TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Valve Flow Terminology The Sizing Process Operating Conditions Fluid Properties Rangeability Cv and Flow Sizing Formulas CV Formulas for Liquid Flow CV Formulas for Vapor Flow CV Formulas for Two Phase Flow Flow Velocity Formulas Flow Velocity for Liquid Flow Flow Velocity for Vapor Flow Nomenclature Conversion to Cg and Cs Seat Leakage Actuator Sizing ∆P Tables Application Guide for Cavitation, Flashing and Compressible Flow Services Liquid Flow Cavitation Cavitation Definition Cavitation Countermeasures Application of Warren Trims in Cavitation Service Cavitation Avoidance Cavitation Tolerant Cavitation Containment Cavitation Prevention The Cavitation Phenomena Fluid and Pressure Profiles Choked Flow and Incipient Cavitation Cavitation Damage

Flashing Flashing Definition Flashing Countermeasures Body Material Trim Selection Application of Warren Valves in Flashing Service Body Material: Trim Selection The Flashing Phenomena Liquid Flow Velocity - Body Material Compressible Flow Noise Compressible Flow Noise Discussion Compressible Flow Noise Countermeasures Application of Warren Trims in Compressible Flow Applications Standard Trims: Multiple Orifice Trims Compressible Flow Velocity Limits: Two Stage Trims and Backpressure Orifices: The Compressible Flow Noise Phenomena TABLES Trim Rangeability Table 1 Fluid Properties Table 2 FL Factors Table 3 Flanged Body Inlet and Outlet Diameters Table 4 Allowable Seat Leakage Classes Table 5 Liquid Flow Velocity Limits Table 6 FIGURES Cavitation


Rated FL: The Rated FL is the actual FL value for a particular valve and trim style. the required FL. controlling the flow of fluids so a process variable such as fluid pressure. At the vena contracta. The valve sizing process determines the required CV. If the Rated FL is less than the Required FL. is a dimensionless constant used to calculate the pressure drop when the valve’s liquid flow is choked. the fluid's velocity is the highest and the fluid's pressure is the lowest. CV. It indicates the required FL needed to avoid choked flow. Vapor Pressure: A fluid's vapor pressure is the pressure where the fluid will change from a liquid to a vapor. Flow Velocities. FL: The FL. a control valve may be used to shut off flow. See pages 6. gas.30 for a ball valve. steam and two phase flow. Q where Q=Flow rate and ∆P=pressure drop across the Its most basic form is C V = ∆P valve. The signal usually comes from a controller. A Control Valve will perform these tasks satisfactorily if it is sized correctly for the flowing and shut-off conditions. fluid level or temperature can be controlled. Liquid Pressure Recovery Coefficient. the liquid flow will be choked with cavitation. Vena Contracta: The vena contracta is where the jet of flowing fluid is the smallest immediately downstream of the trim's throttle point. The CV value increases if the flow rate increases or if the ∆P decreases.99 for a special multiple stage trim to . The control valve is seldom full open or closed but in an intermediate position controlling the flow of fluid through the valve. The FL is the square root of the ratio of valve pressure drop to the pressure drop from the inlet pressure to the pressure of the vena contracta. See page 7 for the FL equation.0.INTRODUCTION A Control Valve performs a special task. In addition to controlling the flow. the vena contracta pressure would be the same as the valve’s outlet pressure and there would be no pressure recovery. If the FL were 1. the valve must withstand the erosive effects of the flowing fluid while maintaining an accurate position to maintain the process variable. Required FL: The Required FL is the FL value calculated for a particular service condition. The valve’s rated CV must equal or exceed the required CV. is a dimensionless value that relates to a valve’s flow capacity. A valve’s Rated FL varies with the valve and trim style. The controller and valve together form a basic control loop. Flow Noise and the appropriate Actuator Size VALVE FLOW TERMINOLOGY CV: The Flow Coefficient. In this dynamic service condition. A sizing application will have a Required CV while a valve will have a Rated CV. it may vary from . As the FL value becomes smaller the vena contracta pressure becomes increasingly lower than the valve’s outlet pressure and the valve is more likely to cavitate. The liquid will change to a vapor below the vapor pressure and a vapor will 3 . A control valve may be defined as a valve with a powered actuator that responds to an external signal. The FL factor is an indication of the valve’s vena contracta pressure relative to the outlet pressure. 7 & 9 for the equations for liquid.

