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Zamyad Yasht

Yasht 19 of the Younger Avesta Text, Translation, Commentary

Harrassowitz Verlag Wiesbaden


to the Memory

Karl Hoffinann
February 26, 1915

- May 21,1996

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme

Humbach, Helmut: ZamyHd Yasht : Yasht 19 of the younger avesta ;text, translation commentary I Helmut Humbach and Pallan R. Ichaporia. - Wiesbaden :
Harrassowitz, 1998 Einheitssacht. des kommentierten Werkes: Avesta ISBN 3-447-04026-2

O Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1998 This work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. Any use beyound the limits of copyright law without the permission of the publisher is forbidden and subject to penalty. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. Printing and binding by WS Druckerei Werner Schaubruch GmbH, Bodenheim Printed on permanent/durable paper. Printed in Germany
ISBN 3 -447-04026-2

The present work is the result of more than three years of close co-operation between the authors, which required frequent flying back and forth between the USA and Germany and constant communications over two continents utilizimg the modem technology of phone, fax, and e-mail. The interest of contemporary Western Avesta scholars who have published monographs on the Zamyad Yasht of the Avesta is focused on details of Indo-Iranian and Indo-European linguistic prehistory, particularly on prehistoric AvestaSanskrit relations of a lexicographical and grammatical nature. In contrast to this, the authors of the present work endeavor to study Zarnyad Yasht from the philological point of view, drawing attention to the many actual problems of the text not seen by their predecessors, and emphasizing its intrinsic value as a document of the mythical and legendary early history of the Iranians, and its place in the Mazdayasnian tradition. To make Zamyad Yasht accessible also to non-scholars, a large number of whom are interested in the subject, a simplified transliteration into English of Avestic names and terms has been adopted in both the Introduction and the continuous Text and Translation. Yet the Commentary,in the single paragraphs of which the respective texts and translations are repeated, follows the scholarly system of transliteration introduced by Karl Hoffmann. The Commentiuy itself is as compact as possible. The Glossaiy lists all words occurring in the Zamyad Yasht, including those of the parallels abbreviated in the manuscripts, and omitting only the introductory and concluding prayers (Yt19,O and 19,47) and the repetitions of prayers and formulas in the beginnings and ends of the individual kardes. The work is offered as a contribution to the project Sources de I 'histoire de I 'Asie cen&de preislamique founded by J h o s Harmatta (Budapest) and directed by Philippe Gignoux (Paris) on behalf of the Union AcadCmique ~ntemationale Helmut Humbach was introduced to the study of the Zamyad Yasht by Karl Hoffrnann fifty years ago, in 1947, during their joint days in Munich. The work is dedicated to Hoffmann's memory. Mainz, December 20, 1997 Helmut Humbach Universitiit FB 14-20 D 55 199 Mainz Germany Pallan Ichaporia 253 South 4thStreet Womelsdorf Pa 19567 USA

Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 11 1 Zamyad Yasht and Kayan Yasn ......................................................................................... 11 2..................Yazata.............. . The name of ........ Zamyad 13 3 The Glory (Khvarenah) ....................................................................................................14 ...... Glory 4 . Kavyan Glory and Unappropriated.............. 1s 5 . Dogmatism .......................................... and Non-Dogmatism 18 6 . The Transmission of the Text .......................................................................................... 20



Text and Translation

................................................................................................................... 23 Introductory Prayers ............................................................ ..............................................23 $9 1-8: The Geographical Fragment .................................................................................... 27

[ The Kavyan Glory in possession of the divinities] 559- 13. Kayan Yam. Karde I Ahura Mazda ...................................................................... 30 $914.20 . Kayan Yasn. Karde II . The Amesha Spentas ........................................... :.......... 32 $921.24 Kayan Yasn. Karde 111. The Yazatas ..................................................................... 34



[The Kavyan Glory of the pre-Kavyan rulers] $825.26 . Kayan Yam. Karde IV Haoshyangha Paradata (Hdshang PeSdad) ........................35 5927-29 . Kayan Yasn, Karde V Takhma Umpi (Taxmdrubflahmuras) ...............................36 $930.44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI . Yima Khshaeta (Jarnsheed) ........................................... 37

. .

[The Unappropriated Glory] sS45.54 . Kayan Yasn, Karde VII . Fire and Azhi Dah3ka (ZohhBk) ...................................... 42 $955.64 . Kayan Yasn Karde VIII . Frangrasyan (Afrasiyab) ............................................... 46 5965.69 . Kayan Yam, Karde IX . Kansaoya (Hamiln ) and Haeturnant (Hilmand) ................ 49


[The Kavyan Glory of the Kavi rulers. the Kayanids] $970.72 . Kayan Yasn. Karde X . The Kavis From Kavata (Kavad) to Syavarshan (Siyawush) 51 5573.77 Kayan Yasn. Karde XI . Kavi Haosravah (Khosrau) ............................................. 52 54 $478.82 Kayan Yasn. Karde XI1. Zarathushtra .................................................................... 5983.87 Kayan Yasn. Karde XI11. Kavi Vishtaspa .............................................................. 56

. . .

[The eschatological events] $$88.90 . Saoshyant (= the Savior) .................................................................................... $891.95 . The Frashakereti at the end of time ....................................................................
Concluding Prayers

58 59



$8 1-8:

............................................................................................................................... 63 The Geographical Fragment .................................... .. ....................................... 63


Table of Contents


[The Kavyan Glory in possession of the divinities] 8I $99-13. Kayan Y a m Karde I. Ahura Mazda 4414-20. W a n Y a m Karde 11. The Amah Spaatas ........................................................... 93 $52 1-24. Kayan Yasn, Karde 111. The Yazatas ......................................................................97



1. Zamyad Yasht and Kayan Yasn
1.1, At present, Yasht 19 is generally known as Zamyfid YmhZ i.e. the Yasht of the Yazata Zamyad, the genius of the Munificent Earth, being the patron of the 28th day of each month. Yet, as we see from the critical apparatus of Geldner's edition, in manuscripts F1 and E l we find the name Kay& Yasn, i.e. Yasna of the Kavyan or Kaywian or Kayanid dynasty, the dynasty of the Kavis which was the last and most famous dynasty in the legendary early history of the Iranians and which ended with VishtZispa, the protector, and royal patron of Spitama Zarathushtra, the prophet of the Mazdayasnian Religion.
1.2. The existence of two different names is the result of Yasht 19 consisting of two heterogenous pieces of text. The first of these two pieces is a description of the mountains of the (Iranian) world, presented to the reader by its author as an instruction given by Ahura Mazda to Spitama Zarathushtra. This first piece which just covers $81-8 we call The Geographicd Fragmenk No individual name of it has come down to us but it will be seen that the name Zmyad would really be suited for this short piece only, at least to a certain extent. The name Kay& Yasn applies to the second piece which is much longer than the first, covering 489-96,the rest of the Yasht. The Kay& Yasn is dedicated to the worship of the Kavyan Khvarenah (xvmnah),the Glory or Majesty of the Kavis. One of the aims of the author of the Kayan Yasn is to attribute a divine mission to the Kavi dynasty by portraying Ahura Mazda as the creator and first possessor of the Kavyan Glory. (See below 5.1.)

[The Kavyan Glory of the pre-Kavyan rulers ] $925-26. Kayan Yasn. Karde IV. Haoiiiagha Parasta 99 $627-29. Kayan Yasn, Karde V. Taxma Umpi .................................................................. 101 $830-44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI. Yima %eta .......................................................................103


[The Unappropriated Glory] i 126 $04544. Kayan Yam, Karde VII. Fire and M Dahaka ................................................... $555-64. Kayan Yasn. Karde VIII. Fragrasiian .....................................................................135 $565-69. Kayan Yasn, Karde IX. Kqsaoiia and Haetumant ................................................ 141 [The Kavyan Glory of the Kauui rulers, the Kayanids] $970-72. Kayan Yasn, Karde X. The Kauuis from Kauuata to SiiauuvarSan ........................144 ......................... 147 9873-77. Kayan Yasn, Karde XI. Kauui Haosrauuah ............................. ., $978-82. Kayan Yasn, Karde XII. ZaraSuStra ...................................................................... 155 4983-87. Kayan Yam, Karde XIII. Kauui Viitaspa




[The eschatoIogica1 events] §$88-90. Kayan Yasn, Karde XIV. Saoriiaat (- the Savior) ............................................. 163 $591-95. Kayan Yasn, Karde XV. The Frahkaraiti at the end of time ............................... 165

...................................................................................................171 Particular Signs and Abbreviations ........................................................................................... 173
Bibliographical References Glossary


...................................................................................................................................... 175


1.3. The starting point of the close connection between the two pieces of text, the subjects of which at first glance appear quite incompatible, is the role of Mount Ushada Ushidarena (&a82 didarana)' in the eschatology of the Zarathushtrians. From the area of that prominent mountain situated in the region of the K ~ s a o y a Sea (kasaoija, Phl. kayi5nseh) in Sism, Saoshyant, the eschatological savior (literally 'the strengthener, benefactor'), is expected to rise.'

1.4. The close connection between the Geographical Fragment and the Kaym Yasn is also seen in the two parallel lists of the names of the thirty days of each

' Commentary, $66:1-2, §92:2.

' Commentary, $2:2-3.





month, transmitted in the Sirdzas of the Avesta (S1 and S2). The twenty-eighth hu&h) is day, dedicated to the Yazata (of the) Munificent Earth, Zam Hu& (m listed there as follows:
ab as& i Sdi9lb /gardiS ufi.daranahemazdad Siraza 1.28 Z m hu6dghd yaza&he mazda&&he a&x%hhe / vispa&gmca gain'npn &.x%bR@n ~ O U N . X ~ $ I ~ ~ ~ I R Gatanpn/k#uuaiehecaxvamnaghdmazdaGatahe/axvaatahecaxvamnaghdm a z d a & ~ e . 'Day of the Yazata (of the) Munificent Earth, (of) these (our) settlements (and) these


(our) districts, / of Mount Ushidarena created by Ahura Mazda which offers much comfort, / of all the mountains created by Ahura Mazda which offer much comfort, which offer many kinds of comfort, of the Kavyan Glory created by Ahura Mazda, / of the Unappropriated Glory created by Ahura Mazda.'
/ Siraza 2,28 Zgm hu6dgham yazatam yazama~ife imd a d imd Sdi$rd yazamaide /

In our opinion, this lost Proto-Zarnyad Yasht is reflected in the geographical description of the world found in chapters 8-12 of the Bundahishn, the famous 'lands', a plural of Pahlavi encyclopaedia. This description starts with zamZ ~ R U ~ 'earth, land' (from Avestic m 'earth') (Bdh8). It continues with kdfm 'mountains' (Bdhg), zreha 'seas, lakes' (BdhlO), rddrad 'rivers' (Bdhll), and r wan-ha 'lakes' (Bdhl2). Also the list of districts (Sahn-hd of E r ~ s h a h transmitted in Bdh31 must originate from it. In its tum this list of districts is closely related to the Avestic list of lands preserved in the first chapter of the Videvdad which, therefore, is likely to be another fragment of that lost Proto-Zamyad Yasht. However that may be, the list of mountains found in Bdh9 is of notable help for further investigation on the Geographical Fragment of Yasht 19 for which reason the pertinent informations found in it will be referred to below.

&.x W m myazatam yazama'de / /spa garrui'd &.x %81i poum.x'88ra' rnazdasilta @auuana &he ratauu0 yazamu'de / uyram kauuaem xvatana mazdaSatam yazamaia'e / u p m au m t m x 'mnd mazda&kxn yazama'de. 'We worship the Yazata (of the) Munificent Earth. / we worship these (our) settlements (and) these (our) districts, / we worship the Yazata Mount Ushidarena created by Ahura Mazda which offers much comfort, / we worship all the mountains created by Ahura

gillillrim IrSi.daranam mazda&tam

2. The Name of Yazata Zamyad
2.1. In Pahlavi the name of the Yazata of the 28th day of the month has two forms, Zamyad and Zmyad. Both of them are obscured compounds: Zamyad is the equivalent of the Avestic genitive zamb huLfdgh6 'of the Munificent Earth' in Sirdza 1,28 while Z m y a d is that of the accusative q m huagham 'the Munificent Earth' in Sirdza 2,28, both of which are quoted above extensively. 3m Whereas the etymological derivation of zam and z . from Av. zam 'earth' is unquestionable, the explanation of yad, the second member of ZamyacUZhyad, is controversial. Recently it has been explained by Pirart and Hintze as an uncommon and strange development from Av. yam&- 'divinity'.

M a & which offer much comfort, which offer many kinds of comfort, being truthful patrons of truth, I we worship the mighty Kavyan Glory created by Ahura Mazda, / we worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory created by Ahura Mazda.' 1.5. Considering these Sirdza passages, the connection found in Yasht 19 between the mountains of the Geographical Fragment ($9 1-8) and the Kavyan Glory of the Kay& Yasn ($59-96) appears to be relatively old but, looking at the matter from a different point of view, the two pieces give the impression of having been joined together at a relatively recent time. Traces of this process are still manifest in the confused numbering of the kardes ('chapters') of the Yasht. As was pointed out by Geldner in the complicated introductory note in his critical apparatus of Yasht 19, the counting of the kardes originally did not start with our $1, the beginning of the Geographical Fragment, but with our $9, the first paragraph of the Kay& Yasn. 1.6. While the title Kayan Yasn was originally applied to the second piece of text only ($59-96), the two Sirozas quoted, confirm the above assumption that the title Zamyad Yasht had some special reference to the first piece, the list of mountains of the Geographical Fragment ($91-8). The name of Zarnyad 'Munificent Earth' which eventually was given to the entire Yasht 19 even suggests that the list of mountains originally formed part of another much larger text which dealt with all the geographical aspects of the (Iranian) world. The list of mountains is a fragmentary remnant of an older geographical text, a "Proto-Zamyad Yasht" which was lost at an earlier time.

2.1 .l. The Sanskritist ~ n Pirart who, by the way, blames the author of the SirBzas c for his ignorance, considers the element yad as a graphical corruption from yazad, the Middle Persian form of Avestic yazata- which, according to him, would have taken place in the Pahlavi script.3 If this was true, the corruption must have taken place for the first time in one single Pahlavi manuscript and to have been transferred later on from this single manuscript to the entire Mazdayasnian tradition, including the Mazdayasnian calendar. Yet this explanation is inacceptable by itself and is definitely disproved by the phonetic spelling z'my'd of Manichaean Middle Persian.

2.1.2. Unlike Pirart who thinks of a graphical solution of the problem, the IndoEuropeanist Almut Hintze explains yad as a phonetic development from Av. yaza&-. According to her, yJd would have come from Middle Persian yahad, Old Persian yadafa (both unattested), the latter allegedly being an Old Persian substitution for Avestic yazata.4 This explanation is most hypothetical as well, all the

' Pirart, Kayan Yam (1992) 6 .
Hintze, Zamyiid YaEt (1994) 47.





more so as it does not take into account the preservation of yazata- (not yahata !) in Middle Persion yazd and even in New Persian y1 & 'God'. c2
2.2. Both Pirart and Hintze could have saved themselves the trouble of following such complicated ways if they had just looked up the full Middle Persian form of the name of the Yazata Zamyad. In its Pazend version which is easily available in Geldner's critical apparatus, this full form is zarmi"a_tyazaJ If Pirart or Hintze were right, this zamiq yazaJ' would contain two P m d developments different from each other of Avestic yazata, one in y e , another in yaza,t, a duplication which is quite unbelievable. yazaJ' with the Avestic phrase ~ m huaghb b Comparing P a e n d z ; ~ I N ~ . @ yazatahe it becomes evident that the element yad does not continue Avestic yazata 'divinity' but Avestic hu8a- 'munificent'. The inevitable conclusion, then, is that P a e n d zm21yazaJ' is from an earlier zam huyad yazad <zam hu&d yazad, an Early Middle Persian adaptation of the Avestic phrase. In this, the phonetically weak hu&h (from the Avestic hu8hjhb 'munificent') has been replaced by hu&d (from Avestic hu&ta- 'well formed, well established').

3. The Glory (Khvarenah)
3.1. Avestic Khvarenah (x'aranah-) denotes a half-personified light phenomenon of heavenly origin, a sort of halo or nimbus. It is customarily rendered as 'Glory', cf. Pahlavi x w d 'glory, fortune, lendou our'^, a loan-word borrowed from the Avesta language which the medieval Parsi scholar Neriosangh translated into ~ Sanskrit by S f i 'radiance, splendor, glory, beauty' e t ~ .unlike Neriosangh's rendering, most of the more recent attempts at specifying the meaning of the word by adducing more or less hypothetic etymologies are not very profitable. Thus the meaning 'gleam', posed by ~ i n t z e ' basing on her etymological connection of xvaranah- with Pahlavi x w a g 'ember, live c o a ~ ' ~ , be correct from the may etymological point of view but it is of no help for gaining more insight into the nature of the phenomenon.9
Thus MacKenzie in his Pahlavi Dicitonav. AS shown by S k j ~ r v e BSL 78 (1983) 241-259, the initial x'of x'aranah- is a Proto-Iranian , feature which has been preserved in the Avesta language only whereas all other dialects have developed an initial f as found in Old Persian r'amah-, New Persian f . the subsequent m For discussion on the subject see Hintze (1994) IS with n. 18. The matter is interesting from the dialectological point of view. The typical Avestic treatment of the initial x' is preserved in Phl. xwamh which, unlike the genuine fan; is not a genuine Persian form, but has been borrowed from the religious language of the Avesta. Hintze (1 994) 3 1f. deriving the word from the Indo-European root swel 'to glow'. The adj. duS.xvaranah- in $95 shows that the matter is complex. It is rendered by us as 'inglorious' but it means perhaps rather 'of evil personality'.

3.2. Some attention should be be paid to the plural xraranB, attested in Yt10,27, 14,36, and in Y51,18, the only Old Avestic occurrence of the word Hintze thinks that the plural has a collective meaning and should, therefore, be rendered in the same way as the singular, i.e., by 'glory'." Yet, as is seen from the comparison of x'aranah- with ramah- of similar meaning (sg. 'light', pl. lights'), the problem is simplified too much by her. We think that it is not the plural of x'arana6-, which has a collective meaning, but rather its singular form. In our opinion the plural either denotes the glory of a number of individuals, or it denotes the whole of the glorious deeds which constitute the glory of a certain person or community. .... Thus we understand Yt 10.27 m1;9r6... daiijh~uFrpnSiiai9iid p i t i x'arand varaieitias 'Mithra obscures the glory (of the inhabitants) of the country which is going to do harm (to u). Less s' typical is Yt l4,36 poiriia he nam0 bamitijnoinYa xx'and viskaiia'b' u p @ mmarayahe pvana matayamm 'that person who is the first to offer worship to him (Verethraghna), that person is the first to whom the feather of the bird of birds extends glory (pl.) as support'. @ In the Gatha passage Y51,18 where the activity of Jamspa is described as iStdiSx'arand a varante taJ xfa91;)m'in his quest of glory he (Jamaspa) chooses with truth that power'. the pl. xrarand is ambiguous insofar as the phrase iStdiS x'arad can either mean 'in (his) quest of (perfodng) glorious deeds' or 'in his quest of glorious deeds (performed by others)', the context leaving open the possibility that Jamaspa's quest of glory (pl.) does not only refer to his own glory but implicitly includes that of his sovereign Kavi Vishtaspa, his brother Frashaoshtra, and Zarathushtra's cousin Maidydidngha, all of whom are mentioned in the neighboring stanzas.



4. Kavyan Glory and Unappropriated Glory
4.1. As already seen from Siroza 1,28 and 2,28 quoted above, the Younger Avesta speaks of two particular kinds of glory, the Kavyan Khvarenah (kauuaiia x'aranah), the Glory of the Kavyan dynasty (Phl. k a y a x w d , Skt. r8jyaSn; rrlj&nSiY )and the Akhvareta Khvarenah (axvarataxraranah), the Unappropriated Glory, as we render the term the meaning of which is controversial (Phl. agnt7 xwan-ah, Skt. aaghiL3 S ) n. 4.2. The phrase axvarataxvaranahis understood by Hintze as a figura etymologica meaning 'gleaming glory' (< 'gleaming gleam'). Yet without any doubt the prefix a- of axvarata is the Iranian privative prefix corresponding to the English prefixes in- and un- so that Hintze's etymology would rather result in the meanings 'nongleaming gleam' or 'non-glorious glory' which makes no sense. As contrasted with Hintze's solution, we hold that axVmtaxvaranah is not a real figura etymologica but a figura pseudo-etymologica, a sort of play with words.
4.3. In order to make out the true meaning of axvmta, a critical look into the pertinent passages of Yasht 19 is absolutely essential. There we see that ax'mta


xvmnah is not interchangeable with kauuaiia xvaranah 'Kavyan Glory' but a rival

Hintze (1994) 23, n. 46.





to it. The prayer formula u p m kauuaem xvanna mazdadatam yazamaiie 'we worship the mighty Kavyan glory created by Ahura Mazda' is attested in both the initial and concluding sections of kardes I-VI of the K a y h Yasn ($49-13, 14-20, 21-24,25-26,27-29,30-44)and then again in those of kardes X-XV (4470-72,7377, 78-82, 83-87, 88-90, 91-96) whereas the rivaling formula uyram m v m t a m x'arand mazda&tam yazarnaide 'we worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory created by Ahura Mazda appears in kardes VII-IX only ($545-54,55-64,65-69). 4.3.1. Nobody seems to have noticed the reason for this distribution but it is easily seen that two of the three axvmtakardes, viz. kardes VII-VIII, describe serious conflicts between good and evil regarding the appropriation of the Kavyan Glory lost by Yima, and attempts of each of the two parties at gaining hold of it ($45: 1). This simple fact unexpectedly justifies the Pahlavi translation of auvarataxvmnah by agnA x w a d 'Unseized Glory', which we have slightly modified into 'Unappropriated Glory', cf. the meaning 'to take' of root xwar which is well attested in the Middle Iranian languages of actr ria" and hot an". Our interpretation also applies to the third of the three kardes in question, viz. karde IX. The Unappropriated Glory is described there as coming over to the eschatological Saoshyant ($66:1) whereby it is unspokenly retransferred into the state of Kavyan Glory. 4.4. Seen from the point of view just developed, the fifteen kardes of the Kayan Yasn fall into five groups as follows: 4.4.1. First group. The Kavyan glory of the divinities (Kardes 1-111): 4 10 (kauuafm xvamnd ...) ya_t asti a h d e mazdd ya9a d-n da9a_t ah& mazdd '(the Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) of Ahura Mazda'; $ 1 5 y _ asti ama$angm spntanpn ... t t $ ydi fidam vasna ahrim da9an aC a% 'which is (in possession) of the Arnesha Spentas, ... (of) those who will make existence brilliant in value'; $22 ya_t asti rnariiiauuangm yazalanpn ga6i9iiangmca h&c$ yOi fiaSam vasna da9an 'which is (in possession) of both the spiritual and material Yazatas, ... (of) those who will make existence brilliant in value'. 4.4.2. Second group. The Kavyan Glory of the pre-Kavyan rulers (Kardes IV-VI): $26 (kauuagm xvmnd) ya_t upaghacai haoSiiagham para6Ztam darayamc$ aipi auuaam ya_t xSaiata

'(the Kavyan Glory) which came over to13 Haoshyangha Paradata for a long period of time so that he ruled'; $28 ya_C upaghacal taxmam urupicm) sunauuaotam cdarayamc4 aipi zruuaam, aC yai xSaiiah ... y _ bauua_Ca@.vvariiA 'which came over to foxfur wearing brave Urupi (for a long period of time) so that he ruled so that he overcame'; $3 1 yag' upaghac? yim yimam xJaetam huug9jsm darapmc4 aipi m u m m ya_t xSaiiata ... yo uzbarad 'which came over to majestic Yima, owner of good herds, for a long period of time so that he ruled ...who brought out'. [In $$35-44 Mithra, Thraetaona and Keresspa make their appearance, each of them reaching for the Glory lost by Yima, obviously without taking hold of it. Mithra is mentioned in 435 only, Thraetaona in $136-37. The mention of Keresaspa in $38 is followed by a long digression into his legend ($439-44).]


4.4.3. Third group: The Unappropriated Glory (Kardes VII-IX): xvarand)yahmipaitipara(th9e spaotasca matiiiuf agmca $46 (axVmtam '(the Unappropriated Glory) about which Spenta Mainyu and Angra Mainyu were in conflict with each other'; 4 56 ya_t isa_Cmahiid tuini'd h g m i i a 'which the Turian scoundrel Frangrasyan sought'; fiaxS&ili $66 y e upqhacaiD' csaoJiikotam vm9rrtjmam) y0 auuaJil_t 'which is coming over (to Saoshyant Verethrajan) who will rise from that area'. 4.4.4. Fourth group. The Kavyan Glory of the Kavyan dynasty (Kardes X-XIII): $71 (kauuaem xVamno)yag' upaghaca_t kauuaem kauuatam yimca kauuaem a~pi. vohum etc. ...ya_t b m vispe ...kame 'which came over to Kauui Kauuata and Kavi Aipi.vohu etc. ... so that all of them became ... '; 4 74 y3L upaghacal kauuaem haosrauuaghamyal (...> 'which came over to Kavi Haosrauuah so that L..)'; $79 ya_t upaghaca! a$auuanam zara9dtram anumatae da~naiiZ anuxtse daenaiiai anuuarStae dagnaiiai ya_C ( a s vispahe agh2uS asluuatd &m tqfauuaslamb.. x %randx "annag'hastam0 'which came over to truthful Zarathushtra ... who(?) was'; $84 y@ upaghaca_t kauuaem vi3Bspam anumatse dat?naiiii anuxtge daEnaiiZ anuuarSt3e daenaiiaiya_t imgm da6ngm astaota 'which came over to Kauui ViSt&pa ... so that he vowed himself. 4.4.5. Fifth group. The Kavyan glory of the eschatological Saoshyant (Kardes XIV-XV): vara$r$janam ya_t kan$88 (kauuaEm xrarand) yai upaghacc&_tsaoSii~t(a~m nauug ahlim

communication by Nicolas Sims-Williams. Note particularly Khotanese a-no-hvmda < a-ni-xrvaro translating Buddhist Sanskrit a g r ~ y a 'ungraspable' in Bailey, Dictionary (1979) 188b.
" Personal


'came over to' after Pahlavi mad 6 ,see Commentary, 826:l.





'which will (have) come over to Saoshyant Verethrajan when he will make the world brilliant'; $92 ya_rastuua_l. amtd fiavS@jte 'when Astvatereta will rise'.

a statement with which the author tries to give a reason for Ahura Mazda's being in possession of the Kavyan Glory. If taken literally these lines declare that Ahura Mazda's Glory (which, strangely enough, would be the same as the Kavyan Glory) results from his admirable achievements, but from the dogmatic point of view one would prefer the idea of Ahura Mazda's Glory being a trait of his own nature, so to say, from the very beginning.'' Yet one ought to realize that the Kavyan Glory is attributed here to Ahura Maz& just with the purpose of tracing back to him the historical mission of the Kavyan Dynasty. (See above 1.2.) 5.3. The statement dm?n da9al ahuM rnazdd 'Ahura Mazda created (his) creatures (and creations)' found in $10 agrees with one of the basic tenets of the Mazdayasnian Religion but pious people are concerned about the apparently different information found in Yt15,43 uua &ma ... yasca da9a-l spot6 rndiiuf yasca da9al a@ rnariiid 'both kind of creatures, the one which Spenta Mainyu has created and the one which Angra Mainyu has created'. Yet there is no reason for any concern as the differences between the two items of information are of an outward nature only. One difference between the two consists in Yt15,43 speaking of both the Ahurian creation and the Daevic counter-creation, whereas $10 speaks of the Ahurian creation only. Here the omission of the counter-creation is easily explained by the fact that $10 does not speak of Angra Mainyu but of Ahura Mazda only. The other difference consists in Yt15,43 attributing the good creation to Spenta Mainyu (= Holy Spirit) whereas $10 attributes it to Ahura M a d & Yet this, too, is an outward difference only: Ahura Mazda and Spenta Mainyu (= Holy Spirit) can, but need not, be taken as identical. While they are presented as two individual entities in Y47,l and $16 (above 5.1), identification of the two is seen in the famous address to Ahura Mazda found in many passages of the Younger Avesta: ahura mazda rnaiiia spgni$ta dgtua gae9angm astuuaitingm &Sum 'Ahura Mazda, Mainyu Spenishta (= Holiest Spirit), truthful creator of the corporeal world'. 5.4. The identification of Ahura Mazda with Spenta Mainyu seen here, continues the picture of Ahura Mazda as drawn by the prophet himself in the GrithBs. According to this picture, the divine entities such as Spenta Mainyu, Asha, Ashi, etc., which in the Gathas are called Ahuras, can be considered at one and the same time both as qualities of Ahura Mazda and as divine individuals who represent these qualities by being united with him in a mystical many-in-one-relationship. This Gathic picture of mystical identity is occasionally reflected in one interesting passage of the Younger Avesta where it has been transferred to the Amesha

5 . Dogmatism and Non-Dogmatism
5.1. In the Zamyad Yasht, as in the other Yashts, we sometimes fmd ideas that are, or seem to be, non-canonical. Thus one should not be surprised about certain characteristics attributed to the Arnesha Spentas in our text. According to the canonical conception of the Younger Avesta and the Pahlavi literature, Ahura Mazda is accompanied by six Arnesha Spentas. The number six agrees with the Mazdayasnian calendar in which the first day of each month is named after Ahura Mazda while each of the following six working days is dedicated to one of the six Amesha Spentas. Contrary to this, Zamyad Yasht $16 (=Yt13,83) speaks of Ahura Mazda as being the father and master of seven Arnesha Spentas (ydi hapta hamclmanaghd ... yae'igm hamd pMca fiasas&ca a h u .md). Many attempts at justifying the number seven from theological andfor philological points of view have been made in the p a d 4 , but we do not think that the number seven offers substantial religious information. It rather gives evidence of a contemporary theory which derived the number of seven Amesha Spentas (not including Ahura Mazda) from the Gatha stanza Y47,l where Ahura Mazda, casually rather than intentionally, is mentioned together with (1) Spenta Mainyu, (2) Vahishta Manah, (3) Asha, (4) Hauruuaat, (5) Ameretatat, (6) Khshathra, and (7) h a i t i .

5.2. It would also be inappropriate to judge with dogmatic rigorosity the description of the mutual relation between Ahura Mazda and the Kavyan Glory given in the beginning of the Kay& Yasn, which resists dogmatic hairsplitting: $49- 10. u p m kauuam x'arand mazda&ittm yawnaide ya_t asLi ahurahe mazdd. 'we worship the mighty Kavyan Glory created by (Ahura) Mazda which is (in possession) of Ahura Mazda'. The passage obviously says that Ahura Mazda created the Kavyan Glory with the purpose of both participating in it and bestowing it on whomever (and whatever) he pleases. This idea is as inconsistent as that found in the subsequent ya9a d m g n da9a_tahur0 mazdd 'since Ahura MazdB has created (his) creatures (and creations)',

The reason for the inconsistency seems to be that the reference to the Kavyan Glory of Ahura

Mazda in the pertinent passage, and the parallel references to the Kavyan Glory of the Amesha
Spentas in 914-15 and of the Yazatas in 921-22, do not belong to the kernel of Kayan Yam but are placed in front of it in the course of tradition by pious people.

See particularly the extensive discussion of the problem by Narten, ArnaSa S p n m (I 982) 15-17.





Spentas, viz. in Ytl3,Sl where Ahura Mazda is said to take on the forms of the Amesha Spentas (kahrpasca ...rae$@iieiti arna$aiyn spq&m#m ).


5.5. In contrast to the Young Avestic Amesha Spentas who are six in number, the number of the Gathic Ahuras is unlimited. The Ahuras include, e.g., the Shaper (SjdmStar) and the Fashioner of the Cow (gad Man). Of these two the Fashioner is of particular interest in so far as his Ahurian business, the fashioning of the cow, is expressly attributed to Ahura Mazda himself in Y51,7 where m Zarathushtra addresses him 'you, 0 Mazda, who fashioned the cow' (y3 g tasd), thus emphasizing the mystical identity of the Fashioner with Ahura Mazda. 5.6. The Gathic concept of the Ahuras forms also the theological background of $18 where the Amesha Spentas are called d g h m d&nangm y a l Aurahe mazdB datarasca m m ~ t a r a s c a ~ x S t a r a s c a creators, formers and shapers of the 8 'the creatures (and creations) of Ahura Mazda'. Here Ahura Mazh's quality of being the creator, former, and shaper of his creatures (and creations) has been transferred to the whole group of the AmaBa Spagtas, thus depicting them as acting on behalf of Ahura Maz& which, seen from the angle described above, makes no substantial difference from $10 where Ahura Maz& is presented as the creator par excellence (p$a dBmv daSa_Cahurb mud&). 5.7. An even more clear relic of the Gathic Ahura concept is the reference to the Ahura Ap@n Napat in $52 ahmm ... apCun napatam ... y m a i d e ... yo n a r W da6a y d nardur tatasa 'we worship the Ahura A p W Napat who has created heroes, who has fashioned heroes', Here the business of A p W Napat, an Ahura who acts on behalf of Ahura Mazda, is on the same level as the business of the Shaper of the Cow (SPbmStsr) described in Y29,6 a1 zi $#a vastriiiccil fsuiikptaeca $~b~;)#tB tatasa 'for the Shaper has fashioned you (the cow) for the cattle-breeding herdsman'.

6.2. The text of the Zamyad Yasht, as it has come down to us, is full of comptions which have taken place at different stages of the textual history. Numerous corruptions have been more or less silently corrected by K. F. Geldner in the text of his edition of the Avesta, others by Ch. Bartholomae in his Albhisches Worterbuch, but a large number has still remained unnoticed. Generally speaking, Geldner's text of the Yasht is customarily taken by scholars as not much less authentic than that of the Gathas, and even that of Aufrecht's text of the Rigveda. Yet contrary to this view, the condition of the text of the Zamyad Yasht is rather comparable with that of the great majority of our Pahlavi texts. Scholars interested in studying Zamyad Yasht are invited to occupy themselves with this Terra Incognita in order to gain a picture of what can really be expected.

6.3. Examples of deep-rooted corruptions of the text are found, e.g., in $12 and 577. In the description of the Frashbkereti, the passage 89aSca ma~;)nSB&&a is written completely in $12 whereas in $90 it is graphically abbreviated into c...)mamn&Jta&a. The passage which neither in its complete nor in its abbreviated form is translatable, is evidently corrupt. The corruption must have taken place prior to its d ~ ~ l i c a t i o n . ' ~ In $77, the description of Haosrauuah's horse racing, which is the only remnant of the Haosrauuah legend surviving in the Kay& Yasn, is also corrupt: yat fc ..... kauua hosrauua f@m fkamsam upa e m cara@rn ygm daraygm nauua.hd8,hmsgn paitipam2ta. Similar corruptions franvam ya1 dim main'io @umn f ( .... ) aspa@Su are found in the parallel description of the same horse racing in yt5,50.I7 Both parallels seem to be borrowed from, or influenced by, one and the same source which was already compt at the time in question.


6. The Transmission of the Text
6.1. Without doubt the Zamyad Yasht, no less than other Young Avestic texts, had some predecessors composed in the same Old Avestan dialect as the Gathas and, in addition to them, the Yasna Haptanghaiti, the Yatha Ah13Vairyb, the Ashem Vohii, and the Airyaman Ishyo. This is borne out by a number of typical Old Avestan word forms which survive in our manuscripts into which they seem to have infiltrated from oral tradition. It is strange to see that on the one hand the YAv. form of Yima's name has even been adopted by the Gatha tradition (Y32,8 yimainstead of the correct OAv. y m a - which is preserved in the meaning 'twin' only) whereas on the other hand the YAv. description of Yima's downfall in our Zamyad 935 Yasht shows several OAv. word forms (such as $34 draogam, d~~.manahiic?l; maragahe, $75 huza~MuF) which are remains of a lost OAv. Yima legend.

6.4. In addition to such deep-rooted defects the transmitted text also shows numerous examples of more recent deteriorations such as $81 aeuua ahund vain% yim dauuanam zara$u&nm fiasrauuaYa1 'the one Ahuna Vairya which truthful Zarathushtra recited' which, by surprisingly thoughtless perseveration of the acc. 4auuanam zara9LLF-rn preceding in $79, stands instead of correct yim a$auuta) zara8ILctrd) fiasrduuaiia_t Beside numerous occurrences of perseveration, several cases of omission of a word (or a part of it) by anticipation of one following, former scribes have confused the textual transmission. Note particularly the ghost word va&6am in vae&m vat?$ $9219, and the incomprehensible phrase &e ha-6naiid caeSamna followed by d a h e ha-cagae9abiio in $93 *'.

Commentary, 8 12:4-6.

''Commentary, $8 1:1.

" Commentary, $77:1-8.

"Commentary, §92:4. Commentary, §93:2-3.

6.5. From the point of view of textual transmission the manuscripts N107 R11S B27 518 unearthed by Hintze are of particular interest. Though all of them descend from ms.F1, the very pillar of the Yasht tradition, they show a number of readings that are far more preferable to those of F1. Among these are hrSkiri'eite ms. B27, IpraxStaii'iiaeitr' ms. 518, and f i & t ; ~ i ' a i ~ R115 in $66. These suggest ms. discarding the pseudo-correct but most enigmatic reading IciaxSdieite of ms. F1 etc. in favor of the restoration fiaxSt&te suggested by comparison with the parallel §922'.That means that such particular readings must have slipped into the pertinent manuscripts from an independent, perhaps oral tradition, thus making them invaluable pillars of the Yasht tradition, an unexpected fact which was not noticed by Hintze.

Text and Translation
Introductory Prayers

XSnaoSra ahurahe mazda' t a r d i d a g d e mariiiad haiSii&uuard@mhi131 v e fzd~tamam.
With propitiation of Ahura Mazda, with contempt for Angra Mainyu, (we endeavor) to make real what is most brilliant in value.

Staomi &m: I praise truth:

T u h is best (of all that is) good. rt
As desired, what is being desired

is truth for Himihim who (represents) best tuh rt or:
Truth is best (of all that is) good. As desired, as desired, truth is for Himhim who (represents) best truth (= truth belongs to Asha Vahishta).

'' Commentary, §66:3.


Text and Translation

Introductory Prayers


Fi-auuaranemazdai~asnd zara9&friS/ viakeuud ahum.&%?&5 I profess to be a Mazdayasnian, an adherent of Zarathushtra, an adversary of the Daevas and (a believer in ) the doctrine of Ahura Mazda
(To be prayed from dawn to noon:) hauuanae 4aone & h e ra9je/yasnLca vah-ca x#nao$Hica fmaF&j.a&a to Havani, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;

(To be prayed from mid-night to dawn:) ILSahinai a$aone a$ahe ra9je /yasnajca vahmaca xSnao9raica frasastu~a&a to Ushahina, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;

barajiiai nrnmiiaica daone a&he ra$Je/yasn&ca vahm&ca xSnao912ica frasmtari'a&a to Berejya, and to Nmaya, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise.

~auuiu~hde visiaica daone #abe ra9je /yaFnaica vahmaca xLnao91;11ca fraastaiia&a to Savanghay, and to Visya, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;
(To be prayed from noon to three p.m.) rapi9jina'a$aone @ahe ra9je /yasnilica vahmaca xSnao9rdica fmastaiia&a to Rapithwina, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;

Gar& di.daranahe mazda&&he ~ , x V b ~ m h e ktluuaiieheca x "aranaghdmazdasatahe ax'aratahma xvaranaghdmazdasatahe xSnao9ra yasnaca vahmaca xSllao9raica fraastajiaPca
With propitiation of very glorious Mount Ushidarerla created by Ahura Mazda, of the Kavyan Glory created by Ahura Mazdi?, of the Unappropriated Glory created by Ahura Mazda for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise.

fHdai..fSauue zatumLca ajaone m e m9Je / yasna!'ca vahm~caxSnao$r&ca fmastajat'ca to Fradatfshu, and to Zanturna, the truthful judge of truth, 1 for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;
(To be prayed from three p.m. till dusk:) uzai'eirinnai daone afahe ra9Je /yasnaica vahmaca xSnao9raica iFrasas&?at'ca to Uzayeirina, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise; The leading priest should recite for me: "Yatha aha vairyb"; (thereupon), an initiated truthful person shall recite: "atha ratush ashatcit hach8".

frdak$viri?i d&r'iumBicd &aone &ahe ra9~9e y&ca / vahmaca xSnao9dca frasastahae~a to Fradatvira, and to Dakhyurna, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;
(To be prayed from dusk to mid-night:) a~@drimaiaihgai'ai daone dahe ra9Je / yasnaica vahmaca xSnao9raica fmastniia&a to Aiwisrfithrima Aibigaya, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;

fHd&'iaitae zara9uStrdtam~ca a$aone &he ra9je / yasnaca vahmaca xSnao9riZica fmastiili'aEca to Fradatvispamhujyaiti, and to Zarathushtrdterna, the truthful judge of truth, / for worship, glorification, propitiation, and praise;

§ § 1 8. The Geographical Fragment


The first mountain to come into appearance / on this earth, was lofty Hara, / 0 Spitama Zarathushtra. / It is lying all around (the world) I down to the countries bordering the water / and up to those situated in the rosy dawn. / The second (mountain was) Mount Zeredaza / (at) the yonder side of Mount Manusha. / This, too, is lying all around (the world) / down to the countries bordering the water / and up to those situated in the rosy dawn.
$2. Ahmad haca garai.0 fiaodiign / u(f,a6(hS didanno / arazifiiasca fiaorapd / ~SruuOarazuro / hapta80 b m Y d / &tam0 rao6itO / naom0 maz13uud / dasamd ap%ra.darjhuJ/a~uu~das0 anzifb/duuadasO vaibgaeso; $2. Therefrom the (other) mountains were ordered to grow out successively, / Mount Ushada having reddish cracks, / precipitous Mount Erezifya; / the sixth (was) Mount Erezura, / the seventh (was) Mount Bilmya, / the eighth (was) Mount Raodita, / the ninth (was) Mount Mazishvant, / the tenth (was) Mount Antaredahyu, / the eleventh (was) Mount Erezisha, / the twelfth (was) Mount Vaitigaesa;

4 1.

43. B d m a s c a baiimasca / iSkaHca upiin'.sa&a6 / kgsb,tafah varafma7 / duua pauruuata / aSta auruuwt6 fir~d1~kauu6~ / h a m h a pauruuata / aSta ~a,fanca)~ ca9jSrO viSjana kaof6; $3. Mount Adarana, Mount Bayana, / Mount Ishkata and Mount Upairisaena, / Mount Kansdtafedra and Mount Varafra, / two ranges hooked together, / the EightNecks range, / the Eight-Racers having overhanging rocks, / and Mount FourVidwanas;

* ct?/jh(B)S : dadhut Gdn. with rns. F1 etc. Hi.


pairi.saite i.e, p(a,iki.s(a&te.

