Fundamentals of Visual Arts
Elements of Art • Line • Shape and Form • Value • Color • Texture • Space

• Lines also define movement

ELEMENT #2: Shape
• Geometric Shapes • Organic Shapes ELEMENT #3: Value or Tone • The visual element of value or tone is, in its simplest form, the juxtaposition of light and dark. It is defined as the lightness or darkness in anything that is visible. • In making a composition, always consider your light source. The light source must be a consistent factor in a drawing or painting. • Value creates an illusion of depth, and makes an image seem more realistic. Chiaroscuro • (Italian for clear-dark) is a term in art for a contrast between light and dark. • Value is also used to express emotion in a composition. ELEMENT #4: Color • The science of color is sometimes called chromatics • Color is an important part of human expression. • It is derived from light, whether natural, like sunlight, or artificial, like fluorescent light. • Under a weak light we see some color, but under a bright light, we see more color. • Color is a series of wave lengths which strike our retina. • Some objects do not have color. • Some are black, white or gray. These are not present in the color spectrum. They do not have any color quality. • They are called Neutrals since they do not reflect any one distinct color. Black – reflects no light at all; White – reflects all colors; Gray – results from a partial reflection of light Factors that affect color • Hue • Value • Saturation Hue (hyoo/yoo) – is the quality which gives a color its name. The colors of the spectrum are therefore called hues. • When people talk about the color of something, they are usually referring to the hue of that object. • All of the colors of the rainbow are actually different hues in the visible spectrum of light. • Value and Color Value affects the lightness and darkness of a hue (ex. Dark yellow to light yellow) Saturation - Saturation refers to the intensity of a hue. Framed in a triangular pattern, they are called the color triad. The color formed out of the combination of two primaries is called a Secondary Color. There is actually no limit to the number of intermediate colors we can form because the color produced will differ from that achieved by mixing more yellow with green Color Relationships Colors gain intellectual and emotional

significance and a sinuous quality only in terms of relationship with each other. For instance, the lemon pigment combined with yellow green provides a soothing harmony; beside a violet, it produces a vibrating contrasts. Each color therefore should be observed in terms of position in the color wheel. The greatest contrast in hue is obtained by using two colors opposite each other in the color wheel. In the secondary triad, although the network is the same as in the primary, the contrast is softer. This is because in any pair of the triad, there is a common color. Orange and Green contain Yellow., orange and violet contain red, and green and violet contain blue. Color Theories • Warm colors and Cool Colors • Complementary Colors • Analogous colors Warm colors vs. Cool colors • Warm colors advance. • Cool colors recede. Warm colors are vivid and energetic, and tend to advance in space Cool colors give an impression of calm, and create a soothing impression • Warm colors are based on yellows, oranges, browns, yellowish greens, orangish reds, and the like. • Cool colors are based on blues, greens, pinks, purples, blue-greens, magentas, and bluebased reds. Warm Colors Cool Colors 2. Complementary Colors • Colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel are considered to be complementary colors (example: red and green). • Complementary colors exhibit strong visual contrast. • Opposite Colors Create Drama The high contrast of complementary colors creates a vibrant look especially when used at full saturation. This color scheme must be managed well so it is not jarring. Complementary color schemes are tricky to use in large doses, but work well when you want something to stand out. Complementary colors are really bad for text. Tips: Use a single warm color against a range of cool colors to put an emphasis on the warm color (red versus blues and blue-greens, or orange versus blues and blue-violets). Avoid using desaturated warm colors (e.g. browns or dull yellows), because this may ruin the scheme. A complementary color scheme is composed of 2 complementary hues.

Principles of Design
• Unity/ Harmony • Balance • Emphasis & Subordination • Proportion • Rhythm • Variety

Traditional Visual Arts
• Drawing/ illustration • Painting • Etching • Sculpture • Etc.

Modern Visual Art
• Digital Art • Animation/ Flash animation • Film • Web-based videos • Etc.

The Nature of Art
• Art is everywhere • Art and Expression and Communication • Art as Creation • Art and experience • Art and Nature • Art and Beauty

Classifications of Visual Art
• Two Dimensional (2D – Length x Width) • Three Dimensional (3D – L x W x H)

Traditional Mediums in Art
• Pencil • Crayons • Water Color • Oil pastels • Acrylic • Oil Paint

ELEMENT #1: The line
• Line is man's own invention. It does not exist in nature. The lines we "see" in nature are, on close observation, veins of leaves, the joining of two different surfaces, or the edges of objects. The artist uses lines to imitate or to represent objects and figures on a flat surface. -straight -curved

Common Types of straight lines
• Horizontal • Vertical • Diagonal • Zigzag • Broken • The Horizontal Line – Rest; Serenity; Perfect stability • The Vertical Line – Height; Poised & Stable; Strength; Power • The Diagonal Line – Movement; Emotion; Unrest/ uncertainty • Curved lines – Flow; Softness

Unity • Unity is the relationship among the elements of a visual that helps all the elements function together. A fork and a spoon are harmonizing elements Examples of Harmony can be seen in personal fashion. • One can analyze photographs and designs by laying down grids.Physical. By ignoring the rule. balance is formal when both sides are symmetrical in terms of arrangement. How do we suggest depth in a painting? 1. The split-complimentary color scheme is often a good choice for beginners. 3. This is a good example of using split complementary colors. Make sure you have enough contrast when choosing an analogous color scheme Choose one color to dominate. • Texture is first known by actually touching objects. Actual texture . • Primary colors and secondary colors are examples of color triads. the "Rule of Thirds" is not a rule at all. • They usually match well and create serene and comfortable designs. a second to support.Creating the visual effect of texture without actually adding texture. • Element of Time Positive and Negative Spaces • Negative space. or a positive shape. • The rule of thirds can be a very useful guide for composing designs. in art. • The split-complimentary color scheme is often a good choice for beginners. tangible texture. • In sculpture. facilitating interpretation and understanding. Triad • A triadic color scheme uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel. Element #5: Texture • Texture refers to the properties held and sensations caused by the external surface of objects received through the sense of touch.Balance emanating from a centerpoint. To use a triadic harmony successfully. • Balance in design is similar to balance in physics • A large shape close to the center can be balanced by a small shape close to the edge. it uses the two colors adjacent to its complement. because it is difficult to mess up. Analogous Colors • Analogous color schemes use colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. white or gray) as an accent • Analogous color schemes are often found in nature and are harmonious and pleasing to the eye. • Some compositions contain asymmetrical balance. The empty space across a white canvas) • Plastic Space – the term we apply to the third dimension which is a matter of "illusion" in the case of a painting. Avoid using pure colors in equal amounts. the overall visual image comes together. (glass – smooth. Double-Split Complementary or Tetradic • The rectangle or tetradic color scheme uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs. • Harmony is dependent on the relationship of the visual elements. can also be seen visually. Color 5. Tips: Choose one color to be used in larger amounts than others. 2 common types of Texture in Art 1. • In visual images. This rich color scheme offers plenty of possibilities for variation. • Unity can be achieved through the use of a common Font. is the space around and between the subject(s) of an image. even if you use pale or unsaturated versions of your hues. Variation in size/ perspective 3. This is called Symmetrical Balance. Overlapping Planes 2. Texture results from the physical properties of the material an artist uses. but has less tension. Something that you can feel with your hand (feathers. An analogous color scheme consists of 3-5 adjacent hues. you may still have a great picture. glass. • Harmony pulls the pieces of a visual image together. depending on the content of the image and how well its elements combination of Thalo Green and Diox. (ex.) 2. stone – rough) • The artist also has freedom to manipulate a material to achieve the texture he wants for the artwork. Example. This color scheme has the same strong visual contrast as the complementary color scheme. and interior design. polished stone – smooth) Element #5: Space 2 basic Spaces in painting • Decorative space – the 2-dimensional picture plane which has no depth. • A large light toned shape will be balanced by a small dark toned shape (the darker the shape the heavier it appears to be) The rule of third • A picture is divided into three sections vertically and horizontally and lines and points of intersection represent places to position important visual elements. The third color is used (along with black. the colors should be carefully balanced . the agreement between the parts of a composition which result in Unity. connecting parts and creating an area of attention. it's a guideline. try to subdue them. • Unity can be achieved through the use of space. • Harmony can be achieved through repetition and rhythm. intended to help you when you are uncertain as to the placement of elements in a scene when you are framing the picture. balance places the parts of a visual in an aesthetically pleasing arrangement.let one color dominate and use the two others for accent. They mix together to make the right blue. because it is difficult to mess up. Simulated Texture . Split-Complementary • The split-complementary color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. • Unity gives a sense of oneness to a visual image. • Repetition reemphasizes visual units. • Unity helps organize a visual image. As mentioned earlier. • Unity can be achieved through the use of similar shapes. • Rule of thirds grid applied to a landscape • Rule of thirds grid applied to a portrait. In other words. • applying a rule of thirds grid to some popular Web sites. through physics or otherwise. Tips: If the scheme looks unbalanced. You should also pay attention to the balance between warm and cool colors in your design. • The subject is the positive space. If the colors look gaudy. Position on the Picture Plane 4. New Spatial Dimension. although referring to the sense of touch. rocks.3. 2. In addition to the base color. Balance • Balance is a psychological sense of equilibrium. Tetradic color schemes works best if you let one color be dominant.precise and well-defined concept of balance or "patterned self-similarity" that can be demonstrated or proved according to the rules of a formal system: by geometry. • Unity in a painting also refers to the visual linking of various elements of the work. • Rule of thirds grid applied to Apple's Web site. • Patterns or shapes can help achieve harmony. try to subdue one or more colors. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNS 1. etc. Harmony • Harmony refers to the adaptation of the visual elements to each other. Purple. the words and the images work together to create meaning. Triadic color schemes tend to be quite vibrant. • Unity can be achieved through the use of a common pattern. arrangement. (frosted glass – rough. • Unity can be achieved by making an element common. • By repeating patterns in an interesting . • Texture. • Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other. • As a design principle. Radial Balance . • aesthetically pleasing proportionality and balance.

