Sociology and Anthropology

• Syllabus Outline I. Principles and Foundation of Sociology and Anthropology II. The Person and the Society III. The Social Institutions IV. Social Changes

Anthropology

Anthropology
• Who are you? • What makes you? • What is your place in this world?

Anthropology
Etymological Definition • “anthropos” (Greek) = “man” • “logos” (Greek) = “study” Essential Definition • Brach of knowledge which deals with the scientific study of man, his works, body, behavior and values within a specific time and space.

Anthropology
• “scientific”
– physical, subject to time and space – human evolution – fossils of man – geographical population processes of change archeological and prehistoric

Anthropology
• “…man’s works, body, behavior and values” – Discovers when, where and why humans appeared on earth – Why there are variations in physical features – Ancient customs and practices

Anthropology
• “Man”
– Focal point of anthropological investigation and analysis – Regardless of color, affiliation, belief, technology

Anthropology
“Man” – works and achievements • Arts • Architecture • Technology • Sculpture • Literature • Music

Anthropology
– How and why man have changed – How and why societies across culture and time have different customary ideas and practices – Belief, politics, religion, social life, aesthetics, health

Branches of Anthropology
Racial history Physical Paleontology

Anthropology

Cultural

Human genetics Ethnography

Archeology Ethnology Linguistics Social Anthropology

Branches of Anthropology
1. Physical / biological Anthropology
– Biology + culture – Paleontology (origin of man) – Evolution of race – Racial classifications – Racial differentiations (human genetics)

Branches of Anthropology
2. Cultural Anthropology
– Social heritage and customs – Technology – Economic life community organizations – Family life – Secret societies – Government – Law – Religion – Arts

Branches of Anthropology
Ethnography Cultural Anthropology Social Anthropology Ethnology

Branches of Anthropology
2. Cultural Anthropology (subdivisions)
– Ethnography (pure description of culture)

Branches of Anthropology
2. Cultural Anthropology (subdivisions)
– Ethnology (comparison of one culture with another)

Branches of Anthropology
2. Cultural Anthropology (subdivisions)
– Ethnology (comparison of one culture with another)

Branches of Anthropology
2. Cultural Anthropology (subdivisions)
-- Social Anthropology (generalizations on social life; enthnology + ethnography)

Branches of Anthropology
3. Archeology
– Man’s prehistoric culture and society – Fossils (organic) – Artifacts (man made)

Branches of Anthropology
4. Linguistics
– Recorded and unrecorded languages – Relationship between language and culture

Sociology

Sociology
• Who are the people around you? • What is their story? • How do these stories affect you?

Sociology
Etymological Definition • “socius” (Latin) = “group / partners” • “logos” (Greek) = “study” • “sociology” – coined by August Comte (French philosopher, 1798-1857)

Essential Definition • Scientific study of patterns of human interaction that deals with the study of group life (Joseph Fichter).

Sociology
• “scientific”
– Body of knowledge of patterned structure – Utilizes scientific methodology – Investigates the social world – Inquires how groups are formed – Determines how groups affect the individual and vice versa

Sociology
• “Human interactions”
– Social relations – Story of people – Ways toward each other – Social behavior (and not of the individual) – Changes taking place within society

Socio-Anthropology and Other Social Sciences
Sociology

Economics

Anthropology

History

Political Science Psychology

Socio-Antrhopology and Other Social Sciences
• Psychology
– study of processes of the mind such as perception, attitudes, values and their determinants

• History
– Study of the past events and their context that possess social significance

Socio-Antrhopology and Other Sciences
• Economics
– Study of the production, distribution and allocation of material goods and services f the society

• Political Science
– Studies the ways people govern themselves through government structure and relationships with other institutions

Forms of Sociology
Micro sociology (study of group life in close-up)

Macro sociology (attempt to explain the fundamental patterns processes of social relations)

Areas of Sociology
1. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION 2. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

3. SOCIAL CHANGE AND SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION

SOCIOLOGY

4. HUMAN ECOLOGY

7. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY

6. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY AND METHOD

5. POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHY

Areas of Sociology
1. Social organization
study of the various social institutions, social groups, social stratification, social mobility, bureaucracy, ethnic groups and relations.

Areas of Sociology
2. Social Psychology
study of human nature as an outcome of group life, social attitudes, collective behavior and personality formation.

Areas of Sociology
3. Social change and disorganization
study of change in culture and social relations and disruptions that may occur in the society.

