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Weldability,Classification of Steel

Weldability,Classification of Steel

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The WeldabiUty of Smells

"Weldability" is a term used in welding engineering to
describe the ease of which a material can be welded by tile
commoo welding processes and still reWn tile properties for
whicb it was designed
lfwe say !bat a material bas limited weldability, it means !bat
we need to take special measures to ensure !bat tile properties
as required are maintained
Most materials are weldable witll certain processes, tbougb tile
weldability of steel is mainly depeudanI: OIl csrbon conJmJ &,
aI/Qying, tbougb most steels bave a degree of weldability
W_&:I'rocIuo:ooIbf:
""""""" :IIlU6TWl.... T .. ,rWlollobrTWI Mooos<r Ml<Idlt East
Ally steel COBtaiIIiIIg more tIwt IrOD and Carboll as mai.R
aDoyiag e1emeats are dassified as Alloy Steels
Alloy steels are furtber divided into 2 groups:
......
PM'
Wriuoa&:l"n>ducoe4by:
C .......... lOO6TWlLbl
Basic Atomic Stmcture of Steels
M Pure irOfl or Ft!I'I'lIDf (Fe)

M InIIl witb dissolved cmbon '"AJpIul FerriK'
(PresenJ IJe10w < 72J OC In PlIIhI ClIrIHm Stu/)
Iron is also a special metallic e1emem !bat can exist in otber typeS of
cubic strucUIres, depending 00 tile temperature
This is a critical fetIJure of iron which enables various beat
tteatments i.e nonnalising. annealing, baniening etc to be carried out
_&:_by:
"""""""C2IJ06TWlLol __
Cwsificmtion of Steeis
All Steels are alloys !bat !!!!!!t cootain the elements ?
Iron & Carbon
SreeIs are dassified into groups as follows;
Plain Carbon Steels:

., , .,.
hi" , ••. --'--- 1;


Plain cmbon steels cootain only iron &, clllbon as main alloying
elements, tmce:s ofMn Si AI S &, P may also be present
W-'&:l'nldueo:dbf:
T __
Basic Atomic 81m_ of Steels
The following $/iIkf 4 - 18 are batic foundation in lItdIIIIlII'fD'
will not form any part of your CSWlP examination :sy/lahU!l
A most imponant function in the metaIlwgy of steels. is the
ability of iron to dissolve cmbon in solution
The cmbon atom is very much smaller than the iron atom and
does not replace it in tile atomic structure, but fits between it