Golden Section or the Divine Proportion. or a large motif. and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals Surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as Paleoliths. Golden Ratio. For example if a person has a head larger than their entire body. Some of the more famous examples of Prehistoric Art are: 1. then place your center of interest smack in the middle. or alternatively. Variety • Variety is the quality or state of having different forms or types.introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene. for example the Venus of Willendorf about 21. Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo such as Homo habilis -.000 BC. • To do this. Emphasis using Space and Balance 3. and abrading. The term "prehistoric" indicates that the culture that produced the artwork did not have a written language. the path the viewer's eye follows throughout an artwork. stone fragments. • It is leading viewers to sense action. The cave with its paintings has been declared a 5. Some examples of emphasis. Contrast • To show difference/oppositions and diversity in an artwork by combining elements to create interest or focus. • It is to make one part of an artwork dominant over the other parts. It is located near the town of Santillana del Mar in Cantabria. and lithos. For example. France Prehistoric Period is sub-classified into three divisions: 1. 30 km west of the city of Santander.development of the first stone tools 2. • Give two things that are contrasting: 1. During the Paleolithic. difference in size.000 BC-2000 BC. "stone". A geoglyph .Two or more recurring motifs exist simultaneously. amount of space between two or more elements • Proportion is usually not even noticed until something is out of proportion. if you want your viewer to ignore all other parts of your composition. . then we would say that they were out of proportion. • It is indicating movement by the repetition of elements.are balanced. Spain. pecking. • The Golden Mean . • Ratio implies a comparison between parts. That is. • Movement is used in art to give the feeling of action and to guide the viewer's eyes throughout the artwork.who used simple stone tools -. • Complex Rhythm to expose unpatinated ground (negative geoglyph). 4. Emphasis using size or dominance 3. • Variety is used to prevent monotony and uniformity. Emphasis using shapes 2. specifically the art of Europe 3.Lascaux Cave. When the relative size of two elements being compared seems wrong or out of balance it is said to be "out of proportion". to true Homo sapiens Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its Paleolithic cave paintings. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures. 7. Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) 2. and one timeless proportional relationship that occurs frequently in design is the Golden mean or Golden ratio. gravel or earth) to create a positive geoglyph (stone arrangement/alignment. size of one area to the size of another area 3. near Montignac. (3) geoglyphs . There are several forms of prehistoric artifacts and artwork. carving. one develops points of interest to pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work. • Rhythm can make an artwork seem active. 8. petroform. (2) petroglyphs .The Golden Mean is also called the Golden Proportion. and so forth. which is carved from a small stone. (1) small stone figurines. • When the principle of proportion is applied to a work of art it is usually in the relationship of size. Emphasis using Space and Balance • Emphasis and subordination involve the differentiation between the more important the less important 6. To use emphasis in an artwork is to attract the viewer's eyes to a place of special importance in an artwork. the sum of the two parts) is to the larger part as the larger part is to the smaller part". literally meaning "old age of the stone" or "Old Stone Age. Altamira Cave. Spain Altamira (Spanish for 'high view') is a cave in Spain famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings featuring drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands. Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) 3. during which work was done primarily using stone tools. Knowing why you do something and what effect it will have leads to good composition. Monotonous Rhythm. the size of one element of the composition as compared to the size of another related element. • Simple. New Stone Age (Neolithic) The Paleolithic Period or Old Stone Age It derives from Greek: palaios. Emphasis using color ratio if "the whole (that is.Nazca lines in Peru 3. size of one element to the size of another element a drawing on the ground. "old".into fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) during the Paleolithic era.Only one type of motif is repeated • Composite Rhythm . • The differences which give a design visual and conceptual interest: notably use of contrast. In the instance of a relationship of size a comparison is made between the: 1. earth mound) or by removing patinated clasts . Emphasis using texture 2. humans grouped together in small societies such as bands. either by arranging clasts (stones. Proportion or scale • Poportion deals with the ratio of one part to another and of the parts to the whole. • Proportion in art has been examined for hundreds of years. the most outstanding feature of the Paleolithic period was the evolution of the human species from an apelike creature. Dordogne. using elements of Art: 1. like a bull's eye. Emphasis • Emphasis (also called focal point) is where the focus is concentrated through design principles or meaning. found all over the world." The earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. Extant small sculptures are generally of fecund female nudes and relate to the cult of the Mother Goddess.Stonehenge 2. or near human. Rhythm • Rhythm is showing consistency with colors or lines. Movement • Creating the illusion of action or physical change in position. It makes an element or object in a work stand out. The important thing is to note the reasons for object placement in your images. (4) megaliths (5) cave paintings Petroglyphs -(also called rock engravings) created by removing part of a rock surface by incising. width and depth of one element to that of another 2. Period distinguished by the : 1. emphasis. height. This is the first known period of prehistoric human culture. Variation to emphasize an element Variation in the elements of art Variation in shapes Variation in sizes Variation on color Prehistoric Art It refers to Art that predates written records.Two quantities are said to be in the golden 9. (generally greater than 4 metres) or design produced on the ground.

