Chapter 6 COMPLETING BUSINESS MESSAGES Multiple Choice 1.

The main tasks in completing a business message consist of all except a. proofreading. b. revising. c. forecasting. d. producing. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 150; TYPE: concept 2. When revising a document, you should a. first read through it quickly to evaluate its overall effectiveness. b. first look carefully for grammatical errors. c. try to accomplish all revision tasks in one pass, in order to finish quickly. d. pay closest attention to the document’s spelling. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 3. When reviewing your document for content, you should be concerned with a. grammar and usage. b. punctuation and spelling. c. the accuracy and relevance of the information. d. style and tone. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 151; TYPE: concept 4. One of the best-known readability formulas is the a. Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Score. b. 2 + 2 Formula. c. Scan Plan. d. Carnegie Index. ANSWER: a; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 153; TYPE: concept 5. For general business messages, your writing should be geared to readers at the a. first- to fourth-grade level. b. fifth- to sixth-grade level. c. eighth- to eleventh-grade level. d. twelfth- to fourteenth-grade level. ANSWER: c; DIFFICULTY: moderate; PAGE: 153; TYPE: concept 6. Which of the following is not a technique for helping readers who skim your

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c. c. When it comes to paragraph length a. use long paragraphs with detailed information for direct-mail letters. “If the figures are in by the end of the month we will hopefully be able to begin planning for the upcoming year’s budget. keep their sentences to an average length of 40 words or fewer. When creating a list for a business document a. d. do all of the above. d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. but if they are not then the planning 87 .document? a. ANSWER: c. PAGE: 154. use long paragraphs if you want your document to look more inviting. be sure to introduce them clearly. b. do all of the above. use one-sentence paragraphs only occasionally. b. DIFFICULTY: difficult. are easier to write than descriptive headings. keep in mind that the items need not be parallel. TYPE: concept 11. ANSWER: c. Keeping all sentences the same length c. always use bullets. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 8. ANSWER: d. use long sentences to emphasize important information. b. PAGE: 155. Skilled business writers a. TYPE: concept 10. b. keep all paragraphs to fewer than 60 words. TYPE: concept 7. PAGE: 154. for emphasis. Using shorter paragraphs ANSWER: b. c. Using lists instead of narrative b. PAGE: 156. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: b. d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 9. Including headings and subheadings d. d. c. are less helpful to readers than descriptive headings. rather than numbers or letters. vary the length of their sentences. PAGE: 154. guide readers to think a certain way about the topics covered. simply identify topics covered in the document. Informative headings and subheadings a.

c. What is wrong with the following sentence? “Driving to the office. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Some do. a long noun sequence. ANSWER: b. TYPE: application 16. an indefinite pronoun starter.” a. Nothing—it is grammatically correct as written. an overly long sentence. It lacks parallelism. d. d. an awkward pointer.” a. b. b. It contains a dangling modifier. ANSWER: a. d. a dangling modifier. What is wrong with the following sentence? “To waste time and missing deadlines are bad habits. d. a comma splice. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Nothing—it is grammatically correct as written.process will most definitely have to wait until later” is an example of a. c. It contains a split infinitive. PAGE: 157. “Government task force report recommendations” is an example of a. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Similar ideas are not parallel. None of the above is hedging. b. others don’t. TYPE: application 13. a dependent clause. Which of the following sentences contains a camouflaged verb? a. PAGE: 159. The deadline is next Tuesday. It contains a dangling modifier. The financial statement needs to have two sections. PAGE: 157. b. 88 . The report seems to be incomplete. c. PAGE: 157. Which of the following is an example of a hedging sentence? a. ANSWER: a. redundancy. ANSWER: b. PAGE: 157. c. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: d. d. a police officer stopped me for speeding. DIFFICULTY: moderate. c. TYPE: application 15. It contains an awkward pointer. b. TYPE: application 12. TYPE: application 14.