This type of solid solution is termed as being Interstitial
Wriuoa&l'nldueo:dbf:
"""""",C1lI06TWlLol
Basic Atomic Stmcture of Steels
At temperatures below Adr 1, (LCT) irOfl exists like this
U Alpbairon
IiI
This structure OCCUIS below 713 "C and is
. .., body centred,. or BeC in structure
vi., _ It can only dissolve up to Cl.02% CarboB
Also known as Ferrite or BeC iron
• compressed representation could appear like Ibis
_&-bf:
c.,.,.;,aClOO6""'l>d T_WWUbr1WlMooos<r __
1
Basic Atomic Structure of Steels
At temperatures above the Arlr 3, (UeT) ire. uists like this
y Gamma iron
. • Plain Carbon Steels and is FCC in sttucture.
JIl
t This sttucture occurs above Ihe ucr in
! . . It can dissolve up W% Carboll
Also called Austenite or FCC iron
m Compressed representation could appear like Ibis
w_a:_br:
C_"20061Wl.... T..,.WlIIbIw-lWI MaooFM'JdcIIe &01
Damc Atomic Structure QfSteels
If lOme steels are (OGled qlliekly their strueture looks like this
Martensite can be defined as:
A IIOper!IIItIIrated solutiOll or carboll ill
BCT ireD (Body Tetmgooal)
It is Ihe ha,.tkst strudllre that can be
Ihennaily produced in steels
• Compressed represemation could appear like Ibis
_. Pludo"",II.,·,
C_,"2006tw1lJd T ... ,.WIIIIJobrlWlMmlaprMiddl<&oI
Hvdemulbilli1Ly jll] swells
This is a Ilmn used to describe !he ability of a steel to harden
Ibrough its cross section, or depth oflumlening. We now
understand Ihe mechanism ofbardeoing and its reliance on
Ihe rate of cooling 1i'om above Ihe ucr of Ihe steel
The Hardenability of a steel is affected by Ihe 1nJI--of
tile oJIoying elements in delaying Ihe lraIlsfonnation
tempeJ:aII1res of a steel
Each alloying element bas a different severity on Ibis effect
and tium Ihus was home Ihe following fummlae:
Ceq=%C+Mn+Cr+Mo+V +Ni+Cu
6 5 15
-.-by;
C_C 2006TW1lJd Tn}' WlIIbIw-lWI MaooF MiddI< .....
11
Basic Atomic Stmcture of Steels
If steel is heated and Ihen cooled slowly in equilibrium, Ihen
exact reverse atomic changes take place
If a steel that contains > 0.3% Carbon is cooled quickly. Ihen Ihe
carbon does not have lime to diffuse ant of solution, trapping !he
carbon in !he BeC form ofiron. This now distorts Ihe cube to an
irregular or tetTagonal shape
This supersabmIted solution is Ilmned as Martensite and is
Ihe htudt!st Slrll£llm! Ihm CIUI be thermally plYHllICI!d ill stub
w ...... _br:
"""' ...... .,20061Wl""
The Jmtn1ant Poiti of Steel Migtmctures
Solubility of CarboIl ia BeC " FCC phases or steels
Ferrite: a Low carbo. solubility. Maximum 0.02%
AusteBite: 1 Bilk carbo. solubility. Maximum 2.06%
Marteuite: The hardest pllilse in which is produced
by rapid cooling 1ium Ihe Austenite phase
It mainly OI:curs below 300 'c
Wrinca._br-
.,..,......" """'<WIlJd TOIl1WMbkulWlMaooFMiddI<_
I •
Time Temperature Tnmaforroatjon
The FriC equilibrium diagram is ofliltle use to !he engineer
when it comes to practical beat treatments. as all pbases are
shown in equiblxium cooling
To understand Ihe relative pbases of a steel undec differing
cooling conditions we need to produce a diagram that gives
Ibis information
A Tlme TeIIIpI!1'tlIIIl TnmsjontIaJitm diagram shows us Ibis
infunnaIion, and a different diagram is produced for anyone
type of steel The following diagrams show how Ihe effect of
carbon and alloying elements effect Ihe bardenability and
bence Ihe depth ofbardeoing of steels
W-'._br:
.,..,......,,"""' .... w T..,.WlIIbIw-lWIM_MioI4lo&ol !2
2
m Cum for a Medium Carbon Steel
Timeiuiogseeonds 0.1 10 100

c""'""'e:lOO6TW1 ....
!1
m Curve fur a Low Catbon Steel
vcr
Note: WhOl mpi4Jy cooling low-'-'
1lIaJs fmm 6lJowttlte fler it """ """""
tltal tit". it;" _ pqifJtiNe 10 fomt II
/rigIJly marlemitic --.l'I!gIIFIIlas of
• tlte rail! of cooIirIg, it;" lite -.. tImI tIt_
'.
" dM 10 ParJiol Transformotion willWllI"I
\mpi4JyaJOW_i.e.lnj1amecutedges
B iA
Timeiulogseeoads OJ 10 100

C"","",":IOO6TWlLol T __ to
Effect of Coo]jDI Rate
350
0
(/JOOVPN
A ... . . .. ·, •.•.... B
.+ . u.rdBess readiBgs • ... •..
.. . ... ,
•. AjV.-_
Aa.. . . B) Completely hafdeHdM ..· .. · .....·.·.· ....... · .• · ... · .. · .. · .. · ....•.............•.... B