000 years ago. for reasons we might take for granted. the rudiments of architecture and writing and. known as the Akkadian Empire. Mesopotamia. or New Stone Age. Art was primarily used for religious purposes. religion. and most of the early centers of civilization. The Location of Babylon Babylon lies in the land of Shinar as revealed in the Bible (Gen 10:10) and its general location has never been disputed. New Stone Age (Neolithic) The Neolithic Age. an eastern Semitic language Government :Monarchy king Sargon of Akkad Established: 2300 BC -Disestablished: 2200 BC RELIGION:The Akkadians embraced a polytheistic religion. fishing and rudimentary form of cultivation Mesolithic Humans MENHIR STONE CIRCLE BURIAL CHAMBER Menhir or Monolith-single standing stone often of great size. Development of money Will evolve over time. The era brought about a transition in the culture. Sumerian 2. Neolithic (literally: "new stone") age represents a spree of hellzapoppin' innovation.modern-day Iraq Language: Akkadian. artists of many cultures have placed emphasis on eyes. Art historians are still grappling for more evidence from Mesolithic Art. BY MALES THAT LASTED FROM SUNRISE TO SUNSET SUMERIAN ECONOMY AKKADIAN CIVILIZATION World's First Empire Geography: grassland alluvial plain. which left them enough spare time to explore some key concepts of civilization . Mesolithic Culture: As the Ice age disappeared . Sumerian Art Sumerian art and architecture was ornate and complex. burial purposes. memorials of notable events. Uruk (Warka). but only a handful of paintings exist from the Mesolithic Age. Faces are dominated by very large eyes. Babylonian Make. The invention of Agriculture changed the way people lived. Clay was the Sumerians' most abundant material. Megalith large roughly dressed stones standing alone or combine to form a structure. yes. Era. The statues found at the Abu Temple in Tell Asmar from c. Three successive Civilizations of Mesopotamia: 1. modernday Iraq Language: a dialect of Akkadian Babylonian Art Babylonian (625–538 BC) Babylon came to artistic prominence in the 6th century BC. or Period. measurement.C.A town or city and the land that surrounds it governed as an independent nation. Site of one of the first UNIFICATIONS of several city-states under one secular head. RELIGION POLYTHEISTIC – worshipped more than one God – represented the forces of nature. but rather multiple gods. The word 'megalith' comes from the Ancient Greek µ??a? megas meaning great.pyramid site of the temple of the main gods. Humans were settling themselves down into agrarian societies. and ????? lithos meaning stone. As mentioned above. ANU – lord of heavens (sky) ENLIL – God of Air and Storms EA – God of waters (floods) KI – God of earth INANNA – God of Love and War SUMERIAN GOVERNMENT CITY – STATE . Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses Sun god – most important. the Mesolithic Art was far more mature and stylized. AND TRADE LEARNED IN SCHOOL.namely. SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION Ziggurats . Neolithic Art was much more creative and intelligent. Euphrates River. art. stone adzes. GOVERNMENT. as opposed to the stick-like figures of the Paleolithic Art. Much rivalry between city states-wars. It began at the end of last glacial era. bows and arrows. The Mesolithic Art therefore. 3200 -3000 B.World Heritage Site by UNESCO. over 10. Painting and sculpture was the main median used. SUMERIAN ARCHITECTURE Most cities were simple in structure. The Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic period) The Mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle". Akkadian. SARGON OF AKKAD Akkadian Contributions: They created the first known empire in history. but. Trade helped expansion. Geography: irrigated alluvial plain. GALLERY GRAVE long rectangular chamber. Tools: Characterized by small lighter flint tools. and the overall lifestyle of the Stone Age. and 3. Stone. lower Tigris-Euphrates. Middle Stone (Mesolithic) Age is considered the most significant phase of human evolutions. Mesolithic was a definite bridge between Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages. Life after death was an extension of life. the ziggurat was one of the world's first great architectural structures. White Temple and Ziggurat. MESOPOTAMIAN ART Mesopotamian Civilization "The land between the two rivers" MESOPOTAMIA is a Greek word meaning "land between two rivers" LOCATION: Plain between Tigris River and Euphrates River The Tigris-Euphrates river valley forms part of what is known as "Fertile crescent". Mesopotamia. There is a whole lot of cave paintings dating back to the Neolithic Age. so they did not have one "god". wood. lithos stone) or "Middle Stone Age" was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age. many of the heavily traveled trade routes. Characterized by more advanced hunter gathering. to be replaced by the grassland and forests mobility and flexibility became more important in the hunting and acquisition of food. fishing tackle. sell or barter goods. ruled during the first dynasty of Ur. and metal had to be imported. 3 classes of Megalithic Monuments: . in this case the Sargon I BABYLONIANS The Word "Babylon" (pronounced babilahnia) Babylon is Akkadian "babilani" which means "the Gate of God(s)" and it became the capital of the land of Babylonia. Failed to Unite into one nation Gilgamesh – Sumer's most inspirational king. paved way for the most refined Stone Age Art known as Neolithic Art. since it carried human emotions and colors. art. a state centered between the rivers His heroic adventures and exploits were immortalized in the poem "the epic of Gilgamesh" SUMERIAN WRITING CALLED CUNEIFORM (LATIN FOR WEDGE) WRITTEN ON CLAY TABLETS NEEDED FOR RELIGION. which stands as an eyewitness of the evolution of human race through the ages. 2700 BCE. . when it Erected for: religious purposes. THEOCRACY – City owned by the Gods and the priests run the government for the Gods. Fertile crescent – Curved land extending from the Persian Gulf along the Tigris and Euphrates to Mediterranean and Southward along its shores too the isthmus of Suez This arc of land contained some of the most arable soil in the near East.