Laminar Flow: Most fluid flow is turbulent. THE SIZING PROCESS The first sizing step is to determine the required CV value for the application. The program will also show messages when unusual conditions occur such as cavitation. Flashing: Flashing is similar to cavitation except the vapor bubbles do not collapse. as the downstream pressure remains less than the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure increases as the temperature increases. the sizing process will be faulty. When the flow becomes laminar. The flow will remain a mixture of vapor and liquid. valve trim size . A choked flow rate is limited. The valve sizing process will determine the proper valve size. Choked flow is also called critical flow. in this manual. The results from Warren’s Valve Sizing Program are only one element of the valve selection process. This overview will give the user some of the sizing basics.01 and the gas and steam flow noise calculations are in accordance with ISA S75. If they are incorrect or incomplete. The ISA sizing formulas adjust the CV when laminar flow exists. when the liquid flow velocity is very slow or the fluid is very viscous or both. The second stage is the collapse of the vapor bubbles as the fluid passes the vena contracta and the pressure recovers and increases above the vapor pressure. Next determine if there are unusual conditions that may affect valve selection such as cavitation. 4 . These standards have worldwide acceptance as the state of the art in CV and Flow Noise determination.17. Choked Flow: Liquid flow will become choked when the trim's vena contracta is filled with vapor from cavitation or flashing. Operating Conditions The most important part of Valve Sizing is obtaining the correct flowing conditions. the required CV is larger than for turbulent flow with similar conditions. Vapor flow also will become choked when the flow velocity at the vena contracta reaches sonic.change to a liquid above the vapor pressure. There are two common problems. The second is stating only the maximum flow condition that has minimum pressure drops and not stating the minimum flow conditions with high-pressure drops that often induce cavitation or have very high rangeability requirements. Cavitation: Cavitation is a two stage phenomena with liquid flow. high velocity or high noise. flashing. flow velocity and flow noise. The liquid. Warren’s Valve Sizing Program will accurately calculate the CV. However. gas and steam CV calculation methods. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles in the liquid as the fluid passes through the trim and the pressure is reduced below the fluid's vapor pressure. Knowledge and judgment are also required. First is having a very conservative condition that overstates the CV and provide a valve less than ½ open at maximum required flow. These two ISA Standards are in agreement with IEC-534. are in accordance with ISA S75. The collapsing bubbles are very destructive when they contact metal parts and the bubble collapse may produce high noise levels. high flow velocities or high flow noise. a further decrease of the outlet pressure does not increase flow. valve trim style and actuator size. flashing. the flow may become laminar.

Fluid Properties Table 2 lists many fluid properties needed for valve sizing. listed in Table 1. The valve specifier usually includes a fair margin of safety in the stated sizing conditions. This is partially a function actuator stiffness as well as valve “stiction”. Equal Percent – All Equal %. an application may require a maximum CV of 170. TRIM RANGEABILITY Table 1 Valve Trim Globe Valves. For example. Full Port Trim styles Linear Flow and Reduced Port Trim styles Rotary Valves Eccentric Plug Segmented Ball – Modified Linear Concentric Plug. The maximum flow for Warren Controls’ valves is at maximum travel. Travel) initially deviates or where the valve trim cannot maintain a consistent flow rate. such as gas and oil production. Using the rangeability value for this trim. such as process control and power applications are usually sized at full travel. not 170/100=17. Valve applications subject to pressures from nature. The minimum controllable CV is where the Flow Characteristic (CV vs. Those valve applications with fairly consistent inlet pressures. A 4” Equal Percentage Trim may be selected that has a maximum CV of 195. are usually sized for full flow at about 80% open as the pressure may be unknown when the valve is sized and the pressure may vary with time. The Trim’s rangeability is not always the useable range as seat erosion may be a governing factor with respect to erosive fluids and high drops in the near-closed position. Segmented V-Ball – Equal % Rangeability 50:1 30:1 100:1 200:1 5 . If the valve supplier includes additional safety. The rangeability values.5. A valve with a significant pressure drop should not be used to throttle near the seat for extended periods of time. the minimum CV is 195/100=19. such as full flow at 80% open. the valve may be at full flow at less than ½ travel giving poor performance. apply to the rated CV. not the required CV. These fluid properties are in Warren’s Valve Sizing Program’s database and do not need manual entry. This is also sometimes called CV Ratio or Turndown. Rangeability: Rangeability is the ratio of maximum to minimum controllable CV.

/Hr. then Gg T Z x Q or Q = 1360 C V FP P1 Y CV = Gg T Z x 1360 FP P1 Y If the flow rate is in mass flow units. Formulas are shown both for calculation the CV when the flow rate is known and for calculating the flow when the CV is known. x= Limit x ≤ xT Y = 1− x 3 FK x T If the flow rate is in volumetric units.28 PV PC If the Rated FL is larger than the Required FL: Gf P1 − P2 Q CV = or Q = C V FP FR FP FR P1 − P2 Gf When the Rated FL is smaller than the Required FL. CV Formulas for Liquid Flow Required FL = P1 − P2 P1 − PV FF FF = 0.: W=0. SCFM. then W CV = or W = 63./Hr. choked flow exists in the vena contracta limiting the flow. Flow noise equations are not listed below as they are highly complex and should only be made on our verified computer program.3 C V FP Y 63. 6 .CV AND FLOW SIZING FORMULAS The following formulas are for information and for understanding the sizing process.3 FP Y x P1 λ 1 x P1 λ 1 To convert SCFH to Lb.0764 Q Gg = Lb.96 − 0. Lb../Hr. Warren’s Valve Sizing Program is recommended for the calculation process. If the Rated FL is smaller than the Required FL: P1 − FF PV Gf Q CV = or Q = C V FP FL (Rated) FP FL ( Rated) P1 − FF PV Gf 2 ∆P for choked flow = FL (P1 − FFPV ) = psi ∆P for incipient cavitation = K C (P1 − PV ) = psi (See discussion in “Choked Flow and Incipient Cavitation” section) CV Formulas for Vapor Flow P1 − P2 P1 k FK = 14 .