* iJkama Hi. after Hoffmann with rns. El etc. : iia@ca Gdn. with ms. F1 etc.
varajr)a < better varca5ra, Hu. : v a h a Hi. : varafa Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. : vafara rns. El. Gdn. with ms.FI etc. gftr&kauud Hi. : ~gkauudGdn. with ms. FI etc.

' as above n. 1. as above n. 2. ' ucS,a&B, Hu. : usa86rns. F1 etc. : u(Si,Gd Gdn. :usa8rih Ke.

' vafanca)Hu. : v-6


Text and translation

The Geographical Fragment


$4. aezwasca maenaxasca / vaxa6rika e~)ca'~ asar~a cal' / tu6aska cs)ca12 viSacs)

uucds)caJ3 /draoSiSuudsca sdiiYuudsca /nqh&mdsca kakahiidca /ryttva.kaghaca;
$4. Mount Aezakha, Mount MaEnakhxa, 1 Mount Viikhedrika, Mount Asaya, / Mount Tudaska, Mount Vishavant, I Mount Draoshishvant, Mount Sairivant, 1 Mount Nanghushrnant, Mount Kakahyu, I and the mountains inside (the country of) Kangha;

$8. Yauuat ca@i anu.)ditf3/ caHe,'* garaiid vi&stara / vispam auua_Caipi draont baZaL /a9auruna&a ra9aeSBica / v&&iXca Buiiente.

$8. As far as, by closing up, / these mountains have spread, / one following thf other, / all that (area) yielded the share (required) / for (maintaining) the priest, tht warrior, / and the cattle-breeding farmer.

$5. sicidauuasca ahwanasca / ramanasca afastambanasca / ch~undii6' v8isimiiskacsrca1-'/ asca)nu~dsca~~ ch,&aomasca" / Urta.xVmnilscasiimakasca / v a h cuu~Bsca'*vour~(Siasca'~;
$5. Mount Sichidava, Mount Ahurana, / Mount Raemana, Mount Ashastembana / granting a good state of soul', Mount Hurunya, Mount Vaidimidka, / Mount Asanvanf Mount Hushaorna, / Mount Ushtakhvarenah, Mount Sy&n&a, / Mount Vafiavant and Mount Vourusha;

$6. Mount Yahmyajatara, Mount Adutavah, / Mount Spitavarenah, Mount Spentbdata, / Mount Kadrvaspa, Mount Kaoirisa, / the peak of Mount Barbsrayan, / Mount Barana, Mount Frapaya, / Mount Udrya, Mount Raevant, / and (all the other) mountains to which men formerly, / when visiting them and settling there, / have given names.
$7. Ca$@nsca a$a gniili'o /spitiuna zara9dti-a / ca8$%rasatamca / duuaeca saite duuaeca huajre.

$7. Thus, (the number of) the mountains is four, 1 0 Spitarna Zarathushtra, / and forty / and two hundred and two thousand.
v&&kaawca Hu. : v&drika&a Gdn, with ms.F1 etc. asaiiacsrca Hu. :asaiiaeca Gdn. with ms.F1 etc. lusaskacs)ca Hu. : lusaskah Gdn, with ms.F1 etc. viSBuurhsca Hu. : vi&uua&a Gdn. ms. F1 etc. 'I th>ui-udiiia Hu. : unufiia Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. "~idim'bkacslcaHu. : vaidm'bkaeca Gdn, with ms. F1 etc. as(amuudsca Hi. : asnuudsca Gdn. with ms. J10 :amauuAsca ms. F1 etc. 'I hr&omasca Hu. : uC4omascarns.FI. 1ZC;nomasca Gdn, with ms. P t l , cbx&.hraomasca. vahruur8sca Bthl. : vafrmi'dsca Gdn. with rns. F1 etc. l9 voui-ubasca Hu : vounr&.sca ms. F1 etc. : voum&scaGdn, withms. Ptl etc. 20 fnrpiidsca perhaps to be read & w &a x u c. 2' a@ita&ca Gdn. with ms.H 3 etc. : a$iilaedca Hi. with ms.F1 etc. 22 turpfitaP6ca)ca Hu. : spfitaeiaca Gdn, after spfitae6ca rns. F1 etc., spaS.ta&ca ms. J10 etc.

'I l2



'' yauuai caipianu.)Sib' Hu. : yauua_tanua y a h Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. :yauuai anu
JIO etc.

ajb' ms

caete) suppl. Hu.

#$ 9 13. Kayan Yam, Karde I. Ahura Mazda



9 - 13. Kayan Yasn, Karde I Ahura Mazda
99. U y n m kauuaem xvai-and / mazda&tarn yazamaide / aE vacpdraml upard.kakim / $amnagVha.otam va.acag%a.otam yaoxSbuuaptam / faradatad adiiaif dm&;
$9. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazdc?, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

412. Imperishable will be the world that is of truth, being endowed with strength; / deceit will be done away, / (sending it back) to the place whence it has come / for making the truthful one perish, 1 himself, his progeny, and his property, I in terror

and detstruction), and the scoundrel will be done away as well. / Such is the judgment.

4 13. Ahe rajja xvaranaghaca / tam yaz2i surunuuat.? yasna / uyram kauuaem x V m n 6 / mazda&bm zao9rabiiO. / U p m kauuaem x V m n d / rnazdaSiitam yazamaide /haoma gauua /- N y f , f 6 bmsmana /himu0 daghagha rng9raca / vacaca &iao9naca zao9r8biiasca /arSux6at?biiaca ~ a ~ 2 i b i i o ' ~ ) .
$13. On account of its splendor and glory 1 I will worship it with audible worship, I the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, (worshiping it) with libations. / We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory /created by Ahura Mazda / with haoma (mixed) with milk, and with (spread) baresman, / with the skill of tongue, and with the Manthra, / with voice and action, and with libations, / and with words of straight utterance.

5 10. ya_t asti ahurahe mazdif / ya9a dilrniw da9a_t ahurd mazdif /pouruca vohuca pouruca msnmca /poururn abdaca p o m c a m a c a /pounica W i a c a ; $ 10. (the Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) of Ahura Mazdlf. / since Ahura Mazdzl has created (His) creatures (and creations), / (creating) the good ones in
large numbers, the beautiful ones in large numbers, / the marvellous ones in large numbers, the brilliant ones in large numbers, / the bright ones in large numbers;

0 Yerjhe ha4m
0 In

yesne paiti va~~hd" /mazdd ahurd vat?& &&+ yifghgmca / hacz &SCB fAscclyazamaide.

$ 1 1. ya_t kamnauuq M a m a h m / m s a a t a m 4 amambqtam' / afii9iwtam apuiimtam /yauuat$im yauua6s'~umvasa.xSa8ram /yaL irista paib' usahiJtpn /jarad juuaii6 maraxb3/da$aite fraam6 vasna aghuJ7. $1 1. in eider for (His creatures and creations) to make existence brilliant, / not aging, imperishable, / not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will, 1 so that the dead will rise again, / imperishability will come over the living, l (and) existence will be made brilliant in value.

accordance with truth, Mazdc? Ahura now knows the male one among the existing, as well as the female ones, whose better (attitude will be seen) at worship. Those male and female ones we worship.

' aE.vapdram Gdn. after $14: aP.vandsram Bthl. after ms. FI etc.

ammcbap&m Hi. after amaraSsptam ms. F1 etc. : amara$apBrn Gdn., cf, $89 amaraSaatam mss. Fl E etc. l frasam Gdn. with rnss., incorrect for fiJ(d>. The stanza is repeated in abbreviated form in $519, 23, unabbreviated with the variation y + '

' The stanza is repeated i $14, abbreviated in 9821, 25, 27, 30, 70, 73, 78, 83, 88, 91; repeated n with variation axvmtamx'aranb in $45, abbreviated in $95565. 'azmsagtam Hi. after ms. F1 etc. :m $ a ~ & m cf, aa.araSagap ms. J10. Gdn.,
... usahiSM1(-usahiwn>)

taradtam ms. FI etc. : m c & I t a m Gdn, after ms. FI in $$14,45.



in its original place $89.

bun mss. slightly incorrect for b(m'Hi. amarcha@: ama&gliS ms. F1 etc. l o saruuaq'haitif Hu. : sag'haifiSmss. " marargcaiiaca) or maraoi9iiauca, Hu. : mara mss. : rncave Gdn. : m a h e Bthl. mni,naF2ta&a Hu. I' cmairiid Gdn. after $90 : vainjiid ms.F1 etc., vairiid ms. B27 etc. l4 The stanza is repeated in abbreviated form in $819. 23 as also in 890 which is its original place. " haoma ydgauua Hoffmann with rns. FI etc. : haomajidgauua Gdn. l6 513 along with the Yejhe Ha$m is repeated in abbreviated form in $820, 24, 26, 29, 44, 72, 77, 82, 87,90,96 (= ends of Kardes 11-VI and X-XV), with the variation ax'aratam x'arand yazamaide in 5$54,64,69 (- ends of Kardes VII-IX). vaghd rnss. slightly incorrect for vqfhd.



14 20- Kayan Yasn Karde 11. The Arnesha Spentas




14 - 20. Kayan Yasn, Karde I1

the Amesha Spentas) whose paths are luminous 1 when they head down to the libations;
1 8. ydi hagLi &hpn d&aniim / yal ahurahe mazdd / d6%rascamara,yg&~,-~ / SpamxStarasca aj%i&Slarasca/n@r?tarasca nifhmtuasca;

The Amesha Spentas

$ 8 (the Amesha Spentas) who are / the creators and formers, / the shapers and overseers, / the protectors and guardians 1 of these creatures (and creations) of Ahura Mazda;

$14. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura-Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

5 19. ta&d yOi / fraSm vasna ahtim da9an / azarasanlam7 aixtrid,aqtad / afii9iikptam apuii,qxbm/ /= $11 yauuac5/Tm yauuaestim vasd.xSa9ram / y L in'sta a paiti usahi&n /jar~d juuaiid amamxt!S/da$a?efi&am0 vasna ar~hd.}
$19. these very (Amesha Spentas) who 1 will make the world brilliant, / not aging, imperishable, / not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will, / so that the dead will rise again, / imperishability will come over the living, / and existence will be made brilliant in value.
/ paib' $20. /= $12 Bun O ga.?$d amar(&qtifO y;i $?he sa tuua)q'haiL3"/ niS-ta_t druxS n@rilte /ya@ a~;Sicd ymaj /a$auuanammahrka9ai/aom ci9mmca sb-mca j a ratuS.} /is9a8ca0maraci9iiSuca" / n i .niZf2ta&a cm)airiid0/a92

$ 15. (the Kavyan Glory) / which is (in possession) of the Amesha Spentas / (who are) majestic, sharp-eyed, / exalted, endowed with impetuousness, / brave, of Ahurian Ature, / unendangered and truthful;

$16. ydi hap& hamdmagho / ydi hapta hmd.vacaghd / ydi haph hama&iao$ndghd / yai%pm asti hamam mano / hamam vacd hamam 8iia09nam / hama pmca4 fiaashca /yo da6@ Ahurd Mazdd; $16. (of) the seven (Amesha Spentas) who are of the same manner of thinking, / the seven who are of the same manner of speaking, / the seven who are of the same manner of acting, / whose manner of thinking is the same, / whose manner of speaking is the same, / whose manner of acting is the same, / whose father and master is the same, / Ahura Mazda the creator;
$17. ya&gm arfiid arfiiehe / uruumam a va~naci)L/ rncara,9flactam6 & / / hurnataau / mrara,$&~bm h~xh.?.fu m(ara,$flagtam huuarSta&i / m(am9Ba~tam nmmam /ya%m raoxSndghd p a ~ l t ~ n d garb /buuaha@mauui mo$r&; $17. (of the Amesha Spentas) who view the soul(s) of each other (or: each of whom views the soul of another person) / dwelling on good thoughts, / dwelling on good words, / dwelling on good actions, / dwelling (on the way) to paradise, 1 (of

$20. Imperishable will be the world that is of truth, 1 being endowed with strength; / deceit will be done away, (sending it) back to the place whence it has come 1 for making the truthful one perish, 1 himself, his progeny, and his property, in terror and de(struction), and the scoundrel will be done away as well. Such is the judgment. C] Ahe raiia [... . g M .... tdsca yzmiemie ] aa a a a d d

' baraz(a&gmHi. :baraza&rn Gdn. with mss. ' ai8iiegkyha Gdn. :ai$iiezsghd ms. Fl etc. pMca Hi. with m .J10, pa&a ms.D :pataca Gdn. with ms.F1 etc. s cf. '€nari,ti Gdn. :8iBj.vaenaeb' ms. F1 etc.
rnraradgaptarn Gdn. :rname$Bantam/me$@~tarn ms.F1 etc.

' vcami.dbi9ranprn Hi.: wmi.ddi91an#rn

Gdn. with mss.

' azarasafltamHi. with ms.F1 etc. : azararfiantam Gdn.

amamc.6antam Hi, after amamfagtam ms. F1 etc. : amamc$)antam Gdn.

$ $ 21 - 24. K a y h Yasn, Karde I11 The Yazatas
$2 1. U p m kaumem /- $9 xvaranO / mazda&tam y w a i d e / izr. va&ramo upara.kaXm / S a m n q %@tam varacq%@tam yaox3tiuu@tam / tua6dtam $25. Uyram

$ 5 25 - 26. Kayan Y a m , Karde IV
Haoshyangha Paradiita

$21. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura-Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

/= $11 kauuaem xvarand / mazda6dtam yazama'de / d. va&ram uparb.kaiiim / i?mag'h;u?tam varacag %aptam yaoxftiuuaptam / tm&tam 7 ananiidiS dmgn;


$25 We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura-Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);


$22. (the Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) of both the spiritual and material Yazatas, / and of both the born and unborn /brilliant making Saoshyants; $23. tsec$ ybi / H a m vasna ahllrn da$an / zamsaatam1 amarachaptad / afii,?ii&~tam a p u i i ~ t a m f= # / I yauuae~i-m / yauuaI?sh vasd.xSa&m /ya_l ins& paiS usahiStp / j & ' u a i i d amanxriS/daSaite EraSam' vasna &Us.) $23. these very ( a a a and Saoshyants) who / will make the world brilliant, / Yzts not aging, imperishable, / not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will, / so that the dead will rise again, / imperishability will come over the living, / and existence will be made brilliant in value.

$26, ya_C upa&ca_C/ haoSiiagham para6dtarn / damyam& a@ m u a n a m / ya_t xsaiiata paiti b~inii-m haptai9iigm / daeuuanpn maSirinfunca / ya9Jgm pairikangmca / ~913~71 kaoiim ktuafipnca' / yo jmal duua Sr2uua / rnazadiiliiangm daeuungm / v d i i m g m c a druua@n. $26. (the Kavyan Glory) / which came over / to Haoshyangha Paradata / for a long period of time / so that he ruled on the earth of seven climes / over daevas and mortals, over wizards and witches, / over despots, kavis and karapans, / (to Haoshyangha Paradata) who slew two thirds / of the Maainya daevas / and the deceitful inhabitants of Varena.
Ahe raiia [... $13 ... ]dsca yazamaide.

$24. Imperishable will be the world that is of truth, being endowed with strength; / deceit will be done away with, / (sending it back) / to the place whence it had come / for making the truthful one perish, / himself, his progeny and his property, / in terror and detstruction), and the scoundrel will be done away as well. / Such is the judgment.

Ahe M a [... . 9 13 .... tifscayazamiu'de. ]

'ammrSjap&m Hi. after amad&tam ms. F1 etc. :amamfiaptam Gdn.

' aamsa@m

Hi. with ms. F1 etc. :azararfiaptamGdn.

' ma$ijBngmca ...karahgmca is repeated in $28, abbreviated in 43 1 .

§ § 27-29. KayWYasn, Karde V

$ $ 3 0 - 44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI

Takhrna Urupi
$27. Uyram kauuam /- 89 x wanno /mazda&tam yazamaicie /dvryldramO upard. ku2m / S a m n q ' A ~ t a mvaraca/)'hac,tam yaoxStiuua&vn / L w a S a t a m ~ i i a S d w ; $27. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

Yima Khshaeta
$ 30. Uyrarnkauuaem /=§9xvaranO/mazda&tam yazamaide /a3 vryl&mO upar&yaoxStiuuqtam / tua6gtamy adiihjs kaiim / $ varacq*tam

$30. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura MazdB, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations); $3 1. yaJ upaghacad /yim yimam xSaetarn huug$@m / darayarnc4 aipi zruumam / yaJ xSaiiata /pah' bum-m haptai9iifun / dai?uuanm /=626 rnz$ii&(vnm / y&9giun pahkanpnca /s&9wn kaoiipm] karahmca; $31. (the Kavyan Glory) which came over / to majestic Yima, the (owner) of good herds, / for a long period of time / so that he ruled / on the earth of seven climes / over daevas and mortals, / over wizards and witches, / over despots, kavis and karapans; $32. (yimm) YOuzbarad haca daeuuaeibiid / uiie iStSca saokaca / uiie 8aoniSca vg$@ca / uiie S ~ f i c 3 ' tiasastiSca / yejhe xSa9rrisa x"aini(e) cii,stcam)' / uiie vim /aghaoSamne apa.uruuake; xvara$e a j i i m e /amara&ryld $32. (Yima) who got out from the daevas / both energy and fervor, / both flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, / both satiety and fame; / under whose rule both kinds of undiminishing nourishment were available for consumption, / both cattle and men were imperishable, /both water and plants were not drying up; 33. (yimam) yejhe xSaSra6a /no$ aotam Bgha ndlj' g m m a m /no$ zaumua &ha no11 maraiSiiu3 /no$ arasko dai?uuo.d2t6 / p ~ c d anaduxto~j' )~ /para ahma1 y31 him aem / d r a o g d vscim aghaiSim /cinm&e paiti. baat . a 533. (Yima) under whose rule / there was neither frost nor heat, / neither old age nor death, / nor envy produced by the daevas / since there was no deceit / until he reproduced the false speech (suggesting to him) to strive for untruth.

$28. (the Kavyan Glory) / which came over / to foxfur wearing brave Urupi / for a long period of time / so that he ruled on the earth of seven climes / over daevas and mortals, / over wizards and witches, lover despots, kavis and karapans; $29. yai bauua~ v&iiB / v i s p daeuua maSi'ca / vispe yatauub pai~kdsca Mi. /yaJ h i % agmm m&ii~m himitam aspahe k a h p / Srisatam @.giimanpn / uua / pain zamb karma. $29. so that he overcame / all daevas and mortals, / all wizards and witches, / so that he could ride Angra Mainyu, / transformed into the shape of a horse, / for thirty years, / around both ends of the earth.

Ahe raha [;... $ 9.,.. &sc~f ] yazamaide.

' Srgfica ms.F1 etc. : Spfifica HI.

' unrpicm, Hu.:unrpimss.


' amaraf6anta HI. : amara&n&

&rayamc~jajpjzru~m suppl. Hu.

x'airiie ea,stfam, Hu.: xWii@n,stf6, Bthl. : x ~ i i i a n l u Gdn. wt ms.F1 etc. as& ih Gdn, with ms.Ptl etc. : amamSi&h ms.F1 etc. pr(6) Hu. : pm mss. &aogam Hu.with ms.F1 etc. : dragam Gdn, with ms. JIO etc.


Text and translation

$4 30 - 44. Kayan Yasn Karde V. Yima Khshaeta


$34. Aai ya_r him a m / dmogam6 vacim aghai8im / c i n m e paiti.bara& /

vaenamnam ahmat haca x'aranb / marayahe k a h p fi-afusi$/ Auuaena xVmnb Jn h h&ta / d y Z d xSaetb huua$fl/ b r a t yimd &to /d~&.manahiii?icad staratb /nib- upa.tijzpm. $34. But when (Yima) / had reproduced the false speech (suggesting to him) to strive for untruth, / the Glory, in the shape of a bird, / flew away from him visibly. / Following the Glory with his eyes, majestic Yima, the owner of good herds, (was) driven off (from his throne); / Yirna got excited, restlessly, / and having fallen (as a victim) to enmity (or: to mental distraction), / he fled downwards over the earth.


druuwtam / y m aS.aojmtam~ j a m / fiaca karwta_taq-0 madiiiu / aoi y v h astuuaibTm gae9gm) /mahrkcilcil Mahe g a & . J a n ~ . $37. (Thraetaona) who slew Azhi DahBa, / (the serpent) of three mouths, three heads, / six eyes, of a thousand rays, / (that) very strong (incarnation of) daevic deceit, / (that) deceitful evil to the world, / (that) by far strongest (incarnation of) daevic deceit which / Angra Mainyu fabricated against the corporeal world / in order to destroy the world of truth.
$38. Yal Sn'bin xvarand apanamata / xvarand yimal haca xSaet+' / $u.q' x'arand yima! haca viuuagh&i11 / marayahe kahrpa vhynahe / aom xvaran6 hap i ~ ~ g3uruuaiiata / nare,rnan$kamsLisp / ya_t& m ~ i upmn(un / aojistd adiid zara~dm_l /nairiiaiilip par6 hgm. vca)mtd3; $38. When the Glory turned away for the third time, / (when) the Glory (turned away) from majestic Yirna, 1 (when) the Glory flew away from Yima, the son of Vivahvan, / in the shape of a falcon bird, / that Glory was reached for / by heroicminded Kerescispa / who was the strongest among the strong mortals / other than Zarathushtra, / owing to (his) heroic defence; $39. yal dim upaghacaL / yli uyra naire h ~ . vamibX / Nainiw h m . varaith yazamaide / am6igd.zanggm axvafnii&n aSitd.gatum j yib-un / y2 uparhaca_t / a karas&pam;
$39. since (Keresitspa) was accompanied / by strong Heroic Defence. / We worship Heroic Defence / of erect shanks, not sleeping, 1 set up at her place and watchful, / who accompanied Keresaspa;

$35 Y paoiflm x'arand apanamata / x 'arand yimag' haca xSaew /$usa,t xvaranb # yimal ham viuuiy~h&ag' / maragah2 kahrpa vmynahe / aom xvarand h a ~ p ~ ~ m u a h am P dy vounr.gaoiiaoiti~/yb /t a ' ~ d ; r s@.gabSb ham@.yaoxSM / Mi$ram vispangm ddiiunpn / dalfhupiu'rim yazamaiie / yim fiada$a_l ahurd mazdd /xvaranq'hastamammdiiauuanpnyazatanm.
935. When the Glory turned away for the first time, / (when) the Glory (turned away) from majestic Yima, / (when) the Glory flew away from Yima, the son of Vivahvan, / in the shape of a falcon bird, / that Glory was reached for / by Mithra of wide pastures, / of (sharp-)hearing ears, of a thousand rays. / We worship Mithra, / the lord of all lands, / whom Ahura Mazda established / as the most glorious among the spiritual Yazatas. $36. Yag' bitrm xvarana apanamata / xvmnbyimat haca xSaetq / &sa_txVmn6 yimai haca viuuaghdai / marayahe kahpa vmpahe / aom xvamnd hap gamuaiiata / visd pu8rd if8,8ii&di#/ visd srtraiid Sraetaond / yag' b ma.,fiicinpn / vm9rauuacbgm1* vara8rauuastmd d i i d ma8&tra'.


$36. When the Glory turned away for the second time, / (when) the Glory (turned away) from majestic Yima, / (when) the Glory flew away from Yima, the son of Vivahvan, / in the shape of a falcon bird, / that Glory was reached for / by the crown-prince of the Athwya clan, / of (that) mighty clan, by Thr&taona / who was the most steadfast among the steadfast mortals other than Zarathushtra. $37. (8raetaonb)yd jmat &hdahaam / (= Y9,f $riafanam SrikarnamSam / xSuuaS.dim haza@yaoxbim / aS.aojagham daeuuim drujam / apm gae9liuuiid
as above n 5. . n i h i Gdn. w t rns. F1 etc. : nid(uua)rG Ke. ih yad suppl. Hu., cf. 4636,38. mragahe Hu.w t ms.F1 etc. : marayaheGdn,after F1 etc. 8$36,38. ih lo hacpgamuaiialn Gdn., after $836.38 : hagsumuaiiata ms. F1 etc. " vam9ra11uacb~ Hu. : vara9rauuangm Gdn. wt m .F1 etc. ih s

$40. y jam1 dim smuaram / yim aspdgaram nara.gmm / yim viSauuwtam d / bara~na'.~ / [fyim zain'tam / yim upairi viS ra)rao6a_C'4 xSuuaepaa ~atbnaiia'~ upairi viS carrao6a~]" rZrStii6.baraza zairilaml* / yim upain' karasapd / aiiagha d pitum pacata / d rapi$jinam zruuaarn; / (= Y9,Ij tafia&a h mariid x'isalca,,. / fig$ aiiaghd frapara-J/ yaSiiwum gpam paid jh2fP; /pa@ Mtd apatacad / naire.manrfkarasasp0;
$40. (Keresaspa) who slew Azhi Sruvara, / the horse-devouring, men-devouring, / poisonous, yellow (serpent) / on which poison grew / (growing) over its tail, its


nairiiaii$ Gdn. with ms. H3 : ain7aiiJietc. cett. l 3 hgm. vfa)I2td~] Hi. with rns. J 18 : hgm. varatdf] Gdn. with cett. l4 viJ ra,rao&_l Hi. after viSarao&i ms. J 18 : vifrao&i Gdn. here but viSarao6aJin Y9.11. Is vac&naiia Gdn. : vanaiia Hi, with m s s. l6 barafna perhaps to be read 6araSnrm. I' The second yim upin' viS ca,rao&_t is to be deleted. la zairitcam Gdn. : zairibm rns. FI etc. 19pam'jhdr Bthl. with ms. Pt4 etc. :p & h q G d n . with ms. J2 etc.


Text and translation

$9 30 - 44. Kayan Yam Karde V. Yima Khshaeta


snout, and its back, / on which poison grew, / yellow, upto the height of a spearlength, on which Keresaspa cooked his meal in an iron (pot) / about meal time; the scoundrel was getting hot and started sweating; / jerking forward under the iron, / it was about to upset the boiling water. 1 Being frightened, heroic-minded Keresbpa ran away;
$4 1. yd janaj / g a p d e m yim zain:p&nam / yd apalat wam&td marad&d / gaHA astuuaIh3 @she; / yd jmal hunauua ya_tpa~aniili'doonacuu~dl / hunauuasca

444. "I will lead Spenta Mainyu down / from the luminous paradise, / I will make Angra Mainyu rush up / from the tumultuous hell. / The two shall pull my chariot, / Spenta Mainyu and Angra (Mainyu), / unless heroic-minded Keresbpa should slay me." / Heroic-minded Keresapa was going to slay him. / Cut off was his gain of life, cut off was his rise in vitality.

A h e raiia [... $13 ...] dsca yamaide

niuuilahe / hunauuasca daStaY&di$ / yd janat / zardiid.pusam himpam / vmSaomca dLsniui'anam /pitaonamca aS.pairikam;
$41. (Keresapa) who slew Gandarewa of yellow heels / who rushed up openmouthed / with the purpose of destroying the corporeal world of truth; / (KeresBspa) who slew / the nine rascal sons of PaSana, / and the rascal sons of Niuuika, / and the rascal sons of DLhtaymi; / (Keresfispa) who slew Himpa of golden diadem, /and Vareshava Dmayana, / and Pitaona most devoted to witches;
$42. yd jmad arazd.#arnanam / nairii~.bfun.v~~ai~huu~tad~ / taxmam fi;nzuS&m c... ndtam / j b m zbaramnam j i y a u m / afiakalacim barb.zdam /

apa.&"am niiacsa,tf3 d a m /apastanaghd gatd.arazahe; $42. (Kereshpa) who slew Arezdsharnana / endowed with heroic defence, / brave, popular and esteemed (by his people), / crafty, pursuing crooked ways, alert, / running secretly, carrying away valuables; /-turning it aside, (Keresbpa) took hold of the mace / (of ArezOshamana) I who out of breath had entered the battle;
943. yo janaj snauuiakam / yim sruud.zancu~.n?' asangd.gaum. / Hci auua8a viidxmariiiaata: / Aparanaiiu ahmi nd# paranaiiu. / Yezi bauuani paranisiju / z p c a m m karanauuzine/asmanam ra9am karanauurne. $43. (Keresapa) who slew Snavidka / of leaden jaws and hands of stones. / That (youngster) declared: / "I am under-age ,not yet grown. / If I should come of age / I will make the earth into my wheel, / I will make the sky into my chariot."
44. AuuanaLkni spantam mafiium/ham raoxSna garb m a ; / uspataiieni qram maiiiium / arayata haca dui;sr~c',ha~. T Tme v&m Sa&ii&te / spantasca / ~ rnarfiirrS q m c a / yezi rngm ndQ jm&f / karasizspd. '." Tam jans~ /

naire.mmA karasbpd. /Auua apanam gaiiehe / cauua bs&ad7 &mahe.
20pa9anaiia withms. F1 :pa9anaiidms.R115 et sim. Gdn. nacuwa Gdn. : naiia ms. F1 etc. 22 'VBr~ab&'uuq&mHu. : v~(a)tiuua&+m : varwbbuqt3mms. F1 etc. Gdn. 13' nii&sa_t, Hu. : cahii8i H .:diai mss. i l4 smud.zancu~mHu. : smud.zanam Gdn. with mss. " d&oc',ha Hu. :d(ao,&gr?ha Hi. : duZagba Gdn. with ms. FI etc. 26 naileman8 adn, with ms. J10 : nairi.mandms. F1 etc.


tauua a)sanam Hu. : cfraxtnam Bthl. : c,..)&nam Gdn. with ms. F1 etc.

$9 45

- 54. Kayan Yasn, Karde V11. Fire and Azhi Dahaka


§§ 45 - 54. Kayiin Yasn, Karde VII

Fire and and Azhi Dahaka

$48. Inja auual hqda8wYhj'lha/&!ad maid ahurahe: / Yezi aekg niidghe /ya_t S 4 m cgstuud par'ri apil$aciienf, / nd& apaiia upami'ai / zgm axvantam/ pix ahura6a4m / 9r6$Hi dhhe gaA9angm. / ASa Bt41;C / asfa padi a p . gauxuuai'a_t/francni &tpnd.cinahiia / p $ a a f i b@uudr~ha~~. ~ $48. "Hold on, bear that in mind, 1 0 Fire of Ahura Mazdg: / If you grab at this / (Glory) which is unappropriated, / I shall blow you out on (your throne, / so that you cannot blaze up again I on the earth created by Ahura M a z a 1 to protect the world of truth." 1Thereupon Fire 1withdrew his hands / precautiously, valuing his life / as the serpent was terrifying.

$ 4 ~ We worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory 1 created by Ahura Mads, / . the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, 1outdoing the other creatures (and creations). $46. Yahrni p ' b pambb'$d / spa~hscamahiid cuJmca / a e U paib' a_t katvasc~]: SpagtO rnadiiu? &tam6 / axvmte/ aSa1 dte4 fr;uJharacaiia_t/ asi~tg fr;uJharsca&a_t/vohuca man0 &mca vahiStam /dh-amca ahurahe mazddpu9ram./ Agr~ mahiid &tad riarJharacaiiaia_t/akamcx man0 aSmamca x r u w ~ /aZimca~ ~ ~?~ dahakam /spitiimmca yimd.karaghm. $46. For that Unappropriated (Glory) about which Spenta Mainyu and Angra Mainyu were in conflict with each other, 1 each of the two then sent his swiftest messengers (to gain hold of it). / As his messenger(s), Spenta Mainyu sent 1 Vohu Manah, Asha Vahishta, 1 and Fire of Ahura Mazdii. 1 As his messenger(s), Angra Mainyu sent 1 Aka Manah, Wrath of bloody weapon, 1 Azhi DahLa, and Spityura who cut up Yirna. $47. ASq M a hgm.Wi'ata/atuSmazdB ahurahe /uiti auua9a mqh&b: /At?&! xrmnb hapgamtsme / ya_t auvmtam./Aa_t hc paska_t fraduuml / a&$ Sn'af3 daomn6: du2da6nb/ ucitif zax~a9mm 447. Then Fire of Ahura Mazda humed ahead, / thinking thus: 1 "I want to gain hold of this Glory which is unappropriated." / Yet (Azhi Dahaka), the serpent of three mouths and evil religion, ran up to him from behind, uttering the following threat:

449. AGa fiafa {cfia,duuaradl/ aiiS ankid duZ.dac?n'nb uiti auua9a maghand: / / Acm xvarand hapgtaflne /ya! axvantam./Aa_t he pask3 h&w%zaiiata atuS / mazdi ahumhe /uiti vac3biS aojanb:
$49. Then (Azhi Dahaka), the serpent of three mouths and evil religion I ran ahead, 1 thinking thus: 1 "I want to gain hold of this Glory which is unappropriated." 1 Then Fire of Ahura Mazda humed up to him from behind, / addressing him with the following words:

$50. "Hold on, bear that in mind, / 0 three-mouthed (serpent) Azhi Dahdca: / If you grab at I this (Glory) which is unappropriated, I I will flare up to (your) buttocks (to scorch you), / I will blaze up to (your) mouth(s) / so that you will no longer be able to rush up I to the earth created by Ahura Mazda, / in order to destroy the world of truth." 1 Thereupon the serpent withdrew his paws 1 precautiously, valuing his life as Fire was terrifying.

$5 1 . (A,.td3 xvmnd fiapinuucata,'4 / auui zraiib vouru.ka,bm. / /,dim ha9ra / / hwgaumuaiia~ a p m nap5 auruua.(.aspd; .h8aca1*iziieiti / appm napi auruuai.-


' aS.vapdwn Gdn. with ms. F1 etc.
' '
tua&@m Gdn. with ms. FI etc. 'parsrbBi9e Kellens :paraxr&'$e Gdn. with ms. F 1 etc. afte slightly incorrect for &(a. asisre slightly incorrect for &iSt(a>. &tarn (2x) perhaps incorrect for aStc3,. u(ibj Bthl. : ula Gdn, with mss.

\atuud tentatively suppl. Hu. ap9aciieni) Hu. : a p 9 a Gdn. with mss. lo a% b~jSiuua'ghaGdn. with ms. El etc., c f . $50 ahd b@uu&ha : &in .... uua'gha ms. F1; a213 b1j9iuua'cLgha Hi. : perhaps aiiS b$ici)ud> d&a Hu. I ' fi& cfia,duua@ Hu., : fia ... duuaral ms. F 1 : f3.hhpm.duuamJ Gdn.with ms. E 1 etc. IZBlarS b@iuurlrJhasee above n. 10. " (a,hJHu. : c... ,@rns. F 1 : aetaf Gdn. with ms. E l etc. '4frapinuutata,Gdn. :frapinuuc... ms. F1 :frapinuu (no gap) ms. Ptl etc. :frapinuiiete ms. E l . I * la6aca Hu. with ms. 518 etc. : h6ca ms. F1 etc. : ta@a Gdn.




Text and translation


$ 5 45 - 54. Kayan Yasn, Karde V I Fire and Azhi Dahaka I.


asp: /At?@ xVmnbha.pgra&me /yaJ axvaratam/ b~nce,'~ zraiiqhb gutiahe / bunej f rn vaiiianp. ar i m
$51. Then that Glory swelled forward / into the Vourukasha Sea. / Then Apam Napat of swift horses / reached for it, / and in doing so, / A p W Napat of swift horses I urgently wishes: / "I want to gain hold of this Glory which is unappropriated 1(lying) at the bottom of the abyssal sea , at the bottom of the deep lakes."

0 Ahe m h a xvaranaghaca/tam y a d smuuata yasna / u p m axvara&m xvmna
/ mazda&Wamzao9rdbiib / u p m ax'aratam x'aranb / rnazdaBtam haoma ydl gauua /- #13 = Ny1.16 bansmana /hi& dqhagha mg9mca / vacaca &iao$naca zao9fibiiasca /arSuxSaCbiiasca vayZibiio ...] ttlsCayazamtu'de

0 On account of its splendor and glory / I will worship it with audible worship, /
the mighty unappropriated Glory / created by (Ahura) Mazda, (worshiping it) with libations. / We worship the mighty unappropriated Glory / created by Ahura ik M a & 1 with Haoma (mixed) with m l ,and with (spreaded) Baresman, I with the skill of tongue. and with the Manthra, / with voice and action and with libations I and with words of straight utterance ...those male and female ones we worship.

$52. The exalted A h a , the chief, I majestic Apam Napat / of swift horses 1 we worship, 1 the virile one who is of benefit when called, / who has created heroes, I who has fashioned heroes, / the Yazata who abides in the waters, / whose ears listen most attentively when he is being worshiped.

853. Everyone of you mortals, / spoke Ahura M a d & 1 0 truthful Zarathushtra, I should therefore strive for the Unappropriated Glory. 1(For this purpose) he should endeavor to win the luminous appreciation / of his gifts to the priest; / he should endeavor to win the manifold appreciation 1 of his gifts to the priest; / (he should endeavor to win the ... appreciation) / of his gifts to the priest.

454. Reward will accompany such a person, / granting much comfort, endowed with abundance, / being rich in cattle and pasture. / Steadfastness will accompany him, persisting all days, / (as well as ) the (power of) striking down (the enemies) at the attack, persisting over years. I Accompanied by that steadfastness, 1 he then wili defeat the blood-thirsty hostile armies, / and accompanied by that steadfastness, / he will defeat all his enemies.

" chNgha8h
l8 l9

bunce > Gdn. : bunam rnss. Lornmel : iJdghaeh mss. three times.

c...... xSnularn hiSdgha&w suppl, Hu. haend y d Hu. : haenaid Gdn.with mss. 20 _rbSaiiantd Ke. :Jbi9iiapt6 Gdn.



haomay6gauua Hoffmam with ms. F1 etc. : haomaiidgauua Gdn.

gg 55 - 64. Kayan Yasn. Karde VIII. Frangrasyan


$9 55 - 64. Kayan Yasn, Karde VIII

458. "I will mix up both kinds of things, / all that is solid and all that is liquid, / (imbued) with greatness, goodness and beauty. / Ahura Mazda is in action, / engaging (his) creatures against (me)." / Thereupon, 0 Spitama Zarathushtra, / Frangrasyan, the Tura of high miraculous power / rushed down / to the Vourukasha Sea

$55. We worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, 1 which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations); $56. ya_t i-1 manid Nini'd fiagrase /piuXqhd vouru.k&he. /Map0 apa.spYaa_f vastd /@ x "anndis0 ya; asb'/airiangmdaiiunw /Zatu,pm azIMiunca /yaica Maon6 m 8 u C W e . / A ta_l xvmnd /iazga&t?/ la_t x'arand apataca_f/4x'mnd 6 buua_t/ m k g h b vouru.ka,&he / vai2 yb haosmuuA apa.hi6ai /a& hdu apay

959. For a second time / he threw off his garments (so-that he was) naked, seeking that Glory which is that of the Aryan lands, / of their born and unborn (inhabitants) / and of truthful Zarathushtra, / That Glory darted forward, / that Glory fled away, / that Glory escaped. / Thereby that outlet of the Vourukasha Sea came into being, / the lake (called) Vanghazda by name.

ngma. $56. (the Unappropriated Glory) which the Turian scoundrel Frangrasyan / sought in the Vourukasha Sea. He threw off his garments (so that he was) naked, seeking that Glory which is that of the Aryan lands, I of their born and unbom (inhabitants) 1 and of truthful Zarathushtra. 1 Then that Glory darted forward, / that glory fled away, / that glory escaped. / Thereby that outlet of the Vountkasha Sea was to come into being, / the lake (called) Haosravah by name.
$57. Aai / fi-agrare hua a. ( vmcd / spima zaraS11Fba / park&+ haca x "mnd vounr.ka$%J/ a ygm daoi9rim daomnd: / i8e i9a ya8na ahmai. / NO$ pairi.abaom /yaJ asti airiianm dax'iiungm/zatangm aziitvlmca /ya~ca'aSaond zara9&&ahe. $57. Thereupon Frangrasyan, the Tura of high miraculous power, I 0 Spitama Zarathushtra, / rushed out of the Vourukasha Sea / uttering the evil curse: / "I9e i9a y a h a a h & . 1 I could not seize that Glory /which is that of the Aryan lands, 1 of their born and unborn (inhabitants), 1 and of truthful Zarathushtra."

$60. Aa_t us.patal/ fragrase turd d varacd / spitsma m a & & . / Paiiaghal haca / vom.kafi?~ aygm daoi8dm daomnd: / I$e i9a ya9na ahma' / auuae9rer5 i9a yaha kahmb: /NO& ta_tx'aranb pain:abaom / ya; asb' iilnimm Miiungm / f= 457 i s t a ~ p m wtangmca /yaC,)caOa$aond m9uSh-ahe.) $60. Thereupon Frangrasyan, the Tura of high miraculous power, / 0 Spitama Zarathushtra, / rushed of the Vounikasha Sea, / uttering the evil curse: / W e i9a ya9na a h m i / auua€&e) i9a ya9na kahmG. I 1 could not seize that Glory / which is that of the Aryan lands, / of their born and unbom (inhabitants), / and of truthful Zarathushtra." $61. f=$58 (Uu)a&mo hpv.ra~?dgaiieni / vispa tarSuca xMraca / masanaca ahurd mazdd /paitk3d0 d&mn da9md. / A ~ L vagbanaca sraiianaca / @gzjaitiO hu6 auua.pata_r/fiagrase aC.vvaracd /spituna zara911F.aj /auuizraiid vouru.k&m.
$61. "I will mix up both kinds of things, I all that is solid and all that is liquid / (imbued) with greatness, goodness and beauty. / Ahura Mazda is in action, / engaging (His) creatures against me." / Thereupon, 0 Spitama Zarathushtra, / Frangrasyan, the Tura of high miraculous power, / rushed down / to the Vourukasha Sea.

' yac_t,ca Gdn.after 4 56 :ya6cams. F1 etc.
cuu>a.?rn H i . : vaem mss. 39&z/'aib' Bthl. with ms. FI etc. : 9Bfm qZti Gdn. after S&rnmzajab' ms. J 10.

ptc# Hu. : pajtif.4 Gdn. with ms.F1 etc. ii& auuae9ce) Hu. : auuaeSa ms. F 1 etc., cf. 9 63 auua&9e. mayndsuppl. HU., cf. $956.59.

