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Course :

Automatic control

Project:

**Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider
**

Instructor:

Dr.

Yousefi-Koma

By: Morteza shafiee Hassan Ghiamatyoun

Summer 2010 Tehran

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 0

Contents

Chapter-1......................................................................................................................................... 2 Introduction: ................................................................................................................................ 3 PID controllers: ........................................................................................................................... 4 Chapter-2......................................................................................................................................... 5 2.1.General effect on system by applying P.I.D controllers: ..................................................... 6 2.1.1.Proportional term: ........................................................................................................... 6 2.1.2.Integral term: .................................................................................................................. 6 2.1.3.Derivative term : ............................................................................................................. 6 2.2.Effects of increasing a parameter independently : ................................................................ 7 2.3.Crank Slider: ......................................................................................................................... 7 2.4.Block diagram of system:...................................................................................................... 8 Chapter-3....................................................................................................................................... 10 3.1.The best controller:.............................................................................................................. 11 3.1.1.Proportional controller(P): ............................................................................................ 11 3.1.2.Proportional - Derivative controller(PD):..................................................................... 13 3.1.3.Proportional – Integral controller(PI): .......................................................................... 15 3.1.4.Proportional – Integral - Derivative controller(PID): ................................................... 17 3.2.comparing controllers:......................................................................................................... 19 Chapter-4....................................................................................................................................... 20 4.1.Controller testing : ............................................................................................................... 21 4.1.1.Proportional controller(P): ............................................................................................ 21 4.1.2.Proportional - Derivative controller(PD):..................................................................... 23 4.1.3.Proportional – Integral controller(PI): .......................................................................... 24 4.1.4.Proportional – Integral - Derivative controller(PID): ................................................... 25 Results: ...................................................................................................................................... 27 Chapter-5....................................................................................................................................... 28 References : ............................................................................................................................... 29

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 1

Chapter-1

Introduction PID controllers

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 2

The PID framework solves many control problems and is sufficiently flexible to incorporate additional capabilities. Over the last half-century. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 3 . It is appropriate at this time to consider the state of the art in PID control as well as new developments in this control approach. quite often with the derivative gain set to zero (PI control).Introduction: proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is certainly the most widely used control strategy today. primarily in the areas of tuning rules.In this projects . identification schemes. We can thus expect that this technique will continue to play an important role in control practice. The three terms of a PID controller fulfill three common requirements of most control problems. a result commonly explained in terms of the internal model principle and demonstrated using the final value theorem . The integral term yields zero steady-state error in tracking a constant set point. the goal is to find a PID controller (if one exists) that allows the loop transfer function to achieve gain and phase specifications over finite frequency intervals. a great deal of academic and industrial effort has focused on improving PID control. and adaptation techniques. It is estimated that over 90% of control loops employ PID control.

based on current rate of change. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. the PID parameters used in the calculation must be tuned according to the nature of the systemwhile the design is generic. and D is a prediction of future errors. PI controllers are fairly common. denoted P. the degree to which the controller overshoots the set point and the degree of system oscillation. A PID controller will be called a PI. By tuning the three constants in the PID controller algorithm.Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control. PID controllers are the best controllers. the integral value determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors. Heuristically. whereas the absence of an integral value may prevent the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. The PID controller calculation (algorithm) involves three separate parameters. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. since derivative action is sensitive to measurement noise. and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control: the proportional. the integral and derivative values. I. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 4 .The response of the controller can be described in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error.PID controllers: A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems – a PID is the most commonly used feedback controller. the parameters depend on the specific system. and the derivative value determines the reaction based on the rate at which the error has been changing. Note that the use of the PID algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability . However. the controller can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. and D. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs. Figure-1: the block diagram of sample PID controller. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. these values can be interpreted in terms of time: P depends on the present error. The proportional value determines the reaction to the current error. In the absence of knowledge of the underlying process. for best performance. PD. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. I on the accumulation of past errors. As you see in figure-1 we show a sample diagram of PID controller .