Vapor Flow Velocity. Downstream Specific Volume for Steam: V2 = Refer to Keenan & Keyes’ Steam Tables Vapor Flow Velocity through the Valve: VV = 3./ Sec.408 Q 2 Db 0.234 Q Gg D2 V 0.CV Formulas for Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop for liquid phase= ∆ Pf = FL2 ( P1 − FF PV ) Pressure Drop for vapor phase = ∆ Pg = FK x T P1 ff = weight fraction of total flow as liquid fg = weight fraction of total flow as vapor CV = W 63. Flow Velocity for Vapor Flow Downstream Specific Volume for a Gas Vapor: V2 = 10. Sonic Velocity of a Vapor Fluid: Mach Number: = VSONIC = 4650 P2 V2 = Ft. Liquid Flow Velocity through the Pipe: = Ft./Min./Min./ Sec.408 Q 2 DP = Ft. VV or VP VSONIC 7 .234 Q Gg 2 DP = Ft.06 W V2 2 DP = 0.3 /Lb. Vapor Flow Velocity through the Pipe: VP = = = Ft.72 T Z M P2 = Ft.06 W V2 D2 V 3.3 FP fg ff + ∆PF λ 1f ∆Pg λ 1g Y 2 FLOW VELOCITY FORMULAS Flow Velocity for Liquid Flow Liquid Flow Velocity through the Valve: VV = VP = 0./Min.

FL = Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor. The choked sonic limitation may apply either at the valve trim or at the valve body’s outlet./Ft.0. P1 = Valve Inlet Pressure (psia). either gas or steam = Ft. k = Ratio of specific Heats.3.Nomenclature CV = Valve Flow Coefficient. M = Molecular Weight. Normally = 1. the valve’s outlet pressure will rise increasing the fluid density and allowing a higher flow rate still limited at sonic velocity.33.. V2 = Specific Volume of vapor. Y = Fluid Expansion Factor for vapor flow. PV =Fluid’s Vapor Pressure (psia). See Table 4. xT = Maximum Pressure Drop Ratio. PC =Fluid’s Critical Pressure (psia) See Table 2.01 section 4.01 section 4. Gf = Specific Gravity of a Liquid relative to water at 60 °F. Gg= Specific Gravity of a Vapor relative to air at 60 °F 14. See Table 3. FL Required = The FL factor to avoid Choked Flow. P2 = Valve Outlet Pressure (psia). FP = Piping Geometry Factor. Refer ISA Handbook of Control Valves. DB = Inside Diameter of Valve Body Outlet = Inches. See Table 3. if not refer to ISA S75. See Table 2. Refer to ISA S75.3 Subscripts: 1 = Inlet conditions 2 = outlet conditions v = valve p = pipe f = liquid g = vapor b = body Flow velocity of a vapor. 2nd Edition. λ = Specific Weight = Lb.0 but varies with very slow fluid velocities or very viscous fluids. DP = Inside Diameter of Outlet Pipe = Inches. pages 488-490. The ISA noise prediction formulas for vapor flow loses accuracy at Mach numbers larger than .7 PSIA.0.0. When the flow rate increases with the velocity at the valve’s outlet at sonic. See Table 2. FR = Reynolds Number Factor. physically cannot exceed sonic velocity or Mach 1. W = Mass Flow Rate = Lb. °R = °F + 460./Hr. KC = Cavitation Index. Q = Volumetric Flow Rate: Liquids(GPM) Vapor(SCFM) T = Fluid Temperature in Degrees Rankine. Usually 1.3 / Lb. FF =Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor: Fk = Ratio of specific Heats Factor. If the valve size and pipe size are equal us 1. Z = Compressibility Factor for vapor flow. FL Rated = The FL factor rated for individual Trim Styles. varies with Trim Style. See Table 3. gas or steam. x = Pressure Drop Ratio. Vapor flow is physically limited at sonic velocity and becomes choked.4. 8 .