an awkward reference. b. b. Which of the following sentences is the most concisely worded? a. PAGE: 159. ANSWER: d. TYPE: application 18. ANSWER: c. and you need not try to rewrite the sentence. d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. c. ANSWER: d. a strung-out sentence. The “replace all” feature in word-processing programs 89 . TYPE: application 19. d. c. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. The project manager is in charge of furnishing specifications until such time as the project gets underway. obsolete language.b. TYPE: application 20. Project managers have the capability of changing specifications before the official start date. a sign of the active voice being used. d. the passive voice. TYPE: concept 21. c. perfectly acceptable. DIFFICULTY: moderate. all of the above. “The above-mentioned book” is an example of a. The project manager must give the engineers the revised specifications before the project starts. PAGE: 159. d. a redundancy. ANSWER: b. PAGE: 159. Starting a sentence with “It is” or “There are” is a. a cliché. c. PAGE: 159. All specifications should be provided by the project manager prior to the start of a project. “Visible to the eye” is an example of a. d. He slowly. deliberately added the numbers. ANSWER: a. an indefinite pronoun starter. TYPE: application 17. PAGE: 159. She is a marketing manager but also serves as ad manager. redundancy. It is John’s recommendation that she be hired. b. b. usually a sign that the sentence could be shorter and more active. DIFFICULTY: moderate. c.

highlights phrases in passive voice. is unprofessional and should not be used in business documents. A spell checker a. ANSWER: a. PAGE: 162. PAGE: 162. PAGE: 164. d. DIFFICULTY: easy. b. c. ANSWER: b. TYPE: concept 23. tracks down words or phrases and automatically changes them all. TYPE: concept 22. c. is not copyrighted. Clip art a. For effective document design. you should 90 . Inserting hypertext into documents a. b. TYPE: concept 24. must be used with care. can help you find just the right word for a given situation. all of the above. c. A computer thesaurus a. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. does all of the above. is costly and difficult to use. ANSWER: b. can save you time when revising messages. d. b. b. given current technology. d. cannot automatically correct misspelled words as you type. involves using HTML language to create hyperlinks. suggests synonyms. highlights words it doesn’t recognize. makes it impossible to attach your document to an e-mail message. b. requires an expert to handle the programming. c. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 25. PAGE: 164. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 161-62. TYPE: concept 26. d. since it can make undesirable changes.a. c. allows you to hear sounds over the Internet. suggests correct spelling. catches punctuation as well as grammar errors. d. is not possible yet. ANSWER: d.

ANSWER: d. acceptable for long sections of text but not for headings. c. PAGE: 166. is only an option when you can't use color. TYPE: concept 27. TYPE: concept 28. centered. ANSWER: a. d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. artwork. PAGE: 166. use a mix of several typefaces and type sizes and include a variety of decorative touches to make the pages look more interesting. never appropriate. ANSWER: d. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Justified margins are not preferred for business documents because they a. d. Using white space in a document a. set flush on the left and flush on the right. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 29. b. d. Serif typefaces are generally preferable to sans serif faces for 91 . ANSWER: b. b. do all of the above. is considered “cheating. c. and white space. makes your document look unappealing. c. Centered type in business documents is a. TYPE: concept 30. c. Justified type is type that is a. always preferred for exceptionally long paragraphs. PAGE: 166. balance the space devoted to text. darken the message’s appearance because there is less white space. set flush left and ragged on the right. PAGE: 166. c. ANSWER: c. fit as much material as possible on each page. DIFFICULTY: moderate. b. d. provides contrast. do all of the above.” b. b. d. rarely used for text but commonly used for headings. TYPE: concept 31. make messages look less personalized. PAGE: 167. set flush right and ragged on the left. DIFFICULTY: easy. make the document harder to read.a.

d. c. salutation. headings and captions. complimentary close d. and boldface. TYPE: concept 35. you should 92 . none of the above. d. PAGE: 167. message. Which of the following lists contains the elements of a business letter in the proper order? a. c. underlines. complimentary close c. none of the above ANSWER: a. b. inside address. Desktop publishing software a. d. make generous use of such styles as all caps. If you’re sending extremely large files. you should a. ANSWER: c. layout. photographs. date. provides “style sheets” that help ensure a consistent look to your documents. salutation. TYPE: concept 34. When selecting typefaces for most business documents. letterhead. b. and clip art to documents c. b. choose a nice sans serif face for your main body text. does all of the above. display treatments. message. complimentary close b. inside address. salutation. PAGE: 167. date. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 33. includes specialized tools for formatting. TYPE: concept 32. letterhead. use a large type size (at least 14 points) for your basic text if you need to fill up space. and design. message. ANSWER: a.a. text. PAGE: 168. DIFFICULTY: moderate. allows you to add color. DIFFICULTY: moderate. letterhead. generally avoid using more than two typefaces on a page. ANSWER: d. PAGE: 169. inside address. DIFFICULTY: moderate. date.