Areas of Sociology
4. Human ecology
study of nature and behavior of a given population as an outcome of group life, social attitudes, collective behavior and personality formation.

Areas of Sociology
5. Population / Demography
study of population number, composition, change and quality as they affect the socioeconomic-political system.

Areas of Sociology
6. Sociological theory and method
concerned with the applicability of principles and theories of group life to social environment.

Areas of Sociology
7. Applied sociology
use of sociological researches in various fields such as criminology, social work, community development and other social issues.

Areas

1.Physical anthropology 2. Cultural anthropology 3. Archeology 4. Linguistics

1. Social organization 2. Social psychology 3. Social change and social disorganization

4. Human ecology
5. Population and demography 6. Sociological theory and method 7. Applied sociology

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Researchable topics
Effects of migration in the life style of village people The effects of OFW phenomena to family Comparative study of marriage rites of Tagalog and Ilocanos View on death of ancient and modern Filipinos K-12 perception and viability among Fishermen of Laguna The condition of Filipino nurses The naturalization of taboos of advertisements in the Philippines The culture of CFAD students vis-à-vis other colleges Sexuality and ethos in advertising The economics of fashion among college students Teen age smoking and CFAD students Prostitution among higher education students

• • • • • • • •

Different culture among colleges K-12 and UST Mge eksena sa jeepney The Phenomena of “Sabong” Qiapo Files: Pananampalataya o Panatisismo Qiapo Files: Anting-anting at Lihim ng Langit Why do jeepney drivers don’t use headlights? Ate Yema and her Odyssey

SOCIOLOGY
• Focuses on social processes • Recent social science • Understand way of life, society culture • Complimented by anthropological research • Originated from Western civilization (historical) • Method: particular (sampling)

ANTHROPOLOGY
• Focuses on culture • Recent social science • Understand way of life, society culture • Complimented by sociological researches • Originated from primitive groups (prehistoric) • Method: generic (holistic)

Anthropology and Sociology
• Both sciences attempt to understand way of life as manifested by the interdependence of society and culture • Sociology zooms in at social process, whereas, Anthropology focuses on culture • Anthropological studies are used by social scientists and vice versa • Thus, both sciences are intimately related to each other—i.e., humanities.

Methodology of Sociology and Anthropology
Scientific Investigation

Pure / Basic Applied

• Search for knowledge for its own sake • Less concerned with practical usage of the result • Scientific knowledge to solve practical problems • Results used in management of business or government, evaluation of social programs, etc.

Methodology of Sociology and Anthropology
• Empirical Investigation
– Direct experience of the phenomena – Use of the senses

Methodology of Sociology and Anthropology
• Objectivity
– Date must be presented, analyzed and interpreted independently of the researcher’s own beliefs and value judgments. – “What you see and not what you want to see”

Methodology of Sociology and Anthropology
• Ethnical neutrality
– Neutral in interpretation of one’s findings, without being influenced by his value judgment and convictions about his own culture.

Methodology of Sociology and Anthropology
• Sociological Imagination(W. Wright Mills’) – Locating oneself in the period of the society being studied in der to understand relationships free from social pressures of his time.

Scientific Investigation

Identification of the problem

Gathering of Data

•Observation •Participant Observation •Interview •Historical Method •Comparative Method •Archival research •Content analysis

Analysis of Data

Scientific Investigation
• Identifying the gap between actually existing and what I. Identification ought to exist in a of the Problem given social situation

Scientific Investigation
• Observation – use of senses on a social phenomena • Participant observation – living with the subject community • Interview – deducing information from resource person/s (may be structured or unstructured) • Historical method – information from past events • Comparative method – identifying similarities and differences b/w societies on a particular social issue (marriage, family, deviance, etc.) • Archival research – use of old records and documents relevant in the understanding of past social events • Content analysis – understanding the message context and message handing particularly overt communication behavior

II. Gathering of Data

Scientific Investigation
• Inferences, generalization, conclusions and recommendations are formulated.

III. Analysis of Data

Relevance of Studying Sociology and Anthropology
• Better understanding of culture and society • Expansion of our world perspective

Relevance of Sociology and Anthropology
• Identification of uniqueness of one’s group • Provide avenues of respect and acceptance

Relevance of Sociology and Anthropology
• Application of Socio-Anthropological knowledge to the production and design of people’s needs.

• to formulate how these needs be known to everyone.

Unity amidst diversity…

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