12 1.14 1.05 1.108 44.5 583.73 193.35 229.7 716.11 274.88 256.41 1.6 339 295.49 303.55 1240 1205.11 1.71 707.966 17.162 70.2 635.14 1.108 58.30 1205.948 78.108 84.355 1.91 Ratio of specific Heats k 1.90 716.135 42.79 925.124 56.34 713.11 1.4 1.38 507.82 536.33 512.124 74.07 46.49 651.79 655.91 553.14 1.7 274.1 1.37 1116.18 1.85 291.205 32.1 529.054 62.27 941.45 541.80 -450.39 639.395 1.55 295.22 1.8 2132.08 1.168 64.13 367.038 28.00 204.00 596.30 654.82 70.63 661.04 546.412 1.32 9 .34 523.76 124.00 33.1 369.31 1.38 56.48 4.20 1052.64 Table 2 Critical Temperature Tc (F) 95.1243 58.461 20.05 49.1 1.23 552.91 338.2 754.2 732.15 797.076 Critical Pressure Pc psia 905.91 34.114 58.90 292.912 36.13 1.906 112.01 153.5 723.71 -220.6 652.1 1.48 706.003 100.123 56.069 106.6 305.44 1117.62 583.FLUID PROPERTIES Name of Fluid Acetylene Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Butane Butanol Butene-1 Butylene Oxide Butadiene 1-Butene n-Butane Isobutane n-Butanol Isobutylene Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chloroprene Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Crude Oil Ethane Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Oxide Ethylene Ethylene Glycol Triethylene Glycol Freon 11 Freon 12 Freon 22 Helium Heptane Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen Bromide Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Floride Hydrogen Iodide Hydrogen Sulphide Fluid Form Liquid Gas G G L G G L G G L G L L L G G L L L G L G L L G L L L L L L L L L G L L G L L G L L L G L G L G G G L L G L L G L L G Molecular Weight M 26.4 1.072 1.36 396.37 120.32 505.11 1.59 529.18 1.006 127.668 1. 79 1637.10 638.045 2.081 30.06 188.26 1.11 1.05 469.37 90.3 580.45 460.069 137.6 87.108 54.016 80.5 1070.62 786.295 1.29 678.559 119.092 56.99 270.031 39.067 1.11 616.27 1296.24 590.01 28.92 86.4 551.13 1.515 28.27 -220.09 -399.00 234.4 63.12 1.79 370.59 -188.66 1.

56 205.81 0.51 316.69 0.06 1.81 0.81 0.3 661 667.13 1.72 0.72 10 .63 0.073 FL.90 1190.015 106.058 92.Rated KC 0.67 -232.69 0.40 670 400.1 42.5 Ratio of specific Heats k 1. KC & XT Factors Table 3 Valve Trim Style 1840 1843 2820 2920 2922 2923 3800 Flow-To-Open (average) 3800 Flow-To-Close (average) 5840 5843 ∗ = no value for vapor flow FL .67 458.335 1.168 106.56 617.072 1.74 0.1 362.60 730.99 488.30 493.81 0.141 18.97 198 197.72 0.78 889.72 0.08 910.47 315.72 0.49 84.259 114.39 385.48 0.049 1.33 1.6 456.17 1153.72 0.168 106.7 649.75 -135.81 0.006 44.8 510 Critical Temperature Tc (F) -116.013 46.52 97.07 1.09 1.27 1.69 0.05 968.043 32.042 50.45 -80 -379.69 0.13 1479.35 -181.17 19.168 Critical Pressure Pc psia 532.006 28.081 18 64.23 31.86 751.81 0.4 540.922 128.7 3200 1142.8 1050.999 72.667 1.30 941.81 0.47 650.179 30.29 1.72 0.40 3208.Name of Fluid Isoprene Methane Methanol Methyl Chloride 1-Methylchloride O-Methylene Chloride Napthalene Natural Gas Neon Nitric Oxide Nitrogen Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrous Oxide n-Nonane n-Octane Oxygen Pentane Phenol Propane n-Propanol Propene Propylene Propyl Oxide Sea Water/Brine Sulfuric Acid Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur Trioxide Tolulene Water M-Xylene O-xylene P-xylene Fluid Form Liquid Gas L L G L L G L L L G G L G L G L L G G G L G G L L G L G L L L L L G L L L G L L L Molecular Weight M 16.9 587.5 20.01 289.04 1.4 1.42 0.17 714.113 44.81 0.013 128.69 0.31 1.9 674.29 1.2 1.097 42.69 0.14 1.42 0.85 889.51 705.24 514.151 94.61 610.1 667.154 1.64 0.61 789.7 587.08 335.69 ∗∗ = no value for liquid flow XT 0.33 887.69 0.397 1.059 80.72 0.59 423.77 463.8 609.05 1.53 705.