Text and translation

$5 65 - 69. Kayan Yasn, Karda IX
Kgnsaoya and Haetumant
$65. U p m axramtam /= 845 xvarand / mazdaSrftam yazamaide / /.vapchmo

062. For a third time 1he threw off his garments (so that he was) cnaked), seeking that Glory which is that of the Aryan lands, 1of their born and unborn (inhabitants) I and of truthful Zarathushtra. / That Glory darted forward, 1that Glory fled away, / that Glory escaped. / Thereby that outlet of the Vourukasha Sea was to come into being, 1the water (called) Awzhdmuua by name.

upa.r6.kaiSm / Sanvlag%aptam varacag'haptam yaoxStiuuq?tam / tara&tamy adii2iiJ d2mg.n.
$65. We worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

$63. Thereupon Frangrasyan, the Tura of high miraculous power, / 0 Spitama Zarathushtra, / rushed out of the Vorukasha Sea, I uttering the evil curse: / "19e i9a ya9na ahmai / auuace)Be i9a ya9na ahm&i1auubiia i9a ya9na h i . 1I could not seize that Glory I which is that of the Aryan lands, 1 of their born and unborn (inhabitants), 1and of truthful Zarathushtra."

$66. yal upaghacaitil / /sao#iikgtarn vara$rsjanm? / yd auuadq fraJ(~)ite' / ya9u,a4 n$iuYd yai kgsaem haetumatam / ya$(r*l gain3 y d &a88 / yim a@itci jasant(b6. paoh# apb /hgm gain'~a~d $66. (the Unappropriated Glory) which is coming over / (to Saoshyant) Verethra-

$64 He could not seize that Glory / which is that of the Aryan lands, I of their born and unborn (inhabitants) / and of truthful Zarathushtra.

jan (= the Victorious Savior)) / who will rise from the area I where the Kmsaoya Sea is situated supplied by the (River) Haetumant, / and Mount Ushada / around which the many watercourses meet, coming from the mountains. $67. Auui tam auui.hkgtacaib' / auui tam auui.hqm. vazaite / x2stmca huuaspaca fiada&(ca,' / xvannag%aiticays srira / uFttuuaitica y2i sura / mua6ca8 yd porn vasba / arazica zaranumatica. / Auui.tam auui.haptacali / auui tam auui.hqrn. v d l e / ha~~Nmd,'o ramui xvaranag.hl / spaEtinif varamS sispwmnd" / nii(ajhmnnd2paoik3 v~ipid.
$67. Towards (Mount Ushada) the (River) Xvastra flows to meet (the others), towards it the XvasW hurries to meet (the others), and (so do) the Huvaspa and the Fradatha, the beautiful Khvarenanghvaiti, the strong Ushtavaiti, the Urva rich in


Ahe raila /... gi3 ... } uymm axTmtamxvmnd /... 413 ...I. Uynm arvmtam m 0rnazdaS&tam yazamaide / ... $13 ...} &scayazamaide.

' uaanhacc&iLi Hu. : upaqbacaib' Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. . r

'aj2&nuua perhaps to be read a,8i&uc5.
"uuar&9e Hu., cf. 560 auua~?(t?). ahrnBi perhaps to be read ck~ahm21; $60 k a h m ~ i . cf.

saofiiantam vara9rajanam suppl. Hu. after $89. fraxS(t&ite Hu. : fiaxStaaiieite ms. B27 et sim., cf. $92 fiaxStaie: fiauSaiieiteGdn. with ms. F1 etc. ya8ma Hu. : ya8a mss. two times. uSa@ Hu. with ms. F1 etc. : usasa' Kellens with ms. D : u S h @ Gdn. 6 . iasantri) Hu. :jasantdGdn. with rns. F1 etc. '-cca)iuppl. HU.. uruua6ca ms. Fl etc. : uruuaJaca mss. B27 J18 R115 J10 D. cy& suppl. Hu. 'O bae(tuma') Bthl. : ha& ... Gdn, with ms. Fl etc. ) " sispcamnb Kellens : sisp~imnd Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. niriagh)amnd Hi. : c..)amnd Gdn. with ms. FI etc. : nihayammd ms. E l etc,





Text and translation

pastures, the Erezi, and the Zaranumaiti; towards (Mount Usha&) the HaWunant flows to meet (the others), towards it the H a e m t humes (to meet the others), being splendent and glorious, parading with its white surges and sending down many floods.
$68. Hacairi dim apahe a@ / ham'ti & M e a@ / hamh' v i i i e aojd / hacaiti kauuam x'mnd. / A s h ahmi #durn m 9 & & / auuauuai kauuaem x'mnd / ya9a yaJi& ananiB darfhN/hakai usca us.&uua~ii&

$8 70 - 72. Kayiin Yasn, Karde X
The Kavis f o Kavata to Syavarshan rm
$70. U m m kauuam {==49 xvarand / maz&&tam yazanw'de / / upard.kaIin / 9amnq'ha~bn vmca#h@m yaoxSb'uua&m / tara6~Vamq adii2.S d m m $70. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory l created by Ahura-Mazdq / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);
$71. yaL upaghaca,f kauuam kauustam / yhca kauuaem aipi.vohum / yimca kauuaem usadmam /yimca kauuam arf&nami /yimca kauuaem pisin(agh,ad / yimca kauuaem biiad;inam/yimca kauuaem siiauuarSAnam;

§68. (The River Hacturnant) is endowed with the strength of a horse, / endowed with the strength of a camel, / endowed with the strength of a hero, I endowed with the Kavyan Glory. I In that (river), 0 truthful Zarathushtra, 1 there is so much Kavyan Glory 1that it could sweep away therewith all the (inhabitants of the) nonAryan lands in one sweep.

$69. Thereafter (the inhabitants of the non-Aryan lands) would roam along there, / feeling hunger and thirst, (feeling) cold and soaking wet. 1 That is (the effect of) the Kavyan Glory / (which is) the protection of the Aryan lands 1and of the cow of five species, / in order to support the truthful men / and the Mazdayasnian Religion.

$7 1. (the Kavyan Glory) which came over to Kavi Kavata, / and Kavi Aipivohu, / and Kavi Usadan, 1 and Kavi Arshan, / and Kavi Pisinah, / and Kavi Byarshan, / and Kauui Syavarshan; $72. yal baun / vispe amua vispe Puma / vispe 9amnaghuptt / v i s p varacap ,~ h u m / v i s p yaoxSCruuapB / vispe d d i ~ a i r ekauue4. $72. so that all of them became valiant, I all of them brave, / all of them intense, all of them miraculous, / all of them radiant, / all of them boldly acting Kavis.

Ahe raiia I....

154 .... dsca yazamaide. 1

fl Ahe raiia [.... § 13 ....]trisca yazamaide.

' arf&nan

uruM~9~ramca (cf.umu&%rnca R115) : uruuaXramca Gdn. with mss. Hu. 14 Hu. :ppcb.hiiaii&' Gdn.with ms. F 1 etc.

Hu. : &am Gdn. with mss. pisincaghmn H . :pisinan Gdn. with rnss. u &di.kaim, Bthl. : MikairiGdn. with ms.F1 etc. kauue Gdn. with rns. F1 etc. :kauuae Hi. with ms. J10 etc.

gg 73 77. Kayan Yasn, Karde XI. Kavi Haosravah



88 73-77. Kay& Yasn, Karde XI
Kavi Haosravah

$76. with regard to his luminous power, 1 with regard to his long-lasting life, / with regard to all the boons (at his disposal), / with regard to all the remedies (at his disposal);

$73. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory 1 created by Ahura M a z a 1 the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, 1outdoing the other creatures (and creations); $74. ya_t uyqhacaj / kauuaw haosrauuagham / amabeca p ' huWkzhe / /= h Ytf3,f33 varaSraynaheca paiti ahura&&he / vanai~tiidscap r uparafatd / a8 sag'hasca p i husastaiiA / sag%sca paiti arnuiimaiidi / sag*hasca paiti ' r

... f kauua haosmurd / f$m7 L..) kmsrauuazdagh>ad / upa tpn o n r p m /m d a r a v nauua.&9flaram / ciil;Sitd vispearu' m r n / y a r n main?B cz)uram'' <rnanb>" / mp&u ptu'ti paratah. / /spe bauual a;SiWiiA / ahu~ kauua haosrauuah. / cJana_t, m E m Nikim firrgmiit2nam / baqdniial karasa~uazd~agh>am'~ /puSrd kama siiduuddnai / zutb.jatahe narahe / ayraem9aheca nmuuahe, $77. so that L . Kavi Haosravah toutmaneuvered) Keresavmdah / on that (fam.) ous) long race course of nine intersections / (around the All-Aryan) Forest / when the scoundrel of crooked (mind) / contended with him at horse racing. / Overcame all (of his enemies) I the lord Kavi Haosravah. I (He slew) the Turian scoundrel Frangrasyan, / he bound Keresavazdah, 1 (doing that) in revenge for SyauuarSan, being the son of (this) treacherously slain hero, and (in revenge) for heroic
577. p~ r

auuanamahd /ha$rauua taheca paiti hamata9angm;)
$74. (the Kavyan Glory) which came over / to Kavi Haosravah / with regard to his well-formed impetuousness, 1 with regard to his victoriousness created by Ahura Mazda, /with regard to his overcoming superiority, / with regard to his well-issued order(s), / with regard to his unshakable order(s), 1 with regard to his irresistible order(s), /with regard to his having defeated his enemies at one stroke;

$75. with regard to his healthy strength, / with regard to his glory granted by Ahura Mazda, 1 with regard to his bodily health, / with regard to his legitimate, good progeny, 1 (which was) skilled and eloquent, / majestic and clear-sighted, / saved from distress, being valiant / (and) well acquainted with the future / easiness of best existence;

/= YtI3,135 xSa9raheca pait!' b&umatO / darayaiidsca paib' ddarayd$-tdiJ / vispangmcapaiti aiiaptulgrn4)/ visPangmcdpaiti baBazangm;
p i ' i s perhaps to be deleted Hu. aparaiita) Hu. : aparaiidGdn. wt mss. ih viiara9iiaiita) Hu. : viiaragiiaiid Gdn. wt ms.F1 : vii&19aiidms. ih Mf3. aiiaphyn Gdn.w t ms. F1 etc. :aiiaptangmms. Mf l etc. ih vispanqmca Gdn. after Yt13,13, cf, ms. J18 : v i s p g m ms. F1 etc.
Ms. F1 has a blank of 1 1 mm.:blank om, ms. Ptl etc. :pi3 ms. El etc. A verbal form is lost. $m to be deleted Hu. : tram Hi. karascauuazdagh)am Hu. :karasam Gdn, with m s s. t.3@6 vispf,aire,tentatively suppl. Hu. 10 muram Hu. : nuram Gdn, as also in Yt5,50. " man6 in ms. J18 only, suppl. Hu. after Yt5,50. I' karasauuazdqh)am Hi. : karasauuazdam Gdn, with ms. F I etc.


§§78 82. Kayan Yasn, Karde XI1 Zarathushtra

$8 78

- 82. Kaym Yasn, Karde XII. Zarathushtra



$81. Yet one Ahuna Vairya I which truthful Zarathushha recited I with breaks in between up to the fourth time, I each subsequent time with louder recitation, 1 drove down (all the dai?vas), causing them to hide under the earth, I all the daevas unworthy of being worshiped, unworthy of being praised.

$78. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory I created by Ahura Maza, I the excellent guardian, whose business is in the upper region, I which is intense, miraculous, radiant, I outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

§82. Yeehe h xVarandis1 /mahiid huiiid h y m s e / vipiu3 auui karSuu(u, ? hap&; /paidysi(hapbr kduuiv, /mahi6 a p & .fnymse /is0 xvaranid m 9 l d b a . / A x'mn6 tkazga6a& /auui.viign7 vitBpam: /&ja me wuiriira8 &m. /A&a j a a g b a d a a e / ya9a ka9acl te br moS0 / mana yal a h h e mazdd I da1!naiidscam&diui'asndiS $82. (Zarathushtra) whose Glory, the Turian scoundrel Frangrasyan sought / all over the seven continents; / around the seven continents / the scoundrel Frangrasyan rushed up, seeking the Glory of Zarathushtra. I Then that Glory darted forward / approaching W&pa (and urging him): "Hey, t r that (scoundrel) away un from me". The urge of the urging one reached him (= Vimpa) I just as it was my, Ahura Mazda's, pleasure / and that of the Mazdayasnian Religion.


879. (the Kavyan Glory) which came over to truthful Zarathushtra / (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion, 1 to speak in accordance with the Religion, / to act in accordance with the Religion, I (to Zarathushtra) who, among all the corporeal existence, was / the most truthful in truth, I the most powerful in power, 1 the most splendid in splendor, / the most glorious in glory, I the most steadfast in steadfastness.
$80. Vaenamnam ahma1 para dasuua pahiien / vat?namam mc?lYrf fimud$ /

0 Ahe raiia [... P I 3 ... ]dsca yazamaide.

vaPnamnam ap(a).kadaYad / ja&S haca ma$iitskaGibiid. / Aal d snao8aotfS /hazb niuuarac/iaiiad daeuua. gamzdn~
$80. Before that time, the daevas used to rush about openly, 1 lust pushed them forward openly, I openly they used to abduct 1 the wives from their husbands. I Thereupon, (notwithstanding) their crying and lamenting / about the abuse, the daevas used to rape them.
$81. Aa_t t . ~ aeuua ahund. vain'id / yim @auuta) zara9&1r(d)~tias16uuaha,t / vibam9ja~tarn Zxttiidm /aparam xrao2diiehiia fianliti /z(a)mmglzza5 auuazay / vispe daeuua aiiesniia auuahmiia.

ca)s:mss. slightly incorrect as. apcar.karS;iianEM.: apara Gdn. with mss. 3 niuuaa,j,aiianHu. : niuuaramiiiian Gdn. after nauuaazaiian F1 pr.m., nauuamiian F1 sec.m. a$auuca, m 9 d & r d ) Hi. : aS;?uuanamzara9uSbam Gdn. with mss. zca,rnmO Gdn. : zamaaOmss. Oguza Gdn. after Oguza ms. F1 etc., %&-a ms. Ptl: O d Hi. @ with rns. B27 etc.


'auui.vii@nHu. ms. El etc. :auui vaiign Gdn. with ms. F1 atc. with

auuazaJslightlyincorrect for auur~za~Hoffmam.

umuisiira barn Hu. : uruuisiiatamGdn. after umuisaiialarnms. F1 etc. jam1 barnHu. :jasatamGdn. with ms. F1 etc.

$4 83 87. Kayan Yasn, Karde XIII. Kavi Vishtaspa



$$ 83 - 87.K a y a Yasn, Karde X 1 I1

Kavi Vishtiispa

$87. Bauual a. van'iid /yasa $und kauua viSraSp0 /@SriiQuumtam @ d&da&am / pa$mamca daeuuahasnarn / dnruaoCamca anja_t.aspam / utt adiidsc$ aya / d & ~ d r a u u b iiiaonAgh6. §87. Brave Kavi Vishmpa / overcame TanthryBvant of evil religion, / and

Peshana, the daeva-worshipper, 1 and deceitful Arejataspa, / and all the other wicked / Khyaonas of evil guardianship.

0 Ahe raiia [...:$ 13 .... tdscay m a i d 6 . ]
$83. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, 1 which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);


$84. (the Kavyan Glory) which came over to Kavi Vishtaspa, / (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion, / to speak in accordance with the religion, 1 to act in accordance with the Religion, / so that he vowed himself to this Religion, / fkightening off the arch enemy (=Angra Mainyu), / driving away the daevas;


$85. (Kavi Vistaspa) who with stock and knots / has sought space for truth, 1 who with stock and knots / has found space for truth, / he who agreed to be the arm and

support 1of this Ahurian Zarathushtrian Religion;

/= Yt13,lOOyo him s&@mhi@mh a h k / uzuuacz,at haca hinr7jSiid / n i him dash maiSiibiSs6am bamzirazam / atiaka6auuaZm daonim / 81pBgrng3dca vasbaheca / fi-i&m) gS&ca viistraheca.
$ 8 6.

586. (Kavi Vistaspa) who freed from her chains / this (Religion) which was immobile and fettered, / and who placed her (beside himself) to sit in the middle, presiding at an elevated place, 1 truthfully wiping away obscurity, 1 being satisfied with cattle and pasture, / being contented with cattle and pasture.

' apa.rhauugn Hu. :apa.&auurp Hi. : apaaSjuugn Gdn.with ms. FI etc. &h(l]m53Bthl. : a6urdiS mss. ' uzuuacmal Hu. : uzuuaZal Gdn. with ms.F1 etc.

$8 88 - 90. Kaytin Yasn, Karde XIV
Saoshyant (= the Savior)

$$91-96.Kayan Yasn, Karde XV The Frashdkereti at the end of time
$91. U p m kauuagm /= §9 xVmn6 / mazda&tam yazrlmai'de / aS.vap&m0 uparb,kmiirn / SamnqWtam vmcag*haqbm poxStuu~tam/ tarad&moj adiiaiSd m p ; $91. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory 1 created by Ahura-Maza, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, I which is intense, miraculous, radiant, 1outdoing the other creatures (and creations); $92. r ... ) ya, astuuai.mt0 fiaxSMi'te / haca aprS kpsaoiidi / aft0 mazdd ahluane / visp.tamua(ir)iidl puSm / v a m a d vaeja yim v d n $ ~ ~ r i m ? / yhn barn1 m d Sraetaond ya_t aZiF dahakdjaink

$88. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory 1 created by Ahura-Mazda, I the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, 1 which is intense, miraculous, radiant, I outdoing the other creatures (and creations);

$89. (the Kavyan Glory) which will (have) come over I to Saoshyant Verethrajan (= the Victorious Savior) 1 and (his) other companions I when he will make existence brilliant, I not aging, imperishable, I not rotting, not putrefying, 1 enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, 1so that the dead will rise again, I (so that) imperishability will be bestowed on the living / (and) existence will be made brilliant in value.

$92. ( ... ) when (Saoshyant) Astavatereta will rise 1from the Kbsaoya Sea, I the messenger of Ahura Mazda, 1 the son of Vispataurvain', I brandishing the triumphant mace 1which brave ThraHaona wielded I when Azhi Dahaka was slain @Yhim);
$93. yim bani h g m e turd / yai druua zainigaUr jaini / yim barn, kauua ha&aiii8 haosrauua / yal tur6 jdni frame / yim bamf kauua viJIQId / a(& cadamn6. / /raciJ5 auuua& dnrjm ni2bardi/&e haca gae98bii6.

490. Imperishable will be, the world of truth 1 being endowed with strength. 1 Deceit will be done away, (sending) it back 1to the place whence it has come / for making the truthful one perish, I himself, his progeny, and his property, 1 in terror and detstruction); 1 and the scoundrel will be done away as well. 1 Such is the judgment. Ahe raiia /. .. g 13 ....] dsca y m a i d e .

$93. (the mace) which Frangrasyan, the Tura, wielded I when deceitful Zainigu was slain (by him), / (the mace) which Kavi Haosravah wielded 1 when Frangrasyan, the Tura, was slain (by him), 1 (the mace) which Kavi Vishmspa wielded / when claiming (atonement) from the enemy army, / - with that very mace (Saoshyant) will, then, expel deceit 1from the world of truth.

$94. Hd di&f xratdruE ddi9rdbiia / vispa dmpn paiti. vaenq. / Pasera naEd d&ci9rra,ii8 /hd vispam ahOm astuuwtam /itaiii vaena ddi9rabiia /darasrax$ / daSa1 amanxEiia~hTm vispgm ygm astuuaigmgaE&m.

* sao1i'antca)rnHu. :sadiiapgm Gdn, with mss.

' upghac(&~Hu.upghacal Gdn. with mss. :

' vispa.&llruua(ir,iid Hi. : vispa.t?umuaiid Gdn, with ms. FI etc.
'acranam, Hu. : &e


a~arasaplam with with ms. D, cf. 6 1 1 : m@aptam Gdn. after azarabglam ms. F1 etc. Hi. amamrSiaptarn Hi. :amamfaplam corr, into amamfantam ms. FI : amara$antam Gdn. usahiSt(qn)Hi. : usahif1IGdn. after F1 etc. bun mss. slightly incorrect for bmn Hi. a9arahrfHu. : a9(a)rahfGdn.

' vm9raynci)m Hu. : vm9mynam Gdn, with rns. E l etc.
' ~(~TcI]) : t(& Hi. : &! (-Ha) Gdn. with mss. Hu.
Gdn, with mss.

vacznam vaejd Hu. : vaeSam vaejd Gdn. with ms. F1 etc.

di6&' perhaps to be read &&as). pascca v)a&6 Hu. :pascca i)f6 H i . : c..)fd ms. Fi : pascaeb mss. El N107 etc. duSci9(ra)ii'Bthl,as now in ms. J18,cf. ms. R15 : duSci9mYaiii Gdn. with ms. Fi etc.


44 91

- 96. KaNn Yam, Karde XV. The Frashdkereti
Concluding Prayers

494. Beholding (them) with the eyes of (personified) intellect, / (Saoshyant) will view all creatures. I After the fading (of deceit) of evil origin / he will look at all the corporeal existence I with the eyes of (personified) abundance, / and by his look he will make imperishable / the entire corporeal world.

$95. His companions (will) make their appearances, / (the companions) of victorious Astvatereta / (who are) of good thought, of good speech, / of good action, (and) of good religion, / having never spoken in falsehood / owing to their self-control of tongue@). / Inglorious wrath of bloody weapon / will flee before them. / Truth(s) will overcome evil deceit / which is of bad descent, spreading darkness.

Since He is (the One) to be chosen by the world, / therefore the judgment emanating from truth itself (to be passed ) on the deeds of good thought of the world, / as well as the power, is committed to Mazda Ahura whom (people) assign I as a shepherd to the poor.

$96. ~anait<e)'~ akamca mmd / vohu man6 4 vanaid / Vanaitce, mi8a0xc6>6~ tvau~,'* amXwSd v J &m vanaitr1 / vandl ~ I U U U ~ ~ S C ~ / & amamdsca / c ~ x i a ' ~ d5u6ca)mcaf6taztnamca" / vanad hauruu~scaamamdsca / ayam c~u,&mca" kz~Snamca*~; /fian&naitw2' d&u&t2uua (I&'/ q r b marfiiufax&a)iiacmn)d2. 496. Evil thought will be overcome, / good thought will overcome it. / The voice of false utterance will be overcome, / the word of straight utterance will overcome it. / Integrity and immortality will overcome / both hunger and thirst; / integrity and immortality / will overcome evil hunger and thirst. / The (notorious) malefactor will take to flight, / Angra Mainyu, (having become) powerless.
Ahe raiia J,..

I devote worship, glorification,power, (and) strength to Mount Ushidarena of excellent comfort.
Ahmai rapsca xvannsca /ahmai &mud druuatltam ahmai tanuud vazduuan /ahmai tanuu6 v9ra9ram ahma' 13th o ~ . x ' # $ q u n p /ahma' &n-$ fhwa(l6'm ahmillilldlua@mdaraflji6'm ahma' vahiftam a h m &onqm / m o c q h a m vispd.x'89ram.

....]&sea yawnaide.

He (be given) splendor and glory, 1he ( be given ) bodily health / he (be given) bodily relish, / he (be given ) bodily steadfastness he (be given) vigor provided with many comforts, / he (be given) legitimate progeny, he (be given) long duration of life, he (be given) the best existence of the truthful, / bright and provided with alJ comforts.
Hazagram baeSazanpn/ baeuuara bae&angm

&mscarca Hu. : &mca Gdn. with ms. F1 etc. mi&. vaox'dohd Skj. : &rd.c..)aox'B oh6 ms. F1 : m i 8 . vaqidgh~mss. N1O7 etc. :'agh0 Gdn, with ms. Ptl pr.m. " xruuidrucfi Bthl. : xruuiduxS Gdn. with ms. F I etc. " vanaitce) Bthl. : vanaib' Gdn. with rnss. " mi9asoxc6)O Hu. : mi$aoxtd Gdn. with mss. I4 vaxS suppl. Hi. I' ruum Gdn. : auua ms. F1 etc. l6 rSlu8wrnca Gdn. : susimca ms. F1 etc. 17 h h n c a Gdn. with rns. M12 : hsnarnca ms. F1 etc, 18 cSu,&mca Gdn. : saodamca ms. F1 etc. l9 Wnamca see above n. 17. fianamaitre) Hi. : frzrnamaiti Gdn. with F1 etc. 21 duZuuarf~uuad~ : duiuuarfti?uuariJ: F1 etc. Gdn. ms. axSca)iiamnd Hi. : axsiiamnd Gdn. with ms. F l etc.

(repeat three times). One thousand remedies, ten thousand remedies. Truth is best (of all that is) good ...
Jasa me auuadhe mazda. Approach me with help, 0 Mazda.

A$am voho v a h i k m asti/d@a t i d & ahmai /hiiai a & vahiS&' &m. $'

&am vohu vahiStam asti/ tlrta asti d ahm&'/hiia_t vahiS&i a@m t B & i Truth is best (of all that is) good ... '

' See above, p. 23.

§$ 1 8.The Geographical Fragment



61. The first mountain to come into appearance / on this earth, was lofty Ham,/ 0 ) spitarna ZaraSuStra. / It is lying all around (the world) down to the countries bordering the water / and up to those situated in the rosy dawn. / The second (mountain was) Mount ZaraGaza / (at) the yonder side of Mount ManuSa. / This, too, is lying all around (the world) / down to the countries bordering the water / and up to those situated in the rosy dawn.


1:1. The modem name of Mount Alburz derives from Phl. hmbm which itself comes from Av. h w - baraz-attested in Yt17.24 u p upabdihmYB banzb 'at the foot of lofty Hara'. In the poetical language of the Avesta this basic form of the name alternates with its lexical variants harii- bamm'ti-, hmiti- bmz- (nom. hmiti b d ) , hm'ti- ban&- and haraiti- bmzah-. All of these are interchangeable, see: Yt 10,SO-51 upairi hmm bamait5rn ... harai9iid paiti bmzaijd ... harai9iiBl pairi barazaghal 'above lofty Hara lofty Hara ... from lofty Harl'; Yt 12,23-25 upa haipm barazaitim ... upa taenm harai9iib b(a,razd yal me a@itd uru~isci,~ti starasca mdsca huumca 'on lofty Har& ... on the peak of lofty Hara around which the Stars, Moon, and Sun turn' for which cf. . Bdh9,6 t&ag iharbun & kc?-Sstar ud mlrh ud xwarStTd andar wardend udpad-iS I a b& ay6nd 'the peak of lofty Harburz is that through which the Stars, Moon, and Sun revolve and through which they come back'. A paradisiacal picture of Hara as the abode of MiSra is drawn in a passage of the Mihr Ydt:




49 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


Yt1O S O ya9m no$ Xsapa no& bmd nda aotd vatd no&' garamd nd$ axtiJ pouru.mahrko no$ ahitzJ na& dunmgn u z j a a ~ d hmiSiid pt ; 'i baraza~yd 'where there is neither night nor darkness, neither cold nor hot wind, neither deadly illness nor defilement produced by the daeuuas, nor do mists rise from lofly Hara'.

8 1:2. The lengthening aha > aiia in the phrase pb W is of a rhythmical ' ' diia nature. The same applies to the change of the quantity of the internal vowel of h h a - in masc. hambhaa&vs. fern. ha hama. See also §17:4 on duudlYa&m from auua-i, and $42:2 on hgm. vdraibuuqt- from hpn. mib:. [See also $89:2bis.]
§1:3. paiiisaite evidently stands for the expected pca>in.srae>te'surrounds the world, is lying all around the world', but the reason for the lengthenings a > a and ae > aiis unknown. Does it denote emphatical pronunciation by a recitator in order to stress the gigantic dimension of the mountain or is p&ii influenced by (u)piisaPna-, the name of the Hindukush ($3:4)? The 3rd sg. satte is correctly attested in V18,5 yd saete haumugm tarasa xSapanam 'who is lying there all through the night', compt in F121503 f vaite and Yt5,102 tsaile. Note that the corresponding 3rd sg. Ved. Skte'he lies' is attested post-Rigvedic only whereas the Rigveda itself has &ye.
$ 1 :4. If fiapari'd darjh(Ci,J a upaoSq%dsca means as much as 'up to the western and the eastern countries', the sequence 'western eastern' instead of the common 'eastern western' is surprising, but no other solution seems to be possible at n present. Bdh9,5 simply has harbmpr&ndn I' E zarmg 0 asman paywast e s t d 'around this earth, Mount Harburz is attached to the sky'.

somewhat helplessly has rawe a b p d rawihih h - B b fk1.2 b ? n i m a b & wdrRnid/ abar db [dn m t y ] 'move, you clouds, by movement, having the water ahead of you [when it is above], having the water below of you [when it has rained down], being above the water [of the rain]'. The second member of &pa-iia- seems to be the root noun from yB 'to walk, move, advance', being used metaphorically in the sense of 'extending towards'. If this is correct, B p - i i a - has a meaning such as 'extending along the watery regions' or, more freely, 'bordering the watery regions (situated in the west)'.







§I:6. upaohg'ha- 'situated in the rosy dawn' is a hypostatic derivation from unattested u p uSahu 'up in the moming light(@'. The morning lights are considered to appear on the crests of the mountains situated in the east. A similar hypostatic derivation is Sri.Juua- 'third' (e.g. V18,63 Sn'Sum apiun 'one third of the waters', Y 11,7 masame SnZuue d h d zamd 'in the middle third of this earth'), a reinterpretation of the SriSuua, which originates from phrases 'two thirds of the daeuuas' < 'two in such as Yt5,22 duua Sn'Suua ... da6uum~rn three of the da~uuas'.~ The development of the construction can be seen in V2,ll aeuua SrrJuua .. duua Sri3uua 9n'biid SriJuua8ibilb 'one third (larger) ... two thirds (larger) ... three thirds (larger)' where the two occurrences of SriSuua still could be understood as of 9ri- whereas $n3uuaL!ibiid is an unambiguous instr,pl. of the new stem Sn3uua-.



The fizuaiid, attribute of dajhd,S 'countries', recalls the h-piiis-ca, name of a mountain found in §6:11. Unless this is cormpted from &pacuu)ifs-ca, both occurrences must be formed from one and the same stem, most likely a compound &@a-iia-. The first member of this compound is 146pa- which occurs as an attribute of the star Satauuaesa in Yt8,O satauuaesahe fispahe and S2,13 satauuaesam fiaparn. In Yt8,9 Satauuaesa is said to drive the waters forward to the seven climes (t.f ap0 &dauuaiieiti auui haptd.karSuuain$? which suggests segmenting &pa- into hJp(a)- '(driving) the waters forward' or '(havin ) the waters ahead'. More fruitful is the comparison with Khw. 8% 'down-stream' and Av. &.@an 'forward along the stream' to which Panaino drew attention in the present c~nnection:~ V2 1,2 yaiiata dunmgn yaiiata fiddparn niiajwrn upa.aparn 'mist is surging, it is surging along the stream, down the stream, up the stream" for which PNT.

8 1:s.

tj 1 :7. zara6aza(s-ca) can be segmented into zara&-aza(s-ca) or zarasa-za(s-a). The former makes no sense ('driving the heartkenter'?), the latter results in 'central', lit. 'born in, or originating from, the heartkenter', cf. Skt. hdayaa-ja'belonging to the interior'. In the latter case the -za(s-ca) has morphologically replaced former -d(s-ca), a root-noun from the root zan 'to generate', in the same way as in Skt. the has replaced the original -j'@ the from root jan. For a similar development see $4: 1 on a&a-xa(s-ca)magna-xa(s-ca). The name must originally have been given to a central mountain but this picture does not seem to be preserved in our passage where zata8aza- is rather considered as a second circular mountain lying around the world as an inner circle. The relation between Mount Zarasaza and Mount ManuSa is enigmatic. The passage was already obscure to Bdh9,3 'kzara6az"kg hast d xw&t?d> ')nanW 'Zarasaz which some authority calls ~anuS". There both zm6azand manuTare written in Av. script which betrays some embarrassment of the author of the passage.


tj 1:8. The numbering of the mountains in the Geographical Fragment according to which Zarasaza is the second (biOYd)' 3razura the sixth (xStuud), does not seem to be in order unless ManuSa is taken as the third of the list. Hence ManuSa, which in

' MacKenzie, BSOAS 34 (1 97 1) 81.


Panaino, TiSbya , I 1 (1995) 1 1 1 . Kellens, Le verbe avestique (1984) 417 'devant I'eau, derriere I'eau, en dessous de I'eau'.

' literally 'Zarabaza regarding which {there is someone who calls it, ManuS' rather than 'Zara6aza
which is Mand'.

Hoffmann, Aufsiitze, I (1975) 183f.



$5 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


our passage appears to be described as a sort of appendage to Mount Zarasaza (and by the nameless authority quoted in the Bdh. as identical with this), is to be taken as an individual mountain which, possibly, forms a third circle. In this connection the question arises whether pmatPram am66 m a n w e could mean '(at) the yonder side of Mount ManuSa' as Lve have hesitantly rendered i t

9 l:9. d o is not from am%- 'side' (Yt10,lOO ddinam u p d a r n 'at the right side') but rather from its synonym m a -(N6S a!&ihapu'tiam&@~).
V:lO. Mount ManuSa is explained in Bdhg,l3 by the ad-hoc etymology kof 1

'consciousness, intelligence' (Phl. & aih) at an early time. The reading problem , is rather unexpected here, the mountain in question playing an important part in ZaraSdtrian eschatology (§2:3). Note in this context that the internal d (as contrasted with internal 6)is an Old Avestan feature which proves that the respective forms with dsuch as didarano in the present passage were borrowed from OAv. texts lost now. §2:3. Mount W a W i 8 a Widarana: $2:3a. &a&- means 'shoulder' according to Skjaewar who compares F3g182 tlSa&m (PhlT. p d t - i tez 'pointed back"), Sogdian S8'2, Yidgha JilE 'sho~lder'.~ The attribute &idarana- is explained by K. Hoffrnann (apud Hintze, p. 73) as 'having reddish cracks', taking tlSi as a compositional form (so-called "Caland form") of *&i-a- 'reddish' (Ved. usrd-), and equating darana- with Ved. &kpd'split up' and NP. d m h < damaka- 'a valley between hills through which a stream flows'. See also $3: 1 on Av. Bdarana- 'name of a mountain'. $2:3b. The speculative etymological connection with Av. uCi 'intelligence, consciousness' of both the name of the mountain and its attribute, taken into account above §2:2, is definitely found in Yt1'28.31 uri ahumhe mazdd y m a i d e dara9di mgJrahe spa~tahe aom ... gahim yazamaideyim di.diun uri.dmnam 'we worship the intelligence of Ahura Maz& in order to retain the holy MqSra, (and) we worship yonder mountain m i & didarana'; I PNT. dS / ohrmazd tilyyazm fke dm3n i m m p m d ... & gar rdyy a e m ke bSdiitd,& lo [kil abz3yiWdJ dS-d&Br [krS drust d M J 'we worship the intelligence of Ahura Mazda in order to retain the holy M@ra (and) we worship that mountain which is the Giver-of-Intelligence [i.e. it increases (it)] (and) which is the Maintainer-of-intelligence [i.e. it keeps it in a sound state]'). §2:3c. The same speculative connection with Av. &i is also found in passages which content themselves with leaving Mount USada/USida unmentioned and mentioning only Mount USidarana, thus using the original attribute of the mountain as the name of the mountain itself as it is the case in Y1,14 gaifim didaranam (PhIT. gar i oSdcZFBr, SktV. girib hoidiiskW). Of particular interest are the two occurrences in the Siroza:

manu# & kdf k&S mandcihr pad-iS a d 'Mount Man113 is the mountain on I which ManuScihr (ManuSciSra) was born'.
$2. Ahmi$ haca gara~i'd fraoxJii&~ /u&a6d> IISidmnd /ana'fu'ksca fraompd /dfuu~ arazuro / hapfa80 b W d / &bmO raditd / naomd maziSuud / h a m 0 aptara.d@ J, a&u41&d araw3d /duuahd wiKgaW; 42. Therefrom the (other) mountains were ordered to grow out successively, 1Mounf ma& having reddish cracks, / precipitous Mount arezifiia; 1 the sixth (was) Mount %amra, 1the seventh (was) Mount Bilmiia, 1the eighth (was)Mount Raosita, 1the ninth (was) Mount MaziJuuapt, I the tenth (was) Mount btaradahiiu, 1 the eleventh (was) Mount SreziJa, I the twelfth (was) Mount Vaitigaesa;


uue 92: 1. The subj.pres. hoxfiiqn 'they shall grow out' denotes the f t r of the past 'they were ordered, or expected, or supposed to grow out'. Theoretically, &oxSiign could also be an opt.aor. (root aor. of the OAv. type) with iterative meaning, denoting the continuous but stepwise extension of the mountains of the world. Yet a similar use of the subj. is found in $556, 59, 62 a6a hau apap%im buual 'thus that outlet was to come into being', §40:4 &@had 'he was about to set up', §44:4 jmal 'he was going to kill'. The subj. fizloxJiiqn was erroneously equated with the pret. hoxSin 'they grew out' by Bdh9,3 abmg kdfiha az harburz fiiIzrusthend 'the other mountains grew out from Mount Harburz'.
52:2. The phrase u&i&.d) didaranb (or udh6t.d) ufidarand) consists of the name of Mount da8&i1.ti6& and the attribute ufidarana- qualifying that mountain. Ms. F1 reads usa& didamno which is considered as corrupt by most scholars including Gdn. who conjectured ucJi)S(d) in both the present passage and $66:4-5. In the latter occurrence, however, the mss. point to 1LCaGd: $66 yd auua62l fiaxSt(ai)te y a h a ma110 yad kgsa6m haefumatam yaJma gairiS yo uJa& '(Saoxiiant) who will rise from the area where the Kqsaoiia Sea is situated, supplied by the River Haeturnant, and Mount USaGa'. As a matter of fact it is difficult to decide here between &ioand &a",peculative etymology having connected both the name and its attribute with uJi

'vs. vaghgm,PhlT. puSt i p h n 'broad back'.
Skjrerva, ActOrHung 48 (1995) 190, n. 13, with reference to Georg Morgenstierne, Indo-iranim Fronber Languages, 11 (Oslo 1938) p. 251b. Differently Kellens, Noms racines (1974) p. 212ff., who poses usaa- 'giving springs or fountains'. This, however, does not seem to be an adequate name of a mountain. More likely would be usauuant- 'rich in springs or fountains', cf. also anusauuant- 'having no leak'. ' O Of-&td& m s . 6s-darIrby erroneous anticipation of the following af-&t&.



g$ 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


Sl,28 gmig ufidaranahe and S2.28 gaWm uCi.daranam (PhlT. kbf or gar i
& & SktV. gin3 m'tanyaddtd ). & ,

Both are dedicated to Zarn H u s h (> Zamyad) 'the Munificent Earth', the Yazata of the 28th day of each month. See Introduction 2. Q2:3d. The name of Mount &&&i&- (Phl. ~ ( i h ) - d d dand its attribute ~ &idlsrana- (Phl. aCdleCt;Pr) became interchangeable at a certain stage of develop ment That is seen from Bdh9.18 kbf i Nih-dddBrpad segest4n 'Mount Giver-ofIntelligence is situated in Segestan (SistBn)' as compared with $2 of the treatise Abdih-i Segestan: tbd ih&hmd ud war i fiazdtln ud zn?hi kay&nseh ud gar cfi &dleC. andm z r k (5 segesm 'the River HMmand, Lake Frmdan, the am Kayhseh Sea, and Mount Maintainer-of-Intelligence (are situated) in the land of Segestan". Bath sources refer to one and the same mountain. Q2:4. arazifiiasca frsrompd 'precipitous h z i f i i a ' recalls Yt5,45 where Kauui Usan is said to have worshipped Aradvi Silra Anahita 'on(?) Mount mzifiia (arazlXia&+psltigarcS&). Seduced by this parallel, Hintze, p. 73 considers &ompaas synonymous with gairi- 'mountain' but horapa- is rather an attribute of arazzia-. Used as a common noun arazxia- means 'eagle' but it is used here metaphorically as the name of a mountain.'' It is obvious that its attribute honpa- ( fia-vlpa-) must have a meaning which applies to both the eagle and < the mountain: The tertium comparationis seems to be the swooping down ("precipitating") of the eagle upon its pray and the abruptness or precipitousness of the mountain. $25. aramtb would seem to be a mistake for cam&, caused by perseveration of the intial amo of the preceding arazifiasca. In Phl. script the name of the mountain cannot be distinguished from that of demoniac Mount Araziira mentioned twice in the Vidcvdd: V3,7 ya_t m d r a h e griuuaiia ... ya_t ahmiia daeuua hapduumnti 'on the neck of Arazitra ,.. on which the daeuuas gather', PhlT. pad W g r i w a g [pad dar i d&ox] 'on the neck of Arziir [at the gate of hell]', cf. Bdh9,lO a r m gdwag cagad-ewpad dar i ddox 'the neck of Arziir is a peak at the gate of Hell'; V19,44 daguua ... arazlimhe paiti kamara6am 'the daeuuas ... at the head of Arazilra', PhlT. daeuua ... abar 0 c r nkamd h Yet even if the two mountains should really have one and the same name, a r a m - < cammra- of the present passage and the demoniac araz&a- are not necessarily identical. Thus Bdh9,3 (cf. Bdh9,lO quoted above) distinguishes between the hellish mountain an@ (griwag)and the kOf i a n @ brlm cf. Bdh9,19
l 1 For similar names of mountains see Eilers, Orrsnamenstudien(1987) 26.

anutkaE& ipad kust ihtbm 'Mount Arzilr is that which is in the direction of Rilm'


§2:6. a n m - (number six) and brlmti'a- (number seven) are listed as one and the same mountain in Bdh9,3 kbfiarzlXrb m (§2:5). As for kbf ... b&n cf. the phrase b m kbf Bdh9,3 1 which is rendered as 'table mountains' by Anklesaria y h raoisilam 'the coppery serpent' §2:7. no&&- 'red, coppery', cf. V1,2 (PhlT. erroneously az-iznSdrg 'the river-serpent'), MP.rby 'copper'.
92% maduuapt- 'covered with large (stones)', cf. Ved. d & v a n t - '-provided with mighty (...)', an attribute of nyl- 'wealth' in RV7,68,5. Derivation of madfrom maui'ah- comp. 'greater, bigger, larger' seems to be suggested by itself but the formation of maduuapt- recalls that of hdiSuuapt- §4:7 which points to a noun ma,&- n. 'large piece or large portion (of anything)'.