Resting Heart Rate – the function of the heart during a state of rest (not exercising). Anthropometric measurements are used in nutritional assessments KINDS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC 1. Strength .Training in the development of and care for the human body. Power . fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day's activities without fatigue.The ability to keep an upright posture.Planned. ? 108. the average adult human heart beats about: 70 bpm(males). Body Test: Bent-Knee Curl Ups Objectives: To evaluate the strength of abdominal muscles. the more efficient larger stroke volume it is. The Performance/ Skill Related Fitness Components 6. PHYSICAL EXERCISE . Battery Test: Sit and Reach Objective: To evaluate Flexibility 5. the biblical Tower of Babel Old Babylonia (2000-1600 BCE) Invasion of semitic language groups like the Amorites Most famous Amorite ruler = Hammurabi Hammurabi's Code of Law -. 8.The ability to exercise your entire body. Coordination . Body Composition . 4. Body Mass Index (BMI). Muscular Endurance . It is measured in beats per minute and the less your heart beats. Examples could include obesity and complications arising from obesity."An Eye for an eye" -. Your head. repetitive activities designed to improve or maintain one or effort. Battery Test: Stick Balance Objectives: To evaluate balance.It is the ability to use your joints fully through a wide range of motion.It is the amount of fat cells compared with lean cells in the body mass. Objective: To evaluate endurance of the heart and lungs. Automation. An example is the Ishtar Gate (about 575 BC) from the Temple of Bel. 3.Ability to use your senses together with your body parts or to use two or more Body parts together. Stature (height) . Hypo Kinetic Diseases. when the subject is facing directly ahead.a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations. Battery Test: Meter stick drop Objectives: to measure Reaction Time 11. 75 bpm(females) **This rate varies among people and can be significantly lower in athletes. The Babylonians practised all the Mesopotamian arts and excelled in brightly coloured glazed tiles.are conditions that occur from a sedentary lifestyle. used to create relief sculptures. Examples could include obesity and complications arising from obesity. Speed . Heart Rate . Recovery Heart Rate – measured at a fixed (or reference) period after ceasing activity. Working Heart Rate – the highest number of times your heart can contract in one minute or the heart rate that a person could achieve during maximal physical exertion. Reaction Time . or Quetelet index. climbing stairs or gardening.The ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body movements. 4.Maximum distance from the floor to the highest point in the head. and changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution meant this criterion was no longer sufficient.flourished under King Nebuchadnezzar II. Battery Test: Shuttle Run Objectives: To evaluate Agility and Coordination 7.are conditions that occur from a sedentary lifestyle.It is the amount of force your muscles can produce. Sitting Heights . Objectives: To evaluate the arm strength.420. . CONCEPTS OF FITNESS AND HEALTH What are the dimensions? of Health? ? Spiritual ? Physical ? Intellectual ? Emotional ? Social How can I enjoy a quality and Satisfying life? ? Healthy lifestyle ? Attitudes ? Habits ? Behavior What are the benefits? of being physically fit? ? Looking Good ? Feeling Good ? Enjoying Life ? Meeting Emergencies How would I know my health and fitness status? ? Physical Fitness Test ? Health Appraisal 2. PHYSICAL EDUCATION PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS TALENT TEST PHYSICAL EDUCATION . 3. Balance .is the frequency of the cardiac cycle. Battery Test: Standing Long Jump Test (Broad Jump) Objectives: to measure the explosive power of the legs 10. Infant/neonatal 130 – 150 bpm Toddlers (young child) 100 – 130 bpm Older Child 90 – 110 bpm Adolescent 80 – 100 bpm ? 75 per minute translates to 4500 beats an hour.Ability to use strength quickly. includes hygiene. neck and the trunk are being measured. Battery Test: 50m Sprint Objectives: evaluate speed Anthropometric Anthropometric refers to comparative measurements of the body. It is calculated as the number of contractions (heart beats)of the heart in one minute and expresses as "beats per minute" (bpm). Arm Span . The Health Related Fitness Components 1. athletics. Battery Test: Wand Juggling Objectives: to evaluate Coordination and Reaction Time now defines as the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities. It involves both strength and speed. to resist hypo kinetic disease. In previous years. Battery Test: 3 – Minute Step Test. Hypo Kinetic Diseases. Body Test: Arm push-ups/Knee Push-ups. Agility .a state of health and well being. 2.000 beats per day. PHYSICAL FITNESS used in two close meanings: 1.Ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time. Cardiovascular Fitness . General Fitness. stresses.It is the ability to use your muscles many times without tiring. structured. Specific Fitness."Let the Buyer Beware" Procedures in Amorite trials Some sense of justice Some sense of a "welfare state" The Epic of Gilgamesh Introduction of personal religion Major mathematical achievements Babylonian social life. Your sitting height can be measured while you are sitting. a series of terraced gardens. ? About 39. dance and other activities done at work or at home such as walking. He built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Physical Fitness .000 beats in a year. When resting. increased leisure time.Length of your arm from the tip of your right middle finger to the tip of your left middle finger which are extended at shoulder level against a firm wall.The distance from the buttocks up to your head. is a statistical measurement which compares a person's weight and height. Flexibility .A general term that includes sports. and to meet emergency situations. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY .Amount of time it takes to move once you realize the need to act. typically measured over a 1 minute period. to be healthy. 2.

Flexibility Fitness Test and Physiological Fitness Sit and Reach . Powerful strong legs are very important in sports like basketball. 2. one foot to the other:. 4. Step aerobics: Step aerobics combines lowimpact and body-conditioning exercises with a raised platform or "step" to accelerate and intensify the workout to your lower body. 2. it's better to exercise for a longer period of time at a slower pace than going all out until you feel like you're going to drop dead. 6. 5.Meter Sprint.The 40-meter sprint is conducted to measure the running speed of the students. practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Different Kinds of Aerobics 1. highrepetition weight training. people who have weaker joints or frailties of other kinds who are not suited to high-impact aerobic exercises.After warming up. The totality of your Fitness level can be measured by the 1kilometer run. the exercises will be dance variations on the aerobics theme. Strengthen your heart muscle and lungs by making them work harder: with regular exercise . you can lower your blood pressure and cholesterol. you should stick to low-impact aerobics.It is a test for shoulder flexibility.Spend the last 5-10 minutes of your aerobic dance routine cooling down and relaxing. PRECAUTIONS: 1. High Impact . Powerful muscles of the body are important most sports. Most sports events are best performed if your have the ability to run fast for a short possible time with very high intensity. one foot to other. Dance aerobics: Dance aerobics is a mixedimpact aerobics class with a dance slant . then increase the speed for the next round so that you can finish the 1-kilometer run for a short period of time without the feeling of fatigue. volleyball.from jazzercise to aeropop and even hiphopics (really). you have a history of heart or respiratory problems 2. stop. jog for the first leg of the 1-kilometer. Tip: Weight is not on tapping foot so the foot maybe use again. You should consult your doctor if: You have any other medical condition. Improve the shape and tone of your body. . Base moves. What to wear: Wear clothes that allow your skin to breathe and you to move freely. What is aerobics good for? A regular workout will: 1. 40. "Kickfit" or kick-aerobics: A variation on highimpact aerobics. bellydancing or bhangra. your main aerobic routine should last about 20-30 minutes. If you are. and cardiovascular fitness). Shoulder Stretch . spine and hips. High-impact aerobics: High-impact aerobics is a very energetic form of exercise which features lots of movements that lift you off the ground: jumping. A recent survey has shown that step aerobics is particularly good for strengthening bones.The one kilometer run is a test for the cardio-respiratory endurance. although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. Right Angle Push-ups .It is a test for abdominal muscle and good posture because the hips are properly aligned and the student does not experience back pains particularly at the lower back. Muscular Fitness for Talent Identification Standing Long Jump – It is a test for leg strength and power. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness.This test is performed to test the strength and flexibility of the extensor muscles of your lower back. How long it is? An aerobics class usually lasts about 45 minutes to one hour.low and high Impact March/walk/step Action: Transfer of weight . How long it is? An aerobics class usually lasts about 45 minutes to one hour. A specially trained instructor will make sure you only do exercises that are appropriate. and also works on your coordination. 3. Help you burn calories and reduce your body fat..It is a test for the upper body muscles and arm strength and endurance. for any reason. Program Fundamentals of Aerobics 1. muscular strength. or are prone to or recovering from injury. 7. It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor. Jog/run : transfer of weight. and so help strengthen your immune system . but low-impact exercises which tone. If you feel any pain during a class or are unhappy with something you're being asked to do. 4. anyone who is overweigh. The students are advised to walk. or think you might be pregnant. Starting an aerobic routine too quickly can lead to injuries. It is the ability of the heart and lungs to endure fatigue for a long period of time. swimming and in jumping events in athletics. Physiological Fitness 1-Kilometer Run/Walk . lowimpact aerobics is especially good for: pregnant women. older people. 3. Low-impact class is a more sedate form of aerobics and doesn't put so much pressure on your joints. If you're just starting your exercise routine. Warm-up . Stimulate the circulation of blood and lymph around your body . 2. Anaerobic the absence of air : any short duration exercise . This is a great way to have fun and shape up at the same time. 5. soccer. 2. Raise your serotonin levels. step tap ball of left foot next to right foot. people recovering from injury 3. Cool Down . you have problems with your joints 3.It is a test for flexibility of the hamstring muscles (back of the thigh). Stimulate the circulation of blood and lymph around your body . or are receiving treatment of any kind. This will give you a chance to stretch your muscles and let your heart rate slowly come down. The movements and exercises in aerobic dance classes will depend a lot on the kind of dance that has inspired it . a kick aerobics class incorporates martial-arts style kicking and other movements to the exercise-routines. Harm string Curl Action: Lay on your back on the floor with the AEROBIC ACTIVITIES Dr. Cooper . Because it is less vigorous. Classes may also include some light. 6.Muscular Fitness Test Partial Curl-ups . 3. Aerobics means 'with oxygen" and refers to the use of oxygen in the body 's metabolic or energy generating process. hopping and jogging. rather than the other way around. Step aerobics is particularly beneficial for developing and strengthening the muscles in your legs. stimulate your brain to release endorphins and so give you a natural "high" and easing any stress or anxiety Increase your body strength so you are less prone to injury.The developer of Aerobics Aerobic is a form of Physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility. Trunk Lift -. Momentary loss of contact with the floor. Kenneth H. Body conditioning classes often focus on particular areas such as "bums and tums". The purpose of the test is to determine a healthy back and prevent hyperextension of the knees.maybe more ballet. The class may also include some body conditioning. and so help strengthen your immune system . Body conditioning: A body conditioning class focuses on intensive. Step touch: Action: Step right foot to right . Having said this. shape and strengthen muscles. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. It is very vigorous. you can lower your blood pressure and cholesterol. and can probably find a class specially for mums-to-be. Aerobics Dance Elements: 1. you have recently had surgery. The class will involve a similar ratio of warm up.It measures upper body strength and power or the ability to exert a forceful movement utilizing the muscles of the arms and upper body. highintensity and cool-down exercises as other classes.Start off moving to something slow for about 5-10 minutes which will prepare you for more vigorous activities. Strengthen your heart muscle and lungs by making them work harder: with regular exercise . Basketball Pass. but it is non-contact.