Class III.000 Class IV+ 0. & Class VI The Relative Seat Tightness is at a 50 ∆P. Refer to the Standard ANSI/FCI 70. Warren offers Class II. Class IV. The flowing conditions also require an adequate match between the actuator and trim forces but the shut off condition is dominant and determines the allowable. The result is the maximum obtainable pressure drop at the different seat leakage classes.0015 ml /min/inch ∆P of trim size/ ∆P(PSI) Class V 0.1% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 5.00" 8. Leakage Class ACTUATOR SIZING The actuator sizing process matches our actuator’s force output with our valve trim’s required stem forces.00" 4.0005 ml /min/inch Water Max Operating 300.2 establishes a Valve’s allowable seat Leakage Rate. The process considers the valve’s shut off condition.9 ml/min ∗ ∗ Leakage rate varies by valve size.00" 3. The standard recognizes five degrees of seat tightness.0 Class III 0.06" 1.00" 8.63" 2. Class IV+.00" 2.000 about 0.00" SEAT LEAKAGE The Fluids Control Institute (FCI) Standard ANSI/FCI 70.00" 4. Class VI is for resilient seated valves.2. 2 2 ⎛π⎞ UA = UnbalancedArea ( BalancedTrim) = ( Cage ID) − ( Seat ID) ⎜ ⎟ = In2 ⎝4⎠ 2 ⎛π⎞ UA = UnbalancedArea ( UnbalancedTrim) = ( Seat ID) ⎜ ⎟ = In2 ⎝4⎠ ( ) 11 . a Class IV leakage rate is 1/50 as much as Class II Class IV+ is a proprietary designation of Warren Controls and is not an ANSI/FCI classification.0 Class IV 0.000 of trim size/ ∆P(PSI) ∆P Class VI Air 50 PSI 600.06" 1.01% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 50 Water Max Operating 150.5% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 1. For example.00" 3.63" 1. ALLOWABLE SEAT LEAKAGE CLASSES Table 5 Maximum Seat Test Test Relative Seat Leakage Fluid Pressure Tightness Class II 0.00" 6.Flanged Body Inlet and Outlet Diameters Table 4 Nominal Body Size 1 1.00" 6.5 2 3 4 6 8 ANSI Pressure Class 150 300 1. the other classes are for metallic seats.

LIQUID FLOW Cavitation and flashing applications require accurate prediction to determine when they occur and proper valve selection to supply the best trim for the application. Cavitation and flashing are in the "Liquid Flow" Section and compressible flow noise reduction is in the "Compressible Flow Noise" Section. flashing and noise reduction of compressible flow require special sizing and application considerations and. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles in the liquid as the fluid passes through the trim and the pressure is reduced below the fluid's vapor pressure. The second stage is the collapse of the vapor bubbles as the fluid passes the vena contracta and the pressure recovers and increases above the vapor pressure. 12 . special trims are required. a list of possible countermeasures. PF = Packing Friction (Grafoil Packing)= (Stem Dia.03) ∆P RF = Plug Seal Ring Friction = ( Cage ID) ( 2) ( π) + ( Cage ID) − ( Seal Groove) 4 Direct Actuator Output = (Effective Diaph.15) PF for Grafoil Packing friction should never be less than 25 Lb.CL = Seat Contact Load = ( Seat ID) π ( Load Factor ) = Lb. Area) (Initial Final Spring Pressure) ( ) The “Initial Spring Pressure” is the actuator pressure when the valve stem begins to move. 2 2 π ( 0. in most cases. of circumference Load Factors vary with seat leakage class PF = Packing Friction (Teflon Packing)= 20 Lb. The “Final Spring Pressure” is the actuator pressure when the valve stem reaches full travel. tips. CAVITATION Cavitation Definition Cavitation is a two stage phenomena with liquid flow. APPLICATION GUIDE FOR CAVITATION.) (P1) (Packing Height) (.. Area) (Actuator Press. The following section discusses these phenomena with a definition. ∆P Tables are available in the individual product specifications of each respective valve series. Allowable ∆P = Allowable ∆P = ( Actuator Output) − PF − RF − CL UA ( Actuator Output) − PF − CL UA ⇐ For Balanced Trim Flow to Close ⇐ For Unbalanced Trim Flow to Open Be sure that the allowable pressure drop cannot exceed the Body’s ANSI pressure rating.Final Spring Pressure) Reverse Actuator Output = (Effective Diaph. FLASHING AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW SERVICES Valve applications involving cavitation. The collapsing bubbles are very destructive when they contact metal parts and the bubble collapse may produce high noise levels. and a technical discussion of the phenomena./In.

The unbalanced Plug Control Trims with tungsten carbide or ceramic can withstand cavitation up to an inlet pressure of 2000 psig.Cavitation Countermeasures There are several ways to deal with cavitation. The flow noise from cavitation will be reduced by the use of such trims. these trims will not reduce noise. Method 3: Cavitation Containment: A trim design that allows cavitation to occur but in a harmless manner can be effective in preventing cavitation damage and reducing cavitation noise. However. try to reduce unnecessarily high-pressure drops to avoid cavitation in the first place. Oversized bodies are recommended to avoid body erosion. Cavitation containment designs are limited to cavitation applications of moderate intensity.94. At these inlet pressures. Method 1: Cavitation avoidance: Cavitation can be avoided by selecting a valve style that has FL (rated) values greater than required for the application. Cavitation Containment: Special cavitation reduction trims are appropriate where the FL (required) exceeds . 13 . Method 4: Cavitation Prevention: A trim design that takes the pressure drop in several steps or stages can avoid the formation of cavitation. However. at this time. These applications will have increased flow noise from the mild cavitation but should not have damage from cavitation. This may not be suitable for applications with a wide flow range as the low flow condition may put the entire pressure drop on the valve. The downstream orifice plate also should be sized to avoid damaging cavitation. Flow noise calculation is automatic with Warren’s Valve Sizing Program. These trim designs are more expensive than other methods but may be the only alternative in the more severe cases of cavitation. Method 2: Cavitation Tolerant: Standard trim designs can tolerate mild cavitation applications. Warren Controls does not offer any special cavitation reduction trim. Application of Warren Trims in Cavitation Service Cavitation Avoidance: Wherever possible. This is an especially useful advantage of globe valves over ball and butterfly valves. Several design constraints can be re-evaluated in this process Cavitation Tolerant: Hardened trims are tolerant to cavitation service where the FL (required) exceeds the FL (rated) and the inlet pressure is 150 psig or less for 17-4 Trim or 300 psig or less with Stellited (Alloy 6) or Ceramic Trim. the severity of cavitation may be small enough to ensure reasonable trim life. Use the Warren Valve Sizing program and assistance from the Application Engineering department to determine. The valve's pressure drop is reduced to the point of avoiding damaging cavitation. Cavitation can also be avoided with the installation of an orifice plate downstream of the valve that shares the pressure drop.