§2:9. @.ara.darfhu-is hesitantly understood by us as 'lying in the center of the country', cf. aptktakagha- 'lying in the center of KaghB' (§4:11). Gershevitch differently renders ap&m.da&u- as 'which is between (two) countries' (a solution which is admittedly supported by Yt10,8 qtara dMhu paparat8ne '(in the area lying) between the two countries'); see his translation of Yt10,144 m 3 n m a@i.daiiiittn ... iyllara.d d i i m ... d.d d i i m ... upait d d i i m . a8& Miitlm ... paiii.da'ii&n ... aipi.ddii&n 'MiSra when he faces the country, when he is between (two) countries, when he is inside the country, when he is above the country, when he is below the country, when he makes the round of the country, when he is behind the country'12.


92:10. a k J a - is explained as a derivation from a m - 'straight, right' by Bthl354 who compares its formation with that of the mountain name vourzlSa- (better votuu&a-, see §5:12). Such derivation is only imaginable if amniSa- is corrupted from araz(u)Sa-(amzcuA'a-) by perseveration of the preceding arazifiia'-.Cf. the common noun aradd-/amzucd3,a-of doubtful meaning in Yt8,14 ta6a aiiaogya6a paoin'm v i r d 3 a r a d m (arazu(bmi)adaste 'of the age in which a man takes on an&S (arazucdiTf for the first time'. The common noun an&^-/arazvcbd- is unconvincingly explained by Bthl354 as dissimilated from a hypothetical *an(i,ufS-'full age' (an alleged derivation from unattested *arai-uc- 'speaking straight'). More plausible would be the d etymological connection of araziJa- with arazi- 'scrotum' (in Yt14,29 a d s x 'fountain of the arazi-', cf. F3gl198 arazi = PhlT. gund 'testicles'), possibly also with the name of the river a&-, an affluent of the Hamiln-e Hilmand in $67 which according to Panaino means as much as 'spring of the testicle^'.'^

l2 l4

'' vir(d>,mss. vimrn.

Gershevitch, Mithra (1959167) 147.

Panaino, Tiftiya, 1 ((1 990) 108.



$5 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


92: 11. v&Xga&a-, cf. Bdh9,22 wadg& kdf an ipad wBdgbs8n wiman& 'Mount Wadges which is situated at the borders of Wadgesan' (modem Badghis to the north of HeHt).

4 3. ddaransca baiimacca / iSka&ca tgdrikaena / kgs6 &f%m v d h a / duua harnapkuna pauniuata / afta w&nta, &wuuala / a aunruapto fin.4gkauua / c a 8 W & W ' Skaofo; ~ $3. Mount Adarana, Mount Baiiana, / Mount ISkata and Mount Upairisaena, / Mount KqsO.tafaGra and Mount Varaftna, / two ranges hooked together, / the Eight-Necks range, [/ the Eight-Racers having overhanging rocks1and Mount Four-Viwwanas;
fj3:l. i d m a - either is slightly incorrect for i%d(&ma- 'supporter* (cf. Skt. & m%a 'bearing, holding, supporting'), or for 8-darwna- 'with cracks at (its slope)' for which see $3:13 on f,r)d&-. As for possible damma- 'crack' cf. &idmna- 'having reddish cracks' ($2:3). $3:2, baiima- 'frightening, terrible' from root b i h ' t o terrify, to fear'. 43:3. iSkata- (Gdn. idata- with rns. F1) was segmented by Karl Hoffmann (apud Hintze, p. 77) into 2-kata- 'househome of refreshments'. The same name occurs in .Y10,11 ($3:4) and in the list of lands found in Yt 10,14 B-iSkatamcapourutamca m o m hardii&ngaomca sm6am xWiiz(am)amca l 5 '(rivers rush) towards ISkata and Pouruta, Mouru, Haraeuua and Gauua, SuyGa and XvZiirizama' . $3:4. The couple iSkata up& 'ISkata and UpBirisaena' which forms a twin dual (dvandva) of the type mi8m ahura 'MiSra and Ahura' is also attested in the list of mountains YI0,ll auui iSkafa up&iisat?na auuj rbaCra l6 auui kusrrl6a kusr6.palrisa auui pajri?na viSpa9a auui spita.gaona gairi '(birds disseminate the seeds of Haorna) over ISkata and UpBirisaEna, over the peaks the points of which reach the stars, over Kusra6a and ~usrb.~atia6a", over Papraa and ViSpaSa, over the mountains of fertile surfa~e'~'. The PhlT. of Y10,ll is incomplete except for auuj iSkata upiin:sat?nawhich it renders by abar o Sku17 i pclrscn 'towards the hardnesses of Parsen (= the Hindukush)', wrongly equating iSkata- with Phl. Sku7 'hardness'. In Bdh9,3 iSkata- is understood somewhat more correctly as name of a mountain, rendering it by was-ShIt 'of many hardnesses'. More detailed is Bdh9,24 kdEi was-Shft & i pad p& az ham kdf i hapu&n 'Mount WasSkuft in Pars also originates from

Mount Hapursen'. The equation of iSkata- with Phl. SkuA 'hardness' is erroneous but it shows that iSkata is the correct reading as contrasted with Gdn's i b -which hn is to be discarded. By confusing Phl. SPUR 'hardness' with its homograph J;WA 'wonder', the SktV. of Y10,ll goes even farther than the PhlT., rendering the phrase abar b SkuR-iparsen by upan' vicitre p&zsikasp (var. pWs2asya) 'at the wonder of P&asika (Pasig)'. For obvious reasons the Pahlavi scholars (Bdh. and PhlT.) equated Pars with Fars but P a s is also the contemporaneous name of the Hindukush, Av. upainaena-. See next §3:5. up&ii.saena- w s explained by Bthl398, after ~ a r ~ u a r tas~a, derivation a ' from an adj. *up;uiisa&a- 'reaching beyond (the flight altitude) of the eagles' with uncommon vddhi in the second syllable. The explanation is based on the traditional segmentation of the name into *upin' 'above' and saena- 'eagle' which is also reflected in the description of the height of the Hindukush by the Chinese pilgrim Hsiien Tsan (Xuan Zhuang) according to which not even the falcons are able to fly over it?' Yet d l that is just based upon popular etymology, yddhi forms of the upan type not being known elsewhere. Actually, with slight modifications, the element 4rparaeslna of paruparaema @ar-d-pa-ra-e-sa-an-na),the name of the satrapy Gandhaa in the Babylonian version .]fn of Darius's Behistun inscription $6 (OP. ga-da-a-m, Elarn. . . s - a). The basic form of the Babyl. name of the mountain is panrparaesa What Marquart did not yet clearly recognize, Paropanisos, the Greek name of the Hindukush, has developed from this by dissimilation of the sequence r-r into r-n. (Its variant Pmpamisos which shows additional assimilation of p-p-n into p p - m is obviously influenced by the river name Pamisos attested in different parts of Greece.) The two well-known Iranian suffixes -ma and -aena are mirrored by the suffix -adaiin Greek Paropanisadai (Parpm'sadai) which was originally the name of the inhabitants of the mountainous region, whereas in our sources it is actually used as the name of the mountainous region or satrapy it~elf.~' The element paruparaesa < pam-uparaesa in the Babyl. form of the name is either a possessive compound with paru- 'much' as its first member ('possessing much uparaesa') or it is a copulative compound, the first member of which has some connection with both the name of the Pouruta range mentioned in Yt10,14 iSkatamca pourutamca (§3:4) and the name of the tribe of the Parutai located (perhaps mislocated) by Ptolemy 6,17,3 in Areia (Herat). $3:6. Av. upiTin:saena developed into Phl. ap&sen/abas& ('p'Isyn3 besides which also apursedabursfin('pwisp: 'pispy is found. It seems that the latter of these two was understood by popular etymology as a derivation from Av. haparasi(NP. burs), the name of the juniper, which according to Yt14,55 was used by the

'' x'8irzfarn)ca Hu. :x'ifinzamca mss. by haplologyhaplography

'*c b a h Hu. :mss. statra, see 56:8.

" KusraSa Kusra.pataSa are two twinmountains the names of which recall those of Cautes and Cautopates, the attendants of Roman Mithra. IE Unless gairi is conupted from gain'& the phrase spikgaona gain is in the du. in which case spiikgaona is the name of a mountain.


Marquart, Unlersuchungen, I1 (1905) 7 E 3 20 Watters, Yuan Chwang , I1 (repr. 1961) 266f. As for this and the following see Hurnbach, AcrOrHung 48 (1995) 67-69.



55 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


daeuua-worshippers as a sort of incense. - Note also the form a p m m in Bdh9,3 k6f i h a p m e n kt?hast faparsan gowed 'Mount Hapursi?n/Habursen which some authority calls AparsWAbarsan'. The p of apuwas voiced into b in Persian prior to the loss of the initial vowel, but in the epichorical form of the name the p w s preserved. This presentation is a not only reflected in the Phl. variant m e n @'Jsynj) found in the PhlT. of Y10,ll ($35) and in Chin. P'o-lo-se-na (Pinyin Po-luo-se-na), but it is also attested as early as in the Greek name of the region P a n s P n ~ d n ~ ~ ~ placed in wrongly Gedrosia by Ptolemy 8'21'4. In the Hindukush region (Paropanisadai), Ptolemy furthennore lists the mountain range ParsyCta OHor Parsyeton OH(6,18,1), the tribes of the Pmioiand the P~~~~eta!'(6,18,3),the cities Pamima (6'18'4) und and Parsia (6,18,5), in Gedrosia he lists the tribe of the P a r s i M m i d m ' (6'2 1'4) and their capital Parsis Metropolis (6'21'5). Note also the Graeco-Bactrian inscription It P m o found on the rim of a coin issued by Salm ibn ~ i y a d . ~ ' is obvious that all these names are early evidence of the name of the Pashtuns and Pathans, as was already held by Georg Morgenstieme with regard to the Pmioiand ~ a r ~ y e t a i . ~ ~

With regard of the instability of the gender cf. #77:7 on &a-, pa$mda-.

also @7:1 on

$3:12. aSta v & m 5 'the Eight-Necks' is most likely corrupted from aSta m$&ca> by anticipation of the ending 4 of the following d t a auruuagtb 'the EightRacers'. Av. v&ana- (< vartnna-) which is etymologically related to NP. gdan 'neck' perhaps means 'mountain pass'.24 Reference to horse-racing ('of eight turns') is less likely because of the even number a& odd rather than even numbers being expected in such a context, see $77:6. §3:13. The correction fir&kauua for Gdn's @zkauub (as ms. Fletc.) is convincingly derived by Hintze, p. 79 from the readings discovered by her in rnss. 518 (fid.&auud), B27, R115 (.u&auuo), L18 (1Sauu&auuO). Hintze segments H&- into fiaqzku- thus finding further evidence for &'hook' ($3:8). Less by 'peak'; better perhaps f & iconvincing is her rendering of a&'(mountain) having overhanging rocks'. As for the formation of fkw@u- cf. apaxSa9n- 'deprived of his power', NP. &pus 'pregnant'. Compounds of the same 'endowed with impetuosity', $42:10 type could be $3:1 & d m a - , $154 a~piiiamaapadis(a)- 'having lost its direction', $42: 13 apa-skmah- 'exhausted'.
(S3:14. c% a) d $r ! v i 6 m a perhaps 'the Four-Resounding ones' (cf. Skt. &van 'to sound') or 'the Four-(birds?)-scattering-in-different-directions' Av. duuan 'to (cf. rush, fly').

93:7. kgsO.taMm v m f i r ~ a followed by the attribute durn hama&una pauruuata
'two ranges hooked together' is a twin dual (dvandva) of the same type as i$kata(-

ca)upiuXsaha preceding it.
§3:8. hatn-a'hooked together' is correctly segmented by Hintze, p. 78 into ham&-nafrom ryrku- 'hook', comparing Ved. arikuEg- 'hook' and &@t'moving tortuously'. Av. &itself is well attested as the first member of a@u.pasamna- (thus Bthll30, replacing Gdn's reading &.pa~samna-) which in Yt17,lO denotes an article of jewelry, possibly an agraffe or earring. See also 93: 13 on fid&-. $3:9. kpsa-, the first member of kpsd.tafasra-, gives the impression of being related to the name of Kqsaoiia Sea but the question must be left open. Skt. katpSii'a vessel made of metal' is to be discarded, it just being a variant of Ved. kaqzszf'id.' (see 44:12 on agtara.kagha-), I;nfa&ra- 'heater', the second member of kgsd.tafacSra-, is to be compared with Skt tap&- 'heater' (for the slight difference in formation cf. OAv. vaidm- 'carrying, draft animal' vs. Ved. v o m - 'idem'). $3: 10. The correction of the transmitted vatafa- (ms. F1, vafara- El) into v a h 'snow' is not favored by the preceding hfa6ra- 'heater' ('heater : snow'?). We prefer restoring varafirja- < var(aha- 'curved', deriving it from the same root v a p as horapa- 'precipitous' (§2:4). $3:11. pauruuata in duua hama&una pauruuata is nom.du. of pauruuata- m. 'rocky mountain or mountain-range' (Ved. piirvata- m.) besides which we have pauruuat2- f. 'idem' in Y 10'2 iThuua pauruuaMhuua 'on these mountain-ranges',

$3: 15. kaofa- , most likely 'dome-shaped mountain', is contrasted with gain- in Yt 14'2 1 kaofmprn .. gainitpn .. m o w n where raoniun ( raonangm) means < 'inclines' rather than 'valleys' (cf. MP. fin 'direction, side'). Unlike Av. kaofa-, OP. kaufa- (MP. k3 NP. kUh) is a general term for 'mountain'. c6

.asaiiawca / tuSaskacsxa vl&uu(8s,ca / 94. a&axasca maenaxasca / v&a6rikaa,s~a draoSiSuudsca shiuudsca /naghdmAsca kakahiidca /atara.kaghaca; $4. Mount Aezaxa, Mount Maenaxa, / Mount VaxaGrika, Mount Asaiia, I Mount TuGaska, Mount ViSauuant, I Mount DraoSiSuuagt, Mount Sairiuuagt, I Mount NaghuSmaet, Mount Kakahiiu, / and the mountains inside (the county of) Kaqha; $4:1. If the second members of aeza-xas-ca and mapna-xas-ca are from xd 'fountain, spring' (Bth127, 1107). then the two names stand for a&a-xis-ca and magna-xis-ca, be it due to regular morphological development (see §1:7 on zarada-zas-ca) or to incorrect transmission (see $4:6 on viSauua6ca). The first member of aeza-xa- is aeza- 'urging, compelling' ($82:6), here perhaps 'gushing', that of maena-xa- recalls NP. mi78 'blue-green' but note also Ved. m&n&'female' which in Skt. occurs also as the name of a river.

** Walker, Catalogue (repr. 1967) 83, pl. XV,12.

Morgenstieme, Indo-Dardica (1973) 88,172.



gg 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


§4:2. The ending -@(a) transmitted by ms. F l etc. in the series of four mountain names v& wi'a&a t u M a e a viSauua& is taken by Bthl., followed by the modem authors, as the ending of the nom.du. of feminine stems in 4 This is unconvincing, first because the mountain names other than Harwaraiti as a rule have rnasc. gender, secondly because such an accumulation of twin-mountains (of which each twin couple would have one name only) is unlikely by itself. The forms in &fix) could have been taken from a lost passage in which they stood as regular More likely is ordinary conuption from the forms v&uaSfiatsm astui'atsn tuGaskatsm v ~ h u u ~ d s (on the last of them see §4:6). xa The pmblematic ending -at?(@ recurs in $ 5 6 ~~1'6imi6ka&ca §4:3. vaXa6nXa- was taken by WackemageI-Debrunner as a derivation from the geographical name *baua6.'Baktra, Balkh' (transmitted as Wi-in V1'6.7)' cf. Phl. bahllg '~actrian'.~' substitution of the initial b (in Bactrian pronounced Yet, as fricative p ) by v is attested in Sanskrit only which has Mi-/vahli- and Wika-/vWika-. Actually, one can hardly doubt that viLra6ii4-a- is derived (by qddhi or rhythmic lengthening a > 4 from the common noun ma6ra- 'speech organ, mouth' 0129'8, not 'voice'), cf. Skt vaktm- 'mouth, face, muzzle, snout'. vaXa6n;I-a- 'mouth-like' may be the name of an extinct volcano. §4:4. asaiia- 'shadowless' is an attribute of the heavenly steeds of SraoSa in Y57'27. 945. tusaska- perhaps 'little point' from the root Ved. tud 'to push, strike, sting'. The suffix -asks- is a diminutive suffix, similar to the suffixes -&ka- in spinjaumfka- and -i6ka- in v&'6im'6ka- and snJuru'6ka- ($56). 84:6. viSauua&a, the fourth of the strange names in -ae-ca ($4:2), is corrupted from viSauuarsxa < viSauut&sxa (as possibly a&axas-ca <a&axt&>s-ca in §4: 1), of viSauuwt- 'poisonous, covered with poisonous plants'. The mountain w s probably identified with the back of the serpent Aii Sruuara on which a poisonous plants may have grown, see $40:3 on viSauuagtam ... yim upwn viJ tamo6ai. §4:7. draoJi3~uapt-'the surface of which is burnt down' is a derivation from a n. noun &OM- which can hardly mean 'rock waste' (Bthl770) but rather 'bumt down area', cf. h d a - > MP. dr0J 'marking, branding, punishment', d d t a 'branded, stigmatized'. §4:8. s a i r i u u ~ t 'around which carrion birds are flying' according to Klingens~hrnit?~ who compares the element sainl with Phl. s&i g a r , name of a bird
47. Wackernagel - Debrunner, AItindische Grammatik, II,2 (1956) 533. 26 Klingenschmitt ap. Mayrhofer, KEWA, 111 (1976) 327 s.v. Sari- 'a particular bird', & k i & 'a kind of bird commonly called Maina, either the Oracula Religiosa or the Turdus Salica'. See also Mayrhofer, EWAi, 11 (1996) 630 where &'- explained as 'vielleicht die Predigerkrae'. is
" Eilers, Geographische Namengebung (1982)

enumerated in SnS2,5 among the names of birds feeding on carrion (cf. also Bdh24'37) which is in contrast with the meaning 'starling' of NP. &/sk&. Note also the interesting compound sslribaoya- in Yt14.57 haomam ... stllii.baoprn vm9Mjanam the first member of which is the bird name mii-rather &an than'head'; as for its second member cf. aji6baoya-, attribute of Vaiiu in Yt15'45. §4:9. nqhdinqxt- 'offering refuge, shelter' if n& @'to resort to'). is from root nah (Ved. nas

§4:10. kakahiiu- recalls formations such as Ved. k&bh- or kakM- 'peak, summit', kdqthri- 'a kind of bird', kakMu- 'destruction of enemies', etc.
$4: 11, qtam.kagha is a denoting 'the mountains situated inside the coqtry of Kagha' (Bthl133, see also $2:11 on aqtam.da/fhu-). Bdh9,3 has s.i?zdah kbft'andarkangdez 'the thirteen mountains in Kangdez'. There s&dah 'thirteen' is an inadequate attempt to render Av. sicidauua- which, being the first name of the . next stanza ($5:1), follows immediately after ~ t a r a - k q h aA NP. version of the name appears in NP. M1y2.nKmgi'name of a district to the North East of Zabul. Gnoli thinks of historical identity of the two2' but see also next note.

$4:12. The country of Kaqha is referrred to in Yt.34 upa duuaram xSa$rb.s&am apan6.tmm kaghai'a baramtaiia &iuuanaYa '(Tusa worshipped AnBhits) at the far-off mountain-pass XSaSr6.siika in the high-lying truthful (country? of) Kagha'. Av. Kagha and Phl. Kangdez (which in the strict sense must have been the capital of Kaqha) are possibly to be sought in Sogdiana (= Chin. K'ang, Pinyin Kang, mentioned in the T'ang-shu). As for the location of Kangdez cf. also Kanodipas ch6ra 'the country of Kanodipsa' which is located far off in the Scythian North by Ptolemy, Geography 6,14,10. The name of Kagha is perhaps etymologically related to Ved. kafpsil- 'a vessel made of metal' but the idea that there would be a connection between Kangdez and the subterranean iron mansion of Fraqrasiian, put forward by Hurnbach forty years ago, must be ~orrected.~' According to Bdh32,5-6 Kangdez was not erected by Fraljrasiian but by SiiauurSaan: Cwag & i siyauwf kayus& kard kc kangdez x'aend; ewag i fra-sfyaw i Nr ijade kard a i r i mnig pad jddogih 'one (mansion) is that which Siyawd son of Kay Us erected, which they call Kangdez; one is that which the sorcerer Fraiyilw i Tiir constructed, underneath the earth, with sorcery.'


'' Humbach, MSS 3, rev. Nachdruck (1958) 77.

Gnoli, Ricerche (1987) 28f.



$8 1-8. The Geographical Fragment


Mount Sicidauua, Mount Ahurana, I Mount Raemana, Mount ASastambana I granting a good state of soul, Mount VHiSimiSka, I Mount Asanuuant, Mount HuSaorna, I Mount UHaxmnah, Mount Siiamaka, 1 Mount Vafrauuant, and Mount Vourrrfa;

In our particular case, ascamuuagt- seems to mean 'covered with stones suitable for throwing or slinging', cf. Yt13,72 as&d aramd.h?# 'stone thrown by one's m',V19,4 &d m M i m 6 'stone held in one's hand', V17.9 ash6 ... t a fiadaxhiia 'slingstones'.
$5:8. daoma- of the rnss. seems to be slightly corrupted from chd-(h>aoma'of good Haoma plants', perhaps by anticipation of the initials of the following dta.x'aranah. Less likely < ufa-llma-'protector of the rosy dawn', a determinative an 'supporter, compound from uCd- 'rosy d w ' and unattested m a - = Ved. hhelper, friend' (said of gods). Note that the &stem &a- is found in G5,5 only, where it is used to vary the inherited dah- 'rosy dawn'.: uSgm sdipm yazamaide ... ItSiigham yazamaide xk5i9nim etc. Kellens conjectures uwaoma- < u s a - m 'protector of sources' with usa-= Ved. dtsa- 29 for which see $2:3 with foolnote.

as 45:l. Av. siciduua- is possibly to be corrected into sicidacs~a it was read by the author of Bdh9,3 who rendered it as Phl. sycd = sizdirh 'thirteen' (§4:11) written in figures in the mss. (except for s c d in rns. K). The etymology is horrible but it confirms the internal short a of Av. sicidauua-.Is ski-related to Skt. &am'pointed, spiked, crested'?
Q5:2. ahurana- is derived from ahm- 'lord' with the same suffix -ma- (instead of expected -&a) as also found in the patronymicaljhxlspana- 'son or descendant of J w p a ' in Yt13,104 and FD7. - On account of its position after ahma-, it is difficult to believe in ta6mana- as being the pre-form of Phl. M a n 'dirty, filthy, purulent'. raemana- could be incorrect for *me-mma- 'abode of wealth'. 'pillar of truth', cf. Ved. skrimbhana- 'pillar, prop'. The compound is of the same type as Ved. ma&-bhojbna- 'food of mortals', hark ydjana- 'yoking of horses'.
$5:3. &stambana-

$59. siimaka- = Skt 6yBmaka- 'dark-colored' from Ved. &y&nri-'idem'. $5:10. As already seen by Bth11347, transmitted vafiaiids-ca is to be corrected into vafkacuu&ca from vahuuwt- 'snowy', cf. Phl. w&bmand, name of a mountain in Bdh9.3, more detailed in Bdh9,25 kOf ijehdmand ud kdf i watiamand an i Jan kabul (k'wwl) ud an kusbg ,424 rust &ted ti? 6 kust i cin 'Mount Jehdmand and Mount Wafrbrnand are those out of which Kabul and its borderlands have grown up to the border of Cjn (China)'. 45: 11. Gdn's reading vourufa-is slightly incorrect for vourwha- < vourtlcya'extending widely', a derivation from *vma~c-, fem. *varilci-, cf. Ved. fem. unlci- 'extending-far, capacious'.

554. Gdn's rnss. reading unufiib v ~ ' S i m ' 6 k ais analysed by Bthl1533, ~ followed by later authors, as one name in the nomdu.fem., meaning 'the two Udiia.vaiGimi6ka mountains', evidently because of the absence of -ca after urvdiiiid. It is preferable to dissect the clumsy compound, taking Niiia as an attribute of the preceding a$a.stambanasca. m e running over of a syntactical unit from one verse into the next ("enjambment'*) as found in &a.stambanasca /u&iiiid is not uncommon in the poetry of Zamyad Ydt. See 433:3 on &alin /&mane 'to strive after untruth', Q80:3 on garamd/hazd 'lamenting about the abuse'. $55. Dissylabic tfmdiid ("ndiid)is taken by us as being slightly corrupted from i b trisyllabic c h ~ ~ i(hu-"ndiib)'granting a good state of soul' which makes a line of eight syllables. Cf. the abstract noun hmi'ia- n. 'good state of soul or mind', PhlT. huruwlinlh (Bthl1838). $5:6. v&1ini6ka&ca of the mss. is most likely cormpted from vBi6im'Skars~-ca (see $4:2 on the problematic ending -ae-ca).The name is formed with the same diminutive suffix -iska-as snBuui6ka-,name of a minor ($43:1). $5:7. asanuuwt- (derived from a m - m. 'stone') is corrected by Hintze, p. 84 from Gdn's asnuuapt- which would disagree with the phonetical rules (disregarded by Hintze, p. 115 in the case of vasna-,see $1 1:5). Ms. F1 has asanauumt- in the present passage but asnauuat- in Ny5,S asnauuaptahe gar6iS mazdaddtahe. Note also the variants of S2,9 as(a)nuu~tam gainin mazdasatarn yazamaide. Furthermore cf. Bdh9,29 a m wand ('SR w . 4 kaf pad adurbadagan 'Mount Asanwand is in A d u r b ~ d a g ~ ' .

$6. y h iajaatarasca aSutauuAsca / spitauuarandsca spgtb.datasca / kadiuua.aspasca a m' . hpahdsca gain's / udn'iacca m?uudsca kaoinisasa / bPrasca bar6.smi'md / barana~ca gain'S/ya&qmcapard mdiiaka /a@ita&a)ca cu)paSitaeScaxa/ g a n n p n&nm &Sara. $6. Mount Yahrniia.jatara, Mount AGutauuah, / Mount Spitauuaranah, Mount, 1 Mount Kadruuaspa, Mount Kaoirisa, / the peak of Mount Bardsraiian, / Mount Barana, Mount Frapaiia, / Mount Udriia, Mount Raeuuagt, 1 and (all the other) mountains to which men formerly, / when visiting them and settling there, / have given names.
$6:1. yahmiajatara- '(the mountain) on which resin (i.e. resiniferous trees) or rock asphalt is found' as Bth11281f. proposes, comparing NP.iad 'gum', angu-Zad 'resin', Skt. jab- 'lack, g m . u'

$6:2. The stem of aSutauuds(ca) 'rich in water flows' (or similarly) could be a&tauuah- (Bthl61). As a matter of fact, a&- 'flow' is attested in Yt8,29 us ... appn a6auub apaiti.kmti3jasdati 'the (level of the) flows of water will rise unflaggingly'

K l e s Noms-racines (1 974)214,n. I eln, .



99 1-8. The Oeographical Fragment


but the equivalent of Ved. tsvas- is Av. tauuiS- in Y29,1, and a meaning such as 'having the force of water flows' would be strange. The segmentation into a6utauutylb which we prefer, putting a noun *a&&- 'network of canals', is :hypothetical as well. g6:3. spi&.wnah- 'of fertile surface, of rich vegetation' recalls the similar compound spihgaona- in Y 10,ll a d spi&gaona g i ''towards the mountains of an fertile surface' (§3:4, no PhlT., no SktV.) To both spit%. vmnah- and spita.gaonathe meaning 'of white color' has been attributed by Bthl1623-25 but the matter is doubtful. spit%- is hardly the same as spib'- in qib:ddi$nt- 'bright-eyed, cleareyed'; rather it is to be connected with Skt. sphih- 'rich, thriving, flourishing', cf. the proper name s p i t h a - (and Herodotus's Spitmeen&). (S6:4. On comparison with Ved. v&a- m. 'figure, shape, color'., Av. varanah- n. is rendered as 'color' by Bthl1372. Yet the two are not etymologically identical. Av. varanah- rather has a meaning such as 'covering (of the earth), vegetation', see: Vl8,64 Sn3m spagtaiid BrmatOig varand apari'asaite paipaitti 'to one third he takes away the vegetation of S p a ~ t a Armaiti (= the earth) by (merely) looking at her' where PhlT.renders vatand by bgIgdh 'strength'. A similar idea is found in VytSO sp&m mna'b'rn us a@ v m n a bardhi 'as for Spagta Armaiti: you will deprive her of vegetation'. Most enigmatic is Vyt37 which refers to practices of heretics or non-believers: j iZEtilia&t% ya9a ya_t varanaghpn vabiSh Vyt37 ma $% agm.marfiiaua r t u i n i ~ t i ~ ' ~ saocdiaca karanauuwtam baosauuasca vmaxaStdsca vardiigtam. §6:5. spa~to.dato-,cf. Phl. spanddadin Bdh9,3, more detailed in Bdh9,25 s p d dadkdfpad war i e w a n d kdf 'Mount Spanddad is at the breast-side(?) of Mount dmgn, Rewand'. A common adj. is spaflt6,dSh- in Yt13,93 vjspd spagtd.da~4 Vr19,l spgtd.d&W d m g n y ~ ~ a m a ' d e worship the creatures (and creations) 'we created by S p a ~ t (Mariiiu)'. a $6:6. kadnrua.aspa- 'having brown horses', see Bth1434 who connects kadruuawith Ved. k d h - 'tawny, brown, reddish-brown*and NP. kahar 'a chestnut of bay color'. Cf. Phl. kudrusp in Bdh9,3, more detailed in Bdh9,27 kudrusp (kwdwsp) kafpad t s Sahrk&S war isobarpad sar 'Mount Kudrusp is in the district of TOs, on its summit Lake Suwar is situated,. $6:7. kaoinsa-, perhaps 'wearing a gorget', is a qddhi derivation from kuiris'neck guard'). Its etymological connection 'gorget' (Bthl474 hint-, PhlT.g~Yvpr5o with Av, kauruua-, Ved. khiwd- 'mutilated, imperfect' should be abandoned. Cf. Phl. koiras Bdh9,3, more detailed in Bdh. 9,28 koirifs ((kwdl's) kdfpad e n w e z 'Mount Koiras is situated in Erhwez'.

86:s. &era- 'peak' is also found in Y 10,ll auui ft~a&astard..s8ra 'towards the peaks the points of which reach the stars' (no PhlT., no SktV.) where the reading s t a m of the rnss. is cormpted from &era 'peak' by anticipation of the initial st of the following stard.sara As for the context in Y10,ll see $3:4. $69. ban5.sraiianb either is gensg. of athematic bard.smi'm- 'bearing the glare of beauty*or of thematic baO.mkna- of the same meaning (Hintze, p. 87). (S6:lO. b m a - 'carrier', perhaps 'riding-horse', otherwise short for a compound ah such as zao$rO.bama- 'carrying zao8ras' in C s - zao9rb.barana- 'cup in which the Z a o W (= libation) is brought* Vr10,2 N66 (PMT. Wt i zohbardn). Ved. b h w a - means 'load'. g6:ll. In fipari'As-ca gain's 'the mountain which extends towards the watery regions*,the fiapi'ds-ca is attributed by us to the same stem 12pa-iiiias the fiapiui"s(ca) d@&S 'countries extending towards the watery regions' tj 1:s. Yet, in the same way as vahiids-ca is cormpted from vahruudsca (§5:10), rhpiui'iis-ca could be corrupted from fi.apa(uuAs-ca, of *hpauuapt-, a corruption which could have easily happened under the influence of the possibly uncorrupted fidpads-ca preceding in $ 1. (S6:12. udriia- 'otter-like, otter-colored(?)' from u&- 'otter* rather than directly from Proto-Aryan udar-hdm- 'water' (Ved. udzfr/udh). Both possibilities are taken into consideration by Bthl388. $6:13. r a e u u ~ t -'rich, wealthy, opulent', cf. S2,9 raeuuaptam gak5m m & a Gatam, S1,9 NyS,6 raeuuaptahe g&iSrnazda&&2he, furthermore Bdh3,9 kbfirc?wmdand more detailed: Bdh9,2 1 rewand kbfpad xw&s& k&S Bdur i bmimhr pd-iS niBined 'Mount Rewand on which Adur Burzinmihr is installed, is in XwarWin', Bdh9,37 rewand kzi mt?n i ddur b u ~ ~ i m 'Rewand where the abode of Adur ~hr Burzinmihr is situated'. §6:14. Instead of Gdn's ajBitae8aca spaSitaeJaca 'when visiting (the mountains) and viewing (them)', Hintze, p. 87f. proposes reading a@itat%ca sp&itaHca (ms. F1 etc.) in order to get a line of eight syllables. Yet her reading does not make much difference since both s@itac%aca and spaSita~?Sca incorrect formations, are suspect of being corrupted either from spa(Sr,aZG(a)ca 'from viewing them' or from (u>paSitat?G(a)a 'from settling there', the initial letter u of the latter having Our just one stroke less than the transmitted sS3' correction a$ilaeGaca cu,paSita& Gaca 'visiting them and settling there' does not result in a descending but in an ascending climax which is more likely.

" Humbach, MSS

3 1 (1973) 1 l5f.



.97. C s S w c a a9a gariui'o / spilama zaraSdCra / ca9matamca / duuaea s & d~uaeca hazagre. 97. Thus, (the number of) the mountains is four, / 0 Spitama ZaraSuStra, / and forty / and two hundred and two thousand.

$ $ 9 - 13. Kay6n Yasn, Karde I

Ahura Maz&
57:l. The number of two thousand and two hundred and forty-four mountains is abang kdfiha az h & m H z rust hendpad mamg given in figures in Bdh9,3 c~ydn 2x1000 ud 2x100 ud 40 ud 4 kdf 'in the way in which the other mountains (i.e. those other than Mount Harbm), 2244 in number, have grown out of Mount Hatbun':
$8. Yauuat caipi anu.m'ti/ {aete, gamy6 vihtara / vispm a u q aipi &on6 &ad akurunaeca m9aeStlIlca / v8stnr?lcafluheate. 48. As far as, by closing up, / these mountains have spread. / one following the other, / all that (area) yielded the share (required) I for (maintaining) the priest, the warrior, / and the cattle-breeding farmer.
$8:1. The transmitted text as given by Gdn. after rns, F1 etc. begins yauuai m u a l e garaiid viSastara vispm auuq' a i draond baiaJ' etc. but it looks p erroneous. The first alpi is tolerable only if there is a correlation of yauuaJ' aipi with auua_Ca $ ' which requires the correction of the transmitted yauual m u aipi into yauua_C&pimu).
59. Uytarn kauuam xvmnb / rnazda6atam pamaide / d va~pdram . upanS.kaidm / $amnag %qtamyczracar~%a@rn yaoxCtiuuaptam / taradatam llliiidr3&mp; 49. We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations);


§8:2. Instead of Gdn's &Ye (ms.Fletc.) the interesting rnss. J10 B27 J18 R115 have diOSwhich preferable in the given context: mu.&timeans 'by closing up, by is one following the other', cf. Ved. aku a-i in RV1,161,3 dnu vaC, ... emasi 'we will follow you, we will come after you'. §8:3. Between &Maidand g m i i d the dem.pron. a6te 'these' is missing. Hintze, p. 91 tries to heal the corruption by simply replacing aitdah'by aste but both of them are required ($8:2). Actually, aitdrtibmust remain in the text, and aetemust be supplied. The original text seems to have had &'{ti a w e the two middle syllables of which have been dropped by a sort of haplology or haplography.

49: 1. d.v a ( p t l r is corrected by Gdn. from d vandmm (with n4 not qd), adducing the readings found in the unabbreviated repetitions in $14 (kauuam xvarano dvmdram) and $45 (axvmtam xvmnO ... The word is . usually rendered as 'much praised' (Bthl265 s.v. d vandam-). Gdn's correction is corroborated by Skt. van&- 'praising, worshipper' which suggests 'excellent worshipper' or 'having excellent worshippers'.' As a matter of fact, Ved. vand means 'to praise, celebrate, hornrnage, salute respectfully' but the meaning of its etymological equivalent Av. vagd is 'to guard, to treat carefuly or solicitously'. See its only occurrence: Y 1O,8 yo ya9a pu9ram taurunam haomam vapda6ta ma$iid 'the person who should treat Haoma as carefully as (one treats) a tender infant', PhlT. ka ciyan pus itarunag ham wandend mard [XO-SpahrPzk-un&d], SktV. ye y a h s putr;vfl SiSw h m a m saqg;rhnanb' rnanysy@ [kiJa p r a t i y a t n ~ kurvanti]. This Av. passage along with its PhlT. suggests that vq&- (if this really is the correct reading) means 'solicitous, careful, performing guardianship' and, accordingly, &.vmdra- 'very solicitous, very careful, excellent guardian'. Accordingly duiuuqdm-, obviously a sort of antonym of d v q d r a - in $87:2 duiuuqdrauud jiiaondgh~,must mean 'evil guardian, oppressive'.


$9:2. The primary meaning of upard.kairiia- is 'whose business is, or whose activities are, in the upper region'. The word is used as an attribute of the Xvaranah (passim), Vaiiu (Yt15,4 etc.12,TiStriia (Yt8,4), the Airiiarnan ISiia prayer (FrW 4,1), the Frauua$is (Yt 13,31 frauu@aiiO ... uparro).kaikr;d j. .. ya' upair;
For reasons of meaning one would prefer the derivation of af.w~drafrom root van 'to conquer' but no trace of a suffix dm- be made out in Av. can * vaiiuf upard.kain16>Man.Sogd. w~fpukar 'Spin'hrs Wvens; shortened in Bactr, o&o, name of a syncretistic god equated with Siva. See Humbach, Monumenfurn Xyberg, I (1975) 397-408. uprrb,.kain'iB,mss. upaiiikairiii by anticipation of the following upaii.





$8 9-13. Kayan Yam, Karde I. Ahura Mazda



bamarana& ... auruua9ang-m ... bafllF smdaiieigti'the Frauua$is whose business is in the upper region, who from above the battle break the arms of the enemies'). has been borrowed into Phl. as abargar 'god, divinity' (gar Av. -.kairiiawith short a ) but the PhlT. of Y9,10 renders it by the genuine MP.abarkdr (kar with long a ) which is understood by the SktV. as u w t n k w a - 'performer of excellent works'. In Y9,10where upanxkain'ia- occurs as an attribute of Karastispa, PhlT. abarkbr 'performer of excellent works' agrees with what we know of Karasbpa but it seems somewhat inaccurate in so far as Karasaspa is most likely given the attribute upard-kahia-in a more humorous way for having cooked his food on the back of the serpent M i Sruwa, see Y9,ll = $40:1 ylin upin' kamsaspa ui'kgha pitum



$9:3a. The series Samnq%wtam vmcar~%qlam yaox9~uuagtamis ungrammatically used as in the present passage as are the masc. forms of surunuuah yasna uyrsm kauuam the pronouns t?- and auua- in $ 13: 1 tam ya.zayazar x'arand, and $35:2 aomx'mnb. C , in Yt5,42 auua_txvaranb y h vazaie. f ya... The same series is incorrectly used as in Yt 12,l kai asb' mg9rahe sp3p&he arS.datam kai fiaZ&tam kal kai Samnag.1su&mkai m c a g %upbmka_rpoxStiuu~tam h6atam aniiM d w g n with response in Yt12,2 ta_l asti rnaSmhe spgtahe ddatam Ei;ziddtam la_T vici&r>am ta_t Samnag*hu~tam etc. The ungrammatical use of the as is borrowed from the outwardly similar passage Yt8,49 &3&m ... yazamaide Samnq%aptarn varscag*haptamyaoxJtiuuaptam xSaiiamnam where the attributes are in agreement with the t i ~ h m , ~ The same series forms a in -a instead of correct -6 in $72:1 vispe auruua vispe taxma vispe SamnaglhugCa vispe varacaghryl& vispe yaoxStiuuapta vispe darS~:kair(e) kauue. $9:3b. The of the series is correctly used in c V20,l k5 oiriic5 ma$iihngm Samnag%a@m varacag*ha@m yaoxSb'uua@m / yi?itca,matgm raeuua@m/ ban^ patabatulgm /yaskarn caii)a~kqt,~ d&aiiad mahrkam ca>mahrka,p7 d2raiiad with response in V20,2 &itdpaoin?d m&iiiZnqm Samnq*ha@m etc. PhlT. ke fiadom az mardoman pahrezbrnand& [kg pahrez i tan newag daend kardan c1yc5nspanddsd; bast ke d o n gOw8d: tr3 k& abar n k C @ wandmmdan


fdanagan CI-dn kay& ] / kdmagdmand3n [ciybn j d e d " ~ . ~ k ~ ? m d " ~ ] / bahmmandm [tuwBnigdn ciybn pdsraw] / rilyiSnbmand2n [ab.?&Dmandanciyan hbS;nng; ay p e ~ mdILCq / taggoman& [cliybn k d p ] /peS&ddman& [c~yon dad% ed bad ku dad i xwadyih h d o m by m w& k&] / u-Syask d yask d m U-J marg b marg d&t [kud az band ne hiSq '(he) who (was) the first of the caretaking mortals [who, like Spariddad, know well how to take care of the body; there is one who says: he did not give surgical treatment (= he did not amputate limbs)], of miraculous mortals [wise like Kay Us], of successful mortals [like Jamshed who was much successful 1, of prosperous mortals [wealthy like Padsraw], of majestic mortals [powerful like Zardu.91, strong [like KerWp], of mortals promoting the primitive law [like HbSang; (his) promoting the primitive law (means) that he was the first to promote the primitive law of sovereignty] ... '.I0 tj9:4. S a m n q % ~ tis rendered by PhlT. as p&zdmmd 'careful' (from pahrez 'care, protection') If the underlying Samnah- is from +Sangnah-(Fischer apud Hintze, p. 98), S a m n q * ~ t -must be separated from Khw. Wm- 'to awake' which can hardly come from *hSangna-as this would have one internal n too many. [Better perhaps Wm- < Sra-ma- < h-rama-.] Av. S a c - 'to draw (a chariot, a dagger), to bend (a bow)' suggests the basic meaning of Samnah- to be 'tension, attentiveness, intensity'. Therefore we render the adj. Samnag'hqt- as 'intense'. tj9:5. vwcag%iylt- 'miraculous, dignified' is derived from varacah- 'miraculous power, dignity', cf. PhlT. wandmand'miraculous, dignified' from wan 'miracle', NP. warj'dignity'. varscag*hqt-is also said of Tistriia (Yt8,49), the Moon (Yt7,5) and the MgSra S p a ~ t a (Yt12,l). Most typically it is said of the rulers of ancient times in general, in particular of the Kauuis in $72 (cf. V20,l-2 in §9:3) whose varacah- is also mentioned in the enigmatic Gas8 passage Y32,14 ahiiB... ahai9o; nikrSuuaiascg xratrlS nidadai varaca.hicd 'the Kauuis lay their intellects and their miraculous powers (or: their dignities) into its fetter'. Cf. also aS.vmcah- 'of high miraculous power' in $57 fiagrase turd AvaracA, Yt5,45 auruub aJvaraccA?' kauua usa, cf. A22 aE:varacrfya$a kauua usa.
§9:6. yaoxStiuuqt- 'fresh, pure, purifying, healthy, radiant, flashing' (PhlT. krlmagdmand 'willing, desirous) is from YAv. yaoxSti- <OAv. yaoSLi- 'freshness, S purity, ray' (with x < 9 as similarly Yav. fiaxSti- < OAv. fardbl 'brilliance', YAv. yaxSti- < OAv. *yaSbL, Ved. yasti- 'twig'). In its turn, yadbi- is a denominative derivation from OAv. yaoS 'pure, durable, healthy"* which is a
af.<kMmd: mss. afdifrndin script. Av. The end of the Av. text being conupt, the corresponding end of the PhlT, is left by us without translation. I ' a f varacd, Hu. : aS,varaca Gdn. with rnss. I2 Av. yaoS =Ved. ydb 'welfare, happiness, health' which is used as a blessing.