PAGE: 151. ANSWER: T. PAGE: 151. see whether your audience would prefer to receive them on a CD instead of as an e-mail attachment. TYPE: concept True or False 36. Although readability formulas are easy to apply. The best approach to completing your business message is to focus on the details first before addressing the document as a whole. DIFFICULTY: moderate. b. TYPE: concept 39. quick pass through it to check for typos and spelling errors. ANSWER: F. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: F. TYPE: concept 40. the next step is to make a final. TYPE: concept 43. ANSWER: F. d. PAGE: 153. ANSWER: b. PAGE: 171. With practice. use overnight delivery to send a hard copy rather than sending them electronically. ANSWER: F. The middle section of a message has the greatest impact on the audience. always send them as MS Word attachments. PAGE: 150. DIFFICULTY: moderate. 93 . DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 38. You should strive for a sixth-grade reading level for most business messages. TYPE: concept 37.a. send them through the mail to avoid excessive costs. TYPE: concept 42. then review the effectiveness of its organization. most writers can create first drafts that do not need to be revised. PAGE: 151. PAGE: 151. It is a good idea to set aside a first draft for a day or two before beginning the revision process. you should evaluate the content of your message. After you have completed the first draft of your business message. TYPE: concept 41. c. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: T. ANSWER: F. they ignore some factors that contribute to reading ease. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. At the beginning of the revision process. PAGE: 150.

DIFFICULTY: moderate. in general you should strive for short paragraphs. PAGE: 157. letters. TYPE: concept 53. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Headings have one function. PAGE: 156. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Skilled business writers keep all their sentences as short as possible. ANSWER: F. Readers can understand informative headings without reading the rest of the document. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 46. PAGE: 156. ANSWER: F. ANSWER: T. or bullets (graphic elements) to separate the items. ANSWER: F. TYPE: concept 52. DIFFICULTY: moderate. Although you should vary the length of paragraphs in your business messages. TYPE: concept 48. It is inappropriate to use lists in formal business writing. To avoid legal problems in your business messages. PAGE: 153. TYPE: concept 45. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 154. DIFFICULTY: easy. DIFFICULTY: moderate. One way to make your messages clearer is to break up overly long sentences into shorter sentences. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. An example of an informative heading would be “Business Travel. TYPE: concept 50. TYPE: concept 47. Items in a list do not need to have parallel construction. you should use as many hedging words (such as may or seems) as possible. TYPE: concept 94 . PAGE: 155.” ANSWER: F. ANSWER: T. TYPE: concept 44. PAGE: 156. TYPE: application 51. PAGE: 157. which is to break up long blocks of type. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: T. PAGE: 154. ANSWER: F. PAGE: 155. you can use numbers. TYPE: concept 49. PAGE: 155. ANSWER: F.ANSWER: T. To create a list. ANSWER: T.

PAGE: 159. DIFFICULTY: difficult. PAGE: 159. TYPE: concept 95 .” “the aforementioned. TYPE: concept 62. ANSWER: T. PAGE: 159. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: T. DIFFICULTY: moderate. you’ll find that most first drafts can be cut by as much as 50 percent. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 60. make liberal use of references such as “the latter. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 63.” and “as mentioned above. DIFFICULTY: moderate.54. ANSWER: T. ANSWER: T. PAGE: 159. ANSWER: T. PAGE: 162. PAGE: 159. The word very is usually unnecessary and contributes to sentence clutter. ANSWER: T. Short words are more vivid and easier to read than long words. To save words. ANSWER: F. TYPE: concept 58. PAGE: 159.” chances are the sentence can be shortened. Using a spell checker guarantees that your documents will be free of spelling errors. TYPE: concept 55.” ANSWER: F. PAGE: 159. TYPE: concept 56. ANSWER: F. PAGE: 159. TYPE: concept 59. If a sentence starts with an indefinite pronoun such as “it” or “there. The subject and predicate of a sentence should be kept as close together as possible. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: T. TYPE: concept 61. PAGE: 157. After editing for conciseness and clarity. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 57.” “the former. Redundancies are useful to readers because repetition leads to better recall of information. A camouflaged verb is a verb that has been turned into a noun or an adjective. Dangling modifiers are often the result of passive constructions.