the pressure difference from the inlet pressure P1 to the vena contracta pressure PVC is about 125% of the P1 to P2 pressure drop. at a point called the vena contracta. These trims and two valve solutions will cost significantly more than the other options discussed but will be applicable in conditions beyond the others. Consult with Application Engineering for any cavitating applications to see what may be done. the vapor bubbles instantly collapse back to liquid. there is full liquid flow with no cavitation. The fluid accelerates as it takes a pressure drop through the valve's trim. this trim is used only in the flow down direction. Past the vena contracta the fluid decelerates and some of the pressure drop is recovered as the pressure increases. in a Globe valve. THE CAVITATION PHENOMENA FLUID AND PRESSURE PROFILE A control valve creates a pressure drop in the fluid as it controls the flow rate. The profile of the fluid pressure. Cavitation Prevention: Special trims with multiple stages might be required to suit a particular application. For globe valves. This is cavitation. as it flows through the valve. Then the fluid will quickly form vapor bubbles and.Some cavitation reduction trim will make multiple small cavitation plumes that will not as readily cause erosion damage and will generate less noise than a trim with plug or cage port control. Typically. When the Vapor pressure is less than the vena contracta pressure. The fluid is at its lowest pressure and highest velocity at the vena contracta. is shown in the following graph. P2. if the pressure increases above the vapor pressure. as shown in the following graph. It reaches its highest velocity just past the throttle point. 14 . or paired valves may need to split-drop in series. It will occur when the vapor pressure. is more than the vena contracta pressure but less than the outlet pressure. The pressure in the vena contracta is not of importance until it is lower than the fluid's vapor pressure.

• Restricts fluid flow • Causes severe vibrations • Erodes metal surfaces • Generates high noise levels. As more cavitation forms. The relationship of flow to P1 − P2 is linear until cavitation begins to form at the point of incipient cavitation. The amount of cavitation is related to the degree the required FL exceeds the rated FL. As the point of damaging cavitation is not easily defined. the cavitation may damage most trim styles.90 in an application requiring a FL of . Note the differences in Table 3. The location of the "Damage" point varies with trim style and material. Cavitation damage with hydrocarbon fluids is usually less severe than water. the greater the pressure drop that can be taken before choked flow occurs. When the flow is fully choked. A larger KC is preferred so the incipient cavitation range to choked flow is as small as possible. However the vibration and flow noise problems remain.96 will have more cavitation than an application requiring . Cavitation will begin at the point of "Incipient Cavitation" and increase in intensity to the point of choked flow. Cavitation at point of "Incipient Cavitation" is not damaging and is almost undetectable. the flow rate does not increase when the pressure drop is increased. There will be more cavitation but not more flow! 15 . The point of "Incipient Cavitation" can be predicted with the ∆P incipient in the equation in the “CV Formulas for Liquid Flow” using the KC factor. when cavitation vapor bubbles form in the vena contracta.92. The larger the FL factor. the amount of cavitation increases. The fluid's inlet pressure is proportional to the amount of energy available to cause cavitation damage. sizing and application methods use the Critical Pressure Drop and the Required FL to rate trims for cavitation service. As the required FL exceeds the rated FL. the more the flow curve bends until it is horizontal and fully choked with the flow not increasing with additional pressure drop. A valve with a rated FL of .Cavitation in control valves can have four negative effects. Hydrocarbon fluids have a less precise vapor pressure and are often a compound with several vapor pressures. as the bubble collapse is not as sudden and can be cushioned by other vapors. CHOKED FLOW AND INCIPIENT CAVITATION The liquid flow rate will increase as the pressure drop increases. Higher inlet pressures will produce more intense and more damaging cavitation. Values for KC are shown in table 3. The KC value is not used for trim selection only flow noise prediction. This condition is known as "choked flow" or "critical flow". the vapor bubbles will increasingly restrict the flow of liquid until the flow is fully choked with vapor. At some point between incipient and choked. CAVITATION DAMAGE Cavitation damage problems are more likely to occur with water flow as water has a welldefined vapor pressure and the vapor bubble collapse is instantaneous. However.