I.Chapter-2 General effect on system by applying P.D controllers Effects of increasing a parameter independently Crank Slider Block diagram of system | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 5 .

Integral and Derivative terms on controller . The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term (sometimes called rate) to the overall control action is termed the derivative gain. a small gain results in a small output response to a large input error. The derivative term slows the rate of change of the controller output and this effect is most noticeable close to the controller set point. since the integral term is responding to accumulated errors from the past.General effect on system by applying P. the system can become unstable (see the section on loop tuning).I. Hence. The integral term (when added to the proportional term) accelerates the movement of the process towards set point and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a proportional only controller. the control action may be too small when responding to system disturbances. However. derivative control is used to reduce the magnitude of the overshoot produced by the integral component and improve the combined controller-process stability. A high proportional gain results in a large change in the output for a given change in the error. However. Ki. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp .Integral term: The contribution from the integral term (sometimes called reset) is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the error.1.. K d .2. If the proportional gain is too high.D controllers: Now we describe the effect of Proportional.2.3. differentiation of a signal amplifies noise and thus this | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 6 . In contrast. The magnitude of the contribution of the integral term to the overall control action is determined by the integral gain. its first derivative with respect to time) and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd.Proportional term: The proportional term (sometimes called gain) makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current error value.1.1. 2.1. and a less responsive (or sensitive) controller. called the proportional gain. The accumulated error is then multiplied by the integral gain and added to the controller output. Summing the instantaneous error over time (integrating the error) gives the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. If the proportional gain is too low. 2. it can cause the present value to overshoot the set point value (cross over the set point and then create a deviation in the other direction).1.Derivative term : The rate of change of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time (i.e. 2.

Effects of increasing a parameter independently : Effects There is a table that show the effects of increasing a parameter independently.2.3. and can cause a process to oller become unstable if the noise and the derivative gain are sufficiently large 2. In next section we increasing examine these effect and discuss on theme. Parameter Rise time Overshoot Settling time Steady-state state error Decrease Decrease significantly No effect in theory Stability Kp Decrease Increase Small change Degrade Ki Kd Decrease Minor decrease Increase Minor decrease Increase Minor decrease Degrade Improve if Kd small Table-2: Effects of increasing a parameter independently independently.5 7.Crank Slider: As you see in figure-2 and figure-4 we simulate a slider lag in Matlab Simulink Origin position vector: B A= [0 0 0] B= [10 10 0] C= [15 5 0] C CG1 CG1= [5 5 0] CG2= [12. 2.term in the controller is highly sensitive to noise in the error term.5 0] Dimensions are in cm Each link has 1 kg mass A CG2 Figure-2: Crank Slider Figure | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 7 .

Figure-3: | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 8 .4. As you see in figure-2 we see figure use five scopes to monitoring our data: Figure Block diagram of system.2.Block diagram of system: Block By using Matlab Simulink . we design a block diagram for system.

Figure-4: Block diagram of subsystem. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 9 .

Chapter-3 The best controller comparing controllers | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 10 .

1 controller is optimized to desired responses and the optimized gain is: p = 1525.2 Figure Figure-3. we determine a best controller.Proportional controller(P): Proportional First we apply proportional controller to control the system .as you see in figure 3.1:iteration for optimized responses . 3.1.by using matlab signal constraint block .1.3. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 11 .The best controller: In this chapter we try to choose the best controller and optimized controller .1.

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 12 .3:torque signal.Figure-3.2:system response. We have a steady state error about 0.0006 cm because the gain of integral is zero Figure-3.

4:iteration for optimized responses .1.Derivative controller controller(PD): as you see in figure 3.3.2.Proportional . | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 13 .3 d = 10.43 Figure Figure-3.4 controller is optimized to desired responses and the optimized gain is: p = 1545.