Ms. F 1 has Samanaghopbm v a f d c a g h u ~ & m ~ ~ x ~ ~ u Panaino,n 7iSbya, 1 (1 990) 73. see u ~ ~ r , j??&ra)ma@m Bthl. : mss. yatuma@rn. raii)ask<WHu. :yaskgj Gdn. with mss.. ca)mahrkJ@ Hu. :mss. mahrkai t~f: mss. t'h , cf. NP. W'axe'.

84 :


4%9-13. Kayh Yasn, Katde I. Ahura Mas&


petrified of diiu-/yaw- 'duration, duration of life, life span, longevity'.13 The verb yaoid8- 'to purify' denotes the purification of persons and animals in order to maintain or restore their health, the purification of objects in order to desinfect them or make them durable. Purification can be achieved by application of (bull's) urine or by exposure to fire or sun or simply to fresh air for which cf. Yt8,8 mj9ica vsta &ti yaoxcS~tiuua~t~5 'purifyinglpure winds are blowing forth', a passage which, due to its corrupted mss. reading yaoxtiuu@d, was disregarded by some scholars. Sunrays are not only good for purifying infected matter but they are also a means applied by MiSra to watch over the world and to make out the wicked who infect the world with their misdeeds. In this context the rendering of yaoxfti-by 'ray, radiance', and of yaoxSbuuiqzt- by 'radiant', makes good sense and it is no less justified than 'perception' and 'perceptive' proposed by Gershevitch in the pertinent passages of the Mihr Ydt: Yt1O,82 (mi9ram) yerjhe hazagram yaoxStinm fiah9aJ ah^ mazdd bat!uuara .' yaoxSb'bii6 spiieiti m3rb.ddi9mgm viddi91e; &j gbiid ddi918biib m ~ i i s c a ui'&nca m 9 d d u a c bat dbii6 d6i9rllbiid ajBiiaca yaoxJtibii6 a&oiiO asti 'r.rjma m3rd 'Mithra on whom Ahura Mazda has conferred a thousand rays and ten thousand eyes for seeing all-round; thanks to these eyes and rays he spots the infringer of the contract and the man false to the contract; thanks to these eyes and rays Mithra cannot be deceived'; Yt 1O,35 m'9ram ... hazagra,yaoxJ~m xS;niiiwtamxSaidm~am visp.vi8'gham 'MiSra of a thousand rays, who rules (over the others), who rules (over his own), all-knowing'; j4 Yt 10'6 1 mi9ram ...yaoxStuuaptam a8aoiimarn porn.yaoxJLim dw'6atam 'MiSra, the creator's radiant, undeceivable creature endowed with much radiance';" Yt 10,107 rni9rasclj' mainiiauud snt_.gaoJd hazagra.yaoxSCiS vispam vaenaiti dNiin&rn 'spiritual MiSra of listening ears and of a thousand rays sees any deceiver'.16 d aojagham daeuuim dmjam the In Y9,8 d i m &&am ,.. h~~~agld.yaoxStr;m attribute hazagra.yaoxiYi-'of a thousand rays' is perhaps used to denote the jets of fire produced by (the serpent) Azi Dahaka.
The extensive discussions on yaoftii-/yaoxSri- by Narten, Yasna HaplagMb'(1986) 197-203, and Hintze (1994) 199-201 do not take account of the length of the composition vowel a in bazagr;I.yaoxSti-as attested in Y9,8 and 435, simplified to a in hazagra.yaoxSCi- in Yt10,35.107. l4 Gershevitch, Mithra (195911967) 35 'whose perception is thousandfold, who rules as an allknowing potentate'. Gershevitch, ibidem 103: 'the creator's perceptive, undeceivable creature, endowed with much perception'.

$9:7. trvadatam aniiW &mp~'outdoing the other creatures (and creations)', lit.






'to 'setting them aside'. If the comparison with Ved. &iil;r-d& set aside, remove, conquer' is correct, tara ought to be a vulgata variant of tara (but why not tard.dator taraz-d&t-?). On the other hand, m . F1 etc. read taradstam (with OAv, d ) in s the present passage but taraslrtam (with YAv. 8)in its repetitions $14 and $45 which could mean that tam0 in tnradt- (with 4 is more original than tam0 in h a t - ((with 9 as found in Y25,5 and preferred by Gdn. in S1,2.21,2,2.21. For a similar problem see $26:3 on pan!6ata-. Apart f o the Xvaranah, fara&t- is also used as an attribute of Vaiiu, &ti rm Hqm.vainti, and MgSra Spa*. An athematic formation is ascertained by both the &a O t m anii2.3 ddmw Y25,S (va&), S2,2 (BxStim hivn.vahtim) and the & d,f. O t aniidr3 d-n Y22,24 (vaiiad), S 1,2 (&St63 hgm.v&tiid). The only unambiguously thematic form is the in Yt12,2 kaJ ... tnraslrtam etc. (quoted in §9:3). P l .bvw&iddrtom 'most overcoming' erroneously renders the final syllable hT -tam of the acc. taraatam (and furthermore even the final -M of the nom. tara&t@ by the superlative suffix P l "tom.As for the latter see: h. S 1'2 1 vaiiaoJ up.kaiijehe tarsSatCd aniiW dmgn P l .wsy iabagar &wc?nidartom an6 ddmgn hT az SktV. pa&na upanhryasya vinqshq knjate sarvasya snteh.
$ 10. ( U p mkauuah x V m b... yazamaide) yai asti ahurahe m a d /p& b g o da9a_tahurb mazdif /pouruca vohuca puma sfiraca/ p u m a abdaca pouruca fdaca / pouruca bmi'aca; 8 10. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) of Ahura Mazda ' since Ahura Ma& has created (His) creatures (and creations), / (creating) the good



mes in large numbers, the beautiful ones in large numbers. / the marvellous ones in large numbers, the brilliant ones in large numbers, / the bright ones in large numbers;




5 10:I. kauuaem xvarand ... ya_t asb' ahurahe rnazdb ya9a d-n da&_t ahurd mud& 'the Kavyan Glory which is (in possession) of Ahura Mazda since Ahura Mazda created (his) creatures (and creations)': What the author of the passage wanted to express is, among others, that Ahura Mazdg, having the disposition of the Kavyan Glory, has the liberty of bestowing it on whomsoever (and whatsoever) he pleases (Introduction 5.2).
§10:2. There is an apparent dogmatic difference between the message of the present passage according to which Ahura Mazda is the creator (ya9a dmgn da9a_f Ahurd Mazdd), and Yt15.43 where Vaiiu attributes the good creation to Spagta
l6 Gershevitch, ibidem 127: 'supernatural Mithra who has listening ears and a thousand perceptions, sees all perpetrators of falsehood'.





$5 9-13. Kaym Yasn,Karde I. Ahura Mazda


Mdiiu: uua d m a vaiiemiyasca da9aJ spagtd maioiiu3ya.m da9a_tagrd mainiid ' I am chasing both kind of creatures, those which S p a W Mwiiu (the holy spirit) has created and those which Aqra Mdiiu (the destructive spirit) has created'. Yet there is no real contradiction between the two passages as we have pointed out in the Introduction 5.3, Also see 8 l8:l. $1O:3. The sequence pouruca vohuca poutuca sn-mca poun~caa&ca pouruca H a m poumca baniika with it. redundant use of -ca is a poetical elaboration of underlying poun~cavohuca s15nca abdaca Maca fiidca §10:4. The meaning 'marvellous' of Av. abda- is not controversial (cf. MP. abd 'marvellous') but its etymological derivation from *a-pd-a- 'untrodden, not to be trodden on' (from the root pad- 'to tread' in Ved. pibdlvngna- 'treading on', cf. Bthl. 96) must be abandoned as it is contradicted by the context in: aa V2,24 abdaca ... ag'he astullilite s a d m yaJ i6a p s d anurnaiiehe pa6am vdenBr2e 'and it will seem marvellous (not: untrodden) to the corporeal world when the track of a sheep is seen there' PhlT.abd-iz ... andar axw iast&nand sahedka (?nOhpahianumaypay wenihM. There is an evident parallelity between Av. abda- 'marvellous' (<*adbhta'undeceivable', root dabh) and Skt. adbhura- 'marvellous' (C Ved. ddbhuta- , enlarged root hbhu), butr ertymological relationship is doubtful. In the Rigveda, ddbhuh- clearly means 'undeceivable'. The meaning 'marvellous' could have been 11 derived by early poets fiom RV1 ,X, ddbhuta 'without being deceived', reinterpreting this of ddbhuti- 'undeceivedness' as an of the adj. ddbhuta- 'undeceivable' in the meaning 'marvellous' invented by them,"
§10:5. fkda- 'brilliant': In the recent discussions on the meaning of this word which seems to be related to Ved. p/X'S- '(a type of) refreshment', MP. fracamunv 'peacock' has been left out of consideration. The name of the bird points to 'fresh, colorfid, juicy' being the etymological meaning of fida-.

8 11:1. damgn ... yal katanauuqn firtsam &@?I order for the creatures (and 'in creations) to make existence brilliant'. The u h g n mentioned in the present passage do not only comprise Ahura Mazda's living creatures but also the material things or objects created by him in order to make human lives comfortable and pleasant. This is borne out by the context of fiaC8- in Darius's OP. inscription & NRb2 baga vapka auramazdl9 h a p adada h a h m taya vahataiy 'a great God is Ahurarnazda, who created this brilliant (work) which is seen (here)'. Thus also the clause ya_t karanauugn H a m ahmi of the present passage originally referred 'brilliant' induced one of the earlier to material life but the occurrence of Mtransmitters of Y&t 19 to append what in our manuscript tradition is the rest of $1 1 and the whole of $12. These describe parts of the FraSakaraiti at the end of the world. With slight modification of the verb (Iaranauuw from karanauuaa this appended passage is borrowed from $589-90 where the text has sadiiiyltca,m vim9nijanam ut? aniidscf] haxati'b ya3 karanauual H a m ahllm etc. The appendage makes a little more sense in its repetitions in §$l9 and 23. Although §$89-90 are abbreviated in our manuscripts, they are the original place of the presenr passage. This is seen from the fact that they are just a relatively small part of the complete description of both the appearance of (the eschatological) SaoSiiat and the Frddkaraiti given in 4888-90 and $891-96.

§10:6. b&mYa-ca shows rhythmical lengthening "a-ca > '2-ca in the end of the series of adjectives which is the cadence of the line.
$ 11. yai kmnauuqn fiaSarn ahom / azarasa~tamamarac&>wtam/ afri9iiaqtam apuiatam /yauuaq7m yauuaesm vasb.xSa9mm/yai irista piu'ti usahiS@n//as&juuill?d amdraxtiJ/da9aitef&m vasna qhUr 9 1 1 . in order for (Ahura Mazda's creatures and creations) to make existence brilliant, / not aging, imperishable, / not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will, I so that the dead will rise again, / imperishability will come over the living, / (and) existence will be made brilliant in value.

11.2. dzarasa~tam amaraS;yltam as transmitted in m .F1 is restored by Gdn. to s a~sra,+aatam amm$+a~tam aging, not dying' in which mam$a@m was 'not attributed to the root m r 'to die' by Bth1143, This attribution appears to be a corroborated by $33 nb# m m u a &ha nbfl mami9ii& 'neither old age did exist a nor death' but the root m r 'to die' is attested in med. forms only (Av. auuamiriiete,OP. amnyaB). For this reason we follow Hoffrnann (apud Hintze, p. 1lo), slightly correcting the reading of ms. F1 into azarasaptam amaidxqtarn 'not aging, not perishing' and analysing ammtbatam as pass.ptcp. of the root marc act. 'to destroy', pass. 'to perish' the use of which is not restricted to human beings. The analysis is supported by both the PhlT. am- 'imperishable' of Av. amam.haptam in Y9,4 and the noun Av. arnamxCiS 'imperishability' following in the present paragraph ($1 1 :4). Cf. the parallel F3h1220 buuai vispd aghd a hd azamsd amad@afwi9iid sr apwiig d myam yaJpuue vispi (PhlT. ba w6d harwist axw i astdmand m&~ ud mag ud asdhiSn ud aphiSn). Klingenschmitt ad loc, also quotes Vyt45 azarasd amraxSgn afn'dhiiibapuiiw in which the compt antraxSw bears a strange similarity to the fut.ptcp. amaraxSiimt- $94. The literal meaning of this could be 'not exposed to future destruction' but actually amadii't- is interchangeable with the pres.ptcp. amaraB't-, see 512:l and $94:7.

5 1 1:3. jas&' juuaiid amanxM 'imperishability will come over the living' was wrongly understood by Bthl.143 as '(then) the unendangered living one (i.e. the
" Humbach,

Krarylos 32 (1987) 51f.



$8 9-13. Kayan Yasn, Karde 1. Ahura Mazda


Sadiimt) will come', accordingly by Hintze, p. 112ff. as '(then) will come the one without decay reviving (the dead)'. We prefer taking the enigmatic juuaiib as dissislated from juua.Suui6 <juua.Sfiib, datpl. of juua- 'living', which in the present passage is clearly contrasted with inkta- 'dead'. 511:4. amaraxti- 'non-destruction, imperishability' is to mahrka- 'destruction' (Phl. m a g ) like aslzlcti- 'disobedience' to sra& 'obedience' (Phl. N). The meaning is clear in Yt9,9 ya9a azam amamxBm a u u a . ~ i a u um a d ddmabiiid a 'in order for me (Yima) to bring imperishability down to the creatures of Ma&+. Less clear is the occurrence of maraxti-in Yt10,124 u b z d ' i z a a p tamaraxtim fiauuazaite m3rb haca moxSn&,, ganS NnanaJ. If this passage is correctly transmitted, it means 'raising his arms MiSra drives out of shining paradise to (establish) imperishability (of the creatures of Ahura Mazda)'.

8 12. Bun gae9d am&iB / yd &e sacuwg"haiti'S/ m3-Bd paiX dmd n m t e / ya&la$ic$ japnad/aSauuanam ddaa9ai/a0tn Ci&?tn~.? s b k a /&$akamraq?c~/i'aca /niSnltCirta&a uwairio/a& r w a . 812. Imperishable will be the world that is of truth, being endowed with strength; / deceit will be done away, I (sending it back) to the place from where it had come / for making the W f u l one perish, 1 himself, his progeny and his property, / in terror and detstruction);/ and the scoundrel will be done away as well. / Such is the judgment
bun gat?& amd@S see $94:7 on d a w amamxSii&@m v j s m mm astutiai6mgat?9pn 'he will make imperishable the entire corporeal world'. 4122. g. a & .. y$ &ahe 'the world which is of truth', cf. OAv. Y31,l &&Mia gae9d and YAv. a,fahe gae9d e.g. in $48 8rd9riitiaS&e gat%kn@m, $50 mahrkai m e gat!?$angm,$93 &e haca gae9Lfbiibetc. $12:3. If sag*aitiC from a stem sag%qt- is correctly transmitted, its meaning is 'enjoying praise, laudable'. In this case it is formed from a root-noun sqh- of root s h 'to announce, proclaim, praise' in the same way as Ved. &I-vant- 'intelligent, q devote' from the root-noun dhi- of root &I Yet both the meter and the context which refers to the Fr&b.karaiti (which will start with the appearance of the eschatological SaoSiiwt) suggest corruption of sag'hwt- from saruuag%qt'enjoying benefit, enjoying the salvation' in which case we have to coordinate ammdkpM... sa~um~g'haiL3 in this connection the important part played in Note the Gas% by the verbal forms and nominal derivations of the root SO 'to benefit', viz. saoSiiiylt-, silidiiif4 suiit?,sauuaY0, sauuah- and sauuiS-. At any rate, the context does not favor the comparison of sag%aitrS with Ved. S&vant- 'continuous, endless' proposed by ~lin~enschrnitt.'~ $12:4. Ms. F1, followed by most of the other manuscripts, reads niS-ta_tpu'tiahrS nizsaite yasa a@icaja ymai a$auuanam mdxkasai /aom ci9ramca stiinca /a9a6ca rnamn1LSStaeca rm)airiid. The stanza is repeated in $20 and 524 where it is not written in the manuscripts. In its further repetition in 990, (which is actually the place of origin of the passage, see $1 1:l), the major part of the stanza is omitted as well and its last two words maranaSStaPcr?main'id only are written in full. In spite of the agreement of the text of $ 12 with what is left from $90, it is evident that the entire sequence ia9aJca maran&%ta&a mairiid is transmitted in corrupt form. To heal this very old corruption, Gdn, replaced mamnriSiIta8ca by the variant mare (mss. J10 M12) but mare is just due to an attempt undertaken by a copist n&%tat?ca at restoring a word which is, at least, a little more plausible than the transmitted man. Bthlll51 corrected this mare into mahre 'the (female) scoundrel', reading


4 12: 1.

$1 1:s. Av. vasna cannot be separated from Ved. v&'price, value'. The customary derivation of vasna from root vas 'to wish' (Bthl1393) and its equation with OP. vdna- 'will, wish' (for which we would expect Av. vdna-, see $57) must be abandoned for phonetical reasons. Unreliable is vasna in V16,14 parnub.m a &iao$na 'action planned beforehand, deliberated action' (PhIT. war &pad kmag kuniSn), most likely an old corruption from<S)na tff"ao9na which is reflected in the fragment pau~ub.vaCta &iao9na preserved in Vyt26,40.
$11:6. If translated literally, da9aite M a m vasna qhd would mean 'existence will obtain (not: create) what is brilliant in value' in which case we we would have to count with a most clumsy medio-passive transformation of an act. phrase *EraSam vasna da9aiti a h m 'one will provide existence brilliant in value'. Yet the parallels quoted below suggest translating 'existence will be made brilliant in value' or also 'existence brilliant in value will be provided'. For this reason it is much more likely that M a m is just conupted from MO, the original reading being daaaite fiaSd) vasna agh& The corruption is partxularly due to perseveration of the fidam occurring in the preceding yai kamndun M a m ahwn 'in order for them to make existence brilliant'. Further parallels are Y34,15 fadam vasna hai9iigm dd a m 'make real the h existence which is brilliant in value', Y55,6 staota yesniia ... M a m vasna ahllm da$&a 'the Staota Yesniia which make existence (to be) brilliant in value'.18 In these collocations of h d a - 'brilliant' with aghu- 'existence', the verb da governing a double acc. is synonymous with, or similar to, the verbs karand vmz in the same constructions: Y30,9 ybi im fadam karanaon a m 'those who will h make existence brilliant', Y46,19 hai9im vmSaiti hiial vasnd faraSd.tamam 'he hiial who will make real what is most brilliant in value', Y50,l I hai9iiLfuuaraS@m vasna faraSd.bmam 'realization of what is most brilliant in value'.
Ig The form of the pres.ptcp. da&na- is med. but its meaning obviously is act. here and in §58:3 piti(&! &mgn da9bnd 'engaging his creatures against me'. In this particular form, the opposition

mwl rnnmc

i h~ n m i m l i 7 d n

Klingenschmitt, MSS 33 (1975) 67-78.


0%9-13. Kayan Yasn, Karde 1. Ahura Maz&


a 'and the (female) scoundrel will be terrified and the (male) scoundrel will disappear' which, however, makes no sense. nr~Ei;la The only possibility of explaining the strange sequence A9a6ca r a a a ; l i t & main? is to reckon with the early loss of a piece of text between marat,.., n&tp&a. Since there cannot be much doubt that c.. mirsatnka continues the preceding niJ ...n@te we are entitled to restore b9asca maac.. niSn&Caeca


9 13. On account of its splendor and glory / I will worship it with audible worship, / the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, (worshiping it) with libations. / We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory / created by Ahura Mazda with haoma (mixed) with milk, and with (spread) barasman, I with the skill of tongue, and with the s~@ra, / with voice and action, and with libations I and words of straight utterance.
Yerfheh&@m yesnepivti vagha2 L / ~ a !ahur6 vae9a SSi? haca yhghpnca /@ca da_t d dscayanunaide. L accordance with truth, Mazda Ahura now knows the male one among the existing n and the female ones whose better @art is seen) at worship (or: in recompense for

12:s. 89a(&) or 8$a6(-ca) obviously derives from the root 69 'to tenify, frighten, fear' but it is not sufficiently clear whether &&S(-E~) is a noun or a verb. A nominal derivation from the mot d 8 is di9i- 'terror, fright, fear' (no adequate PhIT. but cf. ai9iuuapt- 'temble', PhlT. sahmagm). Unless 89~1'ti FrW8,2 is in haeca conupt it is a verbal form from the same root: ha ahmS&o~1&3tujtf~l (B9raiti7) 'that druj will be by far the strongest one and she will terrify(?)'. Even less instructive is the verbal form apa9a found in §48:1 fiil S m (...) par% apa9a which in our opinion is corrupted from ap89atiieni). If d$a&ca is a verb, as held by Bthl322, the reading a9a1-a found in two minor mss. is more correct but the analysis of the transmitted form as subj., as required by the context, remains difficult. For this reason the interpretation of as noun must be seriously taken into consideration. Thus d9&a can be segmented into a&-6ca 'in terror', taking a& as of Bi9i- and assuming pleonastic spelling for &$a-ca (as uruuadca for mua-ca, see §67:2). Quite a different solution is suggested by J9a in F71347. According to Klingenschrnitt, its PhIT.ywHdwt is not to be read dard 'pain' but ji?d 'chewed, eaten', deriving from a root a9 'to eat' (Ved. ad). §12:6. The mutilated m a n can be restored to mamrpcai'a-ca, 'in destruction', cf. the gloss manncca)ii;iricazaraJayniiaica 'in order to bring destruction and to hit the hearts' in V1,14 PhlT. Yet one must take into account that the root marac 'to destroy, perish' is already represented in the present stanza by the preceding mahrka9ai 'to destroy, to make perish'. For this reason restoring a form of marai9iiu- 'death' is perhaps preferable,
h7 a& & h a d ... in the YaSa Aha Vainid stanza Y27,14 ya9a a 1 vainyd J irat& & dazdd ... mazda' 'since He is (the One) to be chosen by the world therefore the judgment emanating from truth itself is committed to ~azd&'?O

worship). Those male and female ones we worship. n. in tamyazBi ...xvarand see 49:3 on x v m b haoma yd gauua 'with haorna which (is mixed) with milk', cf. Y 10,l3 @aomahe)gauua in'stahe 'of haorna mixed with milk'?' §13:2. It seems necessary to take up again the study of the Yedhe Ha$m whose rendering by us in I994 has not satisfied as yet.23 §13:2a. As is well-known, the Yejhe Hatqm is transmitted in an archaized form of Young Avestan. Most typical of the archaization is the lengthening of the final vowel in yedhe 'whose' from YAv. ye@e (vs. OAv. yehiid). Other pecularities of the Yexjhe Hatqm are the vulgata form vqhd for the expected va@, and the dialect form va@Safor the expected va&f;ir.Yet all these peculiarities do not exclude the possibility that the prayer was composed in OAv. dialect, in the course of time modernized, and finally re-archaized, At any rate, the Yexjhe Ha$m is closely related to, or even derived from, Y 1,22, the concluding stanza of the fourth or VohuxSaSrti G&Sawhich runs: 5

... Samnq'hagtarn

4 13: 1. As for t m m instead of a


5 12:7. a& rat& 'such is the judgment' cannot be separated from the same phrase

The stanza is deliberately ambiguous, a phenomenon which is also found in the concluding stanzas of several other G998 hymns (most typical Y46,19). The crucial phrase is yehiia mai ... vahiStam which can either be rendered as 'Ifme whose best'24(first solution) or as 'hehim whose best ... for me' (second solution). §13:2b. The first of these two solutions ('Ilme whose best') results in:

13. Ahe n i i a x'aranaghaca / tam yaza' s m u u a t l yasna / u p m kauuaem x'annd rnazda&tam zao9rdbiid. / Uyram kauuaem x 'arand /rnazda&iItamyazamac'de /haoma y0 gauua {= Nyl, 16 barasmana /hizuud daghagha m@aca / vacaca &iao$naca zao9rabiiksca /arSuxSaebiiasca vgy2ibiidJ


va& found in all occurrences of the Yejhe Hatpm is a vulgata reading for vajhd. Hoffmann, Aufsatze, I1 (1976) 401f. and 475-482. As for the translation see Humbach, D e Gafhas, I (1 959) 48f.; The G&&, I1 (1 991) 13-15; i Humbach-lchaporia, The Hen'bge ofZaratfrushba(I 994) 18f.; Gershevitch, forthcoming. wt case attraction of the pers. pron. 'Ilme'. ih




'I, whose best (attitude is seen) at worship (or: in recompense for worship)

M a Ahura knows in accordance with truth, I will worship those who have
existed and exist This first solution of Y5 1,22 underlies the parallel Vr16,3 ya&;un no ahutrs rmmd a&uua yesne piti v@d W a
lara8dbd &ufid5ratus~


$$ 14 20. Kaysn Yasn, Karde I1 The Amaja Spa~tas
$15. (Wpm kauuaem xvmnO


we, about whose better (attitude shown) at worship truthful Ahura Mazda knows our master and judge is ZaraSuStra.

... yazamaide) yal a d

m $ g sp7~lli?om ah m


x.fh&li?ogm vcamiiddi91anm/bamzrabw

ai8iiamrdnM.m/ re n mah121niaapm /yai ;V a

The second solution ('hehim whose best for me') yields: 'He whose best (attitude is shown) to me at worship (or: in recompense for worship), Mazda Ahura knows him in accordance with truth. Those who have existed and exist, those I will worship.' This second solution must be taken as point of departure of the syntactical analysis of the YeijhShe HiQm. For comparison with our own analysis for which see above, we quote the translation of the stanza proposed by Prof. Boyce in 1975: a 'At whose of-the-beings [masc.] and of whom [] therefore Ahura M & knows the better for worship accordin to righteousness, those (male beings) and those (female ones) we shall worship. ,% In contrast to Boyce we render y e m 8 p Z n o t as 'for worship' but, with regard of the loc., we prefer 'at worship' or even 'in recompense for the worship'. Instead of connecting yesne... @i a d as 'worship according to truth /righteousness' we h $$ a% ? connect a? h a d vt % 'knows in accordance with truth/ righteousness' for which cf. Y45,4 #a1 haca ... vaMa 'I know in accordance with truth'. As to the significance of the transition from the sing. ye$h8 to the plur. y d g h ~ ... $scJ d s d , Boyce presumes that "the first line of the prophet's words, with 'whose' in the singular, presumably refers to some particular divinity, to whom sacrifice has just been made; and this has been somewhat awkwardly altered in the prayer to give instead a wholly general application." Yet this solution does not take account of the similaryehiia ...ydi ... $ in Y51,22. In our opinion there is nothing awkward in the Yejhe HAQm. Its first words are intended by its composer to remind both his patrodsponsor and the female members of his household, of their duties towards himself, a reminder which is modified immediately after by introducing the evident reference to the ArnaSa Spentas which gives the preceding words a new sense.

8 13%.



m'9iiedhgho&uuanO; 515. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) of the Ama& Spa~tas (who are) majestic, sharp-eyed, / exalted, endowed with impetuousness, / brave, / of Ahurian nature, / unendangered and butha

8 15:1. Whereas the Zamyad mss. followed by Gdn. give the incorrect bamm@m a@ii&nananpn the correct reading barazatgm aij3iidmangm is transmitted in the sOd spagtd fiauu&i'O y m a i d e parallels Y26,S and Yt13'82 & u n w v;ul*h3 y mS n mspaQ&ngrn bam?a@m 81Piibmangm. d a; g n $152. vca>razi.ddi9mgm is restored by Hintze, p. 133f. from Odn's varau:ddi9mgtn which is transmitted also in the parallels mentioned above. The deterioration of vmxiOinto > wraziOhas taken place under the influence of the frequent occurrence of the verb varau'ia- 'to practice'.


§15:3. The formation of ai9iii$ah- suggests the meaning 'not harmful, not dangerous' > 'friendly, kind, pleasant', but i9iikjah- (PhlT. se/"danger, trouble') is rendered by SktV. m,rtyu- 'death' which shows that the meaning of ai9iityah- is more near to 'unendangered, intact' or even 'deathless, immortal'. As for this, note the SktV. amppunant- in Y26,3 ama#angm spantangin .. yOiai9iiqhghd z$auuand, (PhlT. k asi?j'arnandiahlaw, SktV. g rnuktabnanm 'who are deathless and of emancipated souls'). Cf. also Yt13,129 astuuaj aiSiiejahim 'corporeal intactness' (see $92:1), $15:4. aipii2rna-, auuiama- 'endowed with impetuousness, taken by impetuosity' is either a deverbative formation from the compound verb a@-am (Ved. abhi-am 'to advance violently against, pain, hurt') or it is a possessive compound with the adverb a$i as its first member ($3:13). The latter analysis is suggested by the paraphrase auuiamd in Yt8,13- 14 nadkahpa wca.d&saghd ... barazatb auui.amahe amauuatd hunairiidpc0 &Sa.aiiaoJyaSa poin'm v i i m auui amb aeiti 'in the shape of a man of fifteen years ... of tall stature, who is taken by impetuosity, who is impetuous (and) manly, being of the age in which impetuosity takes a man for the first time. Note also Yt 13,35 fiauua$"j.d ... auuiama spira.dStd. .

aghufca ratuSca is the correct reading transmitted by mss. K7a and K7b. The reading aghuca rawca adopted by Gdn. and Bthl. is due to a dissimilation which developed in the oral tradition. Contrary to Yt13,91 ahu raRcrca ga.?&ngm, which is a reinterpretation of ahc]... ratugin Y29.6 of the GaSas, there is no close relationship between V16,3 a/zndcamh&a and the GaM passage. 26 Boyce, Hisfory, 1 (1975) 262.




14-20. Kayan Yam, Karde 11. The Amah Spotas


8 16. ( m * ~ spptanm) ydi hapta hamd.m&yho /ybi hap& ham.vacaghb/ybi
aU hap& ham~.$iiao$ndghd /yaeSgm asd; hamam m n / hamam vacU hamam &ao$nam / hamdp&ca fmBshca /yo & @ ahurd mad; 6 $16. (of) the seven ( A d a Spa@s) who are of the same manner of thinking, / the seven who are of the same manner of speaking, I the seven who are of the same manner of acting, / whose manner of thinking is the same, 1 whose manner of speaking is the same, / whose manner of acting is the same, 1 whose father and master is the same, / Ahura Mazda, the creator;

H2,15 paoin'in gllma frabaral n d &on0 UNLU/ hurnate p6nida6ad / bigm .. ' ' hiLrte paib' n i d a w / Sngm h u u d e pa13 nidada: / tilininrn.. anapWuua mocdhuua pb'ni&sa_t '(the soul of the truthful person) takes the first step and stays at (the station of) good thought, I takes the second step and stays at (the station of) good word 1takes the third step and stays at (the station of) good action I takes the fourth step and stays at the endless lights'.


916:l. §§16-17 are also found in Ytl3,83. §16:2. On the non-canonical conception of seven m a Spaqtas accompanying Ahura Mazda see Introduction 5.1. 416:3. The paraphrasing of hamb.rnanaghd hamd. vacaghd hamd.fiiaoSn&hd by yaPS&n asti hamam rnand hamam vacd hamam 3iiao9nam is a device of the poetical language. $17. (am#angm spq?fanpql ya@m d i d d i e h e / muanam a@i.vaena&ti / mcam$j?ap&m humataeSu / rncam9Ja~tamhmta&u / rncam$j?agtam huudta&u / mc2m $$.q~tam nmanam / y a m raox9ndghd p?@&U /#uwYa@m auui zao8d; garb $17. (of the Amah Spantas) who view the soul@)of each other (or: each of whom views the soul of another person) / dwelling on good thoughts, I dwelling on good words, I dwelling on good actions, / dwelling (on the way) to paradise; / (of the Amaga Spantas) whose paths are luminous / when they head down to the libations;
§ 17: 1. As a rule the juxtaposition adiiid adiia- has reciprocal sense. Therefore the clause yaGSgm adiiid lufiehe uruui2nam a@i. va&naih"each of whom views another's soul' could mean that the AmaSa Spantas view each others' soul(s) in order to exchange their views about the way to paradise. Yet in the present passage some doubt about the reciprocal function of adjib adiiehe is advisable as the picture of the h a $ a Spa~tas being provided with individual souls is surprising. As a matter of fact it is possible that uruuaam 'soul' refers to the soul of a deceased person on hisher way to paradise. One could perhaps assume that, due to the great cannot number of cases of death occurring, the whole group of the ArnaSa Spa~tas take care simultaneously of one and the same soul but each one from their group is obliged to take care of one soul at one time.

rnfata,9Jq~kn .. m~ara,Sflap&mis better §17:3. The series rnfara,9)%@rn transmitted in the parallel Yt13,84. §17:4. Being followed by the humaCaRC'u biLrtaNu ... huu&taeSu, the gansnmanam is suspect of being incorrectly transmitted for the garb m e . In this case the ending of m a n a m would be due to perseveration of the ending of rnaraSjq&~rn.. Yet our translation is based on the transmitted form.



4175. The phrase duuaha@m auuizao9d 'of the AmaSa Spa~tas when they head down to the offerings' cannot be separated from the following parallels: m a q Y57,23 auuain a @ s p q ~ t aoi haptd.kaduuiu~rn m V 19,13 auuam amati sp@~ aoihapta.k&uuaiom qm. 'the AmaSa Spotas headedlhead down to the earth of seven continents'. These two parallels forbid the explanation of auuaii'a@m as slightly inexact for a-uuiia@m, pres.ptc. of d - 'to approach, to hasten towards' (Ved. 6-v4. The ~ length of the initial d of auuaia@m is due rather to rhythmical lengthening from auua-iia@rn? pres.ptc. of auua-i 'to move downwards'. A similar lengthening is to be seen in V19,32 jMmi'eiqti 'they go away, leave' as contrasted with the sg. pm-itiV18,26 from para4 See also 9 1:2 on hama- : hma-.


$18. (the Arna$a Spagtas) who are / the creators and formers, / the shapers andl overseers, / the protectors and guardians / of these creatures (and creations) of Ahura Mazda;

§17:2. The series humataeJu h&ta&??u huuarStaEJu recalls the series hurnate hriute h u u d e which denotes the three stages of the soul of the deceased person on its way to the endless lights of paradise as described in the HaGdxt Nask:

Bghgm dmangm yai ahurahe mazdB dztarasca mmxStvasca SflataxStvasca 'who are the creators, formers and shapers ... of these creatures (and creations) of Ahura MazdB': Here the quality of being dsfar-, maraxStar- and 9JaraxSStar- (OAv. 8JbmSfar-) of the creatures (and creations) of Ahura Mazda is attributed to the whole group of the h a $ a Spantas who are described here as acting on behalf of Ahura Mazdl, the creator, which reflects the picture of Ahura Mazda and the Ahuras drawn by the prophet himself in the Gasas. See Introduction 5.5.

5 18:1.



g l8:2. Hintze, p.146 explains the internal xJt instead of expected St of mamxStarasca and ,?@xS&ms-ca as being due to a regressive effect of the following a ~ p i i M a - C a see also §9:6 on yaoxSti- ~ y a d t i - . but
419. ti?&$ @ / f d a m vmnc sham -. y j .da82n / azdfasapbm m ( & . ( ~ t a m/ &?&-r ,iibn apuri'hp9rn / f= $11 yauua~lim yauCraestlm vasUd9ram / p i iksta ~ ' t i usahiS$n/jwjuu~ui'damaaxtiS/&9aite Warn vasna aghcls.] $19. these very ( M a Spentas) who / will make the world brilliant, I not aging, imperishable,I not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will, 1 so that the dead will rise again, 1 imperishability will come over the living, / and existence will be made brilliant in value.

$5 21 - 24. Kay& Yasn, Karde 111
The Yazatas
$22. ( U p m kauuam x v . n b ... yapuna'de) ya,t asti mariiiauuangm yazabnngm ga&iSiimgmca//zatanmca azstangmca / f i a S . c a r a $ ~ sadial,@mca. 422. (We worship the m g t Kavyan Glory) which is (in possession) / of both the ihy spiritual and material Yazatas, / and of both the born and unborn 1 brilliant-making Sao3iiants. 922:l. atangmca az8tanpnca fraSO.cara9riun saoSiiq@mca literally means 'of both the born and unborn brilliant-makers and(!) the SaoSiiapts' but the final -ca is redundant, being added mechanically for metrical reasons. In our passage reference of zatangmca a t a n p n c a not to the born and unborn SaoSiiapts but to the born and unborn (truthful) in general, would require the placing of -ca after zWb.cara8qm in which case we would have to expect Za&npncd Hzatan(vnca ~ % O . ~ $ ~ g m c a saohi'w@m 'and of the born and unborn (truthful) and the brilliant-making SaoSiiagts', Redundance of the -ca is suggested by the parallel Yt13,17 fiauu@o ... nmpm aZatul(~mfiaSO.cara$~pmsaoSii~@m 'the FrauWis of the unborn heroes (who will be) the brilliant-making SaoSiiwtsS.Yet in $56 @ x'aranb... ya_t asti aini'mgm da'iiunpm &tanpm azatanpnca, the phrase Zatangm &hgmca does not refer to the SaoSiiants but to the Aryan nation as a whole, and in Y65,6 h&@n aghdpmca zatanpmca azrrtanpnca a$aonpn fiauuajki'6 the phrase atangmca m-tangmca even refers to all truthful people. 422:2. saoSiimt- 'benefactor, strengthener, savior' is a fut.ptcp. which literally means 'who is setting out to bring benefit', cf. its antonym @xSiiwt- 'who is setting out to do harm' attested in Y12,4 chguuab? q x S i i q M , Yt10,27 wh3uS qxSii'i9iid, 10,78 ~~SiieitTSdajhlU! the G ~ s s, o S i ~ tis said of the prophet In a himself and his supporters, the benefactors of his religion who are setting out to benefit the world by making it brilliant. This use is still reflected in the difficult Y70,4ya9a i2a vmim nSJma /ya& vii sadiiafltd ddiimgm suiiamna vscim bannti/ buiima saoSiiwt0 'in order for us to raise our voice with freshness (or: owing to refreshment), I (since raising our voice) in the very way in which the benefactors of the lands I raise their voice(s) when enjoying benefit, 1 we would become benefactors'. $22:3. In a rather complicated syntax the author of Y70,4 just quoted, points out that suiiamna- 'enjoying benefits' is an essential precondition for reaching the qualification for becoming a saoSiipt- 'benefactor'. This mutual relation between the pass.pres. suiiamna- and the actfut. s a d i i ~ tis also underlying Y55,3 where

820. /= §I2 Bun ga&9i5 amar(biylh-S0 yd a&he sacuuag'haibS. / NiS-fad paiti dntxS / naP;sl'te/ya& a@ic&japnad / a@uuanam mahrkagai / aom cihmca sthca / s9a&a nwxarpcai'aca/mB~nBFati?eca cmmnib./A8a ratu#.)
i20. Imperishable will be the world that is of truth, I being endowed with strength; I deceit will be done away, (sending it) back to the place whence it has come / for making the truthful one perish, I himself, his progeny and his property, in terror and detstruction), and the scoundrel will be done away as well. Such is the judgment.



both suiiamna- and sadii@t- are attributes of the herds of truth, i.e. the worldly possessions of the truthful men: Y55'3 hara9rlri &he gae9anpn suiimancvnca sadiia@mca vispiui'dsca &faon0 st5iS 'in order to watch over the herds of truth which enjoy benefit and will bring us benefit, and over all the property of the truthful one'; PhlT. Sdfdtlrih &-i ahlay3 g&an sodan ud sudbmand& [kU pad mam'orn& s~dkun&d~hanvis~~-iahlaw& SktV.) See also §89:2. stt: (No It is just the PhlT. of Y70,4 which makes no difference between the pass. s u i i m a - 'enjoying benefit' and the act sadiiwt- 'benefactor': ciydn abzdn pad gdwih niweyaem (niweyenem krl pad kamag b a w w / c~ydn suddmandBn pad 30 deh dn-i sDddmand gll wiSn e d / ba wem sudbmand 'in the way in which we propagate prosperity by our speech [we propagate it so that it may be available at will] 1 (propagating it) in the way in which the benefactors raise their benefitting voice in the thirty countries, / (in that way) we would become benefactors'.
§22:4. In the Younger Avesta, rccdii~t-also used as an attiibute or as an other is name of Astuual.arata, the eschatologic savior expected to perform the f~rial

§§ 25 26. Kayan Yasn, Karde IV


Hadiiaqha Parauta
$26. (Uyxamkauuaem x v m n d ...yazamaide) yai upqhacad /hadiikghampan,&~m / bt2n.h haph'9iim / cLneuumm / y ma$ii&,mca / y 9 h m p ~ r i ( . a n w a sSa9riun kaoi2im kamhgmca / yb jana~duua SriSuua /ma~adiimgm &euugm / vam/tiimmca hua@m. 826. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which came over / to Hadiiagha-ParaGata / for a long period of time / so that he ruled on the earth of seven climes / over daeuuas and mortals, 1 over wizards and witches, / over despots, kauuis and karapans, / (to Hadiiaqha Parasah) who slew two thirds / of the Mhariiia daeuuas / and the deceitful inhabitants of Varana.
darapmc& aipi muanam I yai xSaiiata p & a'

$26. Christensen, Kayamdes, pp. 17,42,61,81, 131. haoJiiagharn para&tarn h p m c $ a i i p $26:l. The clause ya_t u&acaJ mu&am 'which came over to HaoSiiaqha Pardata for a long period of time is rendered by ~k7,1,16'as ud pad any (AHRN) hangdm mad 6 wegiird ud h&g 'and at another time (the Glory) came over to Wegird and Hagang'. The rendering of da.yamc$ aipimuanan by PhlT. pad any hang& 'at another time' does not make much sense. Yet that of upaghaca_t (usually translated as 'it followed') by mad a 'it came over to' is worthy of attention. Cf. $66:1 upar~hacaiti '(the Glory) is coming over', $89: 1 upqhacr&l '(the Glory) will (have) come over'. $26:2. Other mentions of HaoSiiagha ParaEita: In Yt5,2 1-22 he worships Araduui u p upa.bdi hmiid ... ya9a azam upamam zm xSa91-m bauuani vispangm dakiunpn daeuuanpnca ma$iiiZnmca ... ya9a a a nijanilni duua SriJuua etc.; in Yt 15,7 he worships Vaiiu u p &&am hamiid yuxtari'if pai;ti.ahaghd ... ya9a a a n+niIni duua Sn3uua etc.; zm in Yt17,24-25 he worships A# upa u p . bdi haraiid barazb sdmi'd rnazdasataiid ... yai bauuani a@i. vaniiri vispe daeuua mrTzariia ya8a azazam nod M t b &runme etc. $26:3. para&&- (Phl. peSdad) is an old title of rulers, cf. Greek Panlatar; the indigenous name of one of the three Scythian tribes reported by Herodotus 4'6. The first member of the compound most likely is Av. para 'before' (Ved. p u d ) . Less likely is Av. pard/parc5 'in front of, before' (Ved. purrfh) but it is not impossible if para&&- is a vulgata reading standing for unattested para&&- as

brilliant-making of the world, see $89:1 and $92:1-2.

