we add the phase angles. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ B-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8699 Example B. magw=abs(w). The components of 4 – j 3 Check with MATLAB: w=4−j*3.7 Express the complex number – 2 ∠30° in exponential and in rectangular forms.9° −3 5 4 Re Figure B.866 – j0. that is.6. disp(magw). then – 2 ∠30° is the same as 2 ∠30° rotated counterclockwise by 180 ° .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Im 323. To multiply two complex numbers in exponential (or polar) form. 2 ∠– 150 ° = 2e – j 150 ° = 2 ( cos 150° – j sin 150° ) = 2 ( – 0. thetaw=angle(w)*180/pi.5.73 – j Note: The rectangular form is most useful when we add or subtract complex numbers. Since each j rotates a vector by 90 ° counterclockwise. The components of 2 ∠– 150° Then. however. – 2 ∠30° = 2 ∠( 30° + 180° ) = 2 ∠210° = 2 ∠– 150° The components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.73 30° 2 Re −150°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B. Im 210° −1.

we divide the magnitude of the dividend by the magnitude of the divisor.1° – 36.= ----------------------.= 2e e = 2e – j36.9° Solution: Division in polar form yields A 10 ∠53.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers then.9° B 5e j53.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.1° j36.1° – ( – 36.1° + ( – 36.= ---. that is. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ then.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.9° ) = 50 e j ( 53.9° ) ] = 2 ∠90° B 5 ∠– 36.1° -.9 Divide A = 10 ∠53.9° ) = 50 e j16. and we subtract the phase angle of the divisor from the phase angle of the dividend.= -------------------.1° ) ( 5e – j 36.2° and multiplication in exponential form yields AB = ( 10 e j53.2° To divide one complex number by another when both are expressed in exponential or polar form.∠( θ – φ ) = -----------. AB = MN ∠( θ + φ ) = M e jθ Ne jφ = MN e j(θ + φ) (B.13) Example B.= --.9° Division in exponential form yields j53.9° ) ] = 50 ∠16.1° Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-9 .14) Example B.e N N jφ B Ne jθ (B.8 Multiply A = 10 ∠53.9° Solution: Multiplication in polar form yields AB = ( 10 × 5 ) ∠[ 53. M j(θ – φ ) M Me A -.= 2 ∠[ 53.9° j90° 10 e A -.

Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers NOTES B-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . and reference to more advance topics in matrix theory. a matrix A is denoted as a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a 31 a 32 a 33 … a 3 n … … … … … a m 1 a m 2 a m 3 … a mn (C. a 33. we say that the matrix elements a 11.1 Matrix Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers such as those shown below. A matrix of m rows and n columns is said to be of m × n order matrix. a nn . C. If m = n . the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order m (or n). a 22. Some definitions and examples are not applicable to subsequent material presented in this text. …. a 43 indicates the element positioned in the fourth row and third column. the elements a 11. and Gauss’s elimination method are reviewed. but are included for subject continuity. if a matrix has five rows and five columns. a nn are called the main diagonal elements. and j indicates the column in which each element is positioned.1) The numbers a ij are the elements of the matrix where the index i indicates the row. Determinants. These are denoted with a dagger (†) and may be skipped. are located on the main diagonal. …. it is said to be a square matrix of order 5. a 22. a 33.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants T his chapter is an introduction to matrices and matrix operations. In a square matrix. Thus. Alternately. Thus. 2 3 7 1 –1 5 1 3 1 –2 1 –5 4 –7 6 or In general form. Cramer’s rule.

2 . …. n (C. C-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . all paragraphs and topics preceded by a dagger ( † ) may be skipped. 2.1 Compute A + B and A – B given that A = 1 2 3 and B = 2 3 0 0 1 4 –1 2 5 Solution: A+B = 1+2 0–1 2+3 1+2 3+0 = 3 5 4+5 –1 3 3 9 and A–B = 1–2 0+1 2 – 3 3 – 0 = –1 –1 3 1–2 4–5 1 –1 –1 % Define matrices A and B % Add A and B Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. 3 .2 Matrix Operations Two matrices A = a ij and B = b ij are equal. where each element of C is the sum (difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B .2) Two matrices are said to be conformable for addition (subtraction). their sum (difference) will be another matrix C with the same order as A and B . …. is called a zero matrix. † A matrix in which every element is zero. 3. These are discussed in matrix theory textbooks. A+B * Henceforth.3) Example C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants † The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix A is called the trace* of A . C = A ± B = [ a ij ± b ij ] (C. 0 1 4]. −1 2 5]. B=[2 3 0. A = B . if and only if a ij = b ij i = 1 . if they are of the same order m × n. m j = 1. that is. If A = a ij and B = b ij are conformable for addition (subtraction). that is. C.

Matrix Operations ans = 3 -1 A−B 5 3 3 9 % Subtract B from A ans = -1 1 -1 -1 3 -1 If k is any scalar (a positive or negative number). k 1 ⋅ A = 5 × 1 – 2 = 5 × 1 5 × ( – 2 ) = 5 – 10 2 3 5×2 5×3 10 15 b. Example C. and not [k] which is a 1 × 1 matrix. k2=(−3 + 2*j). k 2 = – 3 + j2 Solution: a. A=[1 −2.2 Multiply the matrix A = 1 –2 2 3 by a. k 1 = 5 b. 2 3]. k1*A % Define scalars k1 and k2 % Define matrix A % Multiply matrix A by constant k1 ans = 5 -10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . k 2 ⋅ A = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 – 2 = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 ( – 3 + j2 ) × ( – 2 ) = – 3 + j2 2 3 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 2 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 3 – 6 + j4 6 – j4 – 9 + j6 Check with MATLAB: k1=5. then multiplication of a matrix A by the scalar k is the multiplication of every element of A by k .