One advantage of justified type is that it makes a message look more personalized and less like a form letter. PAGE: 166. TYPE: concept Fill-in-the-Blank 71. you should use as many design elements and decorative touches as possible. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 68. PAGE: 163. Today’s powerful grammar checkers can easily determine whether your document states your message correctly and communicates it clearly. ANSWER: F. PAGE: 170. PAGE: 164. ANSWER: F. Proofreading is rarely necessary since today’s professionals use wordprocessing software to prepare documents. PAGE: 167-68. PAGE: 167. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 70. ANSWER: F. Using a ____________________ ____________________ will give you a rough idea of how educated your audience must be to read and comprehend your 96 . ANSWER: F.64. TYPE: concept 69. The best way to draw attention to important points or terms is to underline them or type them in all capital letters. DIFFICULTY: easy. To make your message more interesting and accessible. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 66. ANSWER: F. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 166. you should pay special attention to design and page layout. TYPE: concept 65. ANSWER: T. Because the first thing that readers will notice about your message is its appearance. TYPE: concept 67. ANSWER: F. Using many different fonts in the same document will make it more appealing to your audience. DIFFICULTY: moderate.

DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: readability formula. DIFFICULTY: difficult. or other items. TYPE: concept 73. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 155. ANSWER: parallel. PAGE: 153. PAGE: 159. TYPE: concept 72. ANSWER: hedging. An effective alternative to using conventional sentences is to set off important ideas in a(an) ____________________ —a series of words. informative. two or more similar ideas are expressed with the same grammatical pattern. PAGE: 157. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 77. ANSWER: Descriptive. names. A ____________________ sentence uses words such as may and seems to avoid stating a judgment or fact. A modifier is said to be ____________________ when it has no real connection to the subject of the sentence. DIFFICULTY: difficult. Word combinations that are needlessly repetitive are called ____________________. TYPE: concept 78. PAGE: 157. DIFFICULTY: difficult. ANSWER: dangling. TYPE: concept 74. ANSWER: list.message. PAGE: 156. ____________________ verbs are those that have been changed into nouns or adjectives. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: moderate. With ____________________ construction. PAGE: 157. TYPE: concept 75. PAGE: 159. ____________________ headings identify a topic but do little more. ____________________ headings guide readers to think in certain ways about a topic. TYPE: concept 76. ANSWER: redundancies. TYPE: concept 97 . ANSWER: Camouflaged.

For longer messages. PAGE: 162.79. TYPE: concept 82. PAGE: 162. PAGE: 167. DIFFICULTY: difficult. and geared to the reader’s probable reaction. ____________________ typefaces have small crosslines at the ends of each letter stroke. interesting. TYPE: concept Short Answer 86. PAGE: 164. ANSWER: spell checker. ANSWER: White space. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ____________________ markup language (HTML) is used to insert hyperlinks. PAGE: 151. TYPE: concept 81. ANSWER: thesaurus. A(An) ____________________ compares your document with an electronic dictionary. DIFFICULTY: difficult. One of the final stages in producing a document is ____________________ it to make sure that it contains no errors in grammar. ANSWER: desktop publishing. TYPE: concept 85. and organization of the material. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 80. ANSWER: Serif. DIFFICULTY: moderate. ANSWER: proofreading. highlights unrecognized words. images. You can use ____________________ ____________________ software such as Quark XPress or Adobe InDesign to produce professional-looking formats and layouts for your documents. and punctuation. usage. PAGE: 170. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 166. the first few paragraphs should establish the subject. DIFFICULTY: moderate. and other elements into your messages. ____________________ ____________________ provides visual contrast for your readers and gives them a resting point. Briefly explain what the opening of a document should accomplish. TYPE: concept 84. ANSWER: Hypertext. and suggests correct spelling. TYPE: concept 83. TYPE: concept 98 . ANSWER: The opening of a shorter document should be relevant. An electronic ____________________ gives you alternative words and helps you find synonyms. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 168. purpose.