_":IOO6tMLol
11
TIT Curve for a LowAUQY Steel
1) Austenite to PearlitelFerrite transfonnalioo begin.
1) Partial transfurmalioo to PearliteiFemte
vcr I <10.,,=--
Temp
"C
Time iu Jog_ds 0.1
1B
10
W""",&Pro.Iu<z<Ibr-
_"2!lII6TW1 ....
100
Effect QfHardenalbility
"
Haniembility has a map effect 00 the weldability of steels
Coosider2 round bars of the same cross sectional area:
0.4%
Low Alloy Steel
0.1 -to CarbOII
1.6% Mil
l.2.S%Cr
05%Mo
After beating above the ucr and quench cooling. they are
secliooed and hardness tested across the area
W_& I'rodaa:d br-
c..",.,.."2006nn ....
t.
SummlltY ofHWeMbility
On analysing Ibis experiment, it can be detennined that the ooIy
differeru:e between these two specimens is their compositloo
By substituting the wdues in the Ceq fumwlae we can see that
the hardembility of specimens as follows:
A)as%C=
B) as % C +0.16 + 6.45 +O.os=
Ceqll,4
Ceqll.76
II can be determined from Ibis experiment that boIb; cht!1ltictll
ct1IIfJ1tJSidtm and lIfJIIt!riIJI thickMss have a major effi:ct 00 the
htll'delurbility of steels
A limit of I/Qrdenabilty in a steel is termed its ruling sectWll
_a I'rodaa:dbr-
C..",.,.."2006TW1 .... T __ __
I.
3

C_. and a different diagram is produced for anyone type of steel The following diagrams show how Ihe effect of carbon and alloying elements effect Ihe bardenability and bence Ihe depth ofbardeoing of steels Each alloying element bas a different severity on Ibis effect and tium Ihus was home Ihe following fummlae: Ceq=%C+Mn+Cr+Mo+V +Ni+Cu 6 C _ C 2006TW1lJd Tn}' WlIIbIw-lWI MaooF MiddI< .tkst strudllre that can be Ihennaily produced in steels • Compressed represemation could appear like Ibis Marteuite: The hardest pllilse in steel~.. ! . This now distorts Ihe cube to an irregular or tetTagonal shape This supersabmIted solution is Ilmned as Martensite and is Ihe htudt!st Slrll£llm! Ihm CIUI be thermally plYHllICI!d ill stub JIl m t y Gamma iron This sttucture occurs above Ihe ucr in .02% Bilk carbo.. _br: """'.. (UeT) ire.of tile oJIoying elements in delaying Ihe lraIlsfonnation tempeJ:aII1res of a steel shown in equiblxium cooling To understand Ihe relative pbases of a steel undec differing cooling conditions we need to produce a diagram that gives Ibis information A Tlme TeIIIpI!1'tlIIIl TnmsjontIaJitm diagram shows us Ibis infunnaIion. or depth oflumlening..WIIIIJobrlWlMmlaprMiddl<&oI Hvdemulbilli1Ly jll] swells Time Temperature Tnmaforroatjon The FriC equilibrium diagram is ofliltle use to !he engineer when it comes to practical beat treatments.. ..WlIIbIw-lWI MaooFM'JdcIIe &01 Damc Atomic Structure QfSteels If lOme steels are (OGled qlliekly their strueture looks like this Martensite can be defined as: A IIOper!IIItIIrated solutiOll or carboll ill BCT ireD (Body C~ Tetmgooal) The Jmtn1ant Poiti of Steel Migtmctures Solubility of CarboIl ia BeC " FCC phases or steels Ferrite: a AusteBite: 1 Low carbo.• Plain Carbon Steels and is FCC in sttucture..... uists like this Basic Atomic Stmcture of Steels If steel is heated and Ihen cooled slowly in equilibrium...20061Wl"" T. We now understand Ihe mechanism ofbardeoing and its reliance on Ihe rate of cooling 1i'om above Ihe ucr of Ihe steel The Hardenability of a steel is affected by Ihe 1nJI-. Pludo"".... T....Basic Atomic Structure of Steels At temperatures above the Arlr 3......... It can dissolve up W% Carboll Also called Austenite or FCC iron Compressed representation could appear like Ibis w_a:_br: w._br.. Ihen Ihe carbon does not have lime to diffuse ant ofsolution... 5 15 11 ...3% Carbon is cooled quickly." """'<WIlJd TOIl1WMbkulWlMaooFMiddI<_ I• _ . ..."""' .. Maximum 2....·. solubility... trapping !he carbon in !he BeC form ofiron... w W-'........II... Ihen exact reverse atomic changes take place If a steel that contains > 0. -. Maximum 0.06% It is Ihe ha......-by.. solubility. which is produced by rapid cooling 1ium Ihe Austenite phase It mainly OI:curs below 300 'c Wrinca.. as all pbases are This is a Ilmn used to describe !he ability of a steel to harden Ibrough its cross section.WlIIbIw-lWIM_MioI4lo&ol !2 2 .."2006tw1lJd T .WMbkulWl~I!of_&oI C_"20061Wl._br: T.