That is. the operation is row by column. only when the number of columns of matrix A is equal to the number of rows of matrix B . Shows that A and B are conformable for multiplication A m×p B p×n Indicates the dimension of the product A ⋅ B For the product B ⋅ A we have: Here.0000i Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for multiplication A ⋅ B in that order.4.0000+ 6. to obtain the product A ⋅ B .3 Matrices C and D are defined as 1 C = 2 3 4 and D = – 1 2 Compute the products C ⋅ D and D ⋅ C C-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0000+ 4.0000i -9. we multiply each element of a row of A by the corresponding element of a column of B .0000. then. The product A ⋅ B will then be an m × n matrix. A convenient way to determine if two matrices are conformable for multiplication is to write the dimensions of the two matrices sideby-side as shown below.0000+ 2. Thus. we add these products.0000i 6.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 10 k2*A 15 %Multiply matrix A by constant k2 ans = -3. Example C. the product A ⋅ B (but not B ⋅ A ) is conformable for multiplication only if A is an m × p matrix and matrix B is an p × n matrix.0000i -6. B and A are not conformable for multiplication B p×n A m×p For matrix multiplication.

D=[1. C*D % Define matrices C and D % Multiply C by D ans = 7 D*C % Multiply D by C ans = 2 -2 4 3 -3 6 4 -4 8 Division of one matrix by another. when we discuss the inverse of a matrix. −1. and will result in a 1 × 1 .3 Special Forms of Matrices † A square matrix is said to be upper triangular when all the elements below the diagonal are zero. 1 C ⋅ D = 2 3 4 –1 = ( 2 ) ⋅ ( 1 ) + ( 3 ) ⋅ ( –1 ) + ( 4 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) = 7 2 The dimensions for D and C are respectively 3 × 1 1 × 3 and therefore. not all elements above the diagonal need to be non-zero. However. an equivalent operation exists. Multiplication of these will produce a 3 × 3 matrix as follows: 1 (1) ⋅ (2) (1) ⋅ (3) (1) ⋅ (4) 2 3 4 D ⋅ C = –1 2 3 4 = ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 3 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 4 ) = –2 –3 –4 2 (2) ⋅ (2) (2) ⋅ (3) (2) ⋅ (4) 4 6 8 Check with MATLAB: C=[2 3 4]. is not defined. the product D ⋅ C is also feasible. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 . In an upper triangular matrix. that is. The matrix A of (C. therefore the product C ⋅ D is feasible. 2].Special Forms of Matrices Solution: The dimensions of matrices C and D are respectively 1 × 3 3 × 1 .4) is an upper triangular matrix. and it will become apparent later in this chapter. C.

The matrix C of (C. † A square matrix is said to be diagonal. a 11 B = … … am1 0 … … am 2 0 … 0 0 … 0 … 0 0 … … 0 a m 3 … a mn a 21 a 22 (C.6) † A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix.7) is a scalar matrix with k = 4.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n 0 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n 0 0 … … … … … 0 … … 0 0 0 … a mn A = (C. The matrix B of (C. a 11 0 C = 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 a 22 0 … 0 0 … 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 0 … a mn (C.7) A scalar matrix with k = 1 . if a 11 = a 22 = a 33 = … = a nn = k where k is a scalar.6) is a diagonal matrix. not all elements below the diagonal need to be non-zero. The matrix D of (C.4) † A square matrix is said to be lower triangular.5) In a lower triangular matrix. except those in the diagonal.5) is a lower triangular matrix. when all the elements above the diagonal are zero. C-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and 4 × 4 identity matrices. Shown below are 2 × 2 . 3 × 3 . 4 D = 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 (C. is called an identity matrix I . if all elements are zero.

the eye(size(A)) function.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 . is the matrix that is obtained when the rows and columns of matrix A are interchanged. produces an identity matrix whose size is the same as matrix A . For example. eye(size(A)) 3 1 -7 1 -5 6 displays ans = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 † The transpose of a matrix A . denoted as A T . For example.Special Forms of Matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 (C. 4 −7 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 -2 4 then. let matrix A be defined as A=[1 3 1. For example.8) The MATLAB eye(n) function displays an n × n identity matrix. −2 1 −5. eye(4) % Display a 4 by 4 identity matrix ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Likewise. if 1 1 2 3 then A T = 2 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 A= (C.

for the above example. 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 3 –5 6 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 = A 3 –5 6 T (C. Thus. we get A = [1+2j j.0000i % Compute and display the conjugate of A conj_A = C-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The first. A=[1 2 3.0000i 2. that is. 3 2−3j] % Define and display matrix A A = 1.10) † If a matrix A has complex numbers as elements. 4 5 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 4 A' 2 5 3 6 % Display the transpose of A ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 † A symmetric matrix A is a matrix such that A T = A . conj(x). computes the complex conjugate of any complex number. and it is denoted as A∗ An example is shown below. is called the conjugate of A . An example of a symmetric matrix is shown below.3. A = 1 + j2 3 j 2 – j3 A∗ = 1 – j 2 3 –j 2 + j3 MATLAB has two built-in functions which compute the complex conjugate of a number. the transpose of a matrix A is the same as A . conj(A).0000i 3.0000.0000+ 2. and the second. computes the conjugate of a matrix A .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants In MATLAB we use the apostrophe (′) symbol to denote and obtain the transpose of a matrix. the matrix obtained from A by replacing each element by its conjugate.0000 conj_A=conj(A) 0+ 1. Using MATLAB with the matrix A defined as above.

† A square matrix A such that A T∗ = A is called Hermitian. † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = – A is called skew−Hermitian. matrix A above is Hermitian.11) then. denoted as detA . the determinant of A . matrix A above is skew-Hermitian.0000 0. For example.2.0000i 3.Determinants 1.0000+ 3.0000i † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew-symmetric. is defined as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-9 . 1 A = 1+j 2 1–j 3 –j 2 1 T A = 1–j j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 1 T* A = 1–j –j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 –j = A 0 Therefore.0000i 2. matrix A above is skew symmetric. For example.1. 0 2 –3 A = –2 0 –4 3 4 0 0 –2 A = 2 0 –3 –4 T 3 4 = –A 0 Therefore. C.0000.4 Determinants Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. j A = –1–j –2 1–j 3j j 2 j T A = 1–j j 0 2 –1–j 3j j –2 –j T* A = 1+j j 0 2 –1+j – 3j –j –2 –j = –A 0 Therefore. For example.

