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Submitted To: Ms. Tyagi

Submitted By:Savita Malik Semester:-3rd B. Arch. 2009-2014

Date:-13th Oct’2010

1) Discuss the importance of climatology for architect and planners. Illustrate with suitable example.
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Climate:- it is the name for the general conditions of temperature and precipitation for an area over a long period of time. Climatology:- It is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time, and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. When human beings chose a particular as his dwelling place since many generations before, he began constructing it. Then he encountered with various climates, therefore he tried to struggle with environmental conditions, and create suitable internal spaces, and initiated different constructing methods to adapt to the environment. Because of different climates, there are different building systems. There are also valuable experiences in the field of designing, building and choosing of materials for traditional buildings, aimed at struggling with environment conditions. According to the architectural forms and structures in different areas, it seems that the variable characteristics of different climates have played an important role on creation of the cities and also the architectural formation of these areas. Therefore, the exact distinction of climate districts and also acquiring the climate characteristics in different areas has very important role in suitable designing. Before designing a building an architect must know the geographical condition of that area, which also includes the climatic condition, in order to allow environmentally compatible buildings with high user comfort combined with low investment and operating costs and high functionality. Climatology supports the architect in achieving a comfortable building climate together with an energy-saving structural design.  The primary emphasis is on providing maximum protection against external factors by means of passive measures concerning the building construction.  Another essential aspect is the use of natural resources, such as natural light, natural ventilation and solar heating. Let’s take an example of the dwelling under various climates:The Sun Due to the high rainfall in hilly areas, the roofs are made with high slope. The slope level with west-East direction gets lighter in summer in comparison with winter. Surfaces with the slope toward south get more sun radiation in winter. In autumn and spring, the south slope surfaces get 20% or more than the east and west slope surfaces. Surfaces with the slope towards north receive the less sun radiation during the year.

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Wind The way of blowing of the wind in an area is an important parameter for determining the building’s direction. In costal areas, a sea and earth breeze blows. Their direction during the day is from the sea towards the beach and during the night. Natural ventilation, with no except, is used in all the buildings of this area14. In general, all the buildings have expanded and open plans and all of them have long and narrow geometric plans. For the main use of the wind blowing to create natural ventilation, rooms are located in the buildings due to the blowing of the wind. In the areas with high blow of the wind, all parts of the building towards the wind are completely closed. Because of using the best of wind blowing and because of great water sources and availability of water, the buildings are located non-concentrated and with big distances. Rainfall Because of high rainfall in these areas, the roofs are made with slope and mostly with high slopes affecting the form of the buildings to keep the rooms safe from the rain, the extended - balconies are made around the rooms. These spaces are used for working, resting and sometimes for storing. Humidity In high humidity beaches and the borders near the sea, the buildings are made on the wooden pedestals to prevent the penetration of humidity inside the building but on the slopes of the mountains, with less humidity, houses are built on the stone, soil Choosing the materials As the link between the building and its external environment, the façade is highly significant for the design of the building. It plays a decisive role with regard to energy flow and other interaction between the interior and exterior of the building. Climatology helps in selection of material for the building of the particular region.

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2) Explain the elements of climate.
The various elements of the climate are as under:1. Air temperature 2. Relative humidity 3. Vapor pressure 4. Precipitation 5. Sky Condition 6. Solar radiation 7. Wind 8. Vegetation 9. Special characteristics. Air temperature:Air Temperature is a physical property that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold air. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. Temperature is measured with thermometers, which may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. Much of the world uses the Celsius scale for most temperature measurements. Relative humidity:Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor that exists in air. The relative humidity defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in air to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a prescribed temperature. The relative humidity of an air-water system is dependent on the temperature. Vapor Pressure:Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile.
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Precipitation:Precipitation is the rain, sleet, hail, snow and other forms of water falling from the can also be defined as any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity The main forms of precipitation include rain, snow, sleet, hail. It occurs when a local portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour and the water condenses. Sky Condition:Sky condition can be determined by the presence of cloud in the sky. Solar radiation:Sunlight, in the broad sense, is the total frequency spectrum of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through the Earth's atmosphere, and solar radiation is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon. When the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by the clouds or reflects off of other objects, it is experienced as diffused light. Wind:Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction the wind is blowing from. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Vegetation:Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants. Primeval redwood forests, coastal mangrove stands, sphagnum bogs, desert soil crusts, roadside weed patches, wheat fields, cultivated gardens and lawns; all comes under the term vegetation.

