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Nassau, Matt, “Diab ie Who Car New Review fn ‘rConpel ida api ote “Uncoan Chiten” Mi Hae ity Sprig 203) ‘oe Kez. Hen nS Shawne. Stephen Saye. Tg > ens al Aden Ah cl, hemsl Ting Dial igh Wb impo: Grogs Use Pr ao Peri Marin Th Ba wrk Eugen anh Dat of °Defecie® Aarie “rer adie ad Mtn Pa sc Now Yor Od ae sa LiL sino Mena Dig Sereclng" Ih Conceiving Nb World Onder Thc bl Pas Raed tan El Fae D.Gmrg snd Ray Rap, op Bele Ue app Ray Tsing re, ing the es The Sc p of Anice othr Hoa ad een See Tui “Cenelogl Dive Wd every Abnoraulty. Bondi Eplanaon ond Fy espans et” eV Renin Ka. Sah almond Ss, Mackinna, sy Duta: Bue Unies es ste, ase son ope: Day ath dh Sa Cana Wa "fom Uppity Cip Meno Maine Common Courage ‘sigan Mtn doa Brin Dag, nnn Fe Spas Che "A 3jsts prac Cho Dib Newark Calon. ‘Sha Bret Te aged ae Te Dy Expr th Beso et "rte he Diab a Loi: ede Pre ‘he Hee agus A Hay of Daya Wa See Ra ‘A Ata Unversty of Michigan ese 9p Thomson Hoemarc Gran Exandry es Ewing Phys iii “Aner Cr nd erat New rk Couns Unie Pe. Fok IWwTeo— Fron : . fic) Femaisi ce Gs ce funda FY ME ule Tintin ads. Seen SoH + Delores Keekes air oF Lthicoi 5 Cs 8 Virtuous Cuts: Female Genital Circumcision in an African Ontology ROGAIA MUSTAFA ABUSHARAF vcs nas ae4n warren on gender voencein Ai. In this burgeoning teat, Atcan women are eps painted downtvden, io Ire casusies of male dominance. Theirconfiemnent in antiquated us toms an cultural practices is viewed as psn etimony to thi eral nde o patriarchy and, consequently ofthc subjpation within bh ‘hese “public apd "privat” spheres. This vw is cumpled inthe akong pasag rom the Hoste Roper: Gea wn Ses Maat of Fras Ai is repo wht a ‘Me patlrchy sth rl where wen ste dpe of propery and "ies, were plpuny and wie hae a ean where ae or ‘i ste Bh be vilge a went peat pile ar hat en ate sponte winning cons a [Ate women and hie sen abt and one tine The ine [totic soil poets tng since orth thine rane [Fetes loka hems a eons and ma bags nor maar et isbng overeat) We the repre discusses female reunites it asthe io [ltsexul mation o erals ae contends tha the operation hs been [Peteuted by the male dominated tribal societies of Altes to suppress [eesti To readesof Fan Hosen Reporte Ether Hicks fie tion: Female Maiationn sami Noreeatern Ac, ot Ait Walker and Pos arma’ Waror Marks: Female Gent! Mulan and he Sena [Bling of Wore the tyranny of paearchy andthe oppressive nature of [nerretions in Aficancaltrer at evidenced most dramatically he ctrl practice of female circumedsion, These eeprsentations ses am) ‘on of pte in which te lean woman seen as whol subservek pase, voieles someone whose sexual and reproductive potenti ‘onto by men and whose geal are mated in ence and with protest, However he nares Blow make les, ican wom fen inst on ccumesng thei daughters. Through tal perfonna these women ensure the traemson of tral ethos within the et [Asphlosopher Diana Meyers argues, "Many Euro-American ight that thee any bas forthe women of Douzoshab ashing auo0om women whove clare mandate [female genital mutation), Ye the Tht berate onthe [practi] provides ample evidence that ny tHecive agency wth vespect 10 this practice, One king Hing i "utonomy ito Be fund among accommodators aswell 8 reste nth espe want to sit the erphasi from agency and autonomy dliscusson ofthe Meloy that shapes womens prtclption i th Tscrcumsishon vious act of mutation ad inary or aio pvt and etude? Thave collected the personal nartatvs of ‘laa women inorder to tang the idcology ta is beneth he {ence ofthis, The eograpic materi presented bese wa Inthe Arabic speaking Musk owaipof Drosha, Sua periods of feldork in 996 and 98 have ocsed on his town {use ofthe ubigaty of inflation the most das ype of ental performed ong Before proceed brie orev ofthe iain Ingenealand Suda, in potclg wl Blp put hs material n Female Circumcision and the Controversy It Has Eugen or many yeas now; fale circumcision has had “only pa fer"—to borrow frm Joan Scot’ provocative tit. Wie we International smmaniy and many Feminists dsguieting Titulo is defen by is prationess as an acto ‘Controversy not een, Historical documents om various a thal Alc suggest that angry reactions toward the practice we ‘spec inthe ese of Europes nasioares, ho played ant {the work ofthe “cvizing” colonia spparatas a are pat the European animosity toward icumcson the prac fof Aca esitance orig encrowchment ad nerve Ficans in question, eal icumchion was largely sen a5 8 Foal Gott Croom ater han senseless at deo of meen Als) vewedas belonging to the dos of ly koowa a “Atrianty" (Cons Jat of indigenous customs ta the asc questions of thet extn Sinica, ta (ad ‘an indgeeay oe 2) The em fon dts ba povded Aare whinanneene fo tte om how they cane in bg Herter newt pratense daly ik (ins cl eae hes bp of i icant. male crue shot aan ‘som express the significant tenon ft srpted between new, imported colonia stucco a {Aan cultures (Maral, come ‘Theangry emotional es sonar torts or colon ome sun al occupation. These feelings continue to mee rams of i deopng werd where esi rf _ le cicumson are often percene bythe community avila esas on sehsen aceitcconkmatn ofall af eit cating iscalled "cicutcison” of "mutans * Wor multi sinand lingo ina nimi loge deat and Masten the conser AcDnd Puree ae haste inesch deplore. ging dae cle able ‘erie chracrenonconplnandaneeet found a rote which wl bo cpr eel” of wat hppeing” ‘he wondering dete onc the ton pee i pola aneslogalphenomerloy Aen ie the ing St altos nd minal ttl nese ss, todetn a a sonnet he boundaries wth i thn die satpro ison and ale 398) i Genital icon iy interity The eason this controversy has heen so significant hen, {sta any ofthe issues it raises do no addres geil en 5 self and oer, culation nd barbraes a k {Gncumcision in Sudan: An Overview iy practiced in Sudanese the origin ofthese paces caamot ate home cret morecomper ant itindudes Nubians, Arabs, Nut uproar Srp manent ura ean Aen ang mon the groups at chur geal surge rp cancion ies Whe nt obser pet eo ee rain to sonra conta ene the seem the portion taken by the moon,”” a en epi wis ay of led grin xem son dunno fb ear Thc operations as prormed ong tab. Malorne meg sonal dos Perot itis sures cratin nd cr ta i with some exceptions, for females it is con a nse Thereonsior emlecntnchon ation ev