2 0].Appendix C Matrices and Determinants detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 …a nn + a 12 a 23 a 34 …a n 1 + a 13 a 24 a 35 …a n 2 + … – a n 1 …a 22 a 13 … – a n 2 …a 23 a 14 – a n 3 …a 24 a 15 – … The determinant of a square matrix of order n is referred to as determinant of order n. 3 4]. B=[2 −1. detA = a 11 a 22 – a 21 a 12 (C. that is.15) C-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 Matrices A and B are defined as A = 1 2 and B = 2 – 1 2 0 3 4 Compute detA and detB .13) Then.12) (C.14) Example C. A = a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 (C. a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 (C. det(A) % Define matrices A and B % Compute the determinant of A ans = -2 det(B) % Compute the determinant of B ans = 2 Let A be a matrix of order 3. Solution: detA = 1 ⋅ 4 – 3 ⋅ 2 = 4 – 6 = – 2 detB = 2 ⋅ 0 – 2 ⋅ ( – 1 ) = 0 – ( – 2 ) = 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2. Let A be a determinant of order 2. that is.

Determinants then.16) above. detA is found from detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 + a 12 a 23 a 31 + a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 (C. When this is done properly.5 Compute detA and detB if matrices A and B are defined as 2 A = 1 2 3 5 0 1 1 0 2 –3 –4 0 –2 0 –5 –6 and B = 1 Solution: 2 detA = 1 2 3 5 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 or detA = ( 2 × 0 × 0 ) + ( 3 × 1 × 1 ) + ( 5 × 1 × 1 ) – ( 2 × 0 × 5 ) – ( 1 × 1 × 2 ) – ( 0 × 1 × 3 ) = 11 – 2 = 9 Likewise. then subtract the products formed by the diagonals from lower left to upper right as shown on the diagram of the next page. and add the products formed by the diagonals from upper left to lower right. is to write the first two columns to the right of the 3 × 3 matrix. we must first compute the cofactors. a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 − + This method works only with second and third order determinants. Example C.16) A convenient method to evaluate the determinant of order 3. 2 –3 –4 2 –3 detB = 1 0 – 2 1 – 2 0 –5 –6 2 –6 or detB = [ 2 × 0 × ( – 6 ) ] + [ ( – 3 ) × ( – 2 ) × 0 ] + [ ( – 4 ) × 1 × ( – 5 ) ] – [ 0 × 0 × ( – 4 ) ] – [ ( – 5 ) × ( – 2 ) × 2 ] – [ ( – 6 ) × 1 × ( – 3 ) ] = 20 – 38 = – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 . To evaluate higher order determinants. these will be defined shortly. we obtain (C.

(C. det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 9 B=[2 −3 −4. 2 1 0]. 0 −5 −6]. a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. the remaining n – 1 square matrix is called the minor of A . The signed minor ( – 1 ) Example C. 1 0 −2. M 12 .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Check with MATLAB: A=[2 3 5.17) If we remove the elements of its ith row. α 12 and α 13 . C-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6 Matrix A is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 i+j M ij is called the cofactor of a ij and it is denoted as α ij . M 13 and the cofactors α 11 . and jth column.5 Minors and Cofactors Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix of order n as shown below.det(B) % Define matrix B and compute detB ans = -18 C.18) Compute the minors M 11 . 1 0 1. and it is denoted as M ij .

M 33 and cofactors α 21. and α 33 are defined similarly. α 32. M 32 . α 31. α 22.22) α 31 = ( – 1 ) 3+1 α 32 = ( – 1 ) 3+2 (C. –4 2 1 2 = –8 2 –4 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 2 2 = 10 –1 –6 2 –3 = 6 2 –6 1 2 = –4 –1 2 1 –3 = –8 2 2 (C. M 31 . Example C.20) α 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 α 21 = ( – 1 ) 2+1 (C.19) Solution: α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 – 4 2 = 20 2 –6 2 –4 = 0 –1 2 1 –3 = –9 –1 –6 2 – 3 = – 8.24) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 .21) α 22 = ( – 1 ) 2+2 α 23 = ( – 1 ) 2+3 (C.23) α 33 = ( – 1 ) 3+3 (C. M 22 . α 23.Minors and Cofactors Solution: M 11 = a 22 a 23 a 32 a 33 M 12 = a 21 a 23 a 31 a 33 M 11 = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 and α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 M 11 = M 11 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 M 12 = – M 12 α 13 = M 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 M 13 The remaining minors M 21 .7 Compute the cofactors of matrix A defined as 1 2 –3 A = 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. M 23 .

C-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 Matrix A is defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. the cofactors on the diagonals have the same sign as their minors. 2 −4 2.det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 40 We must use the above procedure to find the determinant of a matrix A of order 4 or higher. Let A be a square matrix of any size.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants It is useful to remember that the signs of the cofactors follow the pattern + − − + + − − + + − + − − + + − − + + − + − + − + that is. Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 × 20 – 2 × ( – 10 ) – 3 × 0 = 40 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 −3. Thus. the value of the determinant of A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or any column by its cofactor. −1 2 −6]. a fourth-order determinant can first be expressed as the sum of the products of the elements of its first row by its cofactor as shown below. Example C.25) Compute the determinant of A using the elements of the first row.

[ b ] = – 3 .8.27) Solution: Using the above procedure. using the procedure of Example C.9 Compute the value of the determinant of the matrix A defined as 2 –1 0 A = –1 1 0 4 0 3 –3 0 0 –3 –1 –2 1 (C. delta = det(A) delta = -33 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ C-15 . [ d ] = – 36 and thus detA = [ a ] + [ b ] + [ c ] + [ d ] = 6 – 3 + 0 – 36 = – 33 We can verify our answer with MATLAB as follows: A=[ 2 −1 0 −3. Then. −1 1 0 −1. [ c ] = 0 . −3 0 0 1].5 or Example C. we will multiply each element of the first column by its cofactor.26) +a 31 a 22 a 23 a 24 – a 41 a 22 a 23 a 24 Determinants of order five or higher can be evaluated similarly. we find [ a ] = 6 . Example C.Minors and Cofactors a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 41 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 = a 11 a 32 a 33 a 34 – a 21 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 32 a 33 a 34 (C. 4 0 3 −2. 1 0 –1 A=2 0 3 – 2 0 0 1 [a] –1 0 –3 –( –1 ) 0 3 –2 0 0 1 [b] –1 0 –3 +4 1 0 – 1 0 0 1 [c] –1 0 –3 –( –3 ) 1 0 –1 0 3 –2 [d] ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Next.