side taps) Action: step right foot to right side. 12. and dislikes. Cha Cha Cha trouble? One who was smart or seemed to catch on fast? People tend to put labels on others for their behavior. Step. Have you ever heard: "She's the smartest girl in the class". 8." People with good self-concept generally like who they are and what they do. Charleston 4. Jumps: Action: take off on two feet and land on two feet. touch left heel in front (do not transfer weight)/ Step left foot to left side. Close-step. . Windshield wiper. Step. The national association for Mental Health describes a person with good mental health as one who: 1. 10. Rowing. how you express yourself. sustained contact with the floor. land with feet opening to a straddle position. 2. Momentary or sustained loss contact with the floor. Step forward jump landing both feet together.need to satisfy hunger. Step Heel 2.bend elbows and move hands in front of face like windshield wiper. Repeat with one side. Step Kick 5. 3. What kind of messages do you give yourself? 3 Steps to take in improving your self-concept: 1. Physical Needs . Back Scissors – scissors arm behind back. thirst . Recognize the messages you are presently giving yourself. Stair step 11. side or back).push down and up from chest to waist. Biceps Curl – move as though weight. Concerned with how you view yourself.need to know." 3. Double Arm swing – swing arms together across front of chest. Dance Moves – Group Activity 1. because I won't make it. Your adjustment to. and success in. Do not bend the knee. For a high kick. They are basically happy and positive people. 9. feels comfortable about himself or herself. 4. have you heard comments like. I'm too dumb in math to pass anyway. Leaps: Action: An aerial movement from one foot to the other." "She's the class clown.need to feel secure and safe. able to meet the demands of life Mental Health Means much more than not being mentally ill. 2. 11. However. 13. Concentrate on the things you do well. you tend to see new experience as challenging. It is difficult to identify specific standards for evaluating a person's mental health. and how you cope with and handle day-to-day ups and downs. 14. sleep.: "He's always late. 11. Elbow to knee Suggested Arm Movements 1. What Influences Your Level of Mental Health? Self Concept – is the sum total of how you view yourself. If your self-concept is low. and then turn 180 degrees toward left to face the rear. extend left leg backward (right leg bends at knee) 7. kick 10. some general characteristics of good mental health exist. Slides: Action: Right foot brushes floor (front. . likes. Self. 6. "I'm not going to try out for the team. to understand. 10. Heredity HEALTH What is Mental Health? Mental health is concerned with how you view yourself.heels on the ball and arms on the floor Lift your buttocks up off the floor Roll the ball in towards you by bending your knees and hips until your knees are directly above your hips Straighten the legs again by pushing the ball away and repeat 4.fulfilling . 3. Their appearance also reflects their feelings about themselves. momentarily loss of contact with the floor as left replace right. 7. Arm press. Ask people to whom you are close for assistance and support. touch right heel in front (do not transfer weight). make sure your weight is evenly distributed on both feet. weaknesses. and habits. Jazz square/Box step 6.move both arms as if turning a very large steering wheel. Heel Jack: Action: Jump with feet together. Hustle Forward and Back 9." "He's so clumsy. to be recognized Aesthetic . Heel 3. 8.need to achieve. Grapevine 2. 12." 2. spring up. 6." "He has no personality at all. or "There 's no task she can't handle. step . 3 Main factors influence the development of your personality: 1. you are most likely to see new experiences as threatening – as sources of your potential failure."? Improving Self-Concept If your self-concept is high.need to belong and love and be loved.Need for self-actualization Personality and Mental Health Have you heard people describe in this way?: "She has a great personality. school was largely determined by your beliefs and attitudes about yourself. and how you cope with and handle day. Step Close 4.move are as rowing a boat. toe taps. but I did my best and had a good time. "Pony" 12. Knee lift 5. Picking Cherries-Reach up. Close. Lunges :Action: step right foot to right side. Box step 7. Chicken wings – bend elbows and flap them up and down at your side. extending left heel to left side (left heel should touch floor). People with good self-concepts are likely to take good care of their health. how you function and get along with people around you. Taps – (heel taps. Additional Leg Movements 1. 5. Front scissors – swing arms across each other in front of the chest then out to sides."? On the other hand. How is your self-concept formed? By the time you reached school age. They can bounce back from defeats and ups and downs. Mambo 3. What would you say about each person's self concept in the following examples: 1. It includes your strengths. "I didn't win the race." Personality – encompasses all of your traits. land with feet together. Many studies have shown that self-concept is closely related to success in school. feels right about other people. Think of some of the things you say and do during a school day.swing both arms backward then forward. attitudes. "No sense in studying. Pivot Turn: Action: Step forward right. Hustle arms. feelings. Arm circles – alternate circling R arm clockwise and L arm counter clockwise. or "He's a born athlete". Tip: During the turn. Triceps Curl – move arms overhead as in weight lifting. Cheer Leader-pump arms up and down alternately overhead. Rocker 8. 13. Hops: Action: Lift weight off one foot and land on the same time 9. spring up. then turn 180 degrees toward left to face front. Drive a big Truck. Step Knee lift 6. 2. jump. behaviors. Emotional Needs . 3. your selfconcept was fairly well formed.lifting. Kick-Ball change 5. Positive and Negative Influences on SelfConcept Can you remember events that occurred throughout elementary school? Was there always one student who was the first to be selected on a team and one who was the last? One who seemed to always be late or in . Jumping Jacks :Action: start with feet together. You can get an idea of what it means to be mentally healthy. to explore. move the working leg from the hip. Keep in mind that no one has all of these all the time. to be free from danger.