' D~nkard,ed. Madan 594,14f.



perhaps taraat- for attested ku26Bt- (§9:7). In this case only, para&&- could be compared to some extent with Ved. purbbita- 'family priest, domestic chaplain'. The second member of para&- is equated with substantivized d a b 'law' by PhlT. N d a 4 an artificial-looking formation which is understood as 'promoter of the first law'. See particularly V20,l where m@ii'gm para&&ngm is rendered by PhlT. madom& ...@dad& and explained by the gloss ciydn h&g ray@dddr'h & dadixwadayi-hfiadom dyrawag kart?? 'like HbSang; [(his) having bod& i promoted the first law (means) that he was the first to promote the first law of sovereignty]' (§9:3). df. also ~ k 7 , 1 , 1 6 ~ 0 waygid ud bOSang abar w n ? d n iandlvgehan dad i mad iirln dabigmih (ud)gehm wazidm-h, ud dahibedib udgehan panagib 'came over to Wegird and Hbgang (causing them) to establish on the world the law of the countrymen and farmers, of the landlords and protectors of the world'.

58 27-29. Kayiin Yasn, Karde V
Taxma Urupi


§26:4. yd jmal duua Sn3uua m&iian@rn &8uuanm cf. n t g i m a m dew ~k7,1,18' u-#ad h&angpad xwarr dd s 3 a 'and by that glory HdSang slew two thirds of the dews of M m ' . It is open to discussion whether the later identification of M&an with M a d m is valid for the older period.'

&euuqm diidnpnca /fl9&mpiikan,mca /sB91pm kaoiiw karafngmca; $28. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which came over / to foxfur wearing brave Urupi / (for a long period of time) 1 so that he ruled on the earth of seven climes / over daeuuas and mortals, / over wizards and witches, / over despots, kauuis and kara~ans:

$28. Christensen, Kayanides, pp. 17,61,64. $28: 1. For this and the following paragraph cf. ~k7,1,1 az A npas mad d Caxmdrub zenBwand / u-S wanid pad any m g2 ? a / n dew ud mardom i wadkg / ud yadog ud pang / U Sa& abgand uzd&-pmstsgih / ud ra wigenid andar d m & / nlyiyiSn ud parastiSn i dada / u-S bardn gannag men@ tiaz w d t d aspkirb 30 m e s t a n 'and thereafter, at another time, (the Glory) came over to vigilant Tahrnbrub, / and he overcame dews, / wicked mortals, / wizards and witches; / he abolished idolatry, I and among the creatures, he promoted 1 the praise and worship of the creator, I and he transformed Aqra Mdiiu into the shape of a horse to ride him for thirty years'.

826:s. vmdiianpca &ua@m 'the deceitful Varadiians': varadiia- 'Varaniian' is

a tribal name 'inhabitants of Varana' rather than a derivation from m n a - 'choice, belief. (Note: 'deceitful believers' is not the same as 'believers of deceit'!) The underlying geographical name is the same as that of 'Varana of four comers'
mentioned in V1,17 as one of the notable regions or places of I r a , and in Yt5,33 as the elevated place on which Oraetaona worshipped Anahitii (upa varanam yim ca9m.gaoSam).A city of four comers situated in the Hindukush region is reported by Pliny 6,25,92 Cartana oppidum sub Caucaso quod postea Tetragonis dichun 'Cartma (is) a city at the foot of the Caucasus (= Hindukush) which was renamed Tetragonis (= of four comers) later on'.

aiji §28:2. The phrase darayamc~] mumam, well attested in the parallels $526 and 31, is omitted here, evidently by the inadvertance of a former copyist. The omission must be very old as the corresponding Phl. pad any zamb is misplaced in the ms. transmission of the Denkard. It was certainly also missing in a previous Denkard manuscript; at a later stage it must have been inserted above the line, and finally it crept into the line itself at a wrong place.
$28:3. As a common noun uzupi- means 'fox'. In V5,33 spli umpiiS ... a86 s p y6 umpiS the animal is described just as one of the many species of dogs (PhlT. not clear) but the matter is plain in V13,6 u.rupr&iS tiii.da&he 'of the fox of sharp teeth' (PhlT. rub@ f tez-dandizn ). Whereas V5,33 shows the more recent urnpi3 (cf. the unreliable Az2, §28:5), the archaic form umpa (likekauua, haxa) is found with the proper name in Yt 1 5 , l l tzvmd umpa uinauu2.

' Madan 594,2lff.

Madan 594,15ff.
See Monchi-Zadeh, Topgraphisch-historischeShdien ( 1 975) passim.

* Denkard, ed. Madan 594,21ff.

' & m y a m c ~ ~ a ~ ~ i m u h a m s u Hu.lafter $ $ 2 6 , 3 1 . pp .
p d a n y zamsn is misplaced in the mss.



§28:4. From the the archaic nomsg. unyra one expects the *mpa&n(as kauuaem from kauui-), from the recent m p i S one expects *urupim. The acc. umpi transmitted in the present passage is mutilated from m p i a n , rather than from unrpcaem) (Bth11532). Less convincing is the old view of Windischmann who posed a compound mpiazinauua(tt-. This oversized formation could be paralleled with nain'i&n.hpnuudraitiuuwt- ($42:2) but it is not likely with a proper name. $285. azinauuwt- was derived by H o f i a n n from *hna-, the Av. equivalent of Ved. ajina- which is attested in the sense of 'skin' but which originally must have meant 'buck or goat skin' (cf. Ved. a@- 'buck', a$- 'goat', Phl. a z sag 'buck'), ~offrnann renders the word as 'wearing a fox fur', taking account of the meaning 'fox' of the proper name urnpi-: By the Phl. translators azinauuqt- was wrongly equated with Phl. z m w a n d 'alert, vigilant' which was retransposed into Av. as mpiX zaenag*hapt- by the fabricator of A22 za&q'ha(ttam bau&i ya9a 829. yaJ b a u a api.vani'/ vlsp damua m#ii~ca / ~ % py&huud p M a s c a /yal e barat? qram marfiium / ffarm'tam &r&e kahrpa / Srisatam @.g&mnpn / uua p i i zamakatana. $29. so that (Urnpi) overcame / all daeuuas and mortals. / all wizards and witches, / so that he could ride b r a Maiiiiu / transformed into the shape of a horse, / for thirty years, / around both ends of the earth. $29:1. vispe dafiuuarnafii~cavs. Yt 1'6 v i s -daeuu0 mafiigsca. $29:2. Phl. fi;iz wdt 6 asp kirb 'transformed into the shape of a horse' ($28:1), but the literal meaning of aspahe k a h p M t a m seems to be '(Aqra Mariiiu) being exchanged with the shape of a horse'. Note, however, that Ved. vdh-p-'outstripping the wind' could point to aspahe kahpa fiamibm meaning 'in the shape of a horse, being outstripped (by him)'. §29:3. aspahe kahpa 'in the shape of a horse' is also found in Yt14,9 &xwi vazamnb vm$raynb aspahe kahpa audahe 'VaraSrayna approached driving, in the shape of a white horse'. The procedure of assuming the shape of a horse is described in quite a different way in Yt8,18 tiStn;iib ... kahrpam raespaiieiti ... vazarnnd aspahe kahrpa audahe 'TiStriia, driving, mixes his shapefbody with the shapefbody of a white horse'.

$8 30 - 44. Kayan Yasn, Karde V1
Yima Xiaeta
$31. ( U p m kauuaem xvmn6 ... yazamaide)yaj upaghica3/pin yinaam &warn / huu~9gam danyarnc~ja@i muanam / yal xhiata / p l i bllmim hapk+i$iigm / daeuumpn /= 826 mafiianpnca/y89mp'rikangmca /sa9qm kaoiiivn] karafiriunca; $31. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) 1 which came over / to majestic Yima, the owner of good herds. / for a long period of time / so that he ruled 1 on the earth of Iseven climes / over daeuuas and mortals, / over wizards and witches, I over despots, 1 (kauuis and karapans;


931. Christensen, Premiwhomme, 11, passim; idem, Kayanides, pp. 17, 37, 40, 103, 105, 125,133, 154.

$31:1. The name of Yirna means as much as 'twin', cf. OAv. y&a- 'twin' < *yama- (Ved, yamrl-),MP.jam. In the Avesta it often occurs in the combination yima- xJaeta- 'bright or majestic Yirna'. The adj. xSa8ta- (<xSiuh-), which is also found with Ahura Apam Napat ($52: I), survives in Sogd. xSy8PxSy8 as a title of the kings of Ferghwa and Samarqand (Ibn Xurdadbeh 40, Muqadassi 279).' OP. yarna- xfaita- (> MP. jamSed, NP.j d i d ) is preserved in yamakBedda ,a secular proper name attested in Elamite clay tablets from ~ e r s e ~ o l i s . ~ The phrase yim yimam XS~&%RZ huug9/bm shows the uncommon izafet construction (= relative construction) typical of Yima, cf, e.g. Y9,4 yo yimb xSaetd huug$JO. In the Avesta, y6 yimb xJa.36 is understood as 'Yima who idwas majestic, majestic Yima' but its original meaning is perhaps 'the majesty who islwas a twin'. Cf. the parallel iafet construction in $39 ya uyra naire madB hgmvaraitiS 'heroic defence which is strong' and $59 yb da6P abur~ 'Ahura Mazda who is the creator' (not 'the creator who is Ahura Mazda') in which y S uyra and y6 da8F.d are adjectival attributes. $31:2. For this paragraph and the following one cf. Dk7,l ,203 udrnad andx any (RKRN) zlvnaagpad an i o h a z d hambmifn 6 j d e d i wiwanghanan ... ud winad ... d m amarg ud a.zamrZn ud asbhifn ud apdhiSn ud fr&w udpvrrSe'd3

Its internal 6 shows that ixM is not a genuine Sogdian word, see Gershevitch, Grammx(1954) $269. I t could be borrowed from early MP. at a time at which the initial xS had not yet been simplified into S: Gershevitch in: Paglioro Volume (1969) 245. Denkard, ed. Madan 595,4ff.



$8 30-44. Kayan Yam. Karde V1.Yima XWta


'and (the Glory) came over, at an other time, at his conference with 0hrmazd,4 to JamSed, the son of Wiwanghw, ...and the creatures were rendered imperishable, unaging, free of hunger, undecaying, prospering and full of bliss'. §31:3. Important references to Yirna found in Yasna 9 (Hbm YaSt). $31:3a. Y9,4, 1" section (Viuuagvhar? worships Haoma): yaJ he pu$M us.mi'a& / y o yimd xSaehs huu&% /xvaranq%astamdZ B t a n p / huum.dmsd ma$iidn@m 'SO that a son was born to him (Viuuagh'at), / majestic Yima, the owner of good herds, / most glorious among the born, sunlike among the mortals'; PhlT. j d e d i humnag ke xwanzzhdmandtom az ad& bffd[xweSkdrtom] / xwar$.H-nigen'sntom az mardoman bffd [hu&mtom]; / [had, xwarrah hast i @wed&, xweSkm3 / ud hast i rhamdadesm bffd hend k xweSkh3, *.padtan i U mard ud &I ipad tan ijam / RdSn gufk had, xwamh &d hast ipad . i mard h x wamhdmand(ih> M / ud x wt'Ski2n3i[n ci-S)ra wag kunMj d 'JamSed, the (owner) of good herds, who was the most glorious among the born me was most dutiful], / the most sun-like looking among men [he was most benevolent]; / [as for glory there is one who (says that it is) dutifulness, / and there are (authorities) who have agreed that (dutifulness) was in both the bodies of men and the body of Jam. / ROSn said that glory is that which preserves gloriousness in the body of men, / and dutifulness is that (which) energizes (it)]; SktV. yo yamaSedo d@timan susarpcayo SrimattamaC, jatebhyd [satktltyatvnah]/[Xib asti saLk&yaM astica ya VapusBmanqsasya /&syi2q ca yamaSw'asya ekamati babhffwbyatalj saLk&ya@. / RoSanaSca uvaca yat Srih asti ya vapusa manusyarp Srimattamq dhatte satk&yaM ca kirp pmvartamanm kurute] / sliryanidksqatamd manusyebhyaf, [sufocanatamahi@arthah]. $31:3b. Y9,4, 2" section (Yima's paradise, first half): ya_t karanaoi ajhe xSa$ri%5a /amaracdwta pasu vim /qhaoSamne apa uruuaire / x "ain'ign xvm$ama j i i m a m '(Yima) who6 by virtue of his rule rendered cattle and men imperishable (or: immortal), / (who rendered) waters and plants not drying up, / (who rendered) undiminishing food available for consumption'; d PhlT. kP-S kard ad a i Iy xwadayih /amarg pah ud wir /ahOSiSn ab ud urwar [ iiin i n e a b v d Iphufk ne hdk] /xwarandrin x w d n anab6si(hi?m3'n[kri ka ew h xward bud e w mad bud] '(Jam) who by his rule rendered / cattle and men imperishable (or: immortal), / water and plants not drying up [i.e. that which was not to be dry did not dry], /
The conference is referred to in V2,2ff. hama3destrIn bud hend ku xweSkarih is misplaced in the mss. after pad t?n imard u d p d tan j {m. 'so that' or 'who', see 836:2. abayed mss. : *xw&ed Unvala, obviously because of SktV. a b h w t e .

food for the eaters remaining unexhaustible lie. when one (meal) was consumed an other one (had already) arrived]'; m pillfuvirdn / ako~iw' udakani v m e p a ~ n SktV. yaS cakarzi h y a djye / a & [Ma yat abhbsate tan na Suskarp] / ~su&itan&pkhadyarp anavas8dam [avinai, kifa cet ekarp haditup abhfftdwt~yaq~ prdpkup evasiv. ekatp $31:3c. Y9,4, 3d section (Yima's paradise, second half): yimahe xSa9re aumuahe /no& aotam dgha 1104 garamam /no$ zauruua &ha nd13mmh$ii&/n6& a m k d 'under the rule of valiant Yima / there was neither cold nor heat, / neither old age nor death /nor envy created by the daeuuas'; PhlT. pad &I ijam xwadayih i arwand / ne m a g bud ud ne garme / ne zatmm bod ud ne margih / ud ne d k i dewadad [had, hamag bffdbe sz whah ab& dHt es&d hend] 'under the rule of valiant Jam 1 there was neither cold nor heat, / neither old age nor death nor envy created by the dews [i.e., all that happend (as long as) they refrained from sin] '; SktV. yamakedasya &]ye uwhatue /na kitarp Bsit naca daghaC,na jars &it na ca m & na ca iis8 devadam [do, sawup apy abhfft a p &~ p anyatha d h m &id]. $3 1:4. Important references to Yima found in the YaSts. $3 1:4a. Yt5,25 f. (Yima worships Anahia on Mount Hukairiia): y d yimd xsaetd huug9D hukaiiiig paiti bmzaghal ... ya9a azam upamam zi haca daeuuaeibiio/ xSa9ram bauumi vispangm ddiiungm .../ya9a azam u uiie iM saokaca / u i 2 fSaoniSca vg$@ca /uiie S ~ f s c fbsastr1ca a 'that I may become the supreme ruler over all countries, .../ that I may bring out from the daeuuas / both energy and fervor, 1 both power and brightness, 1 both flocks (of sheep) and herds (of cattle), /both satiety and fame'.
3 1:4b. Yt15,15f. (Yima worships Vaiiu on Mount Hukairiia): yo yimd xSaetb huug$jo ... hukairiia~ barazagha_t visp.b&mi'& zaranaenli_t haca / ... / yaL bauuiIni x 'aranag'hastamtd)zatangm / huuaradarasd~ m@iirinm / ya_t karanauuai miiuuIdiia xSa$ra& / amarafwt? pasu vira /agh3darnne ape uruuaire / x "airiignx "ara9amajiimam; /yimahe xSa9re aumuahe etc. (as Y9'4, tj3 1:3c) 'that I may become the most glorious among the born, 1 sunlike among the mortals, / that by virtue of my rule I may render / cattle and men imperishable (or: immortal), / (render) waters and plants not drying up, / (render) undirninjshing food available for consumption. Under the rule of valiant Yima etc.'


$31:4c. Yt19,46 (Yima was cut up by Spitiiura and, according to the Phl. interpretation of the passage, by Aii Dahaka, see $465):
mss. xraranag'haslamam and huuaradarasam).




14 30-44. Kayan Yam, Karde VI. Yima XJaeta



mdi& &m


... &mca

dahakam spiriiuramca yimb-

kamptam 'as his messenger(s) Arjra Maidiiu sent out ... Aii Dahaka and Spitiiura who cut up Yima'. $31:4d. Ytl3,13O (after his death Yima was rehabilitated): yhahe viuuatJnmahe@aonbs&$gahe huua$im yazunaide 'we worship the f r a u a i of truthful Yirna Viuuaqhana, the strong owner of many herds'.
$3 1:s. Important references to Yima in the Videvdad. The second chapter of the Videvhd (= V2) contains the famous description of

jm ud kay us har do ax wiZn dad @sMd h&d; winahgilnn ixw8Jldy dSdrnand bod hen& jam ray az dn gyag paydag: ")nc~)Su'~ pb akaranao_taoJq%a; huua ta_t ' ' ddim hizuua': kay us rcly az an gyag paydag: "%hipait? fiagharami ahmi ha bauuai aoSarJ%A9' 'Jam and Kay Us had been given both lives (= material and spiritual lives). By their own sinfulness they became mortal; as for Jam that is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "with his tongue he immediately made (paradise) mortal again"; as for Kay Us this is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "in that moment he (Ahura Ma&) released him again, and in that moment he (Kay Us) became mortal".' Cf. $71:4, and see Christensen, Kayanides, p. 75.

Yima's stronghold (var). Six of the PhI. glosses embedded in the PhIT. of V2,5 and V2,19 contain Av. fragments referring to Yirna. Five of them are taken from lost Avesta texts.

93 1:5a. V2,5 PMT. frgm. 1: m&%m aemc@ y6 M wehs'en bod az gn gyag paydag: ' M i & d a 6 ~ u t &'that (Yima) was of good religion is evident from the following ~ (Avesta) passage: "voice that thoughffidea, you there, 0 dae~ua".'~* The fragment is obviously taken from the Iost Avesta original of the Denkard passage that describes the public discussion with the daeuuas, arranged by Yima in order to annihilate their bad influence. Yima put questions to the datuuas, and by means of his religious declarations he overcame their deceit and restored mankind to immortal existence." See also §3l:5f on V2,19 PhlT. frgrn. 2.
$31:5b. V2,S PhlT. frgm. 2: 6n kr ahla w bod az gyag paydag: "fyimahe viuuaghmahe daonb fiauua$Cm k 7 yd~amaiie'>/;un wiwaghanm ahla w fia wahryadm: i 'that he was truthful is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "we worship the frauua$i of truthful Yima Viuuaqhana ".' This is a quotation from Yt13,130, see $3l:4d. $ 3 1 5 ~ . V2,5 PhlT. frgm. 3: en k r -S d d a g iin cfi marddhrnan andar tan kard es'sliId az lin gyag paydag: k7%bdnauua pascaeta asaa m@&?ka ca,c?ibiib'> 'that (Yima) produced a sign in the bodies of mankind is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "thereafter (= after Yima's fall) men, being without chief and leader".'
$31:5d. V2,5 PhlT. frgm. 4:

$31:5e. V2,19PhlT. f g .1: rm u-Jm hazmg sar be kinenid az & gyyLlg paydag: paoin'ehe pascam hazagtb.zci~mahe $j?amsd asyimd karanaoi 'and that he was dissected by them at the end of the first millennium, is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "thereafter the end of the first millennium )". arrived(?)') (and) Yirna constructed(?) (...


§31:5f. V2,lg PhlT. f g .2: rm xwaday en d m st? h e sril mendy 8sMn dAfC s8 h , g6tij estiJn apadyiltrag, a & t ud st? ha& s d pady8mg dttm madan td den madan, s3 h e sril az den madan tii tan ipas6n az an gyag paydag: 'tuuagtam muanam mainiiaua st13@aoni dat? as?" 'For 3000 years God kept this creation existing in the spiritual state, 3000 years existing in the material state without adversary; then the counter-creation should come for 3000 years till the coming of the Religion, 3000 (will pass) from the coming of the Religion till the final body, as is evident from the following (Avesta) passage: "For how much long period of time the truthful spiritual state was fixed?"' Also this Avesta fragment is taken from Yima's discussion with the daeuuas, see above V2,5PhlT. frgm. 1 ($3 1:5a).

$32. &imam) y0 uzbaraL haca dat?uuat?ibiid/ uiie iSb'Sca saokaca / uiie fSaoniScs vg9fica / uiie Srgfica fmasb'Sca / yejhe xSa9rtISa xvaiiice) c&st(am,/ uiie xvar29t i ajiiamne/amamS',anhpasu. vm /aghadamne apa.umuak; $32. (Yima) who got out from the daeuuas / both energy and fervor, / both flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, / both satiety and fame; / under whose rule both kinds of undirninishing nourishment were available for consumption, 1 both cattle and men were imperishable, / both water and plants were not drying up;

daeuotd,, ed, daeuua.

a h is used to address a person contemptuously.
Denkard. ed. Madan. 251: bsl. de Menasce, 239f.


''mco)Su,ed, muSu.



$4 30-44. Kayan Yam, Karde VI.Yima %eta


§32:1. uiie iStiS saokaca uiie fSaoniSca vg9j3Zica uiie SqEsca f?a.w6'Sca: The objects of the verb uzbariIni are in the instead of the in both the present occurrence and its parallel Yt5,25. They are certainly borrowed from a lost passage in which the was correctly used. The is attested in S2,7 fhonim yazamaide, the n0m.acc.d~. in Yt9,9 fSaoni auua.&i, the datdu. in S 1,7 fiaonibiia vg9Pbiia


$33. (yimam) yeahe x&S&% /no$ aotam A h nO$ garamam /no& zauruua &ha ga no@ marai9iiiur/nd$ m k d &uud.&td /par(d> an8dnu:tO$ /para ahmdlyig him aem / dktogam vacim aghai9im/cinixM&ejmitt: barah. $33. (Yima) under whose rule I there was neither frost nor heat, / neither old age nor ni death, / nor envy produced by the daeuuas / since there was no deceit I u t l he reproduced the false speech (suggesting to him) to strive for untruth. 933: 1. All scholars understand the transmitted para anifdwtd$ as 'before his notlying' but all of them have seen that there is something wrong with it. Usually the author of the passage is blamed for his evident lack of logical thinking ("there is an error of logic" according to Hintze, 1994-2, p. 21) but we just have to correct the transmitted para mddruxtb$ into pard) mddnrxtdi~'owing to not-lying: since there was no deceit'. It is not the author of the present passage who is to be blamed for this "error of logic" but one of its later copyists who, in anticipation of the following correct para ahmad, erroneously changed the correct parb 'owing to' into the outwardly similar para 'before'. Thus the alleged problem of logic actually is a problem of textual criticism. As for our restoration par(& an~druxt@cf. pard with abl. in $38 nairiiaiidparo hgm.vcamtG 'owing to heroic defence' and Yt13,38 yL??inati'dpard 'owing to you'. Note also the gloss in Y9,5 PhlT. hamag bod be az winah abaz drZrt &stad hend(Ej3 1:3). §33:2. draogam ( h o y i m ) vacim 'false speech', cf. RV6,62,9 didgha- viicas'idem' and RV7,l O4,l4 drogha-vie- 'of false speech'. Although apparently an adj. in the present passage, draoga- 'false, deceptive' recalls the noun OP. drauga- 'lie, deception' which in particular means 'rebellion, usurpation by a false claimant to the throne' with reference to the wrong Bardiya in Darius's BehisMn inscription. Cf. Firdusi 4,75 (ed. Mohl) who in his short allusion to the event suggests that JamSed sinned against God by trying to usurpate His throne, addressing the notables of the country: geraidm ke d a i d ke man kardarn in / m a 4 xw&d bJyadjeha dm3 'so now that ye perceive what I have achieved I hail me as the maker of the world'. In his so-called confession in PhlRiv3lc,5f. (ed. Williams), Yima speaks of his sin as drb 'lie, deceit' which is the exact Phl. development of OP. drauga- : u-mharw diim ud damn im6nOy udggt~y h man dgd /pad & drd I-m gufi gufl I man xwmah ud xwadayih az-icm) " apprir bud / u-m tan be 6 wiJObiJn i dast i dew211 mad 'and I said that I (had) created all the creatures and creations, both spiritual and material, / (and) for that lie which I uttered, glory and lordship were taken away

$32:2. ye$e xiaStaSa under whose rule, by whose rule', cf. Yt15,16 rnauudiia xSa$rd& 'under my rule, by my rule'. §32:3. In the present paragraph, the mss. transmit: yerfhe xSa$nk% xvi21ni'tu astu uiie xVm9eajiiamne. The approximate meaning of this is '(Yima) under whose rule both (kinds of) undiminishing nourishment were available for consumption', but the text is corrupt. To heal the corruption, x'aiii'tu .must be corrected into xvaiii(e), nom.du. of the adj. x'ain'ia- 'to be consumed, available for consumption'; ashr must be corrected into ciT,stcam, 'the two were', 3rddu. pret. of ah'to be'. This restoration of the du. sentence is based upon its sg. parallel xViunign xVm$am ajiimam 'undirninishing nourishment available for consumption' in Y9,4 and Yt15,16. There xraiiign is an old sandhi variant of xvatiim ( x'airiim), from a stem xvania- 'to be consumed, < @ available for consumption'. The same explanation applies to Yt13,52 y h e aghai x'airip cxvm$am) qi'imam 'so that undiminishing (nourishment) will be available for him for consumption' where the function of xvitliiim is obscured owing to omission of xvm9am by an inadvertant copyist. It is no wonder that the difficult dual forms have not come down to us completely. §32:4. uiie x v m 9 e a j i i m e 'both (kinds of) undiminishing nourishment', i.e. Hauruuamt and Arnaratatzlt, the liquid and the solid nourishment as far as it is of vegetable nature. The addition of meat took place later on, according to the Phl. gloss in Y9,l it coincided with Yima's fall and, therefore, with the end of paradise: had, a s tan pad fiat.6nih a a ag kard &t&i / ud nE Eddn ciy6n awd& k? gdJt i mmr t jam jOd / u-S;Znandar tan (m)arg kard & i t & 'the body of (Ham) was made imperishable (= immortal) on account of its honesty, I and (it was) not (treated) in the way of those who devoured the meat of (=offered by) Jam 1 so that destruction (= death) was produced in their bodies. The addition of meat is reflected, e.g., in the Dran ritual (Y3,l) where hauruuat.1 amanmta ga~13 hudd metaphorically denote the ritual offerings of both vegetable and non-vegetable nature.16


'arrived', literally 'was', if asis incorrect for 2 . s

Av. karanao_tShe produced, constructed' is equated by PhlT. with Phl. kjirenid'was dissected'. trnlarg 'destruction' is corrected by us f?om mss. amarg 'imperishable'. l6 Note that the nom, g~ufhuda'which used here as acc. is an OAv. form (vs. YAv. gsuShu6a'). is




$6 3044. Kayan Yam, Karde VI. Yima %eta


from me, / and my body fell into destruction at the hands of the demons.'. Cf, ibidem 3 1a 10. barah 'he reproduced the false speech' which was §33:3. ahtoyam vacim ... piupiuti insinuated to him by the forces of evil. Cf. Dadestan i Denig 39,16f. according to which Yirna committed his sin under the deceptive influence of the Druj, the personified deception: ka az druz Hfihist / u-S az ohnnazd banhgih be 6 abardom xwacLPyih mgenid guA' /u-~abar dam-dddlnn-h-ixwe~'~ 'when (Jamshed) w s deceived by the Druj 1 and w s thereby made eager for a a supreme sovereignty instead of the service of Ohrmazd, / he spoke about himself as having created the creatures (and creation^)'.'^ The phrase vBcim ... paitLbarah shows some outward similarity with YS0,6 v m m baraiti 'he raises his voice' but the pref. paiti and the med. form of pitibarah seem to modify the meaning of the verb into 'he accepted' or 'he adopted' or even 'he reproduced'. [PS: Note, however, the med. voice in pdti ... bharadhvam RV8,20,9 which certainly means 'offer'.] §33:4. cimifne 'to strive for, desire' from root kan/can is an inf. of the same type as cimae 'to heap up'. The object governed by c i n m e is arfhm'9im 'untruth' of the preceding line which was erroneously understood as a further attribute of v c m See $ 5 4 on enjambment. As for the meaning of cinmae cf. the pseudoai. thematic form cinmrinfahjein A3,7 aeuuahe haem cinm;~r,[ahjkO dahe vahiS&he ya_t 'to strive for one among the existing, for best truth'; PhlT. ewilz ahldyih daS&am ~y ke az hasm pahfom he; SktV. ekasyaiva s~t&thaHrp vallabhe e s m pugyasya atzC,parmya. §33:5. Like the inf. cinrnrin[ahJe in A3,7, the ntr. cinman- 'strive, desire' is 'love' in rendered by PhlT. as d6So' cinmai 'no desire (for robbing people) of limb Y 12'3 n & ast6 n612 u&%nahE and life'; PhlT. ne gy3n n8 tan d6S&m ray ; SktV. naca &inoh naca jivasya vdiabhatriyau ; P43 cinma kahiidca ar/heuJ astuuat6 yo dahe cimauuastamoagha_t 'the desire of everyone among the corporeal existence who is most desirous of truth'; PhlT. pad dbS&am (I;, kadiiriz-ew axw-i astomand [kE (den)6 x w 3 kunEd 8-S pad ddS&am 6 xwe3 kardanJ ke ahfayih dost-mEniSnigtorn hast [kO den d0sli;u hast]. Note also F19/610 cinrnm0, PhlT. ddS&arn, and see $48:3 on rtEtiInO.cinahiia-.
l a mss,

934. Aa_tpg him 8em / hogam vacim agha1'9h/ cihmmepar'ri.bamh / vaenamnam ahma! haca xvarand / marayahe kahpa fdusa_t./ Auuaend x'aranb fmeSt6 / yb yimd xSaet6 huu@?d br&l._tyimO / abtd /&uF.manahiiaica h6 starat6 /'izdupanzgm. mdYr 134. But when (Yima) / had reproduced the false speech (suggesting to him) to strive for untruth, I the Glory, in the shape of a bird, / flew away from him visibly. 1 Following the Glory with his eyes, majestic Yirna, the owner of good herds, (was) driven off (from his throne); / Yirna got excited, restlessly, I and having fallen (as a victim) to enmity (or: to mental distraction), / he fled downwards over the earth.


§34:1. After vaenmnam ahma1 haca xvamn6 ... fizhsa~ Glory flew away 'the from him visibly', auuaend xvarand means 'looking after the Glory, following it with his eyes' (auua&o < b-uuaeng , cf. Y46,2 d &+a-uuaena 'look hither') rather than 'not seeing the Glory, having lost sight of it' (auuaend <a-uuaenq). $34:2. iiaHt6 'driven off (from his throne)' or 'driven out (from paradise)', is perhaps a rare example of the use of the p.p.p. in the function of a finite verb. As for the specific meaning of fia-iS in the present passage cf. Yt14,36 naHa ciS m&o raeuua jainti naea fiaeSiieiiti 'no mighty man (can) slay him or drive him by off. [PS: ffa&td could also be cormpted from ht%tarn> perseveration of -6.1 §34:3. btasil literally 'he was whirled around', used metaphorically in the sense of 'he got excited' is from root 'bar 'to storm or blow (of the wind), to surge (of water)', cf. Ved. bhur 'to move rapidly or convulsively'. The incohative brcfsa_t follows the same morphological pattern as Khwar. p-s 'to awake' from root gar 'to wake' after which H1,13 fia-yrsamd 'awaking' is to be corrected into fiayr(ri~sam.6. $34:4. d8t0 'restless' i.e. 'having lost his homestead and his peace of mind'. $34:5. If d3uSmanahiia- means 'evil-mindedness, enmity' (in the sense of 'enemy, enemies'), it particularly refers to Spitiiura, Yima's dissector, to whom the Phl. tradition adds Aii Dahaka (§46:5-6). A meaning of ds~dmmahiia-such as 'madness, mental distraction' is also possible, cf. Firdusi 4,191 be kaii-gerdyid u n8bixradi 'he turned to folly and perverseness'. Yet note that the literal meaning of d3uSmanahii2ica starat8 'fallen (as a victim) to enmity or to his enemies' is 'laid low at (the feet of) his enemies', cf. Ved. sku + dat. in, e.g., RV8,3,2 m:l na star abhimahye 'do not leave us (as victims) to enmity', lit. 'do not lay us low at (the feet of) the enemy'. §34:6. Of no help for making out the meaning of nidaral is nid&o in Vyt30 y0 no aF@maghungm hZ@m nidad aghaL, a difficult fragment the syntactical relations of the single members of which are not clear but in which nidcIrd could be a noun meaning 'oppressor'. Without doubt the verb nidwhas quite a different meaning. One has to choose between, e.g.:



u-fdam-&&ih abar xw& West: 'and about his administration (&&ih) it is said'. cinrnbnahe is cormpted from cinm&fe, under the influence of the surrounding aeuuahe ... &e vahiStahe.



gg 30-44.Kayan Yasn, Karde VI. Yima Xheta


'he rushed down onto the earth', perhaps to be corrected into nid(uua,@ or: 'he concealed himself upon the earth' or: 'he fled downwards over the earth' which is suggested by Bdh36,5 jam B xwarrah az-iS be Sud SaS sad Smzdah s d u SaS mah ud pas az Cw sad s a andar wiHg bod 'Jam (ruled) six hundred and sixteen years and six months, till the Glory departed from him, and after that he Mxined in flight for a hundred years'. Cf. also Firdusi 4,202-204 nihm gdt sadom siiI nlz-i be d m - y e cin pad2 h a d S h nspak d 1 'he was in hiding but in the hundreth year the impious a 5 S h h appeared one day beside the sea of Cin'.



934:7. If u p h i q m means '(moving) over the earth', cf. Yt5.89 m a & a x'aranaghaca pasuuasca s&oHca u w i i ziim v i m n t a mqiiaca bizanga 'owing to my wealth and glory, sheep, cattle and bipedal men'roam over the earth'. Yet note rnainiiad d m p a6ain:zambYcaupahi.mmaiSca ~ also Yt8,48 vispaiS yaiS spa~tahe 'all the creatures of S p a ~ t Maxiiiu, those (which live) under the ground and those a (which live) on the surface of the earth.

$354. marayahe kahrpa vmynahe 'in the shape of a falcon bird', cf. Yt14,19 vara9rayno dja* ... marayahe kahrpa v-ynahe ... yo vaiim asti asiSra n~jiSt0 fiauudzamnangm 'VaraSrayna arrived in the shape of a falcon bird which is the swiftest of the birds, the fastest of the beings that move forward'; Yt14,35-36 marayahepa$o.p%ranahe vmftjinaheeparanam... marayahe tmmahe manyangm 'a feather of the falcon bird of wide wingspread ...of the brave bird of birds'. The stem v&yn(a)- 's dissimilated from v&nyn(a)-, the weak stem of i v&ngan(a)/v2mftjm(a)-. Cf. Sogd. w'ryn'y, Khwar. w'rynyk 'falcon' and also NP. gunhj 'falcon' with short vowel of the first syllable.22 The Iranian evidence unambiguously proves the meaning 'falcon' but the etymological meaning of the word is 'striking lambs' which points to the word originally having served as an epithet of a larger bird of prey, perhaps the eagle. Note the strange reinterpretation of the Proto-Aryan form of the name of the bird in RV2,14,4 yd dnylam jaghha '(Indra) who slew the (demon) ~ a m b ' . ~ ~ $355. hacpgauruudata 'he reached for' rather than 'he took hold o f . Note that the Glory returns to Yima, and see $51:3 hapgauruuai'a,t ... haggrafhe 'he reached for it (thinking) I want to take hold of it1. $35:6. hazagH.yaoxStiS 'of a thousand rays', see $9:6 on yaoxJtiuumt-.

x $35. t Yab paoiRm xrmnb apanamata / x'mna yimal haca ;rSee&j / iusa~ 'itcan6 / yimal haca viuuqhukri / maragahe kahpa varaynahe / aom x'amnb haf~)gSuruuaiia& mrm8rb vouru.gaoiiaoitiS / yo smJ.gaabSb haza@.yaoxSbX / Mi9ram wipangm yo pamaide / yim hda9aJ ahurb mazdd / xvaranag"hasfamam &iiungm / dajhupiupiuBm mariiauuan@nyazatanm. 435. When the Glory turned away for the first time, / (when) the Glory (turned away) from majestic Yima, / (when) the Glory flew away from Yima,the son of Vivahuuan, / in the shape of a falcon bird, / that Glory was reached for / by MiSra of wide pastures, / of (sharp)-hearing ears, of a thousand rays. I We worship MiSra, / the lord of all lands, I whom Ahura Mazda established / as the most glorious among the spiritual Yazatas.
aC §35:1. y _ in cyaJ paoirim has been restored by us after the parallels $36 yaL aC bifim, and $38 y _ Srifim.

$35:2. The loss of the Glory was already described as one sudden event in $34. Later tradition poetically extended the description into three successive stages (9$35, 36, 38), now comparing the Glory to a falcon which customarily returns to its falconer. As for aomxVmnQ $9:3. see

$36. Yai bihin x*aranoapanamata / xraranbyima! haca xfae&d/Susai xvmnoyima~ / haca vriruaghaf? / mamyahe k~brpavanpahe / aom xVmn6ha~g3ummiata visa 9raetaona / ya_t iss ma$iiiingm vara9rauuatbgm / pu9r0 a@?ijanoiS/ vis6 s ~ a d vara9rauuartamb ahid zara~ItStr&'. $36. When the Glory turned away for the second time, / (when) the Glory (turned away) from majestic Yima, / (when) the Glory flew away from Yima, the son of Vivahuuan, / in the shape of a falcon bird, I that Glory was reached for / by the crownprince of the ASPiia clan, / of (that) mighty clan, by Braetaona / who was the most steadfast among the steadfast mortals other than ZaraSuStra.
936:l. The full title of Braetaona is visdpu8rd &%JPii&~di#sllraiia' SraCtaonb visd as it is given in the present passage and in Yt5,33 where the hero is described as worshipping Anahita on Varana of four comers (upa vmnam ca9ru.gaoSam).The title is abbreviated, perhaps inadvertently, in Y9,7 ya_t he pu9rd us.zaiiata visa e sliraiia' Sraetaond 'that a son was born to him, Oraetaona, (the c r ~ w n - ~ r i n cof) ~ ~ (his) powerful clan'. As for Oraetaona's connection with Varana cf. V1,17
Humbach, Krarylos38 (1993)40f. Humbach, DLZ 78 (1957)298ff. 24 visdpu9r.6 > Sogd, wySpSy 'prince'.


$35:3. The interweaving of the elements in xvmnd apanamata, x v m n b yimad haca xfaetq, iusa,t xvarand yimai haca viuuaghu&_C, is a rare example of a more developed poetical technique. Similar but less typical is 934 auuaend x'arand fiae#td yo yimd xSaetd huu99Fd br&a_Cyimd &to where the second occurrence of yimb is redundant.

'' Kellens, Le verbe avestique (1984) 114,n. 2.



$4 30-44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI.Yima Xgai?ta


vamnam yim ca9m.gaoSam yahmbbuz.zaiia& 8ra&aonbyo jmta &dig dah&ai 'Varana of four comers where &aetaona, the slayer of (the serpent) AZi Dahaka was born'. Note also YtI3,l3 1 SraeCaonahe dLJflii&?&i daond f r a u u ~ m yazamai'de. 836:2. (hetaonb) ya_t8s ma$iign@m vara8rauua(biunvam$rauumk?mb,cf. §38:3 (karsaSpa) yaJ Bs m@iii?n@n u p g m aojiStd* 479: 1 (-8IIShrn) yal cd,s #am &uuastamb. In the present context the rendering of yaJ& by 'who was' is hardly avoidable, a notion such as 'so that he was' being expressed rather by yg bauual 'so that he became' as in $29, 477, 487, cf. y@&UO 'so that they became' in #72. Note also Y9,4 ($3 1:3b) where yima .. yaJ karanaoi @he xJa9rdsa is understood by PhlT. as 'Yima who under his reign rendered' (PhlT. k % kard, SktV. yaS t# cak&a) which, however, is doubtful in view of Yt15,16 (auual Biiaptam) y ! a karanauu~imauudiia xSa9r2~7a (that boon) that I can render under my reign*. ' $36.3. The transmitted vara9rauuangm is presumably mutilated from vm9rauuacb@m. The nomsg. forms amauua ... vara9rauua ,.. vam9rauua ... amauua in Yt14,59 do hardly account for stems amauuan- and vm9rauuan-; they rather are slightly incorrect for amauud ... vm9rauud from the common stems amauuagt(Ved. ilmavant-)and vara9rauu~t-. also raeuua Yt14,36 for m~uuif, Cf. $37. (9raetaono) yo j a m dim dahaGam / Sniafmam SriGamam6am / xSuuaC.aSim haqd.yaoxStm / zdaoj'qham daeuuim &jam / ayam ga~Sauuii0h u q t a m / ygm &.ao/btamqm &jam / fmca kam~&_tr d manyid / aoi yiun astuuaitiim gae9m / q mahrkai &e gaebgm. $37. (Oraetaona) who slew Aii Dahaka , / (the serpent) of three mouths, three heads, / six eyes, of a thousand rays, / (that) very strong (incarnation of) daeuuic deceit, / (that) deceitful evil to the world, / (that) by far strongest (incarnation of) daeuuic deceit which / Aqra Maniiu fabricated against the corporeal world / in order to destroy the world of truth. 437: 1. hazagra.yaoxSti- 'of a thousand rays' (see §9:6 on yaoxSCiuuqt-) possibly in the sense of 'of a thousand jets (of poison)'. §37:2. daeuui- alnrj- '(incarnation of) daeuuic deceit' in the present passage but in V18,3 1 and SrB3 it is used as name of the personified daeuuic deceit itself.