C. Property 2: If all the elements of one row or column are m times the corresponding elements of another row or column. Check with MATLAB: A=[2 4 1. detA = 2 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 6 = 12 + 4 + 6 – 6 – 4 – 12 = 0 2 (C. if 2 A = 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 (C.det(A) ans = 0 Property 3: If two rows or two columns of a matrix are identical. 3 6 1.29) Here. the determinant is zero. An example of this is the determinant of the cofactor [ c ] above. 1 2 1]. This follows from Property 2 with m = 1 . detA is zero because the second column in A is 2 times the first column.30) and let ∆ a 11 a 12 a 13 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 D1 = A a 11 a 13 B a 21 a 23 C a 31 a 33 D2 = a 11 A a 13 a 21 B a 23 a 31 C a 33 D3 = a 11 a 12 A a 21 a 22 B a 31 a 32 C C-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the determinant is zero. the determinant is zero.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Some useful properties of determinants are given below. Property 1: If all elements of one row or one column are zero.28) then.6 Cramer’s Rule Let us consider the systems of the three equations below a 11 x + a 12 y + a 13 z = A a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = B a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = C (C. For example.

and C . Cramer’s rule applies to systems of two or more equations.10 Use Cramer’s rule to find v 1 . and transferring known values to the right side. Then.32) and verify your answers with MATLAB. Solution: Rearranging the unknowns v. D 1.31) provided that the determinant ∆ (delta) is not zero. v 2 . if A = B = C = 0 . B .30) is a homogeneous set of equations. If (C. and z can be found from the relations D1 x = ----- ∆ D2 y = ----- ∆ D3 z = ----- ∆ (C. Example C. and v 3 if 2v 1 – 5 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 – 2v 3 – 3v 2 – 4v 1 = 8 v 2 + 3v 1 – 4 – v 3 = 0 (C. then. y. D 2. for the coefficients of the desired unknown.Cramer’s Rule Cramer’s rule states that the unknowns x. by Cramer’s rule. we get 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. x = y = z = 0 also. and D 3 are all zero as we found in Property 1 above. ∆ = 2 –1 3 –4 –3 –2 3 1 –1 5 –1 3 8 –3 –2 4 1 –1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = 6 + 6 – 12 + 27 + 4 + 4 = 35 3 1 5 –1 8 – 3 = 15 + 8 + 24 + 36 + 10 – 8 = 85 4 1 D1 = Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-17 .31) are determinants that are formed from ∆ by the substitution of the known values A . that is.33) Now. We observe that the numerators of (C.

Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 –4 3 5 3 8 –2 4 –1 5 8 4 2 –4 3 5 8 = – 16 – 30 – 48 – 72 + 16 – 20 = – 170 4 D2 = D3 = 2 –1 –4 –3 3 1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = – 24 – 24 – 20 + 45 – 16 – 16 = – 55 3 1 Then. 8 -3 -2.34) C-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 85 = 17 ∆ 35 7 D2 x 2 = ----. % Compute the value of v3 % disp('v1=').= – 170 = – 34 -----------7 35 ∆ D3 x 3 = ----. -4 -3 8. −4 −3 −2. % The elements of D1 detd1=det(d1). -4 8 -2.31) we get D1 --------x 1 = ----. v2 and v3.disp(v2). % Compute the value of v1 v2=detd2/delta. 3 4 -1]. % The elements of D2 detd2=det(d2). % The elements of D3 detd3=det(d3).34) We will verify with MATLAB as follows. % Compute the value of v2 v3=detd3/delta. % Display the value of v2 disp('v3='). using (C. % Compute the determinant of D2 d3=[2 -1 5. % Display the value of v1 disp('v2='). 3 1 −1]. 3 1 4]. 4 1 -1]. % Compute he determinant of D3 v1=detd1/delta. % Compute the determinant D of matrix B d1=[5 -1 3.disp(v1). % The following code will compute and display the values of v1. % Compute the determinant of D1 d2=[2 5 3.disp(v3).= – 55 = – 11 --------7 35 ∆ (C. format rat % Express answers in ratio form B=[2 −1 3. % The elements of the determinant D of matrix B delta=det(B). % Display the value of v3 v1= 17/7 v2= -34/7 v3= -11/7 These are the same values as in (C.

we can find the second unknown. we can find the unknown v 1 from either (C. By substitution into the first equation we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-19 .Gaussian Elimination Method C.36) we get 17 11 5v 1 + 2 ⋅ ⎛ – -----⎞ = 9 or v 1 = ----⎝ 7⎠ 7 (C.37) Subtraction of (C. v 2 . 5v 1 + 2v 3 = 9 (C.36) or (C.35) by 3. we obtain the following equation. and we add it with the second to eliminate v 2 .39) Finally.36) yields ----7v 3 = – 11 or v 3 = – 11 7 (C. substitution of the two values found can be made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third unknown.11 Use the Gaussian elimination method to find v 1 . we can find the last unknown v 2 from any of the three equations of (C.7 Gaussian Elimination Method We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian elimination method. we add the first equation of (C. Then. By substitution of (C.38) into (C. the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time. 5v 1 – 5v 3 = 20 (C.37).36) Next. and v 3 of the system of equations 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. This method is best illustrated with the following example which consists of the same equations as the previous example.38) Now. we multiply the third equation of (C. by substitution to another equation with two unknowns. This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of the unknowns will be eliminated. This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found. With this method.35) Solution: As a first step. Then.35) with the third to eliminate the unknown v2 and we obtain the following equation.37) from (C.35). Subsequently. Example C.