that is what is important to you. or an athletic game. After a period of time. and 4.the body continues to work at this level. migraine headaches. You are the one responsible for your choice. (Of course. Understanding Emotions Your feelings. Once the stressor has been dealt with. Identify all of your possible choices 3. Even some drugs can help to change type "A" to type "B" personalities. Maybe several things are important. Mild Depression . Keep in mind that type "A" personalities can change their behavior pattern if they work on them. your relationship with people around you. Do you find yourself tired from hours nonproductive activity? 5. income 4. Loneliness . Personal Behavior is. What excites you. affect your thinking. cultural background 6. Practice good health habits daily. If the body were not under some stress. or perhaps we are afraid of what the other person will do if we say "NO". Knowing when to do the tasks that must be done. your behavior. If we respond with a polite "NO". Sometimes we are afraid to say "NO" because it might offend. Have you ever said: "I'm furious with you. Type A and B Personalities Theory on Personalities that are more prone to stress. Do you continually bounce back and forth between unpleasant alternatives? 3.the feeling that is recognize because of a desire relationship. you may need to work on managing your time better. Very strong reaction to simple problems or disappointments. In either case. Rechaneling your energy 5.a certain amount of stress is necessary for life. "I'm so hurt that I do not know what to do. a date. Indications that you need help and counseling because of negative emotions are as follows: 1. As a matter of fact. asthma. the other person will probably react favorably. Inability to get along with people at home. previous experience What is a Stressor? A stressor is something that initiates a stress response. as long as they look at time as an ally and not as an opponent. but there are certain times to do certain tasks. Do you find yourself doing several tasks at a time? 9. a skill that you can learn and then practice. and even your success or failure at accomplishing at a given task. high blood pressure. "I am afraid I won't do well. 2. Your emotions have an obvious impact on you and your mental health. Identify your own sources of stress. can be healthy or unhealthy. Mild Anxiety . Not all stress is bad. Evaluate the results of your choice." or "I hate you. Do you find insufficient time for rest or personal relationships? 6. 2. the body becomes exhausted. it would cease to function. experts say that moderate amounts of stress improve productivity. Time is a major factor in stress management. Problem-Solving Steps: 1. Environment 3. not all of the decisions you make are because of a problem) Regardless of how large or small your problem . 3." When what you really meant was. in cases where the stressor is prolonged or not dealt with. we must consider time. Problem-Solving involves making decisions. Developed the theory : Doctors Frriedman and Roseman These types have nothing to do with intelligence. not all of the decisions you make are because of a problem) Regardless of how large or small your problem is. objects. ulcers. Happiness 3. hormones also cause emotional changes." or "I'm scared people won't like me"? 5 Basic Emotions 1. we have to keep our primary objectives in mind and act on them. school. People who manage their time well are better able to control stress in their lives. Are you always rushing? 2. Preoccupation with fears and anxieties Problem-Solving involves making decisions. the choice you are making is problemsolving. We cannot think clearly. Learning to Relax 6. tension * heart diseases. such as heart disease. Because our deepest feelings are quite difficult to identify. the body responds. Laughing 4. Do you regularly miss deadlines? 7. We become more susceptible to illness and accidents. or we hear or feel something. 4. Do you have trouble finding things? 4. Besides Physical changes. careless Coping with Stress: 1.this is due to lack of social ties and friendship. Emotions are Normal Emotions are neither healthy nor unhealthy. Clearly identify the problem 2. 2. a skill that you can learn and then practice. ambition or success. frustrations. its dumb. and challenges you certainly produces stress. 4. and examine your methods of coping. Stressors can be people. places. Type "A" Personalities – are more likely to have problems. Person's age 2. However. we often cover them up or describe them as something different. such as a test. high blood pressure. Saying "YES" to virtually anything that is proposed to you says that you have not established your priorities. Alienation . Part of this problem occurs because of a person's inability to say "NO" to others. or events. (Of course. however.Arises because of a definite event. How do you look at time? What are your time-management skills – your effective ways of arranging your time? Check yourself on the following behavior: 1.The continuing and overwhelming feeling of sadness and lack of motivation. Anger 4. Are you overwhelmed by demands and details? 8. Managing Stress Six major ways to Manage Stress: 1. Factors Influencing Stress 1. 4. Do you have trouble deciding what to do next? If you answered Yes to six or more of these questions. Time – Friend or Foe? In any discussion of stress. and knowing when to say "NO". Type "B" Personalities – appear to be more flexible and less rushed. All of these changes take place when we are faced with something we perceive to be a stressor. The Key to Time Management Some people have difficulty managing their lives because they do not have good timemanagement skills. This simply means that anytime something or someone appears before us. 3. injuries. and want to flee the problem. is an important way of showing that we can manage our lives. Fear 5. Planning 2. Love 2." when you really meant. Develop and use coping and relaxation techniques to diffuse the tension that builds excess stress."? Have you ever said: "I hate this class. the body returns to normal. colitis. How you express your emotions. 3.2. Calling on your support group NEGATIVE FEELINGS and ATTITUDES 1. Consider and evaluate the consequences of each choice. or emotions. Make conscious choices that help to control the amount of stress you experience. and stomach disorders. church at work. stimulates you. Rapid growth and change is caused by body chemicals called hormones. The effects of Stress on Wellness * anxiety. The system begins to break down. social status 3. Select the best choice and act 5. Thinking ahead 3. the choice you are making is problemsolving. Sorrow Managing Stress in Your Life Stress – is the body's general response to any situation. *accidents. stage or place in life 5. Mistrust of family and friends. This is why you should spend some time learning more about them.