$38. When the Glory turned away for the third time, I (when) the Glorry (turned away) from majestic Yima, 1 (when) the Glory flew away from Yima son of Vivahuuan / in the shape of a falcon bird, / that Glory was reached for / by heroic-minded Karasaspa 1 who was the strongest among the strong mortals I other than ZaraSuStra, / owing to (his) heroic defence.

$38: 1. The mention of Karasapa and his nairiiii- bgm.varaiti: 'heroic defence' is taken by the author of this passage as an opportunity for making a digression into the legend of Karasapa.
§38:2. Note the difference in development of the thematic vowel of nairia'manly, heroic' in naire.manah- and nanid.sagha-, cf. Man.MP. nrym 71and nrysh, vocalized nar&rn.& and n a n a by ~ o ~ c e . ' ' §38:3. ya_las 'who was*see §36:2. §38:4. The reading hpn.vanti-, found as variant in 439 and in other occumences of the word is preferable to Gdn's hpn.varati-, see Hintze, p. 208.

[I§39 - 44. Digression into the Legend of Karasaspa]

kaWspam; $39. since (Karasaspa) was accompanied / by strong Heroic Defence. / We worship Heroic Defence I of erect shanks, not sleeping, / set up at her place, and watchful, / who J accompanied Karasaspa;
$ 39: 1. ara6p6.zanggm axvahijgm &sitO.giUUmjayaunim 'of erect shanks, not sleeping, set up at her place, and watchful' is repeated from Y62,5, PhlT. stendag-zangih[kU-m k&-i azpf~y tu wm8d kardan] ax wayih [ U tii az weh k abar slim& n.5 xufiem, sdwadag r zJab, wef ne xufied] fez azg&ih [krl H-mt& d az br7Sasp b& tuw&Jd bud@ ud an&rangAhud Y(DA)km% [a-z an i pad dast abayed kardan] 'of erect shanks [i.e. standing on my feet I am better able to do my duty], not sleeping [i.e. I do not sleep up to meal-time, (sleeping) the third part of day-andnight, (I) do not sleep more (than that)], quickly (rising) from its bed [i.e. so that I can awake quickly from sleep], blameless and doing manual work [that which must be done by ones hands]'.

/iusa_txvarsndyima_t $38. Ya_tSnZm xvarand apanamata /xvaran6yima_t haca xJa&%_t haca viuuqhuZ:B~ marayabe kahpa vmynde / aom x'arand hiqg&muaiiata / / nairemand kamsasp6 / ya_t ;5s ma$ii2ngm uyrangm / aoJj'std ani'id zara$dIrd_t nairiiaiig! / par0 hqm.vca)rat&j'.

Boyce, Word-List (1977) sub verbis.



K 3094. Kayan Yasn. Karde V1.Yirna Xiaeta ?


§39:2. Hintze's rendering of &iM.gatu- as 'even when lying on the bed' (Hintze, p. 209) which, by the way, would require the ptcl. -ciJ does not harmonize with ara6fid.zawa- 'with erect shanks', axvafoiia- 'without sleep', and jayauru'watchful', the three other attributes of Nairiia H ~ u u a r a i t i Yet our rendering as . 'set up at its place' is also somewhat hypothetical. The PhlT. renders ilsita- by t& 'fast, speedy', obviously thinking of an etymological connection with &u- 'fast, speedy' which would be of certain use only if dsita- was to be connected with Ved. a-& 'to sharpen'. The connection with Ved.'lying round, surrounding, blocking' is dubious as well. No approach to a solution of the problem is possible without taking into account &fl't4- Y10,14 to which Bthl338 (s.v. b i t - ) attributed the meaning 'consuming, enjoying', erroneously deriving it from the root Ved. aS 'to consume, enjoy' (Bthl338). In Y 10,14 &i&- seems to mean 'set up, planted', said of gaoS dial@, the bull banner of the Iranian kings (Bth1771f.) The passage was already enigmatic to the Phl. translator: YlO,l4 ma meya9a gad draft0 B i t d -ma &e 26/ihda15aiiqtu tE ma& 'do not let (your intoxicants) move about at like the bull banner (flutters) when planted / (but) let your intoxicants move forward'; PNT. ma ciydn man ga w draff a-m tbz az w m m ra wb [c~ydn M p a d Cw gaw gyag esmdne tuwm td-jz wrhahg&% ldypd ian iman m e h m i h n&ba 'do not (behave towards) me like the bull banner but move quickly out of my mind ljust as the bull banner cannot stay at one and the same place (thus) there shall be no hospitality for you in my body because of (my) sinfulness]'; SktV, mi? me yatha gopat2kI;vaafu vigrahatpracara [yam gopaMkij@ekasminn eva shine b t e evarppapakamunome va usiabhyagatoma bhava] 'do not (behave) like the bull banne? (but) move quickly out of the battle(?) bust as the bull banner always stays at one and the same place so do not enter into my body, (the body) of an evil-doer]'.

its back, I [[on which poison grew,]] 1 yellow, up to the height of a spear-length, / (Mi Sruuara) on which Karas!ispa cooked his meal in an iron pot / about meal time. / The scoundrel was getting hot and started sweating; /jerking forward under the iron, 1 it was about to upset the boiling water. / Being frightened, heroic-minded Karasaspa fled away.


w w

$40:1. The Av. text of the parallel Y9,ll has yim upail v i S a m o ~ o n e only, time and it completely omits the phrase xSuuai!paiia vaenaiia b d n a which was shifted into its PhlT. the author of which evidently had some difficulties with the passage: Y9,ll yd jmaJ aiim smuaram yim aspd.garam namgaram yim vjSauuqtam zairitam yjm up& viS araoSa_r&%id. barazi?miit~m; PhlT. ke-S a d az i sruwar i asp-db& imard-dbiir i wiSdmand i zar4 k&S abar wiS menid ~sted asp-buy i?n izard [had en 2.n i-S pad kamd uz Sud 'kJuua@aiia va&aYa bmSna "& i-S pad mfi be dbasC;hast ke eddn go wed h;sd har dd bw iYn i and bday uz Sud ud an i and drahnay be abasr; hast ke bdon gbw&d had kabarag abarpdthufk &&dj 'who slew Az-i Sruwar, the horse-devouring, men devouring (serpent) covered with poison, the yellow one over which the yellow poison was made flowing to the height of a horse [i.e. that deadly (poison) rose xguuaepaiia va&miia b@na up to its head, (and then) it came down to its maw; (yet) there is (another authority) who says that both (was) of one (dimension), as high the poison rose so broad did it come down, (and) there is (another authority) who says that (Karastispa's) vessel was standing dry on its (the serpent's) back'; SktV. yo jaghaa shim srubararn ym aSvagi/ar~r m g i f q y m visrvnan&? n a p Iohikup yatra upari vjsarl,prd vahat mu$yru)gu$thaMgam & & i p . $40:2. Further important Pahlavi parallels on Karasaspa: Dk9,15,229ka-SMt az-isruuar ud (. stahmagih i2.n petyaagih 'since he killed the (serpent) Az-i Sruwar and (eliminated) the oppression by that fiend'; PhlRiv18f,5ff. (ed. Williams) ce-m azismwar be dzadiasp-dbamd-db&/uS dandm and cand bazrig F man bud / u$ gdS and cand cahwah namad bod / U S *aS and cand wardm-e bod / u-3snl and cand &kpad bday bod 'since I killed Az-i Sruwar, the horse-devouring man-devouring (serpent). / Its teeth were as large as my arms, / and its ears were as great as 14 felts, / and its eye was as great as a chariot, 1 and its horn was as great as a branch in height'.




$40. (karasbpam) yd jam! dim smuaram / yim aspO.garam naragaram / yim]


upan viS camo&$]/Mtiid.baraza zaintam /yim upairikaras&po/iili"ghapitum /fri,Saiiqhd hpara_t / a rapisjinam zmuaam; / /= Y811 tafs&ahd mairiid xVisa&a yaeSiiaghin apgm pardrjha_t/pari,fMtd apatacad /naire.manB karasbpd.

'' The strange m2 ... mire 'do not let them move about' recalls the similar ma ... nire 'do not let
them go/flow/drop down' in Y 10,17.
27vdram-a 'at will' is certain in Yt5,130, 17,2. In the present passage it could also mean 'at the

§40:3. vifauuantam 'the poisonous (serpent)' is paraphrased by yjm upainnviS ca)rao&_t '(the serpent) on which poison rose' or 'on which the poisonous plant grew' (= 'which was overgrown with poisonous plants'). See Hintze, p. 215f. who explains viS as 'poisonous plant', an explanation which could have been justified by adducing the name of Mount V i S a u u ~ t 'covered with poisonous plants' (see
- -

wall-side'. gopkik@Bis doubtful. Monier-Williams gives pat;rka- 'flag, banner', pat&;n- 'bearing

a flag'.


Denkard, ed. Madan 802,19f.



$8 3044. Kayan Yasn, Karde V1. Yima Xfaeta


§4:6 on viSauu&-ca ). Yet PhlT. has k M abar wiS m e n i d CstPd 'over which poison was made flowing', perhaps in the sense of 'on whom poison made to rise'. Cf. also Y9,30 pahi miitnhe simahe ~136. vaepahe 'against the yellow, tenible, poison-spouting serpent'; PhlT. be az izard isahmag& i w i S - b & ~ ~ a f[kAC wiJ d t'~ b&BSiYt 6stid]; SktV. u p i i ahau lohite bhay&kate v~&mpte. §40:3bis. The conjecture camo&_C for transmitted raoJa_Cfollows Gdn's reading arao&_rin the parallel Y9,I 1, see Hintze, p. 215. §40:4. xSvuaepaiia vace)naiia b d n a '(growing) over its tail, snout, and back'. In the present passage the rnss. have vanaiia (Hintze 'plant') which is corrected into vacemAa by Gdn. after its quotation in Y9,l IPMT. (g40:l). If we pose &-stems xSuuae@- 'tail' and vamci- 'nose' (Bthl560, 1325), xJuuaepai'a and vahaha are or instr. sg., if we pose a-stems xSuuaCp- and vaena-, only is possible. Instr. is suggested by bmSna which, however, is doubtful, see next. 840:s. If baraina is of baram- (Bth1950), its meaning must be 'up to the height; in hight'. Cf. Yt5,96 h a q m ' bmSna w-mgm 'a thousand man in hight' (also OP. DSf26-27 cX)L ardniS barSnd ... r X X , M n i S M n a '40 cubits in depth ...20 cubits in depth'), and furthermore the immediately following Mtiib.barazan'of the height of a spear length' (thus if ilrSriii6.baraza is not instr. but as Bth1338 wants). Yet one expects rather a form of b d n u - 'back' such as the baraSncuud>'on his back' or, particularly, the instr. sg. baraSncu) 'over its back', The variant batanufnoted by Dhabhar in Y9,ll PhlT. points to the latter. §40:6. fipStiasparaa'he jerked forward' (vs. apatacaa 'he ran away'), cf. Ved. prasphur 'to become tremulous, throb, quiver, palpitate'. The aiiaghb 'under the iron pot' is a gen. of local sphere, see $56:2. §40:7. p d j h r i d <par&ySt could be a pertopt. expressing the irrealis ('he would have upset the boiling water') but it is rather a pressubj. denoting an event expected in the past ('he was about to upset the boiling water'), see $2:1 on uzuxSiign 'they were expected to grow out'. As Hintze, p. 218 points out, the latter solution is preferable, Karasaspa being blamed by the Phl. tradition for having killed (= extinguished) the fire: Dk9,l 5,33 hamemaih i &. J 0 kerscisp pad must ip a d 4 kard a& d&tan i-S I Y dwaMt ud a y m i '(about) the opposition of Fire against KersBp on account of the violence he had done to him (Fire), (and about) his being witheld from paradise, and (about) the help (rendered to him)'; PhlRivl8f,4 (ed. Williams) where Ohrmazd speaks to the soul of Karasiispa:

be est ... ce-m zi3tpad caSm he ce-t a t w p u s iman dmd u - t w z nC kard 'stand away, for you are hateful to my eyes, for you killedlextinguished Fire, my son, instead of taking care of him'.

niuwk3he / hunauuasca daShi'iiandiS / yd /ma1 / zarrufiid.pusam hi&pam / /omca daniui'mam /pi&onamca aC.pcun'kam; §41.(Karasapa)who slew Gandarapa of yellow heels 1 who rushed up open-mouthed / with the purpose of destroying the corporeal world of truth; / (Karasupa) who slew I the nine rascal sons of PaSana, / and the rascal sons of Niuuika, I and the rascal sons o f Dataiiani; 1 (Karasapa) who slew Himpa of golden diadem, / and VaraSauua Danaiiana / and Pitaona most devoted to witches;
$4 1:1. g a ~ d a t a g i yim mii.@nam 'Gandarapa of golden heels', cf.: n


Dk9,l 5,z3*udka-S wiinidganhj9 *zardpSn* cpad) Sikastih i& druj 'and since he overcame Gandarw of golden heels by shattering that (incarnation of the) Druj'; PhlRiv18f,9-13 cg-m gandanv be dmd kc?-Spd Cw brIr dwadah deh be jtld. / 'Oka-m andar d a n d a igandarw be n12edd / a-S mardom i murdag andar dand~n cigust esHd /u-Sra iman gnB/u-S be zt?h *kejid horn /u miin nb rdz-Jab& andar zreh kiireziir d s t / udpas man az gandarw pdyfiwandtar bud hom; / u-m tah ipciy igandanvgrifi/ u-m ta sar c m be a i x t / u-m dast udpSy igandarwp a d 4 bast / u-m zrPh be b b& *keSid / u-m be a n i m g abespiFrd ... L.. ud gandanv rZunlrag i dost kefid .../... be 0 Z T C ~ hom ... u-m gandarw grift ud b a d Sud 'for I slew Gandarw who devoured twelve villages at a time. / ''when I looked into the teeth of Gandarw, then (I saw) dead men were hung on his teeth; / and he seized my beard, / and I was dragged by him to the sea, / and for nine days and nights we fought in the sea; / and then I was more powerful than Gandarw; 1 and I seized the sole of the foot of Gandarw, 1 and I flayed the skin up to the head, / and with it I bound the hind and front legs of Gandarw, / and I dragged him to the edge of the sea and I entrusted him to k n i r a g ... / ... and Gandarw dragged off (my) friend Axriirag ... / ...I went to the sea ... and I seized Gandanv and killed him.'
§41:2. The ending -aiia < ah% in hunauua yai pa9anaiia is a dialect variant of the common YAv. gensg. ending -ahe < ahiia found in hunauuasca niuuikahe hunauuasca dizStaii2ndJ following immediately. Another proper name with the same ending -aiia is vaesaka- in Yt5,54 where Tusa entreats Aniihita: yai bauuiini a@i. vaniii a m u a hunauua va~sdcaiia 'that I may overcome the rascal sons of ~ a e s a k a ' . ~ ~


" Madan

Transmitted Phl. LfyBft was read af by Bth1423, obviously because of SktV. avapte. ir 803,3.



$4 30-44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI. Yirna XSaeta


The gensg. pa9maiia of pa9ana- is also found in Yt5,38 where it is Karasaspa who entreats Anahita: yai k u u M @ vaniid / m d m f l a m y h zdir.paSnam / u p yaozaata k m a / .

secretly, carrying away valuables, 1 - turning it aside, (Karasbpa) took hold of the mace 1of (Araz6.Samana) / who out of breath had entered the battle; $42:1. The first member of the proper name mzd..Samana- is ma- 'battle' or mzah- 'battlefieldd8. The sstem araza- is certain in 'having entered the battle(fie1d)' at the end of the paragraph where the difference in meaning is less relevant. $42:2. The formation naIiiipm.hp.n. vBr(ai)tiuuiwt-'endowed with heroic defence' is an extension of hpnvaraitiuucylt- 'endowed with defence'. The extension is based upon the rather common formula nain'm hgm. varai1Tm ymaia'e which occuis in $39 and in S2,22, Vr7,3. The rhythmic lengthening vaP> viir" is due to the exceptional length of the compound. It should not be eliminated by a so-called correction. See also $28:4 on the transmitted urupi azinauuwtam which by some authors was explained as an oversized compound of similar type. $42:3. The rendering of fiafllstam c..z)d'tam- as 'popular and esteemed' is hypothetical. The textual vicinity to bm.ZlLCam ($42:9) is worth considering. $42:4, jira- is etymologically related to Ved. jk.4 'quick, speedy, active', Here we have to count with a negative characteristic such as 'crafty, sly'. $425. zbaramna- 'walking crookedly' is perhaps used here metaphorically in the sense of 'pursuing crooked ways'. The root zbar is the daeuuic counterpart of root gam 'to go' in Yt15,50 asta d&j%.W ... patantam vd zbamptam v8, but the difference in meaning between act, and med. is not clear. The med. Ved. hvarate means 'to deviate, to go astray'. $42:6. In the present context jiydum- has the somewhat negative meaning 'alert' rather than the positive 'watchful' posed in $39:1.

zraiia vouru.ka$dia /dl;oc&i s m m nmdnam / ~ U U ya_tpa9~~aii(a?~ ~ M 'that I may overcome 1 Gandarafh of yellow heels 1 at the surging sides 1 of the
Vountka$a Sea / (that) I may reach the strong house of deceitful PaSana'. In Yt5,38 just quoted, pa9ana1j.a occurs together with the well-known phrase zraiia vouru.kaSaja 'of the Vouruka$a Sea' which is in the gensg. as well. As for the gen. function note particularly Yt8,8 & a vouru.k&wia amauuatd hmo6ahe jafiahe uruii2pahe which is equivalent to Yt8,46 piui'kghb vouru.k&e arnauuatd huraoGahe jafiahe miidpahe 'of the Vouruka$a Sea, breaking, beautiful, deep, of roaring waters'; furthermore Yt5.4 8,31etc. yaozaati vispe k m d zraii',%miibb vouru.k@aiia which syntactically and rhythmically corresponds to Yt10'36 yaoza~tivispe k m b rasmand arazd.h2he 'all the flanks are surging of the battle-tossed line'.35
$41 :3.. hunauuasca niuuikahe hunauusca iWt?li'2nbiS 'the rascal sons of Niuuika ka-Szad hunutk iniwlgan cud) and the rascal sons of Dt%taiimi', cf. ~ k 9 , 1 5 , 2 ~ ~ daStanIggangardn m2gih u-SLfnm d 3 7'since he slew the rascal sons of Niwig (and) DStan, (that incarnations of) grievous harm, and their progeny as well'.

$4 1:4. varaS;?Iuua-< *van&-pua- as YAv. huuduua- < *huud-pua- (< OAv. huud.guua-), see also $77:15 on narauua- > *nara-yuua-. $41:5. yo jmaJ pitaonamca &.paiikam 'Karasaspa who slew Pitaona most devoted to witches', which Karasaspa possibly did with the purpose of abducting the witch XngSaiti who came over to him according to V1,9 painxgrn ygm

xng9ait.i ya uparlhacaikaras&pm.
$42. (karasiispam) yo jmai arazb.Samanam / naiiigm.hgm.Va,~ai)tiuua~bm taxmam ftazdtam c....z)uftam/jirsm zbaramnam / i ' ~ u n u n afrakatacim barazrcSam / apa.disam niiil(sa_t, ddum /apastanaghd gatd.arazahe; $42.(Karasaspa) who slew Arazb.Sarnana I endowed with heroic defence, 1 brave, popular and esteemed (by his people), I crafty, pursuing crooked ways, alert, I running


In the rns. tradition of Yt5,38 the p9anaii4 a gen. of the same type as voum.k&iia preceding it, is corrupted into the, p h a i i d , extending this into the series pa9anaiia' skaranaiid d~ratpaaia'which is borrowed from Yt10,95 uua karana aifld zamb ya-t p9anajia' skaranaii' d~radpraiii'both edges of this wide, round earth whose limits are far apart'. 35 The ms. tradition varies between zraiia, zraiia, m i i g i . The correct reading seems to be *zraii(< *zrayahd) which is nowhere attested. 36 Madan 802,22. 37 U-fan zand: ms. udzandi 73%.


" For this and the following see Humbach, MSS 3, rev. Nachdruck (1958) 73-79.

$42:7. a-Ma- is understood here as 'secret, obscure', taking M a - as '*open1 a As first (vs. M 'forward'). Hence a-Ma-tac- 'running s e ~ r e t e l ~ ' . ~ ~ member of compound, a-Ma- is also found in afiaka8auuqt- and in afrakauuu which is attested in its superlative afiakauuastama-only. afiaka-Gauuqt-,rendered by us as 'wiping away obscurity' (from root do 'to wipe away'), is found in $86:3 (from Yt13,lOO) n i him dasta maiSiidiSa6am barazi.r&am afiakaGauuait-m daonim '(ViS~spa) placed the Religion (beside himself) to sit in the middle, presiding at an elevated place, wiping away obscurity, being truthful'. Differently Kellens who starts from afiakauuqt- (in afiakauuastma-), thinking that afi&aGauuapt- (in atiaka6auuaitrTm) is corrupted therefrom and must be corrected into afiakauuqt-. Yet due to the length of a superl. afiakaGauuastama-,the inverse procedure would be much more likely.

" Difference established by Gershevitch, Mithro (1 959/67) 166.

Differently Kellens, Noms-racines(l974)283: afmkatacim 'qui court ao front, au premier rang'



gg 30-44. Kayan Yam, Karde V . Yima XWta l


442:s. If ~ a u u a s t a m a is correctly transmitted it means 'best disposing of hiding-places'40;see its only occurrence in Yt13'26 yA ao/j'Sd vazap@m ragjiM huuazamnanpn ahkauuastamif apasmi'mangrn '(the Frauwis) who are the strongest among those who are steering (chariots), (who are) the speediest among those who are driving forward, who best dispose of hiding-places for those who conceal themselves'. Yet if atiakauwtama- is corrupted from &at&uuastama- it has the opposite meaning 'best opening the hiding-places of those who conceal themselves'. As for apasrari'ma- 'hiding, concealing oneself, cf. Ved. @i% &t 'retired from, retreated, absconded'. $42:9. b&.d(a)- either means 'carrying away valuables' or 'wearing adomments'. In F201618 &(a)- is rendered as *xwtlEtag 'property, wealth"'. The compound h - d ( a ) - attested in N92 means 'adorned at its foreside', lit. 'having @(a) at its foresides', said of garments perhaps trimmed with fur or adorned with jewelry or embroidery: yd vaghai'b' ... a-tkssca f i d d 'he who wears garments adomed at their foreside (i.e. sleeves and rims)' where frazu0 is transposed literally into fiilz xwastag by PhlT. The same meaning of M ( a > -occurs in pou~u.pax#tarn zaranatjnam '(Anahita), Yt5,126 fiaflLam askam ~a~hi?nta)~* wearing a garment adomed at its foreside, multicolored (and) golden', The simplex @(a)- is also found in Yt5,7 fra s n h zuJa4' sispata '(AnZLhita) paraded with her beautiful adornments'. In our opinion, bard.&(a)- is a compound of the same type as bard.mo91a'offering ZaoSr?is (= libations)', which means that &(a)- is governed by the verbal element baa- 'carrying'. Inversely, Kellens renders barb.&(a)- as 'taking pleasure (A-) battles or forays', comparing bara- with Ved. b h h - 'booty'.44 in §42:10. apa-dis(a)- 'te mace) which lost its direction' i.e. 'which missed the (h target aimed at'. If apa-disam is an attribute of dJuru as we assume, then it is no deverbative formation (Ved. apa-dii means 'to assign') but it is a nominal compound from *ds- 'direction' (= Ved. diS-) with the pref. apa 'off, away', belonging to the same compositional type as apa-xSaSra- 'who has lost the power, who is deprived of his power'. See also $42:13. $42:1 1. If niiriiis corrupted from niihsap 'he took hold o f or also from niihgs, 'taking hold o f , the subject must be Karasaspa. Otherwise niirii could stand for niirigt, 'came down' said of the mace of Karasbpa's adversary.

§42:12. dduru- 'wood' means as much as 'wooden mace', a meaning which, according to general opinion, is also found in the compound xmui--dru- 'carrying a bloody or cruel weapon' for which see 846:7. On the weak stem dru- see &35:2-3. $42:13. Stems in -ah such as manah- 'thought' are never formed from compound verbs. Hence apa-stanah- can not be derived from a verb *ap-stan (cf. Ved. si;?n 'to resound, reverberate, roar, thunder') but it must be a compound of the same type as apa-dis(a)- ($42: 10). We do not know whether stanah-means 'breath' or is etymologically related to Greek sthenos 'bodily strength' but there is not much difference between 'out of breath' and 'exhausted'.
y d $43. fiaras&pam) y jmaJ snauu'6kam / yim sruuo.zantum asapgd.gaum. / HC auua$a vii&um&i'aata: / Aparanbi'u ahmi no$ pamnBi'u. / Yezi bauuilniparanaiiu / zgm caxramkamnauuilne/asmanam m9am kmnauui3ne. $43.(Karas~pa) who slew SnguuiGka / of leaden jaws and hands of stone. I That (youngster) declared: / "I am under-age not yet grown. / If I should come of age / I will make the earth into my wheel, / I will make the sky into my chariot."


$43:1. snauui6ka-, name of a youngster, is a diminutive derivation from the proper name snaoiia- Yt13,96, perhaps slightly incorrect for sncauiia-, cf. the adj. snauiia- 'made of a sinew' Yt10,128. The same diminutive suffix occurs in vrii6imiaka, name of mountain for which see $5:6. §43:2. If the transmitted sruud.zanam really means 'with leaden jaws' (first member sruua- 'lead'45), then zanam is incorrect for zanwm from zanu- 'jaw' (= Ved. hhu-) vs. OP. ma-/dana- 'kind, sort'. $43:3. aparanaj.u ... no# pranriiiu 'under-age ... not (yet) grown'. The noun aparmriiiu- 'child, under-age' can be used in both maw. and ntr, gender ( aparanriiid V13,48, aparanriiiu Yt l7,44). In the present passage the ntr. gender of the apatanliiiu which underlines the young age of an arrogant and overbearing boy has been mechanically transferred to its antonym paranrTiiu. $43:4. yezi does not mean 'when' (temporal) but 'if (hypothetical). As for the hypothetical meaning of yezi bauucini paran&% 'if I should come of age', cf. $44:4 yezi mgm n&ij'jan$L 'unless he should slay me'. The youngster is in doubt about his chances. $435. The med. in karanauuiine denotes indirect reflexivity 'I will make for myself. Thus qm camm karanauuae literally ' I will make the earth into a wheel for myself, or freely 'I will make the earth into my wheel'.

Differently Kellens, Noms racines (1974) 285: afrakauuant- 'A qui appartient le premier rang'. *xw2st?g, mss. hwshvk (Bth11098). Klingenschrnitt proposes reading xwasNg 'confessing, believing'. 42 vagh&ca,, mss. vaghanam. 43 MS. F1 followed by most other mss. has zuSonly. 44 Kellens, Noms racines (1 974) 86.
40 41

Henning, Sogdrca (1940) 50; Gershevitch, Milhra (1959167) 280f.




30-44. Kayan Yasn, Karde VI. Yima Xbeta


$44. Auuanaieni span&m mdium / haca raodna garb.nmbna / ucpatari'emN qram d i m / arayata haca duZagrz>ha./ Te me v&Sam Swjaii&te / sspaLosca madiiu# a m a 1yez-i m no$ jmad inaikmad karasBspU. / g c m janq naire:mand kans&p&/ auua apanamgaiiehe / mua &&am d8nahe. $44. I will lead Spapta Mahiiu down I from the luminous paradise, / I will make Q r a Mariiiu rush up / from the tumultuous hell. / The two shall pull my chariot, / Spa~ta Mariiiu and Agra (Marfiiu), / unless heroic-minded Karasaspa should slay me. / Heroicminded KarasBpa was going to slay him. / Cut off was his gain of life, (cut off>was his



Ahura Mazda) 'which is the best owner in accordance with truth'. Cf. Y 3 5a p n b 3, &a1 a 'having reached in accordance with truth' where a-a'having reached' stands for *#ma-, the med. past ptc. of root ap 'to reach, obtain'. PhlT. abardom 'highest' (SktV. ptadhanatama- 'most excellent') is based upon an erroneous etymology.


$44:7. The gap which is expressedly marked in rns. F1 is supplied here by the conjecture cauua amlnarn dmahe 'the rise of his vitality (was cut) off.' As for *as&a- 'rise' cf. the verb ~ n a o i t i ' r i s e s ,comes up', Phl. xwar-ds& 'sunrise'.

rise in vitality.
944: 1. ham raoxSna gara.nm&a ... arayata haca duZagrr,ha: As for further occurrences of haca with instr. see Bth11751f. but the transmission of the passage is doubtful. See next note.
#44:2. arapta haca duhgc',ha 'from the tumultuous hell', cf. Yt4,7 amyata_rhaca daoZauug (*daoiarJ'h&j where numerous rnss. read duiauua_t (*d&2y'hafi, cf. MP. d d o x (Phl. ddxw, Man. dwS(w)x)). Vriddhi dui > daoi is certain in P41 araya_tdaoiiiyhum, V19,47 anyat6 daoiarJr " M e .

$44:3. any@- 'tumultuous', said also of the fly, denotes an acustic phenomenon. Cf. the river- name NP. aryanddb. $444. yezi mgm n6itjmBi ... tamjana_t ... naire.mand karasrfsp 'unless he should slay me heroic minded Karasbpa was going to slay him': Here the second jmaf could be corrupted from jma,t by perseveration of the first one, but the pressubj. more likely denotes here an event expected in the past (future of the past) and anticipated by the reciter to whom the destiny of the boy was well known. Cf. Yt15.32 janisd tam kauua haosrauud 'Kauui Haosrauuah was going to slay him' and see $2:1 on umSiign 'they were expected to grow out'.


5445. The difficulty of the corrupt end of the paragraph can, perhaps, be resolved by assuming that auua has the function of a predicative adv. replacing auua plus a ppp. such as auua-sistam '(being) cut off for which cf. Yt8,54 pairika ... agVhgm auua.hisiSii2f 'the witch would cut off the (thread of) life'. Thus auua apanam gaiiehe 'his gain of life (was cut) off.
$44:6. It seems that apana- is slightly incorrect for Spana- 'attainment, gain' (Y28,lO parana 8panaiSkdmam 'fulfill the desire with gains'). There is also an adj. apana- (formed from apa 'away' in the same way as paitha- 'different' from paiti 'against') which is attested in the sup. apmbtsma- 'most far off, remoted' in Yt5,54 duuaram ... apand.tamam kaghah barai-agbiia 'at the most far-off mountain-pass (or: court?) on the high Kaqhii'. Yet &he apandtamd followed by &ahe jaymliSCam6 in Y57,4 (of Ahura Mazda) rather means 'he who is the best owner of truth' and, accordingly, &?'apanbtamgm in Y26,2 (of the Frauudi of

gp 45

- 54. Kayan Yasn, Kard VII. Fire and Mi Dahaka


$5 45 - 54. Kayan Yasn, Karde VII
Fire and Aii D a k a
$45, Uyram axvmtamxvmnb/mazdasatam yazamaide / &.vapdram uparb.ka13in/ Saninag %aptamv~facag %aptam yaodtiumptam / lara&tam d i L 3 o%n,m. . 545. We worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory / created by Ahura Mazda, / the excellent guardian whose business is in the upper region, / which is intense, miraculous, radiant, / outdoing the other creatures (and creations). $45: 1. axvmta- 'unappropriated, unpossessed', see Introduction 4 where attention is drawn to the fact that the customary kauuaem x'arand is replaced by axvantam xvarand in kardes VII-IX among which kardes VII-VIII describe serious conflicts between good and evil regarding the possession of the Glory, and attempts of each of the two to take over and hoid it, whereas karde IX speaks of the ax'varahn x'arand as coming over to the eschatological SaoSiiwt whereby it is tacitly retransfened into the state of the Kavyan Glory.

q b a viiifana ... imal sa&diS airiimmai '0eloquent Nairii&.sagha, tell that to Airiiaman'. Note also Q92:l-3 astuuaJaratd ... aCCd mazdif aburahe 'Astuug.arata, the messenger of Ahura MazW, and Yt13,146 mil9raca s p p $ vidufa yo ... &to mazd ahurahe 'with the initiated M&a Spanta who ... is a messenger of Ahura Mazda. §46:4. dta-also occurs i Y5 1,12 nd$ ts im xinziuf vaeipid kauuindpmt4 zima n /zara$Urtram spitrmam hiial ahmi untraost d t d . There the reference of aCta is not clear. If it refers to ZaraSuStra it means 'as messenger (of Ahura Mazda)' as we have rendered it2 in accordance with PhlT. pad dtagcih 'on (religious) mission'. Yet if &should refer to Vaeipiia it would have an insulting sense such as 'vassal' or 'servant'. As a matter of fact, dta-denotes an assistant or a boy sent out for a commission in N I 05 yd kame$ dahmmiim apamnaiiun@n dtam d&e) ha me b r a6smaca aa barasmaca 'he who takes someone of the youngsters among the believers as assistant, (saying): "hey, bring firewood and barsom"', PhlT. k8 kada-hew az dahmm abmayan d&g(ib) dahed [&-S abar dashvar bw 'he who gives aw someone of the youngsters among the believers the order(?) [i.e, authority over him results (therefrom)] etc. ' dta- certainly is the p.p.p. of root az 'to drive, propel' but it is difficult to reconcile its etymological meaning 'driven' with the meaning of azattested in the texts which most times is unfavorable: az refers to abduction of women in Yt5,34 ula he v q h m 'and that I may lead away his wives'. Robbed cattle driven i away are mentioned in Yt10,38 gad ... varaidirn paotfvn m i t e 'the cow ... is driven along the road of captivity', Yt10,86 gaoJc$ ... varata azima 'the cow, being driven away captive', and ibidem (ggm) drujd vaesrnanda azamngm 'the cow, being driven to the estate of deceit', V5,37 gqrn vara@mazahi? 'drives away the captive cow'. Note furthermore V3,11 ya9m vz nad daond nahka aparanaiilikasca varai9iirnpaqtgrnazO$ 'where one is used to drive wife and child of the truthful one along the road of captivity', a passage in which either the nom. forms naiiika and aparan&iikasca or the act. form of azo$ is incorrect. $465. &irnca dahdcarn spitiiwrnca yimdkarantam 'Mi DahrTka and Spitiiura, who cut up Yima' ($31:4c) is reinterpreted by Bdh35,5 spim m bod kP abig dahigjam kinenid 'SpeNr was he who, with (the help of) Dahag, cut up Jam'; PhlRiv47,8 (ed. Williams) jam ohnnazd tanngnld kU-m ashvihad n6 ms6d U-S pad & tann6niSnlh eggif&be kimnid dew& ud mardornm I 'Jam despised Ohrmazd (thinking): "Astwihad will not come upon me", and for this contempt, he was cut up by demons and men'.

Spapt6 vohuca man0 &mca vahifbm atramca ahurahe I xmd mariiiur &tgm fwharacaiiai&Cam hgharacaiia{ ahmca mano a&amamca mazd man%& /&%ma dahakam /spitiiuramca yim6.k>nntan.
/ /

pub / A@ d m


$46. For that Unappropriated Glory about which Spa~ta Mariiiu and b r a (Mariiiu) were in conflict with each other, / each of the two then sent his swiftest messengers (to s gain hold of it). / A his rnessenger(s), Spanta Mariiiu sent / Vohu Manah, &a VahiSta, / and Fire of Ahura Mazd2. / As his messenger(s). Aqra Mariiiu sent / Aka Manah, Wrath i of bloody weapon, / M Dahaka, and Spitiiura who cut up Yima.

446.1. pamctMi9e is corrected fromparaxZi9.e (ms. F1 etc.) by

ell ens.'

§46:2. a C ... iTsiSCe are vulgata forms for the d t 3 ... &if@.Unless the Se following &tarn ... &tam is distributive it also must stand for dt(3)... &(a). $46:3. d t a - is usually rendered as 'messenger'. (Cf. Bthl260 'Bote' which can have the connotation of 'servant'.) The rendering is corroborated by V19,34 where &a- stands as attribute of Nairiibsagha (nain?d.saghd ... &to mazdi ahurahe) who in V7,21 is entrusted by Ahura Mads with a message to Airiiarnan (n;uiiia
Kellens, Le verbe avestique (1984) 257,259 n.1.

Humbach-Ichaporia, The Heritage ( 1 994) 99. azaitci), mss. azaite.



$4 45 54. Kayan Yasn, Kard VII. Fire and M Dahaka i



In Firdusi 4,205f. it is only Zobak who cut up JamSid: 6 - m mard-la be ~ d6nim kardj e h h 18az bp& u bi bim kard 'he cut him up with a saw and, thus, he rendered the world clean and without fear of him'. $46:6. yimb.karapbm 'who cut up Yima' or perhaps more exact 'the dissector of Yima'. The author of the Av. passage was possibly thinking of a perpetual hellish punishment to which Yima may have been condemned for his lie and, perhaps, also for having taught men to slaughter and dissect animals of the good creation.
$46:7. The first member xmui- of xruui:dm- is a compositional form ("Caland form'') of m n -'cruel, bloody'. It is not clear whether the compound is an agent noun (as xruui-pi- 'slaying cruelly', name of a daeuui) or a possessive formation. An agent root-noun with the root dru 'to run,set in motion' as second member is suggested by Yt 1O,93 aeSmaheparb cliaom3biidy ai!Jrnd duZda &uuaiiai 'from d the attacks of AeSma, (attacks) which malignant Ai3rna is used to run' and Yt1,18 aeSmd.htahe druxSmanqhb akauud 'the blades of the person of deceitful mind who is stirred by Ae3rna'. Yet, a meaning such as 'cruelly running' does not make sense even if tumed into 'whose attack is cruel'. For this reason we follow Bthl540, taking dm- as the weak stem of d&.ru- 'wood' and rendering xmwMuas 'with bloody weapon'. See also $42:12 on d&ru- 'wooden mace', $85:2-3 on rn drucapaumupm 'with t u k and knobs'.

$48. "Hold on, bear that in mind, / 0 Fire of Ahura M z a / If you grab at this ad: (Glory) which is unappropriated, / I shall blow you out on {your throne) / so that you cannot blaze up again / on the earth created by Ahura Mazda, to protect the world of truth." I Thereupon Fire / withdrew his hands / precautiously, valuing his life, 1 as the serpent was terrifying.


$48: 1. The threat of M i Dahaka in the present $48 corresponds with the threat of Fire in the parallel $50. The correspondence is plain with the exception of the phrase $48 fia 8giunpaitiapa9a which is incomprehensible but which corresponds with $50 fia 8j3~za&hapaitrtru z u x J & e z a f m p t i uzraocaiieni 'I will flare up to your buttocks, I will blaze up to your mouth(s)'. Whereas everything points to $50 being correctly transmitted, $48 is obviously corrupt. Comparison with $50 suggests restorations of $48 such as 12 8jgm rapam)pitia@$aciienh 'I shall frighten you away into (the water)', or: fia 8pgm cgatuud>ptia@$aciieni> '1 will blow you out on your throne'. Unfortunately the meaning of the verbal root a9 is doubfil, see $12:4 on a$aSca $48:2. uzraocaii2i either is inf. 'to blaze up' or subj. 'you will blaze up' (< uaaocaiiahi) ,cf. $50:3 afiptiri. $48:3. fi.axSni'prudently, precautiously, being cautious', cf. Y44,7 m3m taiS 9% j fiaxSniauuMmazda 'with these (questions) I prudently support you, 0 Mazda'. More difficult is Yt10,9 dim ... fiaiim-iti h o r n 1 RaxSni aoi man0 'worships him by professing him, prudently, his mind (directed) towards (him)', cf. $77:9.4 $48:4. Urtand.cinahiia 'out of love of life' is of &iWd.cinahiiS- f. in which cinahiia- is derived from a present *cinahiia- (= Ved. canasya- 'to delight, enjoy'). A different meaning of can is found in Y12,3 no@ astd no@ UrBnahe c~iun&i'no desire(s) for (robbing people of) limb and life', see $33:6. $48:5. b~piuudgha(also in $50) certainly means 'was terrifying (him)', but the grammatical form is enigmatic and, therefore, suspect of being compt. Possible restorations are b@iu(S, &ha which agrees with the metre, or b.$91uuch &ha which disagrees with it.

$47. AS$ fracha hgm.&aiiata / d t k f mazdB ahurahe / uiti auua9a magha&: /A&+ x %randhwgara&ne /ya_t ax 'amtam. / Aal he paskq fraduum,t /& S n i d duZdaena, uciti) zaxb9ram daomnd: $47. Then Fire of Ahura Mazda humed ahead, / thinking thus: / "I want to gain hold of this Glory which is unappropriated." / Yet (Aii Dahaka), the serpent of three mouths and evil religion, ran up to him from behind, uttering the following threat: $47:1. The paragraph is parallel to $49 in which the second occurrence of uiti, corrupted here into ula, is correctly transmitted. On the other hand, the present $47 affords some help in restoring the text of $49. $47:2. fia& hgm.rcizaiaata 'he hurried ahead' is the Ahurian equivalent of the daeuuic h c h a cha~duumd 'he ran ahead' $49. Similarly paskal fiaduuaral 'he ran up from behind' of the present -passage is the daeuuic equivalent of paskg hgm.r&ai'ata 'hurried up from behind $49.