C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 34 33 35 34 v 2 = 2v 1 + 3v 3 – 5 = ----.= – ----7 7 7 7 (C. α 11 α 21 α 31 … α n 1 α 12 α 22 α 32 … α n 2 adjA = α α α … α 13 23 33 n3 … … … … … α 1 n α 2 n α 3 n … α nn (C. denoted as adjA .40) These are the same values as those we found in Example C. The Gaussian elimination method works well if the coefficients of the unknowns are small integers. Then the adjoint of A .– ----. is defined as the n square matrix below.10. as in Example C. it becomes impractical if the coefficients are large or fractional numbers.8 The Adjoint of a Matrix Let us assume that A is an n square matrix and α ij is the cofactor of a ij .42) Solution: 3 4 adjA = – 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 3 4 – 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 – 2 3 3 4 = –7 6 –1 1 0 –1 1 –2 1 – 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 C-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example C.41) We observe that the cofactors of the elements of the ith row (column) of A are the elements of the ith column (row) of adjA .12 Compute adjA if Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C.– ----. However.11.

10 The Inverse of a Matrix If A and B are n square matrices such that AB = BA = I .45) Compute its inverse. A is called non-singular. Solution: detA = 1 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 1 2 2 3 = 21 + 24 + 30 – 27 – 20 – 28 = 0 3 5 Therefore.14 Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. A is called the inverse of B . A = B –1 If a matrix A is non-singular.9 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices An n square matrix A is called singular if detA = 0 . and likewise. Example C. B is called the inverse of A .44) Example C.adjA detA (C. denoted as B = A –1 . if detA ≠ 0 . C. where I is the identity matrix. that is. matrix A is singular.43) Determine whether this matrix is singular or non-singular. find A –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-21 . we can compute its inverse A –1 from the relation A –1 1 = ----------.Singular and Non-Singular Matrices C.13 Matrix A is defined as 1 A = 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 (C. that is.

5000 -0. A –1 –7 6 –1 3.5000 -0. –7 6 –1 adjA = 1 0 – 1 1 –2 1 Then.5 1 1 = ----------.47) for the Matrix A defined as A = 4 2 3 2 2 –3 –2 4 Proof: detA = 8 – 6 = 2 and adjA = C-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .0000 0.5 – 3 0. 1 4 3]. invA=inv(A) % Define matrix A and compute its inverse A = 1 1 1 invA = 3. it is possible to compute the inverse of A using (C. detA = 9 + 8 + 12 – 9 – 16 – 6 = – 2 .5000 Multiplication of a matrix A by its inverse A –1 produces the identity matrix I .5000 0.0000 0 1.44).5000 2 3 4 3 4 3 -3.5000 -0. AA –1 = I or A A = I –1 (C.46) Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3.47) Example C.adjA = ----.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Solution: Here.1 0 – 1 = – 0. that is. From Example C. 1 3 4.5 1 – 0.15 Prove the validity of (C.12.5 0 0.5 –2 detA 1 –2 1 – 0. and since this is a non-zero value.5 (C.

A –1 1 1 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = ----------.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Then.2 – 3 = 2 –2 4 detA –1 2 3 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = 4 – 3 2 –1 2 2–2 –6+6 = 1 –3+4 0 0 = I 1 and AA –1 = 4 2 C. Solution: In matrix form. the given set of equations is AX = B where Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-23 .adjA = -. We assume that A and X are conformable for multiplication.50) Therefore. and x 3 using the inverse matrix method.49) or X=A B –1 (C. and X is a matrix (a column vector) whose elements are the unknowns.50) to solve any set of simultaneous equations that have solutions.11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Consider the relation AX = B (C.51) compute the unknowns x 1. we can use (C. Example C.48) by A –1 yields: A AX = A B = IX = A B –1 –1 –1 (C.16 For the system of the equations ⎧ 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 = 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 8 ⎭ (C.48) where A and B are matrices whose elements are known. We will refer to this method as the inverse matrix method of solution of simultaneous equations. x 2. Multiplication of both sides of (C.

55) To verify our results.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 A= 1 3 x1 9 3 1 . we find the determinant detA . A=[2 3 1. we could use the MATLAB’s inv(A) function. 3 1 2]. it is easier to use the matrix left division operation X = A \ B . X=A \ B C-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . this is MATLAB’s solution of A B for the matrix equation A ⋅ X = B .53) or x1 x2 x3 2 = 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 –1 9 6 8 (C.29 = 29 ⁄ 18 = 1. X = A B –1 (C.7 1 – 5 6 = ----.61 = 18 18 5 5 ⁄ 18 0. However. A –1 1 –5 7 1 1 = ----------.54) Next.52) Then. and then multiply A –1 by B.7 1 – 5 detA 18 –5 7 1 and by (C. and the adjoint adjA detA = 18 and adjA = 1 –5 7 7 1 –5 –5 7 1 Therefore.adjA = ----. B=[9 6 8]'. 1 2 3.53) we obtain the solution as follows. x1 X = x2 x3 35 35 ⁄ 18 1. where matrix X is the same size as matrix B. For this exam–1 ple.28 –5 7 1 8 (C.94 1 –5 7 9 11----. X = x2 . B = 6 2 3 8 1 2 x3 (C.

we find the determinant and the adjoint of R .56) Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I 1 .57) Therefore.2778 Example C.17 the loop equations are 10I 1 – 9I 2 = 100 0 0 – 9I 1 + 20I 2 – 9I 3 = – 9I 2 + 15I 3 = (C. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-25 .Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices X = 1.6111 0. where 10 – 9 0 100 R = – 9 20 – 9 . For this example.adjR detR (C.1.1. and I 3 Solution: For this example. the matrix equation is RI = V or I = R –1 V .17 For the electric circuit of Figure C.9444 1. This is found from the relation R –1 1 = ----------. I 2 . V = 0 0 – 9 15 0 I1 and I = I 2 I3 The next step is to find R – 1 . 1Ω V = 100 v 2Ω 2Ω − + I1 9Ω 9Ω 4Ω I2 I3 Figure C. Circuit for Example C.