vapor and liquid. The larger the plume. flashing will occur regardless of the valve's trim. Warren does not currently offer such trim. Body Material: The flashing process can cause body erosion that may reduce the body's wall thickness to less than required by codes. Flashing is similar to cavitation in some respects but is not quite as severe. This phenomenon. Cavitation reduction trim designs with many small orifices will have significantly smaller vapor plumes with less noise and a reduced damage potential than a standard trim. High-pressure drops in flashing service is best served with special cage control trim with multiple small orifices. There are means to prevent or retard cavitation but not flashing! If the valves outlet pressure is below the vapor pressure. such as carbon steel. Valves improperly applied or without adequate cavitation protection can lead to early failure. can destroy trims within hours! The generation and implosion of the vapor bubbles will cause significantly elevated flow noise in addition to vibration. that may not have sufficient erosion resistance. The implosion of the bubbles when near or on a metal surface can generate extremely high shock stresses in the metal surface that usually damages the metal with severe erosion of the metal. The turbulent mixture can easily erode body materials. 16 . when severe. Flashing Countermeasures There are several measures that should be made in flashing applications. that reduce the trim's vibration from the fluid's turbulence. The size of the plume is dependent on trim style and severity of cavitation. Trim Selection: Avoid the use of Balanced Plug Control Trim in flashing applications as the flashing process may make the trim unstable. FLASHING Flashing Definition Flashing is a one-stage phenomenon somewhat similar to cavitation. The cavitation bubbles will form a vapor plume in the liquid. the noisier the flow and the more likely it is to cause erosion damage. The difference is the downstream pressure does not recover enough to be above the fluid's vapor pressure. There is not much positive to say about cavitation. Generally only part of the fluid vaporizes so the resulting flow downstream of the valve is two phase. The vapor bubbles in the liquid do not collapse and they remain in the fluid as vapor.The generation and implosion of the vapor bubbles will cause vibration to the valve's Plug that may cause wear between the Plug and Cage or Guide and can cause Stems to break. The fluid in the valve body downstream of the trim is highly turbulent as a two-phase flow mixture of vapor and liquid. or at least Unbalanced Plug Control Trims with tungsten carbide or ceramic.

Plug control Trim is not recommended for flashing service. for liquid flow. Carbon steel is not suitable. Unbalanced Plug Control Trims with tungsten carbide or ceramic are recommended. As Warren does not have an angle body or anti-cavitation trim. Liquid flow velocity in valve bodies should be limited to the velocities shown in Table 6 to avoid flow erosion. the liquid droplets can cause severe erosion the valve body and the downstream pipe. our best solution is through avoidance. The liquid will flash until thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved with the vapor fully saturated. The object is the get the flashing through the valve without significant contact with the body. THE FLASHING PHENOMENA Liquids in flashing service undergo a transformation from all liquid flow to two-phase flow of flashed vapor and the remaining liquid. Plug Control Trim is not ideal for flashing service. standard Cage Control Trim is suitable. should not exceed the velocities in Table 6. The body flow velocity at the smallest flow passage. As the velocity of the vapor can reach as high as sonic velocity. The flashing process is highly turbulent with the liquid impacting the valve trim at high velocity. For this reason. Flashing service with pressure drops less than 50 PSI will have less severe turbulence so the standard Hardened Trims with flow down will be suitable. Trim Selection: If the pressure drop is 50 PSI or less. LIQUID FLOW VELOCITY . The effects of the turbulent flashing liquid can cause trim instability if it impacts the control surfaces of the Plug.BODY MATERIAL High liquid flow velocities in valve bodies can cause metal erosion even though there may be no cavitation or flashing.APPLICATION OF WARREN VALVES IN FLASHING SERVICE Body Material: The flashing process can cause body erosion that may reduce the body's wall thickness to less than required by codes. usually the body inlet or outlet. Specifically designed cavitation reduction trim will distribute the flashing process into a large number of small jets reducing the total turbulence and reducing the vibration effects on the Plug and the erosion effects to the body. The body's flow velocity. Often flashing service will be in the flow down direction through an angle style body. Often the majority of the volume will be vapor and some of the remaining liquid will be suspended as droplets in the vapor. 17 . For pressure drops greater than 50 psi. can be calculated. All flashing service should have stainless steel or Chrome-Moly (WC6) bodies.