the person's patterns of thinking and behavior significantly differ from the expectations of society and are so rigid that they interfere with the person's normal functioning. therefore. ? Personality disorders . Schizophrenia is an example of a psychotic disorder. death of a loved one. resulting from such conditions as stress. formerly known as psychosomatic disorder. Tourette syndrome is an example of a tic disorder. Presently. despite evidence to the contrary. or "split personality". involve persistent feelings of sadness or periods of feeling overly happy. quick. including various sleep-related problems and many forms of dementia. ? Factitious disorders Are conditions in which physical and/or emotional symptoms are experienced in order to place the individual in the role of a patient or a person in need of help. Mental illness carries a stigma in our society. ? Impulse control and addiction disorders People with impulse control disorders are unable to resist urges. or poor coping skills. ? Psychotic disorder . less common types of mental illnesses include: ? Adjustment disorder . ? Dissociative disorders People with these disorders suffer severe disturbances or changes in memory. kleptomania (stealing) and compulsive gambling are examples of impulse control disorders. These disorders usually are associated with overwhelming stress. mania and bipolar disorder. are sometimes classified as mental illnesses 1. attitudes and behaviors involving weight and food. and stroke. Mental Disorders . . identity. Suicide . ? Somatoform disorders A person with a somatoform disorder. mental disease. may schizophrenics can recover. no emotional response at all. such as a rapid heartbeat and sweating. Psychosis 3. genetic. Also called emotional illness. People with personality disorders have extreme and inflexible personality traits that are distressing to the person and/or cause problems in work. They may respond inappropriately in some situations. or other factors. sudden and/or uncontrollable.People with anxiety disorders respond to certain objects or situations with fear and dread. Potential causes of Organic disorders: brain tumors.a mental disorder meaning "split mind". or a disturbance that prevents a person from leading a happy. .results from one of many psychological causes.The individual continues to function. One common personality disorder is termed the antisocial personality – characterized by a person's being in constant conflict with society. such as hearing voices – and delusions – false beliefs that the ill person accepts as true.a disorder in which the anxiety or fear prevents a person from functioning effectively in day-to-day living. biochemical. especially when it is prolonged Depression – is a condition characterized by sadness. usually on trouble with the law. and depersonalization disorder are examples of dissociative disorders. distinct signs and symptoms appear. Anorexia nervosa. including Alzheimer's disease. Examples include antisocial personality disorder. and caused by social. healthy life. Often. Neurosis 2. syphilis. to perform acts that could be harmful to themselves or apparent. The antisocial personality often does not care and is. anxiety. or behavioral functioning. What is Mental Illness/Disorder? A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. An anxiety disorder is diagnosed if the person's response is not appropriate for the situation.Dissociative identity disorder. emotional. such as a divorce. ? Tic disorders People with tic disorders make sounds or display body movements that are repeated. The stressors may include natural disasters. in his or her environment. Alcohol and drugs are common objects of addictions. The three (3) main categories of functional disorders are: 1. formerly called multiple personality disorder. Functional Disorders . The most common mood disorders are depression. as well as with physical signs of anxiety or used to describe the broad range of mental health problems. such as infection or head trauma. consciousness. insomnia. Two of the most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations – the experience of images or sounds that are not real. also called mental disorder. Neurosis .disorder caused by a physical illness or injury that affects the brain. Personality Disorders . Some doctors believe its causes stem from a physical disorders. Other diseases or conditions. Sexual dysfunction. of fluctuations from extreme sadness. Types of Mental Illness ? Anxiety disorders .Adjustment disorder occurs when a person develops emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to a stressful event or an individual whose perception of reality is so distorted that he or she is unable to function properly in the environment. Others think it is genetic in nature.It is a Mental disorder. Much research is still being carried out to better understand schizophrenia. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and paranoid personality disorder.Mental Disorders What constitutes Mental Illness? .Eating disorders involve extreme emotions. and personality disorders 3. in some cases. They exhibit abnormal emotional responses or. which may be the result of traumatic events. Anorexia – the loss of appetite. Often effectively. and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings. Hypochondria – a preoccupation with the body and with fear of presumed diseases. a disease. In addition. also called affective disorders. with proper treatment. Other. Pyromania (starting fires). people with this disorder become so involved with the objects of their addiction that they begin to ignore responsibilities and relationships.A stigma means a blot on one's good name.These disorders. if the person cannot control the response or if the anxiety interferes with normal functioning. school or social relationships. These disorders are much more of an internal nature. ? Eating disorders . ? Sexual and gender disorders These include disorders that affect sexual desire. in which no brain damaged is involved. ? Mood disorder . such as an earthquake or tornado. Most common Psychosis: Schizophrenia (skit-zoe-free-nee-ah) . infections. or interpersonal problems. Any of various conditions characterized by impairment of an individual's normal cognitive. psychological. or impulses. gender identity disorder and the paraphilias are examples of sexual and gender disorders. alcoholism.Psychotic disorders Involve distorted awareness and thinking. bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are the most common eating disorders.the taking of one's life. Classification of Neurosis Paranoia – an all absorbing apprehension that interferes with carrying a normal activity. experiences physical symptoms of an illness even though a doctor can find no medical cause for the symptoms. and withdrawal. emotional conflict. events or crises. Adjustment disorder usually begins within three months of the event or situation and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated. 2.may respond inappropriately in certain situations or may interfere with others' interaction. loss of a job or a problem with substance abuse. such as a car accident or the diagnosis of a major illness. (Sounds that are made involuntarily are called vocal tics). accidents or disasters that may be experienced or witnessed by the individual. . Types of Mental disorders Organic Disorder . performance and behavior. Psychosis A Psychotic .

awareness. usually on a side of the brain. ? Embrace a wholesome attitude toward sex matters. 8. and care for people affected by death. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical. Denial . catabiosis . therapist. and bereavement. Psychological tests may also be conducted. 6. Psychiatric assessment typically involves a mental status examination.Electric shock given to a patient under anesthetic. drinking . 6. ? Gain confidence through making sure of success. and death-avoiding attitudes. The joints of the skeleton stiffens because of a reduction of lubricating fluids. ? Learn to face things as they are.Running away from a problem through daydreaming.Retreating to an earlier time that seems less threatening and requires less responsibility. Drug Therapy . 5.Is a medical specialty officially devoted to the treatment. study and prevention of mental disorders. SIGNS OF AGING Physical Changes 1. 10. Paranoid delusions 7. Severe sleep disturbances – nightmares. or for no reason. Short term memory is reduced. 2. 4. dying. 4. Identification. Although aging is a lifelong process and varies in its effects on individuals. Also called education about death. ? Learn to enjoy people to make stimulating social contacts. ? Beware of alluring escapes. without organizing or censoring the material. 3. insomnia 8. The reflexes is reduced. psychological. 11. Two major reasons for providing death education' First. Sublimation. 1. 3. This treatment can sometimes help severely depressed patients.Expressing feelings toward someone or something not associated with the source of the feelings. processes of dying and bereavement. 3. Males and females menopause. Problems of transportation 5. 7. Sense of smell is reduced and sense of taste appears to decline. There are a number of theories why senescence occurs including those that it is programmed by gene expression changes and that it is the accumulative damage of biological processes.are strategies used to cope with stressful situations.An attempt to justify one's action with an excuse rather than admitting one's failure or mistake. Second. Loss of teeth. Proper use of time-leisure activities 9. Death Education Refers to a variety of educational activities and experiences related to death and embraces such core topics as meanings and attitudes toward death. Group Therapy . 7. Hearing sensitively decreases. 10. Projection . Vision tends towards farsightedness. AGING AND DEATH EDUCATION AGING Aging is an irreversible biological changes that occur in all living things with the passage of time.An attempt to make up for something you do not have. Facing Problems and Conflicts Defense mechanism . violent or erratic shifts in your moods. drug abuse 9. ? Remember that time is a great healer and God is the greatest. The organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age Is the accumulation of changes in an organism or object over time. Regression. the taking of a case history. Compulsive self-destructive behavior – overeating. perceiving of positive regard on the part of the therapist. The process involves the exploring of contradictions and inconsistencies. 4. They should eat healthy foods and plan for leisure in their life. Combative in nature 5. Frequent physical Ailments – for which no medical cause can be found Ways of preventing Mental Disorder/Illness Different services may help such as: PSYCHIATRY . To achieve these goals. The process of becoming older. death-defying. Hopelessness – the sense that your life is out of control.A form of Psychotherapy wherein six to 10 persons meet once or twice a week under the directions of a trained leader or Self-help to improve Personality and Prevent Mental Disorder ? Maintain a sound physical health. Persistent talk about the wish to die 6. Depression 10. ? Develop a sensible independence. Financial problems 8.the use of drugs to reduce a mental disorder or to prepare for the above two treatments. Confusion 4. PSYCHOTHERAPY . is based on the belief that deathdenying. 5. Mandatory retirement 4. Sense of touch is diminished and therefore response to pain lessens. A restless wandering feeling 3. Inappropriate dependency 8. 9. Isolation Sociological Changes 1.normal aging of cells . 8. death education is critical for preparing professionals to advance the field and accomplish its purposes.because they involve the brain. Compensation . Regression 2.Strives to expose the ego in the treatment situation and the original emotional conflicts which it could not solve in the past. Fear and Anger because "the world" is against you. 9. ? Develop a wholesome outlook in life. ? Plan a balanced program of work and play. Inability to concentrate or to make decisions. discovering and experiencing of feeling previously denied. or Fantasy . Repression .Acting like or modeling one's behavior after a person he or she likes. eventually resulting in death. 6. and social change Senescence or biological aging is the change in the biology of an organism as it ages after its maturity. Loss of spouse 3. Loneliness 10. 12. the aim of which is to free or to alleviate the client's mental illness. Displacement. a process that is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. emphasizing the social and behavioral aspects of aging. The hair becomes thinner and turns to gray or to white. Helpless victims of crimes of abuse Gerontology is the scientific study of old age. Lack of knowledge in community resources 7.Blocking out thoughts about unpleasant things or experiences. Becoming critical and demanding 9. Be active in both physically and intellectually.A method of verbal treatment which has been labeled "the talking cure". ? Strive for a balanced satisfaction of life's need. trouble getting along with those around you. it provides the general public with Signs of Mental Health Problems 1. old age has been commonly defined as beginning at the age of 65. Lack of community involvement 6.forgetting on purpose. Electroconvulsive Therapy . Sadness over a specific event. ? Conquer fears by facing them. Escape. Rationalization . 5. They tend to perspire less. Loss of child rearing function 2. the patient is expected to appear several times a week for interview with the analyst and engage in a free association which involves the spontaneous verbalizing of all the things comes to mind. Loss of role identification 11. PSYCHOANALYSIS . 7. reorganization and restructuring of the client's concept of himself and awareness of responsibility for the new self in action. 2. ? Cultivate a variety of active interests.An attempt to protect one's selfconcept by blaming unpleasant feelings or inappropriate actions on others. Psychological or Mental Changes 1. 2. Such changes range from those affecting its cells and their function to that of the whole organism. or did not receive. The skin turns dry and wrinkled.Refusal to accept reality.Transforming unacceptable behaviors in acceptable ones.

