e) Downstand beams State beam reference (see 3.

19) and overall concrete size (h × b), both preferably at the centre of span. The dotted line plots the profile of the lowest beam soffit.



200 3B4

f) Upstand beams State beam reference and overall concrete size (h × b). Add level to top of beam and/or draw section to clarify.


b 3C2 2.570 800 x 350



g) Nibs and kerbs on beams Locate extent of projection on plan and notate, indicating depth. Clarify with section and/or add levels to top.
425 1575 150

NIB 2.150 200 deep 175

600 KERB 150 high


h) Bases and ground slabs Notate and indicate thickness.


(500) BASE Type ‘A’ 


Chapter three

IStructE/Concrete Society Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete

550 x 300

Where repetition occurs it may be convenient to add an explanatory note, e.g. all internal beams 600 × 300 unless noted.

500 x 300 4B1

plastic hinges). The arrangement of lapped bars should comply with Figure 5.min is the minimum anchorage length if no other limitation is applied: • for anchorages in tension: lb. c1) c) Looped bars cd = c figure 5.3) α3 is for the effect of confinement by transverse reinforcement α4 is for the influence of one or more welded transverse bars (bt > 0. 5. 10b. l0. 100mm} For direct supports lbd may be taken less than lb.rqd.7 lb.7 for ‘poor’ bond conditions η2 = 1.min > max{0. Ast As Øt .1 K = 0. c1.3 Values of cd for beams and slabs As Øt . 10b.05 K=0 figure 5. They should normally be arranged symmetrically in any section.6lb.0 for ‘good’ bond conditions (see Figure 5.min > max{0.3 Laps in reinforcement Laps between bars should normally be staggered and not located in areas of high moments/forces (e.21 fck(2/3) (for fck G 50 MPa) η1 = 1. c) b) Bent or hooked bars cd = min (a/2.5 Adjacent laps • • The longitudinal distance between two adjacent laps should not be less than 0.0 for b G 32mm η2 = (132 – b)/100 for b > 32mm lb.4.3 times the lap length.5: • The clear distance between lapped bars should not be greater than 4b or 50mm.3lb. otherwise the lap length should be increased by a length equal to the clear space where it exceeds 4b or 50mm. When the provisions comply with the above.6b) along the design anchorage length lbd α5 is for the effect of the pressure transverse to the plane of splitting along the design anchorage length (α2 α3 α5) H 0. the permissible percentage of lapped bars in tension may be 100% where the bars are all in one layer.rqd is equal to (b/4) (σsd /fbd) where σsd is the design stress of the bar at the position from where the anchorage is measured fbd = 2.3 l0 F s l0 G 50mm G 4b b F s F s a H 2b H 20mm F s F s F s figure 5.min provided that there is at least one transverse wire welded within the support. 100mm} • for anchorages in compression: lb. Ast K = 0. Where the bars are in several layers the percentage should be reduced to 50%. C1 C a C1 a C a) Straight bars cd = min (a/2. This should be at least 15mm from the face of the support. Ast As Øt .α1 is for the effect of the shape of the bars assuming adequate cover α2 is for the effect of concrete minimum cover (see Figure 5. IStructE/Concrete Society Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete Chapter five 4 .rqd. In case of adjacent laps.g.2) η1 = 0. the clear distance between adjacent bars should not be less than 2b or 20mm.4 Values of K for beams and slabs H 0.25 η1 η2 0.

(See Model Details MB1 and MB2) Maximum pitch 300mm or 0.4 and 8. For high yield steel. whichever is greater. The effective span. Clause 8. lbd.2 of EC2. Clause 8. Qk does not exceed the characteristic dead load. whichever is greater.4. Anchorage and lapping of bars (EC2.4.5 (No. 500 Grade and deformed bars.3) Figure 6. need not be taken greater than: (the clear span + d).25d.14 and EC2. should be carried to 25mm from each support.2.35 and K = 0. Where nothing is specified the Detailer should assume that al = 1. 2 It is assumed α6 = 1. The Designer should specify the curtailment length lbd + al. α4 and α5 all equal 1 and that α3 = 0. Diameter: 16mm (recommended size). For other situations refer to EC2. is taken from the line of contact between beam and support.75d or 12 × diameter of compression bar.4 typical values of anchorage and lap lengths Bond conditions Full tension and compression anchorage length. Gk • the loads are substantially uniformly distributed over three or more spans • the variation in span length does not exceed 15% of the longest span. Clauses 8.4).7) Minimum anchorage length Greater of 10b or 100mm. IStructE/Concrete Society Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete Chapter six 75 .3)) The required anchorage length. Transverse pressure may be taken into account for ‘direct’ supports (α5 in Table 8. Maximum lateral pitch of legs 600mm or 0. Curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement in beams (EC2. Table 6. The distance of a tension or compression bar from a vertical leg should not be greater than 150mm. The tension force. L. to be anchored may be determined by the shift rule: FE = |VEd| al/z + NEd (See Figure 6.9 (l = 1. Envelope of (MEd /z + NEd ) Acting tensile force Resisting tensile force Ftd al Ftd al lbd lbd lbd lbd lbd lbd lbd Ftd lbd figure 6. Clauses 8.1.14 shows a typical moment envelope.4. lb.05).4 and 9.4 gives typical anchorage and lap lengths for ‘good’ and ‘poor’ bond conditions (see 5.4).4. Expression (9. α2.rqd1 Full tension and compression lap length2 good poor good poor fck /fcu = 25/30 36 48 42 56 Length in bar diameters fck /fcu = fck /fcu = 28/35 30/37 34 32 45 39 52 43 37 49 fck /fcu = 32/40 31 41 35 47 Notes 1 It is assumed that the bar size is not greater than 32mm and α1.15) may be applied to the secondary longitudinal reinforcement and for the main longitudinal reinforcement where: • the characteristic imposed load.4 Illustration of the curtailment of longitudinal reinforcement table 6. of legs)]mm. whichever is least.75d. Hanger bars At least 20% of maximum support area or sufficient for compression area required.Link spacing Minimum pitch 100mm or [50 + 12. FE. This ensures that the space taken up by links along the beam is not overlooked. Simplified curtailment rules The following simplified rules with ‘flexible detailing’ (see Figure 6.15 (not more than 33% of the bars are lapped at one place).

rEtaInInG waLLS rEtaInInG waLLS mrw3 Vertical construction joints 25 for internal faces 40 for external exposed faces Splice bars of the same size and pitch as main bars 50 for buried faces mrw3 Tension lap 50 50 Tension lap DETAIL 'A' Simple construction joint If dowel bar specified see Model Detail MF5 B Spacing of joints should be 30m maximum 500 75 75 500 H10 'U' bars DETAIL 'B' Full contraction joint If internal water bar is required 'U' bars are displaced to avoid clash For details of waterbars and expansion joints see CIRIA Report 139 'Water-resisting basements’ 500 75 75 500 DETAIL 'C' Movement joint IStructE/Concrete Society Standard Method of Detailing Structural Concrete Chapter six  .

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