LIQUID FLOW VELOCITY LIMITS Body Material Carbon Steel Stainless or WC6 (Cr-Mo) Table 6 Application Limits Pressure Drop Infrequent > 500 PSI < 500 PSI < 2% of time 30 Ft/Sec 40 Ft/Sec 50 Ft/Sec 45 Ft/Sec 60 Ft/Sec 90 Ft/Sec COMPRESSIBLE FLOW NOISE Compressible Flow Noise Discussion Flow noise from compressible flow is a major application consideration. Fluid turbulence is increased by higher flow rates and by a higher fluid pressure drop through valve trim. Backpressure Orifice: The flow noise increases rapidly with increased pressure drop especially when the critical pressure drop is exceeded. As the valve's pressure drop reaches the critical condition and the speed of sound is reached in the flow stream's vena contracta. the noise from flow through the valve will probably be less than at full flow even though the valve's pressure drop increases as the pressure drop across the fixed orifice plate decreases. However if two devices can share the total pressure drop. The backpressure orifice device also should be sized for flow noise. Multiple Orifice Trims: A trim with a high number of small flow orifices will produce less flow noise than a trim of equal flow capacity with either four or one flow orifices. The inner stage takes the majority of the pressure drop with the outer stage acting as a diffuser to reduce flow turbulence. the flow noise can be significantly reduced. as the small holes are less efficient in converting mechanical power to acoustical power than large holes. The small holes produce smaller flow jets that generate proportionally less noise. The two-stage trim is similar to two multiple orifice trims. Two Stage Trim: A two-stage valve will reduce flow noise beyond the noise reduction of the multiple orifice trim. These trim designs generally have multiple small orifices and are significantly quieter than standard plug or cage control trims. shock waves are produced that increases the noise level above that produced by turbulence alone. 18 . At lower flow rates. This can be accomplished with a fixed orifice plate downstream of a control valve. Compressible Flow Noise Countermeasures There are several methods to reduce compressible flow noise. one inside of the other. The flow noise must be accurately predicted and the appropriate valve trim chosen to meet the customers requirements and assure good valve operation. At maximum flow the valve and orifice plate can have about the same pressure drop and generate less noise than taking the total drop across the valve alone. The backpressure orifice plate may be in the form of a cylindrical diffuser. the more turbulence the more noise. Compressible flow noise is generated by fluid turbulence.

The use of two stage trims and downstream orifices may reduce the flow noise an additional 10 dBA beyond the reduction of a noise reduction trim. Higher velocities will generate significant flow noise in the pipe even though a low noise trim is installed.At present. Standard Trims: Calculate the flow noise for the specified conditions. Sonic velocity at the valve's outlet can produce flow noise as high as 135 dBA as the shock waves from the sonic velocity will propagate downstream as the pipe acts as a megaphone! The body's flow velocity. APPLICATION OF WARREN TRIMS IN COMPRESSIBLE FLOW APPLICATIONS Low noise considerations should be applied when the predicted noise level exceeds the customers requirement or when the noise level exceed 110 dBA. Two Stage Trims and Backpressure Orifices: Two stage trims and backpressure orifices require special analyses and designs not available as standard. Warren does not offer any such low noise or anti-cavitation trim. the pressure drop creates fluid turbulence and the turbulence generates flow noise. for any significant time can damage the valve trim and accessories. Flow noise exceeding 110 dBA. but with today's legal liability rulings. We should be concerned if the predicted noise level exceeds 110 dBA even if the customer does not impose a limit. OSHA has established noise limits that vary from 115 dBA to 85 dBA depending on the length of daily exposure. flow up. or the Cage Control. the 115 dBA is for 15 minutes exposure and 85 dBA is for an 8 hour exposure. High flow noise from compressible flow presents two problems. may meet the customer's noise requirements or our 110 dBA limit. Applications with low outlet pressures can readily have high downstream velocities. for compressible flow. Consult Warren’s Application Engineering for applications requiring noise reduction. Compressible Flow Velocity Limits: If flow noise is being controlled. THE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW NOISE PHENOMENA A control valve's purpose is to create a pressure drop. the owner of the process is liable for people's hearing damage even if they exceed posted exposure times and do not use provided ear protection. Ear protection can help protect a person's hearing. 19 . The major problem from high flow noise is hearing damage to people in the vicinity of the valve. In this case no further measures are required providing the downstream flow velocity is not excessive. can be calculated using the body outlet diameter from Table 4. The standard Plug Control. The usual requirement is 85 dBA as it is difficult to limit a person's exposure. The resultant flow noise is inevitable but can be minimized by trim and valve selection. Mechanical vibrations from excessive noise levels can quickly destroy the trim and also may damage accessories mounted on the valve's actuator. flow down. Flow noise produced by a valve will be transmitted through the wall of the downstream pipe. Very little noise will come through the valve body wall as the area of the pipe's wall is tremendously larger and the pipe's wall thickness is less. the flow velocity in the valve body and downstream piping should be limited to 1/3 sonic velocity for DB II and 1/2 sonic velocity for DB I trims.

that is more accurate than the previous empirical methods. The ISA noise prediction method applies only to standard plug or cage control trims.Warren uses both ISA's CV formulas from ISA S75. Formulas were written to fit the test data. Fisher and Masoneilan. with the combined input from many valve companies. in the 1960's. had developed.17 was published in 1989 and has become recognized as the best compressible flow noise prediction method. Low flow noise designs require an additional factor to be subtracted from the ISA value. ISA-S75. 20 .01 and ISA's Control Valve Aerodynamic Noise Prediction formulas from ISA-S75. The major control valve companies.17. empirical noise prediction techniques based on laboratory test data. In the 1980's ISA developed a theoretical noise prediction method.

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