% No need to make entry for A(1. V=[100 0 0]'.135 = 13.2)=-9.2)=20.2)=-9. adjR = 135 150 90 81 90 119 (C.31 I3 I1 Check with MATLAB: R=[10 −9 0.3)=15. R(2. R(3. to obtain the values of the three currents in Example C.46 1 100 I = I 2 = -------. We start with a blank spreadsheet and in a block of cells.85 0 975 975 81 90 119 0 81 8.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 219 135 81 detR = 975. −9 20 −9.3) since it is zero.135 150 90 975 detR 81 90 119 and 219 135 81 100 219 22.8462 8. C-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .adjR = -------. I=R\V I = 22.17. Accordingly. V=[100 0 0]'.8462 8. R(2.4615 13. we enter the elements of matrix R as shown in Figure C.135 150 90 = -------. I=R\V I = 22. the above code could also have been written as: R(1.3077 We can also use subscripts to address the individual elements of the matrix. R(2.1)=10. we enter the elements of matrix V in G3:G5. The procedure is as follows: 1. R –1 219 135 81 1 1 = ----------. R(3. 0 −9 15]. Then.1)=-9.2. R(1.3077 Spreadsheets also have the capability of solving simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.3)=-9. we can use Microsoft Excel’s MINVERSE (Matrix Inversion) and MMULT (Matrix Multiplication) functions.4615 13.58) Then. For instance. say B3:D5.

Circuit for Example C.462 7 -1 R = 0. 3.17 with a spreadsheet Example C.18 85 Ω 170∠0° + V1 R1 C IX −j100 Ω V2 50 Ω VS − j200 Ω R3 = 100 Ω L R2 Figure C. Solution of Example C. Next.092 8 I= 13.092 0. we highlight them. We format this block for number display with three decimal places.083 22.18 For the phasor circuit of Figure C. that is.2.083 0. We choose B7:D9 for the elements of this inverted matrix. we type the formula =MMULT(B7:D9. we choose the block of cells G7:G9 for the values of the current I.154 0. and with the cell marker positioned in G7.138 0. Now. we compute and display the inverse of R.225 0. we type the formula =MININVERSE(B3:D5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.G3:G5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 2. The values of I then appear in G7:G9.122 8. R – 1 . A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 10 -9 0 100 3 R= -9 20 -9 V= 0 4 0 -9 15 0 5 6 0. With this range highlighted and making sure that the cell marker is in B7.846 9 0. We observe that R – 1 appears in these cells.3077 10 Figure C.3. As before.138 0.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-27 .

60) and (C. disp('V2 = ').+ -------------.01j]. disp(V(1)).+ ----------------. and find V fprintf('\n'). Simplifying and rearranging the nodal equations of (C.61) Compute.01.01 Y V1 V2 V = 2 j1. I=[2.+ -------------.+ ----------------.7 (C.0218 – j0.01 )V 2 = j1.01V 2 = 2 – 0.59) and the voltages V1 and V2 can be computed from the nodal equations V 1 – 170 ∠0° V 1 – V 2 V 1 – 0 ------------------------------.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants the current I X can be found from the relation V1 – V2 I X = ----------------R3 (C. 1.63) where the matrices Y . and I = Current Solution: The Y matrix elements are the coefficients of V 1 and V 2 .005 – 0.0218−0.01 V 1 + ( 0. and I are as indicated. V . disp(V(2)). I.= 0 85 100 j200 (C. We will use MATLAB to compute the voltages V 1 and V 2 . and to do all other computations.01 – 0. collecting.62) in matrix form as 0. Y=[0. and then writing the above relations in matrix form as YV = I .03+0. The code is shown below. we write (C.0218 – j0. we get ( 0. V = Voltage . % Insert a line disp('V1 = ').60) and V 2 – 170 ∠0° V 2 – V 1 V 2 – 0 ------------------------------.62) Next. −0.03 + j0.= 0 – j100 100 50 (C.7 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (C.005 )V 1 – 0.61). and express the current I x in both rectangular and polar forms by first simplifying like terms.7j].% Define Y.01 0.01 0. where Y = Admit tan ce .005j −0. V=Y\I. % Display values of V1 and V2 C-28 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .03 + j0.

and thus we cannot use them to compute matrices that include complex numbers in their elements as in Example C.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-29 .Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices V1 = 1.5326 Therefore.0.53° Spreadsheets have limited capabilities with complex numbers.5149. in polar form I X = 0.0590i This is the rectangular form of I X .518 ∠– 6.4162 + 55.9448e+001i V2 = 53.5183 thetaIX=angle(IX)*180/pi % Compute angle theta in degrees thetaIX = -6. For the polar form we use magIX=abs(IX) % Compute the magnitude of IX magIX = 0. we find I X from R3=100.0490e+002 + 4. IX=(V(1)−V(2))/R3 % Compute the value of IX IX = 0.3439i Next.