5:system response Again we have a steady state error about 0. Figure-3.0006 cm because the gain of integral is zero and there is very small effect on system in variety of d(derivative gain).6:torque signal.Figure-3. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 14 .

2763 Figure Figure-3.7:iteration for optimized responses .Proportional – Integral controller controller(PI): as you see in figure 3.1.3.3.7 controller is optimized to desired responses and the optimized gain is: i = 52.5881 p = 919. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 15 .

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 16 .Figure-3.8:system response If you see carefully Figure-3.9:torque signal. Figure-3.8 you understand that we don’t have steady state error because we apply integral term in our controller.

10 controller is optimized to desired responses and the optimized gain is: responses d = 1.9681 Figure Figure-3. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 17 .1.3.6060 p = 918.0000e-005 i = 52.4.Derivative controller controller(PID): as you see in figure 3.10:iteration for optimized responses .Proportional – Integral .

12:torque signal.Figure-3.11:system response Again we don’t have steady state error because we apply integral term in our controller. Figure-3. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 18 .

2.1: summery of PID characteristics. The best an certain controller in our view point is PID because it is very adaptive with condition in comparison with other controller although there is not difference between PID and PI controller because effect of D is not very visible . KP × e(t) KI × ∫ e(t) dt KD × d e(t) / dt Table-3. Term P Proportional I Integral D Derivative Math Function Effect on Control System Typically the main drive in a control loop.if we want exact output (exact position for slider) we must apply integral term in controller and if we need small overshoot we must apply derivative term in our controller there are many condition as you see in Table 3. Counteracts the KP and KI terms when the output changes quickly.comparing controllers: We can apply all of controller for controlling system .3. It has no effect on final error. Reduces the final error in a system.but its depend on what we do with controller and what are our goals .1 we summarized the effect of controller on system . | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 19 . This helps reduce overshoot and ringing. KP reduces a large part of the overall error. Summing even a small error over time produces a drive signal large enough to move the system toward a smaller error.

Chapter-4 Controller testing Results | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 20 .

Proportional controller(P): Range of acceptable input: 0.1.1: response for minimum input value (P controller). change input value: for each controller we determine range of input .2 Figure-4. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 21 . 2)change mass of links and check controller work correctly or not.1.4.Controller testing : We test controllers in two ways: 1)change input value and check controller work correctly or not.0737-0.you can see below results and diagrams 4.1.

Figure-4.2: response for maximum input value (P controller). | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 22 .

0737-0.2.2 Figure-4.3: response for minimum input value (PD controller).4: response for maximum input value (PD controller). | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 23 .Derivative controller(PD): Range of acceptable input: 0. Figure-4.Proportional .4.1.

Proportional – Integral controller(PI): Range of acceptable input: 0. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 24 .4.2001 Figure-4.6: response for maximum input value (PI controller).1.3. Figure-4.5: response for minimum input value (PD controller).0737-0.

4.4. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 25 .0737-0.2002 Figure-4.8: response for maximum input value (PID controller). Figure-4.Proportional – Integral .Derivative controller(PID): Range of acceptable input: 0.1.7: response for minimum input value (PID controller).

1 Kg Figure-4. | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 26 .Now we only test PID controller with change in link 3 s mass: Range of mass can vary in : 0-9.10:maximum torque for maximum mass.9: response for maximum mass (PID controller). Figure-4.

| Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 27 . the controlled process input can be unstable. If the PID controller parameters (the gains of the proportional.e. In this project we see that the best controller is PID controller. i. integral and derivative terms) are chosen incorrectly. with or without oscillation. and is limited only by saturation or mechanical breakage.Results: All of controller work correctly in determined region. its output diverges.

Chapter-4 Chapter-5 Appendix References | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 28 .

org | Design a PID Controller For Crank Slider 29 .uk [3] http://www. “Modern Control Engineering”.ncl.ac. Fourth Edition [2] http://lorien.References : [ 1] KATSUHIKO OGATA.wikipedia.

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