” ANSWER: The office manager found the financial report next to the filing cabinet. PAGE: 157. Conclusions should accomplish what two tasks? ANSWER: Conclusions should (1) summarize the main idea and (2) leave the audience with a positive impression. highlight the main point. DIFFICULTY: moderate. PAGE: 155. TYPE: application 92. DIFFICULTY: moderate. They also provide readers with clues. TYPE: application 93. Briefly describe at least three advantages of using lists in business documents. DIFFICULTY: moderate. and help readers find your key points.” ANSWER: The consulting firm that provides financial estimates and accounting services will be closed next week.87. TYPE: concept 89. simplify complex subjects.” ANSWER: We cannot offer refunds until the customer service department opens. PAGE: 157. PAGE: 159. DIFFICULTY: difficult. heighten their impact visually. break up the page visually. Rewrite the following sentence to remove the dangling modifier: “Lying next to the filing cabinet. we do not have the capability of offering refunds until such a time as they reopen. ANSWER: Lists can show the sequence of your ideas. TYPE: application 90. TYPE: application 91. Rewrite the following sentence to improve clarity and avoid the long noun sequence: “The financial estimates and accounting consulting firm will be closed next week. PAGE: 151. ease the skimming process. Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate redundancies: “The engineers collaborated together in order to produce the uniquely original final outcomes of 99 . Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate the unnecessary phrases: “In view of the fact that the customer service department is closed. the office manager found the financial report. DIFFICULTY: moderate. and give readers a breather. PAGE: 159. Rewrite the following sentence to avoid camouflaged verbs: “The customer will ultimately make a determination about whether or not a purchase will occur.” ANSWER: The customer will ultimately determine whether or not to make a purchase. DIFFICULTY: moderate. TYPE: concept 88.

PAGE: 159. along with rewording long noun sequences. (2) balance. What three functions do effective headings serve in business documents? Explain each one. Improving the clarity of a document also involves eliminating camouflaged verbs. Correcting dangling modifiers is another necessary step. ANSWER: Effectively designed business documents exhibit (1) consistency. and moderating your enthusiasm. Finally. List four characteristics of effective document design. ANSWER: Editing for clarity involves breaking up overly long sentences and rewriting sentences that contain hedging (words like may and seems). and (4) attention to detail.their research. It also requires imposing parallelism. TYPE: application 94. or using the same grammatical pattern to express two or more similar ideas. making the text easier to read and helping the audience find the parts they need to read—or skip. DIFFICULTY: difficult. Rewrite the following sentence to be more concise by using short. DIFFICULTY: moderate. DIFFICULTY: difficult. 100 . headings help readers make connections between subordinate ideas and main ones. Explain at least three of the steps involved in editing documents for clarity. (3) restraint. clarifying sentence structure and awkward sentences. TYPE: concept Essay 96. They act as labels to group related paragraphs and organize material into short sections. Headings also control the reader’s attention. simple words: “Effective immediately. PAGE: 166. PAGE: 159. ANSWER: Headings contribute to the document’s organization by showing the reader at a glance how the document is organized. PAGE: 156. all employees need to terminate their excessive utilization of the office duplication machine for personal affairs and activities.” ANSWER: The engineers collaborated to produce their original research outcomes. TYPE: concept 97. TYPE: application 95.” ANSWER: The office copier is not for personal use. DIFFICULTY: moderate.

missing elements (text 101 . DIFFICULTY: difficult. highlights unrecognized words. then list the four steps it involves. TYPE: concept 99. Explain the importance and process of proofreading. and mistakes that crept in during production. TYPE: concept 98. PAGE: 157-59. you should check the document for errors from the writing. shortening long words and phrases. Eliminating unnecessary material helps you get your point across more efficiently. TYPE: concept 100. A grammar checker provides limited help with issues such as noun-verb agreement problems and items you should consider changing (such as passive voice. a style checker monitors your word choice and sentence structure and suggests alternatives that might produce more effective meaning. or words that tend to be misused or overused). Why does it matter and what should you look for? ANSWER: Proofreading is important because it is your last chance to make sure that your document is ready to carry your message—and your reputation—to the intended audience. and suggests correct spellings. and eliminating redundancies. Improving the conciseness of a message involves removing unnecessary words and phrases. design. Explain why editing for conciseness is important. long sentences. A spell checker compares your document with an electronic dictionary. DIFFICULTY: difficult. It also requires shortening sentences that begin with indefinite pronouns such as it and there. Finally. and layout stages. you should be on the lookout for writing errors (such as typographical mistakes and misspelled words). PAGE: 159.DIFFICULTY: difficult. ANSWER: Software tools such as revision marks and commenting keep track of proposed editing changes electronically and provide a history of a document’s revisions. PAGE: 161-62. Describe at least three types of software that can help you revise and polish a document. More specifically. A computer thesaurus gives you alternative words much more quickly than a printed thesaurus does. When proofreading. ANSWER: Editing business documents for conciseness is important because many drafts are twice as long as they need to be.

DIFFICULTY: difficult.sections and visual aids). TYPE: concept 102 . PAGE: 170. and design and formatting errors (such as incorrect font selections and page numbers).