b. B . B + D g. Verify your answers with MATLAB. if possible.12 Exercises For Problems 1 through 3 below. detA e. Perform the following computations. the matrices A . Verify your answers with MATLAB. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 6. B ⋅ D g. detD 4. C – D d. A ⋅ C f. A – B a. B – D d. det ( A ⋅ B ) b. x1 –3 1 3 4 a. Verify your answers with MATLAB.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants C. Verify your answers with MATLAB. C ⋅ A c. if possible. Solve the following systems of equations using Cramer’s rule. and D are defined as: 1 –1 –4 A = 5 7 –2 3 –5 6 5 9 –3 B = –2 8 2 7 –4 6 4 6 C= – 3 8 5 –2 D = 1 –2 3 –3 6 –4 1. a. B ⋅ A b. 3 1 – 2 ⋅ x 2 = – 2 0 2 3 5 x3 2 4 3 b. Solve the following systems of equations using the inverse matrix method. Perform the following computations. A + C f. C + D h. A – C c. if possible. Repeat Exercise 4 using the Gaussian elimination method. 5. D ⋅ A 3. A ⋅ B e. C ⋅ D · h. D ⋅ C 2. a. det ( A ⋅ C ) c. C . Perform the following computations. A + B e. detB f. detC d. x 1 – 2x 2 + x 3 = – 4 – x 1 + 2x 2 – 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 14 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 – x 4 = 9 3x 1 – 3 x 2 + 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 19 4x 1 + 2x 2 + 5x 3 + x 4 = 27 a. – 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 3x 1 + 4x 2 – 5x 3 = 0 b. 2 – 4 1 –1 3 –4 2 –2 2 x1 –2 1 3 ⋅ x 2 = 10 x3 2 – 14 1 7 x4 C-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Index Symbols and Numerics % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 3-dB down 4-4 A abs(z) in MATLAB A-25 admittance 6-17 ampere 1-1. 4-33 current 1-1 current division expressions 2-25 current flow conventional 1-2 electron 1-2 current gain 4-2 current limiting devices 2-2 current ratings for electronic equipment 2-30 current source combinations 2-17. B-3 complex excitation function 6-3. A-2 effective (RMS) value of sinusoids 8-5 effective values 8-3 efficiency 3-47 eight-to-three line encoder 8-28 electric field 5-17. A-23 B bandwidth 4-4 box in MATLAB A-13 branch 2-5 C capacitance 5-17 capacitance combinations 5-25 capacitor(s) 1-12. 5-17 in parallel 5-27 in series 5-26 chemical processes 1-17. 5-30 electric filters . B-2 division B-4 exponential form B-5 multiplication B-3 polar form B-5 rectangular form B-5 subtraction B-2 complex power 8-16. 4-32 buffer 4-20 unity gain 4-12. A-18. 8-17 conductance 2-2 conj(A). 3-41 determinant C-9 device(s) active 1-12.b) in MATLAB A-6 conversion factors 1-16 conductor sizes for interior wiring 2-33 coulomb 1-1. 8-30 axis in MATLAB A-17. 6-24 E editor window in MATLAB A-1 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1. 2-18 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-21 cutoff frequency band-elimination filter 4-15 band-pass filter 4-15 high-pass filter 4-14 low-pass filter 4-13 lower 4-4 upper 4-4 D data points in MATLAB A-15 DC (Direct Current) 1-4 decibel 4-2. 4-33 attenuator 4-1 average value 8-2. 1-20 circuit(s) defined 1-12. 1-20 passive 1-12. 1-20.see filters energy dissipated in a resistor 2-4 energy stored in a capacitor 5-22 energy stored in an inductor 5-12 eps in MATLAB A-23. C-16. B-3 defined A-3. A-28 Euler’s identities B-4 excitations 6-1 exit in MATLAB A-2 exponential form of complex numbers B-5 exponentiation in MATLAB A-22 eye(n) in MATLAB C-7 eye(size(A)) in MATLAB C-7 F Farad 5-18.d) in MATLAB A-6. C-17 critical frequency 4-13. A-7 default color in MATLAB A-16 default in MATLAB A-13 default line in MATLAB A-16 default marker in MATLAB A-16 delta function defined 10-8 sampling property 10-8 sifting property 10-9 demos in MATLAB A-2 dependent source(s) current 1-10. 8-32 angle(z) in MATLAB A-25 attenuation 4-13. 1-18 Cramer’s rule 3-2. 5-18. conj(x) in MATLAB C-8 conjugate of a complex number B-3 conv(a. 1-19 ampere capacity of wires 2-30 amplifier 4-1. 5-30 differential input amplifier 4-5 digital filter 7-21 diode(s) 1-10 Dirac function 10-9 direct current 1-4 discontinuous function 10-1 disp(A) in MATLAB 7-19. 5-30 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 5-2 . A-13 deconv(c. 6-21 complex number(s) addition B-2 conjugate A-4. 1-20 dielectric 5-17. 3-41 voltage 1-10. 4-20 analog-to-digital converter 8-28. A-32 display formats in MATLAB A-31 division in MATLAB A-22 dot multiplication operator in MATLAB A-22 driving functions 6-1 duality 6-19. 1-20 analysis with loop equations 3-8 analysis with mesh equations 3-8 analysis with nodal equations 3-1 with non-linear devices 3-45 clc in MATLAB A-2 clear in MATLAB A-2 combined mesh 3-18 combined node 3-6 command screen in MATLAB A-1 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-8 comment line in MATLAB A-2 comparators 8-28 complementary function 9-1 complete response 10-16 complex conjugate A-4.

A-28 fzero(f.array) in MATLAB 7-19. 8-31 lighting 2-34 resistive 8-10 log (common log) A-13 log(x) in MATLAB A-13 log10(x) in MATLAB A-13 log2(x) in MATLAB A-13 loglog(x. 1-20 mesh combined 3-18 defined 2-6 equations 2-10. C-27 multiplication of complex numbers B-3 multiplication in MATLAB A-20. 5-29 matrix. 4-33. 7-21 phase shift 7-21 RC high-pass 7-23 RC low-pass 7-21 stop-band 4-15. 10-23 . 7-21 passive 4-13.lims) in MATLAB A-28. A-26 mho 2-2 Military Standards 2-27 MINVERSE in Excel C-26 MMULT in Excel C-26. 7-23 low-pass 4-13. 10-16. 5-2 in parallel 5-16 in series 5-15 initial condition 5-3 initial rate of decay 9-3. 7-20 high-pass 4-14. 1-20 m-file in MATLAB A-1. 7-20 band-pass 4-14. 7-20 flash converter 8-28 flux linkage 5-2. 6-22 full-wave rectification function file in MATLAB A-26.y) in MATLAB A-18 metric system 1-13. 4-33. 5-28.x2) in MATLAB A-28 fmin(f. 7-35 mechanical forms of energy 1-17. 5-29 magnetic flux 5-2. matrices adjoint C-20 cofactor of C-12 conformable for addition C-2 conformable for multiplication C-4 congugate of C-8 defined C-1 diagonal of C-1. A-29 fprintf(format.x1. 9-10.y. 6-23 susceptance 6-18. 5-29 linspace(values) in MATLAB A-14 ln (natural log) A-13 load capacitive 8-15. 4-33. 4-33. 2-15 virtual 4-17 gtext(‘string’) in MATLAB A-14 H half-power points 4-4 half-wave rectification 8-3 Heavyside function 10-9 Henry 5-3. 8-31 inductive 8-15. 7-20 band-rejection 4-15. 3-1. A-21 multirange ammeter/milliammeter 8-24 N NaN in MATLAB A-28 National Electric Code (NEC) 2-30 natural response 9-1.feedback 4-4 negative 4-5 positive 4-5 figure window in MATLAB A-14 filter active 4-13 all-pass 7-20 analog 7-21 band-elimination 4-15. 5-29 fmax(f. 4-33. 10-23 format command in MATLAB A-31 format in MATLAB A-31 fplot in MATLAB A-28 fplot(fcn. 4-33. 3-13 circuits with single 2-10 M magnetic field 5-1. 1-20.x) in MATLAB A-28.b) in MATLAB 1-7 International System of Units 1-13 J j operator B-1 K KCL 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 2-7 KVL 2-7 L left-hand rule 5-1 lims = in MATLAB A-28 linear circuit 3-40 devices 1-10 factor A-9 inductor 5-2 passive element 3-39 linearity 3-39 lines of magnetic flux 5-1. 6-23 inductor(s) defined 1-12.y) in MATLAB A-13 loop defined 2-5 equations 3-1. 7-20. 10-16.x1. 7-5 generalized 3-18 mesh(x. 5-17.a.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x. 7-20. 7-20 band-stop 4-15. 9-11 instantaneous values 2-1 int(f. 4-33. 5-29 I imag(z) in MATLAB A-25 imaginary axis B-2 number B-2 impedance 6-14 inductance 5-2 inductive reactance 6-15. A-32 frequency response A-13 frequency-domain to time-domain transformation 6-6. A-30 forced response 6-4.x2) in MATLAB A-28. A-30 G Gaussian elimination method C-19 grid in MATLAB A-13 ground defined 2-1. C-6 Hermitian C-9 identity C-6 inverse of C-21 left division in MATLAB C-24 lower triangular C-6 minor of C-12 multiplication using MATLAB A-20 non-singular C-21 singular C-21 scalar C-6 skew-Hermitian C-9 skew-symmetric C-9 square C-1 symmetric C-8 theory 3-2 trace of C-2 transpose C-7 upper triangular C-5 zero C-2 maximum power transfer theorem 3-38.