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3) Explain with illustration all the six climatic zones.
The Earth’s climate can be divided into general climate zones according to average temperatures. Scientist classifies localized climates as microclimates. The three major climate zones on the Earth are the polar, temperate, and tropical zones. Polar Zone: - In each hemisphere, the polar zone extends from the pole to about 60 degrees latitude. In polar zones, the average yearly temperature is below freezing. There are some areas in the polar zones, such as the northern coasts of Canada and Alaska and the southern tip of South America, where the snow melts during the warmest part of the year. Temperate Zone: - In each hemisphere, the temperate zone is found between 60 degrees and 30 degrees latitude. In the areas of the temperate zones farther from the equator, snow is common in the winter. In the areas of the temperate zones closer to the equator, rain normally falls all year round. The average amount of precipitation is about the same throughout. The average temperatures range from 5 degrees C to 20 degrees C. Deserts in the temperate zones are usually located in land, far away from the oceans. The winds that blow across these inland deserts carry little moisture. Although very hot during the day, temperatures at night can drop to below freezing. Inland deserts are found in Australia (the Great Sandy Desert) and Central Asia (the Gobi Desert). Tropical Zone: - The tropical zones, which extend from 30 degrees north and south latitude to the equator, have high temperatures and high humidity. Tropical zones are also known as low-latitude climates. The average temperature during the coldest month of the year does not fall below 18 degrees C. Many deserts are located on the western coasts of the continents. This is because the prevailing winds, the trades, blow from east to west. Marine and Continental Climates: - Within each of the three major climate zones, there are marine and continental climates. Areas near an ocean or other large body of water have a marine climate. Areas located within a large landmass have a continental climate. Areas with a marine climate receive more precipitation and have a more moderate climate. A continental climate has less precipitation and a greater range in climate.

Six Climatic zones are as under:1. Warm Humid Equatorial Climate
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2. Warm Humid island climate 3. Hot dry desert climate. 4. hot dry maritime climate 5. Composite/ monsoon climate. 6. Tropical upland climate.

4) Factor affecting the micro climate. Differentiate between micro and macro climate. Illustrate with example.
The three natural factors responsible for climate changes are the slow drifting of the continents, changes in the sun’s energy output and variations in the position of the Earth relative to the sun. These natural factors are not related to human activity. The results of the human activity of the burning of fossil fuels may also lead to changes in climate. 1. Latitude-: surface temperature varies with latitude. 2. Elevation-: climate zones coincide roughly with elevation ranges. 3. Nearby water-: sea surface temperature affects land temperature. 4. Ocean currents-: water temperature indicates transfer of heat energy by currents. 5. Topography-: local variation in elevation can cause local variation in climate. 6. Vegetation-: type of ground cover &seasonal changes effect climate. 7. Prevailing winds-: winds deliver air mazes with specific properties Difference between micro and macro climate:A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed). Whereas macroclimate is the regional climate due to which the whole region gets affected. It may include the area as large as many square miles (for example a valley). Microclimates may comprises, of the climate affected by near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere, but macroclimate comprises of climate in heavily urban areas where brick, concrete, and asphalt absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and reradiate that heat to the ambient air. In simple terms we can say macroclimate comprises of microclimate. For example the climate of a state in which the site exists is a macroclimate but the climate of that particular area of the site is the microclimate.

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