People who are depressed feel very much alone and you company. Others become very busy to take their minds off the loss. where they get an improved deal and you get collaboration or some other contribution. Mood fluctuations and feelings of isolation and withdrawal may follow. Tell them that it is not fair. allowing them to rail and bellow. For some people. People sometimes deal with their sorrow by engaging in dangerous or self-destructive activities. When given some social support and respect. and to assist in creating and maintaining the conditions to bring this about. As a result you will deny the reality of death. seeking ways to avoid having the bad thing happen. the next stage is usually one of classic denial. Doing things like drinking. Treatment The first thing you can do with people who are in depression is to be there with them. As necessary. or perhaps not as seriously so. Symptoms After denial. even though it may not seem that way. Show anger yourself (thus legitimizing that they get angry). Symptoms The next step after denial is a sudden swing into anger. Ways to Cope with Death Discuss feelings such as loneliness. provision of professional coaching. Some people reach out for support from others and find comfort in good memories. Some do this naturally and easily with friends and family. the next stage is a desperate round of bargaining. In turning in towards themselves. The phrase 'Why me?' may be repeated in an endless loop in their heads. Bargaining in illness includes seeking alternative therapies and experimental drugs.If your pain just seems to get worse. Some days will be better than others. they will carry on doing their job even if that job is no longer required. This is fine. this may include finishing off some important work before they leave and receiving a special bonus for doing so. Accept it. accepting them in all their misery. They effectively close their eyes to any evidence and pretend that nothing has happened. to gradually return to your old self and become socially involved in what's going on around you. Whoever is in the way is likely to be blamed. which fuels their anger at the those who are not affected. Beware. it includes offering to work for less money (or even none!). they slump into a slough of despond. drugs. and sadness openly and honestly with other students. such as problem areas and ways to move forward. Although there may be practical things they can do which you can offer them. it can help to talk about the loss with others. Join a support group. or if you feel like hurting yourself or have suicidal thoughts. while others talk to a professional therapist. The overarching aims of death education are to promote the quality of life and living for oneself and others. this denial will gradually diminish as you begins to express and share your feelings about death and dying with other students or friends. When they are in a bargaining mood. as long you find other ways to deal with your pain. In the workplace. It takes time for you. when faced with anger. In organizations. which often occurs in an explosion of emotion. Please note that encouragement and reassurance to the bereaved student will not be helpful in this stage. which makes all those feelings build up inside and only prolongs the grief. So keep up a steady stream of support. Bargaining is thus a vain expression of hope that the bad news is reversible. long lunch breaks and mediocre work performance. debts and dependants may be paraded as evidence of the essentiality of being saved. Where anger becomes destructive then it must be addressed directly. Let them be angry at you. instructors and family members. The second thing to do is to keep them moving. the grieving student. A part of this anger thus is 'Why not you?'. too. In a business setting. Hold up the future (sympathetically) so they cannot avoid or deny it. the sooner it will blow itself out. Get plenty of rest. In these cases you may be able to strike a win-win deal. never offer them something that cannot be fulfilled. If your religious convictions are important to you. counselling and other support can do a lot to help people recognize their depression and find a way to clamber out of the pit ACCEPTANCE Acceptance does not mean happiness.basic knowledge and wisdom developed in the field. In the workplace. anger and bargaining. Be patient with yourself. Maintain hope. they will continue their life as if nothing has happened. tell someone you trust about how you feel. Instead . One's loyalties. Take good care of yourself. they see only a horrible end with nothing beyond it. They probably try to bargain and offer to give up an enjoyable part of their lives in exchange for the return of health or the lost person. the best thing you can do is give them space. showing them that there is light ahead and encouraging them to reach towards it. You are angry at what you perceive to be the unfairness of death and you may project and displace your anger unto others. Treatment When people are bargaining. anger. This isn't really dealing with the pain. In a company this includes the managers. it may be difficult for you to accept your own dying or the death of a loved one/classmate. Reframe their anger into useful channels. the inevitability of the news eventually (and not before time) sinks in and the person reluctantly accepts that it is going to happen. Some people may not feel like talking about it much at all because it's hard to find the words to express such deep and personal emotion or they wonder whether talking will make them feel the hurt more. Symptoms After the initial shock has worn off. only masking it. In this deep depression. DENIAL AND SHOCK At first. Coping With Grief Just as people feel grief in many different ways. or cutting yourself to escape from the reality of a loss may seem to numb the pain. is likely to be welcome. even though this may well tip them into depression (which may well be a necessary move). Typically. Treatment You can move a person out of denial by deliberately provoking them to anger. you should not offer them any false hope. you will eventually become less angry and able to move into the next stage of grieving. offering to do alternative work or be demoted down the hierarchy. However. Treatment When they are angry. ANGER During this stage the most common question asked is "why me?". you may need to remind people of appropriate and inappropriate behavior. In the workplace. It takes time to heal. Sometimes the best you can do at this stage is point even more at the inevitable. Eat well-balanced meals. Symptoms After the fires of anger have been blow out. this includes physical absenteeism. Support their anger. The more the storm blows. they turn away from any solution and any help that others can give them. Some people become depressed and withdraw from their peers or go out of the way to avoid the places or situations that remind them of the person who has died. the deeper into the mud they are likely to slide. they handle it differently. of it becoming an argument where you may push them back into denial or cause later problems. where they pretend that the news has not been given. Depression may be seen in a number of passive behaviors. peers. sometimes there are things you can offer them. but the feeling is only temporary. It is easy to get stuck in depression. such as support for change or new opportunities. shareholders customers and suppliers. It can also appear in tearful and morose episodes where the person's main concern is focused on their own world. BARGAINING Many students try to bargain with some sort of deity. A classic behavior here is a 'flight into health'. From the animation of anger and bargaining. where previously-perceived problems are suddenly seen as having miraculously fixed themselves. talk to a member of the clergy about your beliefs and feelings. where the bottled-up feelings of the previous stages are expulsed in a huge outpouring of grief. DEPRESSION You may at first experience a sense of great loss. and the longer they stay there.

whilst others who have had their work changed will be tidying up and getting ready to move on. sorting out wills and helping others to accept the inevitability that then now have countenanced and faced. ensuring that there is no way back to the previous situation. They will appear increasingly happier and more content as they find their way forward. Symptoms The final stage is back to one of accept and deal with the reality of the situation. . The terminally ill person will be putting their life in order. Treatment Help the person to establish themselves permanently in their new position. where the person is ready and actively involved in moving on to the next phase of their lives. In the workplace. They start to do things and take note of the results. no matter how short. people who havelost their jobs will be actively seeking new work. Congratulate them on getting through the change. Celebrate the completion of their transition. Fix them there. and then changing their actions in response. Acceptance is typically visible by people taking ownership both for themselves and their actions.

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