tol) in MATLAB 1-7 quad8 in MATLAB 1-7 quadratic factors A-9 quit in MATLAB A-2 R series connection 2-8. 1-18 nodal analysis 2-14.n. 6-23 inductive 6-18. A-8. 1-19 voltage defined 1-4 dividers 2-2 division expressions 2-23 drop 1-5 rational polynomials A-8 reactance capacitive 6-15. 10-32 unit ramp function 10-6. 10-31 V virtual ground 4-17 volt 1-5. 7-8 nuclear energy 1-17. A-8 RMS values of sinusoids with polynomial construction from different frequencies 8-7 roots(p) in MATLAB A-3. A-16 shunt 8-21 plot3(x.’string’) in MATLAB A-18 Thevenin’s theorem 3-24.b. 1-20 passive 1-12.y) in MATLAB A-10. 1-7 quad(‘f’. 4-32 single ended output amplifier 4-5 single node-pair parallel circuit 2-14 slope converter 8-28 solar energy 1-17. 5-28.NEC 2-30 negative charge 5-18 network active 1-12.y. 6-23 inductive 6-15. 8-14 script file in MATLAB A-26 in capacitive loads 8-11 semicolons in MATLAB A-8 semilogx(x. 10-32 unit step function 10-1. 6-23 T temperature scales equivalents 1-16 text(x.y) in MATLAB A-13 in inductive loads 8-11 semilogy(x. 2-17. A-12. 3-1.z) in MATLAB A-16 tolerance 2-27 polar plot in MATLAB A-25 response 6-1. 10-24 time-domain to frequency-domain transformation 6-6. 10-18.’string’) in MATLAB A-14 text(x. 1-19 resistive network 8-28 periodic functions of time 8-1 resistors 1-12. 2-28 instantaneous 8-3 power factor 8-10 defined 8-10 lagging 8-15 leading 8-15 power factor correction 8-18 power triangle 8-16 prefixes 1-14. 8-17 gain 4-2 in a capacitor 5-22 in an inductor 5-11 in a resistor 2-3.r) in MATLAB A-25 right-hand rule 5-1 poly(r) in MATLAB A-4.see op amp complex 8-16.x) in MATLAB A-6 round(n) in MATLAB A-25 potential difference 1-4 S power absorbed 1-8. 2-4. A-5 RMS value of sinusoids 8-5 polyder(p) in MATLAB A-6.y. 1-20 sources of energy 1-17. 1-20 standard prefixes 1-14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices 2-26 steady-state conditions 5-12 string in MATLAB A-18 subplot(m. 7-8 time constant 9-3.y) in MATLAB A-13 in a resistive loads 8-10 . 6-23 real axis B-2 number B-2 real(z) in MATLAB A-25 regulation 3-49 P resistance defined 2-1 parallel connection 2-8. 2-18 input 4-28 particular solution 6-4 output 4-28 passive sign convention 1-8. 1-20 O Ohm 2-1 Ohm’s law 2-1 Ohm’s law for AC circuits 6-15 Ohmmeter 8-26 parallel type 8-26 series type 8-26 shunt type 8-26 op amp 4-5 inverting mode 4-6 non-inverting mode 4-9 open circuit 2-2 operational amplifier . 6-21 time-window converter 8-28 title(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 total response 10-16 tracking converter 8-28 transient response 9-1 transistors 1-10 trivial solution 9-2 two-terminal device 1-4. 9-11. 3-1.a. 2-17 short circuit 2-2 SI Derived Units 1-17 siemens 2-2 signal 4-1. 7-7 susceptance 6-18. 2-16. 1-19 average 8-9. 7-1 node combined 3-6 defined 2-5 generalized 3-6 equations 2-14. A-9 known roots in MATLAB A-4 polyval(p.y. 1-15 principle of superposition 3-41 Q quad in MATLAB 1-6. 2-2 phasor analysis in amplifier circuits 7-12 color code 2-27 phasor diagram 7-15 failure rate 2-27 plot(x. 1-19 U unit impulse function 10-8. 6-23 capacitive 6-18.p) in MATLAB A-19 substitution method of solving a system of simultaneous equations 3-2 supermesh 3-18 supernode 3-6 superposition principle 3-41. 1-20 topology 3-1 newton 1-1. 7-1 non-reference 3-1 reference 3-1 non-linear devices 1-10 Norton’s theorem 3-35.z. 6-21 polar(theta.

8-32 X xlabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Y ylabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Z zero potential 2-15 .follower 4-20 gain 4-2 instantaneous 1-5 rise 1-5 voltage source combinations 2-16. 2-17 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-20 voltmeter 8-24 W watt 1-8 watt-hour meter 8-28 wattmeter 8-28 weber 5-1. 5-29 Wheatstone bridge 8-27.

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