. t......" lite -.. cht!1ltictll ct1IIfJ1tJSidtm and lIfJIIt!riIJI thickMss have a major effi:ct 00 the htll'delurbility of steels A limit of I/Qrdenabilty in a steel is termed its ruling sectWll W_&~br­ _":IOO6tMLol T."2006nn . (/JOOVPN .4 Completely hafdeHd B) as % C +0. •.. it.m Cum for aMedium Carbon Steel TIT Curve for a LowAUQY Steel 1) Austenite to PearlitelFerrite transfonnalioo begin..B) throughtkeCS~ ~B ....._TWI~M"_u..rdBess readiBgs • .•.. ·."". " m Curve fur aLow Catbon Steel vcr Note: WhOl mpi4Jy cooling low-'-' 1lIaJsfmm 6lJowttlte fler it """ """"" tltal tit".. ·~x· M··•.. T"T_TWI~M>Idlou.76 II can be determined from Ibis experiment that boIb.. • .4% Low Alloy Steel 0.. •.... By substituting the wdues in the Ceq fumwlae we can see that the hardembility of specimens as follows: A)as%C= Ceqll.Iu<z<Ibr- 100 T"T_TWI~Ml4dIeu..S%Cr 05%Mo B Timeiulogseeoads OJ iA 10 _&~. c. .."2006TW1 ..... 10 W_&~br­ 100 !1 Time iu Jog_ds 0.1 c""'""'e:lOO6TW1 ..: 100 to After beating above the ucr and quench cooling. u.".. T _ _ _a I'rodaa:dbr__ I. T.6% Mil l.l'I!gIIFIIlas of • tlte rail! ofcooIirIg. B AjV... it... 1) Partial transfurmalioo to PearliteiFemte vcr I Temp "C <10.ncreaseill~1umIaeu " dM 10 ParJiol Transformotion willWllI"I \mpi4JyaJOW_i.. .. they are secliooed and hardness tested across the area W_& I'rodaa:d br- C"".=-- 1B Timeiuiogseeonds 0.. .2. ...&Pro. 0 •.. it can be detennined that the ooIy differeru:e between these two specimens is their compositloo 350 A ....1 -to CarbOII 1. .":IOO6TWlLol T _ _ TWI~_u. 10 W""".os= Ceqll... Effect of Coo]jDI Rate SummlltY ofHWeMbility On analysing Ibis experiment.." _ pqifJtiNe 10fomt II /rigIJly marlemitic --.16 + 6. ~ . •. .lnj1amecutedg es Effect QfHardenalbility Haniembility has a map effect 00 the weldability of steels Coosider2 round bars of the same cross sectional area: 0...".e...45 +O. TWI~M" 3 ._TWI~MioLIIt_ 11 C. tImI tIt_ '..··. 1IUI}!""IIlt.1 _"2!lII6TW1 ..".-_ .. Aa..+.

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