Gershevitch, Mithra (195911967) 78 renders Yt lO,9 d m . . fiaiik?&b'fiaoa_lh S n i aaimand by 'worsh~ps (hlm) believ~ngly with fore-knowing thought'. Yet auui does not mean 'with'. The parenthet~cal expression auui man0 has the same meanmg as the compound Skt. abhi-manas'havmg the mind d~rected towards, des~rous, longing for'.


$5 1. Then that Glory swelled forward 1into the Vour~kaga / Then Apam Napat of Sea. swift horses I reached for if I and in doing so, I A m Napat of swift horses I urgently wishes: / "I want to gain hold of this Glory 1 which is Unappropriated, / (lying) at the bottom of the abyssal sea, /at the bottom of the deep lakes."

$49. A&g hc&a chduuanit/aZiS S n d duZ..daena/ uib' auua9a rnaghdna: /Aetai xvarandhapgraA;ane/ya_tax'aratam. / A + + hepac.kd1hgm.miui'ata/ a M mazd humhe/ uib' vadbBaojm6: $49. Then the serpent of three mouths and evil religion, I ran ahead, I thinking thus: / "I want to take hold of this Glory which is unappropriated." / Then Fire of Ahura Mazda hurried up to him from behind, /addressing him wt the following words: ih 449:l. Ms. F1 reads H a ooooo duuafad, which must be restored to fiatha cfra,duuan?$ The reading f%,bhpn.duuara~of ms. E l (with bgm above the line) adopted by Gdn. is an erroneous restoration by the scribe of the ms. who $47:2. remembered the Ahurian parallel h & a hgm.ri~vui'ata

55 1:1. ~%ta_txvmnbfiapinuucata, 'then that Glory swelled forward' is corrected after §56:4 iI ta_t xv#nb IhzgaSata 'then that Glory darted forward'. Ms. F1 has @with a gap before it, cf. rns. R115 etc. where the gap is eliminated. The reading atiw of ms. El etc. is an erroneous correction by a copyist who was influenced by at?@ preceding in $50.

/&e Srizaiam &aka: / Yezi ae@ mi'&h$e / yal $50. m a auuat ha&zesai'ar~%a axvmtam/ I 9flm ma%& p r um&ne / zdm pr uzraoca7emN ndG appk % a3 e3 / afiapMi / zgm parparti ahura&@m / mahnC.drdr aS;sllle gae9angrn. / A& aZiS gauua paiti apa.gau~udli'a~/fmrSiu~ &~od.cinhiia p 9 a B b@uudgh. / M 950. "Hold on, bear that in mind, / 0 three-mouthed M i DahBka: I If you grab at / this (Glory) which is unappropriated, I I will flare up to your buttocks (to scorch you), I I will blaze up to (your) mouth(s) 1 so that you wiil no longer be able to rush up I to the earth created by Ahura Mazda, / in order to destroy the world of truth." I Thereupon the serpent withdrew his paws 1 precautiously, valuing his life / as Fire was terrifying.
#50:1. & g ... uzuxS2ne 'I will flare up (to)', cf. Ved. ud-&sati 'sprinkles 3m upwards' (SB). $50:2. zadagha 'buttocks' is acc.du.m. $50.2bis, The zafara which denotes the three mouths of Aii Dahaka The author of the passage might have avoided the stands for the &. 'difficult inflexion of zafara. §50:3. a h p a & ''to rush up' (or: 'you will rush up') is slightly incorrect for (afra-paBi. The tetrasyllabic word is parallel to tetrasyllabic uzraocaiiili 'to blaze up' (or: 'you will blaze up') in $48:2. The order a-fia of the verbal prefixes is uncommon (vs. common Era-a) but the tetrasyllabism forbids deletion of the initial a of afiapaHi. Of a different nature is d fia in $56:4 a @x"mnb fiazgaaGata 'the Glory darted forward', cf. r;T, ta_l following here in $5 1: 1. $51. (A). x*aran6 frapinuucata, / auui zmYb vouru.ka$am. / A.dim ha9ra hap hi gauruuaha_t/ apgm najd auruua_l.aspb; h6aca iziieii? / a p m najd auruua_l.aFpa: Aet.1 / /
xraran6 hmgraIS&e / ya_t axvantam / bunce, zraiiagho gufrahe / bune j a f m ~ r n vaiiiangm.

9 5 1:2. In ha9m haggamuaii'az the adv. ha9ra intensifies the verbal pref. ham to which it is etymologically related. The pattern is similar to the well-known one found in $68:1 usca ushiuuaii'd.$' 'would sweep away', $40 &tJ ... h p a r a J 'it jerked forward', Yt.5'61 usca uzduuii'nahaf 'made him fly upwards'.
45 1:3. haggamuaii'a~ iziiejh' '...hwgraffI?necannot mean 'he seized ... he urgently wishes ... I want to take hold of it' which would invert the natural course and of action. Actually h~gaumuilli'a- haggraffi-must be different in meaning (cf. the difference between Chwar. y@- 'to regard as' and xfi 'to take hold of). Our translation of h ~ m u a i i ' a fas 'he reached for' takes account of 435:5 aorn xvaranbhapgauruuailata mi9r6 where it is obvious that MiSra did not take hold of the Kavyan Glory because otherwise it could not have come back to Yima. - The historical present iziieih' 'he wishes, he utters the wish' is noteworthy. §51:4. bun{e) ... bune is corrected Gdn. from the mss. reading bumm ... bune which suffers from perseveration of the ending -am of the preceding axvantam. §51:5. vainian3m denotes lakes diverted from the (more or less heavenly) Voumka$a Sea (§56:7).


$52. B~aziyltamahram xSa9rfm / xSa8tam apgm nap&m / auruua_l.arpam yazamaide /adanam zauuandsm /y6 naHd da6a / y o nard& tatac'a/y6 up&b yazatd / srul.gaoSatama asti y e n m d
$52 The exalted Ahura, the chief, / majestic Apprn Napat / of swift horses we worship, / the virile one who is of benefit when called, / who has created heroes, / who has fashioned heroes, / the Yazata who abides in the waters, / whose ears listen most attentively when he is being worshiped.

$52: 1. xSaCta- 'majestic, brilliant' is an attribute and title of rulers ($31:1). $52:2. The xSaSnm is from xSa9riia- m. 'chief but PhlT., strangely enough, takes it as a of xSaSfi- f. 'woman, female (of animals)', rendering



§§ 45 54. Kayan Yasn, Kard VII. Fire and M Dahaka i



it by 4)mad?gan (SktV. nifrt3zlam). See the occurrences recently collected by A. panaino6 among which, e.g.: Y2,S banza@m ahmm xS;ISfim& ! a ap@n napstam auruua_t.aspam &C m PNT, ixwaday (I;, madagan irdSn idban nafianvmd-asp bun SktV. bujasw&mnam nBn3&n tqelasvioam@ nabhhpradh&aSva a From the point of view of grammar, the PhlT. is erroneous but it provides us with useful infomation: A@m NaHt was obviously invoked to grant warriorlike male progeny.
$52:3. naHd, acc. pl. of nar- 'man, hero' is vulgata reading for original naHS with nasalized 3, originally written d and otherwise expressed by 9 in OAv. n a ~ X $52:4. ahmm .. apiun napatam .. yd n3rdu.t da& yd nari3u.t BMa 'the Ahura Apqm Napat who has created heroes ... fashioned heroes*see Introduction 5.4. $52:5. zauumd,stt- 'who is of benefit when being called' or 'who benefits the calling one'. The meaning 'call (for help)' of zauuana- is suggested by Yt10,61 zauuan6.sn7t- 'listening to the call' (Ved, havana-Jdt-). Note also Yt10'76 zauuandsuua ahi s m 'you, the strong one, are of benefit when called' where zauuan6.suua is presumably conupted from zauuanbmrS,($62:1). §52:6. s m ~ . g a d d t a m 'whose ears listen most attentively', cf. $35 smi.gaoSa'(Mithra) of (sharp-)hearingears'


$54. Reward i accompany such l much comfort, 1abundance, / richwl cattle and pasture.aI person, 1 granting accompany him,endowed with I 1 in Steadfastness will persisting aU I

days, / (as well as) the (power of) striking down (the enemies) at the attack, il over years. I Accompanied by that steadfastness, / he then wl defeat the blood-thirsty hostile armies, 1and accompanied by that steadfastness, I he will defeat all his enemies. $54:1. Note act. vs. med. in Cm hat@ vara9ram dat ana vata9ra hacimd a 'steadfastness will accompany him .... and accompanied by that steadfastness'. $54:2. sp~.d&la- 'endowed with abundance' or 'revered for (granting) abundance' is also attested in Yt13,35 where it is an attribute of the Frauua$is. If spm- is an adj., it is likely to mean 'fat, prosperous, abundant', if it is a noun, it could mean 'fatness, prosperity, abundance', cf. Skt. sphm- 'abundant' and 'abundance' which, however, in the latter meaning is attested by native lexicographers only. The meanings 'endowed with' or 'revered for' attributed here to &fa- are both hypothetical. In F14/547 diES& it is rendered by kard(written phonetically) which, according to Bthl740, originates from a wrong interpretation of the heterogram Phl. OHD W t =g~fias homograph OBYDW t = k d Of different structure its which means 'distinguishing the Ratu' or 'providing a is the compound d3.ftd.ratudistinguished Ratu' in P35 @am vahiStam h ~ p d ~ @ b ? I datd.mt0. There the PhlT. ke edar dasfwar dMd 'who has a dastilr here' erroneously understands d Z & as the predecessor of the MP. ppp. d&t 'held, kept' (from d&&i 'holds, rPkeeps'). 454:3. sUra ggufca v&traheca 'rich in cattle and pasture', similarly $86:5 Sqfaiigrn ggdca v&lrahe fi$gm ggdca vastrahe 'satisfied with cattle and pasture, contented with cattle and pasture'. Cf. the compound gaosm- 'rich in cattle' in Yt17,8 nmiind huui&td gaos&gho 'houses well built, rich in cattle', Vyt9 m a a m barazi.sMnam gaosriiam 'house with high posts, rich in cattle'. The noun zao9ra- 'libation' is to be supplied in Yt14,41 auui imal nmtinam gaoslirabib (zao$ri?bid)xv#nd pahi. vamnauuaiti 'due to the (libations) rich in (milk and flesh of) cattle (offered to him) he veils the house with glory'. 554:4. Instead of vispO.aii&+am 'persisting all days' one expects vispa.aiimm. Either the long B is due to anticipation of the a of the following y&m or to influence of the pl. of vispa ah& 'all days' in Y43,2. Lwo.y&m 'persisting over years' is formed from kudyiira 'over one year' (or also: 'over years'?) in V5,36.



$53. Aai va kasc$ m#ii&qm / uib'm o t ahurd mad&/ai @run zara8dlra /xvarand / 6 ax'aratam ;see& / a9aurund ha ldtvlw / raoxSni.xJnutam rhdgha~ta a9aumn6 h ratanpn /pouru.xSnutam chriS1ghaeh / a s a m ha r z m c....xfnutam &t / n hifdghaeta). $ 5 3 . Everyone of you mortals, 1spoke Ahura Mazda, 10 truthful ZaraSuStra, / should, therefore, strive for the Unappropriated Glory. / (For this purpose) he should endeavor to win the luminous appreciation 1 of his gifts to the priest; 1 he should endeavor to win the manifold appreciation 1 of his gifts to the priest; I the should endeavor to win the ... appreciation) / of his gifts to the priest. $53:1. a9aunu76 ... ratangm 'gifts of the priest' or 'gifts to the priest'. The latter which is favored by the socio-cultural context implies the rendering.of xSnUt- by 'appreciation, recognition, reward, recompense, remuneration'. $53:2. The third occurrence of a8aurunb h6 r3lanm is perhaps a redundant repetition due to the mistake of a copyist.

xSa9ri- f. is to xSa9rjja- m. as Skt. ksaCri- f. 'female member of the warrior caste' to ksabfya- m. 'member of the warrior caste', and Greek diJf. 'noble' to dios m. 'idem'. Panaino, AcrOtHung 48 (1995) 117-126.



$545. ha&aiiis xruuiSieitiS is incorrect for haend y i xmuisiieiti3.' Different is >d hamahid in 993:4.

§54:6. muiSiimt- is segmented into xruuiS-iiicylt- 'blood-thirsty' by Bthl540f.; better perhaps xntu-iSi~t-'shedding blood'. 954:7. Gdn's reading _tbiSiiicyltd should be replaced by _tbiSdli'icylt6 (ms. F1) according to elle ens.'

8 5 55 - 64. Kayan Yam, Karde VIII
$56. w p m arvarahmxVarand yazamacie) pi isai IMiiiid tuiiiio tiapse ) zrtukgha vounr.ka$ahe. / Mapd apa.spari'ad vartd / kg xvaranbis6 ya_t asb'/ ailiknngm ddiunpn /zBhgm azatv,mca /yafca a$aond zara$Urbai,e. //A tq'xrmnd hzpdata / kq xvmn6 aptacai / & x'arand ap.hisa_C. / A& hBu apa@drO buuar / zra17qh6 i vouru.ka$khe / van9yd haosmud ngma. $56. (We worship the mighty Unappropriated Glory) which the Turiian scoundrel Fraqrasiian / sought in the Vouruka$a Sea. 1 He threw off his garments (so that he was) naked, / seeking that glory which is that of the Aryan lands, 1 of their born and unborn (inhabitants) / and of truthful ZaraSuStra. / Then that Glory darted forward, / that Glory fled away, / that Glory escaped. 1 Thereby that outlet of the VourukaSa Sea was to come [into being, / the lake (called) Haosrauuah by name. $56:1. maiii6 Nin'6 frarpwe 'the Turiian scoundrel Fragrasiian' also in Yt5,41, furthermore in $82 mahiid Nin'd h p s e maiiid apaw ftarlme. In the poetical language the attribute M i n k alternates with the similar hm- found in fkgme hub d.varacid 'Fragrasiian, the Tura of high miraculous power' $557, 58, 60, 61, 63, cf. also $93 fiagrase tur6 ...ya 1 turd jaini fkyase. The acc. is formed from the stem hiiriia- in Yt9,17.22 and $77 mainm trlin-m fiagmiiztnarn, and in Y11,7 mairfmyim Ninm fiagrasiisjianarn. Both tura- and its derivation Miriia- have been understood as 'Turanian' which, however, is impugnable. The Phl. equivalent of Av. fiagrasiim- is aMsy3b.



$56:2. isaL ... zraiiaghhb vouru.ka$ahe 'he sought in the Voruka$a Sea' (not 'he haca desired out of the Vouruka$a Sea') in contrast to $57 uspa@' ... makgha~ voumk&T_t 'he rushed out of the Vouruka$a Sea'. The gen. denotes the local sphere in the same way as it does in the common phrase a$hd zamd 'onlin this earth' V3,l etc. See also $40:6 on aiiqhd 'below the iron pot'. Cf. Yt5,42 where Fragrasiian in his subterranean stronghold (hanka~ne aijhrf zamd, cf. Bdh32,6 m a ...azer i ~ entreats Araduui Sura Anrihita: f ) ya9a azam auua_tx'mnd apaiiemi yim vmite maisim zraiiaghd vouru.kt&he yai asti airiianqm da'iiuunpm z X q i m &&ngrnca y a w a$aon6 zara9dh-ahe 'that I may reach that Glory which swims in the center of the Vouruka$a Sea, which is that of the Aryan lands, of their born and unborn inhabitants and of truthful ZaraSuStra'.

'Humbach, Festschrifi Lenlz

' Kellens, IIJ30 (1987) 11, n.7.

(1974) 86f.

$56:2bis. On za&angm azatangmca see 922:l.



90 55 64. Kayan Yam. Karde V I . Fragrasiian II



$56:3. a ta_t xvarand -a&& 'then that (Unappropriated) Glory darted forward (in order to escape)', cf. the parallel §82:2 a ta_t x'mnb lriazga6ata auui.viim vicgpm 'then that Glory darted forward approching Vitapa' the context of which shows that in the present passage as well the subject of frazga&ta is not Frar~rasiian the Glory. See also $51:1 on (& taix'arand fiapinuurata, 'then that but


Glory swelled forward'. §56:4. Bth11698 poses a-h-zga6, taking both a and h as preverbs. That admittedly disagrees with the traditional order of the preverbs which would require fiad-zga6 but it is not impossible as seen in a-fiapi@i< a-fiapatsi) §50:3. Yet in the present passage the structure of the lines 8 ta_t xvarand fiazga&94ts_t x'arand apstaca,t, ta_t x'amnd apahi&d rather points to a being an introductory adv: of temporal or consecutive character: d ta_t can even stand for aa_t hi Of a different nature is Y9,l hauuanim a r a m B haomd uN$ zara9Mmm where the second a intensifies the first one as it does in V18,29 vahiStam d ahiim a 'towards the best existence'. 8565. hzgadata 'darted forward', cf. V9,46 a@i tn nasd zgawte ya9a iSuS xV9an'd 'thereupon the nasu (= defilement) darts (forward) like a well-speeded arrow' (where PhlT. renders Av. zga9aite by P . jal); Yt5,96 hukaiiim barazo ... & yahmad me haca fiazgasaire araduui 'Mount Hukairiia from which my Araduui gushes forth'. §56:6. Unlike the transitive Ved. apa-sma- 'to ward off, remove, drive away', Av. apahi6ad 'fled away' is infransitive. §56:7. The meaning of vain- is 'lake' (not 'bay'), cf. MP. war'lake' in Bdhl2,l en and cJmag-i aban 6 paydagih mad bend ke war xwanihed / [and--i cdm-i marddmgn a w d a cJmag-i a& hendl / war-i c&asG war-i sowar, war-ixwifrem, war-ifi;lzd&, war-izadmand, war-;*was4 war-ixosroy, war-isadwes, war-ihurwes 'these several springs of water which are called lakes (war) have come into appearance / [similar to the eyes of men they are the eye-lets of waters] I such as Lake Cecast, Lake Sowar, Lake Xwarizm, Lake Frazdh, Lake Zarrdmand, Lake Aswast, Lake Xosroy, Lake Sadwes, Lake Hurw&s. $56:8. The subj. buua! 'it was to develop, it was to come into being' denotes the fut. of the past. See §2:1 on garaiid ... fiaoxSii@ 'the mountains were ordered to grow out'.
& buual ... vain3yd haosmud npna 'thus that outlet came $56:9. a6a hau apa y into appearance ... the lake (called) Haosrauuah by name'; cf. Yt5,5 zraiicS)' vouru.kt$&ia...yejhe hazagmn vairiangm hazagram apa y%rmgm

'of the Vouruka!ja Sea ...which has a thousand lakes, a thousand outlets'; vowu.k&he vis@ vain'#acarai'b' vispsca sdi3 nimokg Yt8,46 ha &@b vlspasca s f i i 'he approaches all the lakes of (= deriving from) the Vouruka$a Sea, and all its beautiful subterranean channels, and all its beautiful outlets'. The idea is that the water let out (from the Vouruka$a Sea) is led through subterranean channels to the individual lakes of the Iranian world, thus serving as their source. Such an idea is explicitly pointed out in the list of lakes in Bdh12,3 with reference to the source (bun) of Lake C&ast which is linked to the Frkwkard Sea (u-S bun 6 myB-ifidxwkardpaywast ested), a picture which, by analogy, may be valid for all other lakes as well.


856: 10. vain3yo haosraud ngma 'the lake Haosrauuah by name', cf. $59 vain3 yo vMhazd;I ngma, $62: 1 &? yz?ajid&uua nma. $56:11. The names of Lake Haosrauuah and Kauui Haosrauuah appear in close connection with each other in S2,9 kauuam haosrauuagham yazamaide mh-m haosrauuqhamy m a ' d e 'we worship Kauui Haosrauuah (and) we worship Lake Haosrauuah' S 1'9 kauuai3 haosrauuaghahe vardi3 haosraumjhahe 'of Kauui Haosrauuah and of Lake Haosrauuah'. The two are obviously identical. The stems of both have been posed as haosrauuah- by Bthl1738, a most questionable and enigmatic formation which cannot, however, be abandoned without even further complicating the already complicated matter. Further forms of the name of the kauui are found in $74 kauuaem haosrauuagh~m,Yt 13,132 kauudiS haosrauuaghd, Yt 1 5,32 kauudi3 haosrauuaghahe ... kauua haosrauua. The first syllables of both names recall the formation of the noun haosrauuagha- 'good renown' (yddhi from *husrauuah- = Ved. suirdvas- 'of good renown') but the rest, including the difference in formation of their respective ( ;vs. -a) , is in need of elucidation. See -I next note. $56:12. With regard to their strange formation and inflexion, the names of both the kauui and the lake explain best as short forms ('Kurznamen') deriving from the adj. haosrauuagha-n- 'deserving good renown' (in Yt 14,39 ahdghb ... haosrauuaghand, Bth11737) which itself is by haplology < *haosmuuagha-ghan'deserving good renown'. The nom. haosmuudLa is short for *haosrauaghdLa < *haosrauuagha-ghit/a.Here the compositional members -ghS and -gha (both of the root-noun hm- 'deserving') show the same grammatical variation as the root noun jm- 'striking' in the nomsg. forms vara91q'a/ja/ia of vara9ra-jan'victorious'. The accsg. haosrauuagham comes from *haosrauuagha-ghanam, similarly the haosrauuaghd from *haosmuuagha-ghand. .

' miid) see $41:2 with note 33.

$57. Aal$ / f q m e two Rrrd.varac,4 / spitama z r 9 r a / zraij.&al haca aeUb vounr.ksS;nt/ a m &oiSrim daomnb: / / e i9a ya9na ahmai / no$ & xVmaa 9 g par% abaom / p i acli ain'imgm &.imiun /zdtangm azdlaniunca /p@ca &on6 uua$uCtral,e. 857. Thereupon Pqrasiian, the Tura of high miraculous power, 1 0 Spitarna ZaraBuStra, / rushed out of the Vouruka$a Sea, I uttering the evil curse: 1 "I9e i9a ya8na ahmi. 1I could not seize that Glory I which is that of the Aryan lands, 1 of their born and unborn (inhabitants)), and of truthful Zara9uStra." 1 $57:1. F r a p i i a n exclaimed his malediction three times, enlarging it in each repetition. Gdn.s text runs: $57 i8e i8a ya9na ahma; $60 i9e i9a ya9na ahma; auua&a i8a ya9na kahma; $63 i9e i&p8na ahmb; auua8e i9a ya9na ahmb; duudiia i9aya9na ahmb: Here the second segments of $60 and $63 differ in some phonetical details, a difference which hardly is original but rather due to instability of the tradition, the malediction not having been perspicuous to the copyists. We propose the following restoration: $57 i9e i$a ya9na a m ' h a $60 i9e i9a ya9na ahma auuaA9(e> ya9na k?ahmai i8a 063 i9e i9ap8na ahmbbauua&8ei$a ya9na ahmb; auuaiia i9a ya9na ahmbb Yet even in this restoration the question of kahm~9$60 is left open. Should kahmbbbe kept and transferred to $63, resulting in auuar&& i$a ya9na kahmai, or duuaiia i8a ya9na <k>ahmr?l; should it be corrected into ahmai? The reading p9na kahmbbrecalls the phrase ya9na kahmbi:$ M@rn 'to anybody among the existing' in Y19,ll Yt13,152. Fragrasiian's malediction is also discussed in a forthcoming article b Panaino who derives i9a- and auuaC9a- from the root i'to go' and emphasizes the obscene nature of the malediction? but at the same time auuaC9e recalls OAv. auuaetat-. In our opinion each of Frarjrasiian's three exclamations is what ZaraSuStra calls auua&&t- vacah- 'the word woe' (Y31,20 from auudi 'woe'), the antonym of ILCtaBt-. In Y20,2 the term ufht8t- denotes the line uJt8 asb I Pa ahmbbof the Lt Asam VohU, in Vr18,l-2 it denotes the opening line of the UStauuaiti G&Sa (~$2 astf& ahmba yahmbb kahmiicw. uJta auuaiia, another word for 'woe', is attested also in the HaSbxt Nask where it is an antonym of the blessing &te [sic!]: In H2,16 the soul of the truthful person is addressed ka9a tP darayam uJte abauuai the corresponding address of the soul of the deceitful one is ka9a te darayam guubiia aghalin H2,34. Note also Yt3,14 agrd mmi'iuJ adauuata auudiia mC bauudiia.

$58. tUu>a&m h~.ra&JJaiemN / w5pa Muca du6ma / mmanaca vaghmaca &nw da9ana / Aal /&me snui'anaca. / 8Jiiqjaiti ah& mazd /parparti& h d &S. mracif /spitama zaraSdba/auw'zmi'd vouru.k@an. $58. " I will mix up both kinds of things, / all that is solid and all that is liquid I (imbued) with greatness, goodness and beauty. 1 Ahura Mazda is in action, / engaging (His) creatures against (me)." / Thereupon Fqrasiian, the Tura of high miraculous power, 0 Spitama ZantSuStra, I rushed down 1to the Vouruka$a Sea.

$58: 1. gspa Muca xBu6raca masanaca vaghanaca mi'maa 'all that is solid and all that is liquid, (imbued) with greatness etc.' as in A3,12, cf. P42. 45 8:2. 9flpja'ri 'he is in action, is busy' (in the present context perhaps 'he makes trouble') is etymologically connected by Bthl263 with the adj. &a-9gb.zga- 'very . eager' (< d 8&zga-) in Y 13,2 aCa$fld.zgatanv gauu&thi'15uMtamg n w daongm 'the most eager ones and the best herdsmen among the truthful men'.

h dmgn da9a.m 'Ahura Mazda, engaging (his) $58:3. a & mazdd piupiutid)8 creatures against (me)', lit. perhaps 'in opposition (to me), to be (my) opponents'. The exact meaning of pa2id)a- (Gdn. pa,'ri$a-) < patip- is not clear; Skt. prabcya- 'living in the west' is of no help. The use of the medptcp. &$&a- in act. meaning has a parallel in Y55.6 staota yesniia fiasarn vasna ahllm da$&a on which see 4 1 1:6.


$60. Aa! us.pata1 / fmgrase turd d vmca' / spitvna zam9uSlm / ~fiili'ha_t haca voum.ka$iI! / ay@ndaoi9h daomnd: / 19e i9a ya9na ahmb' / auuae9ce) i9a ya9na kahmaS/ (j57). ... $60. Thereupon Fragrasiian, the Tura of high miraculous power, / 0 Spitama ZaraSuStra, I rushed out of the Vouruka$a Sea, / uttering the evil curse: / W e i9a ya9na ahmai / auuae9te) i9a ya9na kahrn& I ..."
$61. tUu>ai?m hpn.rae9gaiieni/ ...($58). $61. "I will mix up both kinds of things, 1 ..."

$57:2. pikiabaom 'I seized', cf. Ved. panLbho 'to surround, be superior' etc.

'Panaino, A Daevic Speech (forthcoming).



.../§56] / A& hsu apa#arU buug / ... ~ vouu.ka&de/affyB@Z&uua ngma ~ u 8 62. For a third time, / he threw off his garments (so that he was) naked,/ ...1 Thereby that outlet of the Vounrkab Sea was to come into being, the water called ABfdanauuan by name.
$62. A S ~ i t h unapU>ap.spi'a,r vasbd /


$5 65 - 69. Kayan Yasn, Karde IX
Kipaoiia and Haetumagt
#66. (Ummaxvantamx "arand...yazarnaiie) yaL upar~haciti csadiiiqrtam vara$r;?/ jmam / yd auuaJi? fj,S(H)ite; ya$cr>azrmi'd yai kpaem haetumafam/ ya$cr)a gairiS / paoin3 a@ /ham gain'Sacd jmantci). y b fa& /yim 566. (We worship the mighty unappropriated Glory) which is coming over / (to Saogiiant VaraSrajan (= Victorious Savior)) / who will rise from the area / where the Kasaoiia Sea is situated supplied by the Wver) Haetumagt, / and Mount USaGa / around which the many watercourses meet, coming down from the mountains.
- -

$62:1. The transmitted aJZdiInuua could be corrupted from as perhaps YtlO,36 zauuanb.suua from zauuanb.suci) ($52:5). A stem ajidanah- or a,6idanais disguised in OAv. vain'Sca afiZddndrjh6 'the lakes full of streams of water'

$63.Aal us.pata_t/ h g a s e &TO turdyarac.4 / spitarna zzara9&h / mi'cylha- haca voum.k&~/ a p m ahoi8xh &omnu: / I9e i9a ya9na ahmb' /auua(&$e i8a p9na t& ahm&'/auubiia i9a ya9na ahmbb/nb@ x'aranb pakiabaom /... /§ 571. $63. Thereupon Fraqrasiian, the Tura of high miraculous power, / 0 Spitama ZaraSuStra, 1 rushed out of the Voruka$a Sea, / uttering the evil curse: / "19e i9a ya9na ahmai / auuate&e i9a y a h a ahmai 1 auubiia i9a ya9na ah& / I could not seize that Glory I ....".
964. No12kg x'araaupii.8bauua_r /§ 561
$64. He could not seize that Glory


... $66: 1. xwmn6 ya_t upqham'tri csaoSiiiyltam van9r;ljanam) 'which is coming over (to SaoSiiwt VaraSrajam is restored by us after $89:1-2 kauuagm xvarand .. ya_t upaghaccii)_tsaoSii~tcamvara9rajanam 'which will have come over to SaoSiiqt VaraSrajan'. - See $26:1 on upqhacaJ
$66:2. ya8cr)a in ya9cr)a naYb ya_t kgsaem 'where the Kgsaoiia Sea is situated' is corrected from transmitted ya9a. Whereas ya9a is corrupt in the present passage, it is correct in the outward similar passage V21,4 ya9a zrai'd vouru.k&m ap6 asb' hmjaymanam 'just as the Vouruka$a Sea is a basin collecting water' (lit. 'is a meeting place of water'). §66:3, The verbal form hSaiieite transmitted by ms. Fletc. in yb auuaJ21 fiaxSaiieiteya8{r~ zai'dya_lkgsaem 'who will rise from the area where Kqsaoiia Sea is situated' is unexplainable. The parallel §92:2 ya_t ashrual.a d d fiaSBite haca apaikgsaoiigJ 'when Astuual.arata will rise from the Kgsaoiia Sea' makes it evident that fiaxSaYeite is corrupted from fiaxSc&)ite.Traces of the correct reading are still discernible in ms. B27 fiaxStmiieite (similarly mss. J18 R I IS, see Introduction 6.4). Cf. also V19,5 yahmgi us.zaii2ile saogiigs vara8rajg haca apa1 kgsaoiiad. §66:4. gairjSy0 &aSd (Gdn. uSi6d) see $2:2-3. §66:5. yim apitd paoiii3 rip0 hgm ... jaswkci) 'around which the many watercourses meet': Mount USaSa is considered as forming a peninsula. Cf. also $67 auui tam auui hatacaiti auui tam auui hgm. vmite xviistraca etc 'towards (Mount ma&) River Xvastra flows to meet (the others), towards it River Xvhtr2 hurries to meet (the others)'. 566:6. gain'saco 'coming (down) from the mountains', literally 'flowing along the mountains'. gairi- 'mountain' does hardly refer here to Mount USaSa but rather to the mountainous area through which the watercourses flow.


... ...






#§ 65 -69. Kayan Yasn, Karde IX. Kasaoiia and Haeturna~t


$66:7. hgm jmaateh is corrected from transmitted hgm ...jasaata the ending of which is corrupted by perseveration. Note also V2 1,4 apd ... hqjaymanam ($66:2).
/ 967. Auui tam auui.ha(ltaca~'ti auui tam auui.hpn. vazaite / xV&hca huuarpaca iimk9atctv /xvaranag%aibca srik /ILFhuur?lUr?lh'ca /uruua&a ry?,p o w . viistra ya ya sun /arawca zaranumabca. /Auui.tam auui.haptacaili/auui tam auuihw. waite/haethund) raeuuB aVaranag%B /spaebM vammSsispca,mno/ cmi'a&amnbpaoinS voip.4. $67. 'Towards (Mount ma&) the (River) Xvilstril flows to meet (the others), towards it (the Xv&tr;l) hurries to meet (the others), and (so do) the Huuaspa and the FradaSa, I the beautiful Xvaranar~~haiti, strong UEtauuaiti, 1 the Uruua rich in pastures, the I the Brazi and the Zaranumaitl; 1 towards (Mount USasa), the (River) Haet-t flows (to meet the others), I towards it (the H a e w t ) hurries (to meet the others), I splendent and glorious, / parading with its white surges and sending down many floods.


I .



$68. (The River Haetumrylt) is endowed with the strength of a horse, I endowed with the strength of a camel, I endowed with the strength of a hero, 1endowed with the Kavyan Glory. 1 In that (river), 0 truthful ZaraSuStra, I there is so much Kavyan Glory I that it could sweep away therewith all the (inhabitants of the) non-Aryan lands in one sweep.


$68: 1. In usca usf%-uua~j.d~~ sweep away', the pref. us is intensified by the 'would etymologically related adv. usca See 95 1:2 on ha9n hqgauruuaiia,!.


$67: 1. auui ...ha~tacaib'etc. see $66:5. $67:2. The 6 f uruuadca transmitted in ms.F1 etc. (uruua6acaBthl1537 with ms. 0 J10) is redundant, uruua6m porn. v&& standing for uruuacoa jwuru. v;Zstra, cf. V1,lO uruumpouru. vilstmn and see the discussion on a9aJca $12:4. The meter even suggests restoring uruuasca ci porn. vSLcka whioch; however, is not y D favored by the Vid. passage.


uruuizxnmca. / Ta,! asti kauuaem xvarand / 9r69ram ainianm d d i i i w m /gauSca pagcd.hiiiili'(1) /auu&e nargm daongm /daenai'dsca m2zdaiiasnbiS. $69. Thereafter, (the inhabitants of the non-Aryan lands) would roam along there, 1 feeling hunger and thirst, I (feeling) cold and soaking wet. I That is (the effect of) the Kawan Glow I (which is) the protection of the Aryan lands I and of the cow of five . . spec;es, I in order to supper( the huthful men I and the Mazdayasnian Re~gion.
$69: 1. Whereas the pres.opt. us.fiauuaiid~] preceding in $68 has the meaning of a potentialis ('could sweep away'), the perf.opt. vaozinm denotes the irrealis of the present ('would roam along there'). §69:2. aohm uruui!xnm 'cold and soaking wet'. The antithesis 'cold and heat' which is wrongly attributed to this phrase by Bthl1541 is actually represented by aotam ...gmmam in Y9,5 no& aotam Agha nd4gmmam 'there was neither cold nor heat', cf. Yt9,lO garamamca vatam aotamca 'hot and cold wind', Yt10,50 aotd vat0 ... garamd 'cold and hot wind'. Taking into account the similarity of the Av. , letter x to the Av. letter 9 it is likely that rnu;Zuram ( r n u a a m ms. R115) is corrupted from mu(rc91nm(or vice versa?) which, then, denotes an effect of the inundations described in the preceding stanza. As for this assumption, cf. the adj. uruu~9ra-'floating, flooding' (Bthl1544 'washing, cleaning') in Yt8,47 &L apd auua.barante mYagha_lham vouruka&_I H& uruu.+T9rdbaeSaziiA 'then the waters pour down from the Vouruki$a Sea, melted, flooding and wholesome'.


$67:3. spaCtrn13 v m m S sispc~mna 'parading with its white surges': Though -3 in both spa6tiniJand vmmScounts one syllable only, it must be the ending of the < Cf. the construction of sispa- with instr. in Yt5,127, 17,10 fia gaoSguuara sispmna '(An&iWA$i), parading with her eardrop', Yt5,7 I s z h % & sispta 'she (Anahita) paraded with her beautiful adornments'. a §67:4. sispcamnd 'parading, showing up' is slightly corrected from mss. sispimd by Hintze, p. 313, cf. suspamana in ms. R115 (similarly mss. J10 D) and Gdn's sispamna in Yt5,127. §67:5. cniiajh)md 'sending down' is restored by Hintze, p. 3 14 from mutilated ...a m a m s . Fl, cf. nihayamndms. El. [$67:6. vdiyna- = BSogd. wynh which does not mean 'famine' but 'inundation, flood', see TSP 2,184.195, 1 1,22.]

v 568. Hacaift' dim aspahe aoj6 / hacailj dtrahe aojd / hacai~ l . e ao$ / hacaitil kauuaem x*aran6./ A h a ahmi a@um zara8rrStra /auuauua_tkauuaem xVmnd/y&a yal i6a anainii da$hS/ hakal usca us.f~uuaii@.

& r! m ainknpn daxi'iun?m g3uJca pa@.hiiaiiai $69:3. In the transmitted 9h auuajhe nwrn a$aongm da~naiiiiscam&daiiasndiS, the transition from the nom.acc. $rri$ram to the dat. auuajhe is due to the incomplete adaptation of a sequence such as Yt13,lO $rriSr;.Iipasuuif viraiid Sr%91~iiilliiian@m ddiiungm $ ~ $ r a i ~ ~ u S ~ c d . h i iauuajhe nqwn daonpn 'for the protection of cattle and aiia' tenants, for the protection of the cow (=animals) of five species in order to support the truthful men'.

' Humbach, RZKSO 4 (1960) 36f

$8 70 - 72. Kayan Yasn, Karde X
The Kauuis fromKauuata to SiiauuarSan
57 1. (Uyrm kauuah xVmn#...yazama'de) pg' upa&caj kauuaem kauuatam / yimca kauuaem mpi. vobum / ymca kauuaem mabarn /yimca kauuaem a&d,nam / ylinca kauuaem pjsjncagbmn / yimca kauuaem bii-am / yimca kauuam
$71; (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which came over I b Kauui Kauuata, I and Kauui Aipi.vohu, 1 and Kauui UsaGan, 1and Kauui M a n , / and Kauui Pisinah, 1and Kauui Biiafian, / and Kauui SiiauuarSan.

70-72. Kayan Yasn, Karde X. The Kauuis horn Kauuata to SiiauuarSan


him his name; 1and from Kawad, Kay Abiweh was born; 1from Abiweh, Kay A d ud Kay By& ud Kay Pisinang ud Kay Kayus were born, / from Kay Kayus, S y a w d was born, and from SyawaxS Kay Xosrdy was born'. Kay Lohrasp (from Av. aumua_l.aspa-), ViStaspa's father, is included in the list of the Kauuis in I Bdh36,7: kay kauuiId I5 sal, kay kayus ta Sudan i 6 asma 75 sal, ud pas az & 75sa/ ..., kay xosroy 60 sal, kay lohmp I20 sd, kay w i m p tir madan iden 30 sal 'Kai Kawad 15 years, Kai Kayus 75 years till his going towards the sky, and 75 years after (his return to the earth), Kai Xosrau 60 years, Kay Lohrasp 120 years, Kay WiSmp till the coming of the Religion 30 years.' $7 1:3. kauuab- is the legendary fouhder of the Kauui dynasty. Assuming haplology, his name is explained from "kauua-uuab- 'favorite of the kauui(s)' by Bth1443. If he is right, the kauuis favoring Kauuata and, thus, preceding the founder of the dynasty, must have been priests or even divinities. kauu4 the first member of the supposed compound, is also found in the PN kauua-raman-; vsb-, its second member recalls Ved. vat+- in fndra-vats- 'favorite of Indra' and de'vavata- 'favorite of the devas'. §71:4. usasan- is the name of an ancient believer in Yt13,121 usa&d mazdaiiasnahe daond fiauuafim yazamaide. In the present passage and in Yt13,132 ($71:1) usasan- is an unexplained extension of the name of the kauui called usanelsewhere: Yt5,45 auruud &varacc&? kauua usa 'valiant, highly miraculous Kauui Usan' paiti who worshipped Araduui Silrtk An&iE on(?) Mount 3razifiia ( d f i ' i & + gar&$; Yt14,39 paranam ... yim vdata kauua usa 'the feather (of the bird of birds) which Kauui Usa had appropriated'4; V2,5 PhlT. frgm. 4 jm ud kay us har do axw& dad esHd hend; winizhg&-h i xweJ rsy OSdmand bod hend etc. 'Jam and Kay Us had been given both lives. By their own sinfulness they became mortal' ($315d). Both Jam and Kay Us are said to have erected their mansions (mclnihd) on Mount Alburz. As for Jam see Bdh32,1, as for Kay Us see Bdh32,3. $71:5. The acc. list has the incorrect acc. d n a m (instead of arS(a)nam)formed after the correct gen. d n b of Yt13,132. The other way round the gen. list in Yt13,132 has the incorrect gen, forms bii'cino and sii~uuarSlinb(instead of biikrdn,~, siisuuar(Sm6)which are formed after the correct acc. biidtinam and sii~uud&am. $7 1:6. pisinam transmitted in the mss. is corrupted from pisincaghmn. A similar mutilation of a proper name is found in karasauuazd(agh)am$77:4. The name of


571. Christensen, Kayanides: Kauuata (Kawad) pp. 3, 18, 28-29, 40, 43, 62, 66, Aipivohu (Abiweh) pp. 18, 70-73, 81, 104, 105, 107-108, 118, 139, 140, 151. 19, 28, 66. - UsaGanAJsan (Us) pp. 18, 19, 28-30,40, 50-5 1, 62, 66, 70, 73-82, 84-85,89, 93, 102, 105-106, 108-113, 115-116, 118, 124, 128, 135, 139-140, 146. - M a n (Ad)pp. 18, 19, 28, 70, 73, 118.- Pisinah (Pisinang) pp. 18, 19, 70, 73, 93, 118. - Biiar3an (Biyar3) pp. 18-19, 28, 70, 73, 118.- SiiauwrSan (Siyawax!i/SiyBwuS) pp. 18-21,28,30-31,40,54,61-62,70,79,82-85,90-91, 105, 109, 110-113, 115, 118, 124, 140-142.



$71: 1. The rnss. readings of this acc. list of the first seven members of the Kauui dynasty are: kauuaem kauua'fam, aipi vohum, usaham, &nam, pisinam, bii2n%nam, siiau&&am. The list is completed in 974:l by addition of kauua8m haosrauuagham, the eighth Kauui who according to the picture drawn here would have been the predecessor of Kauui Viltaspa. The complete list is given in the gen. form in Yt 13.13 2 kauudiS kauuBi%he, aipuuaghhsu$ usaband, &no, pisinaghd, bii&&d sii~uu&&a ... haosrauuaghb $71:2. Cf. the Phl. list in Bdh35,28-3 1 ka wad abumay andar kabad-ew bud / u-San pad rod be hiS4 pad ka wsdag& be a w ;uza w be d iud sHd ud be frson fiazand winas* wanid? f d/ k n&n nihad / ud ar ka wad kay abiweh &d/ar abiweh kay a d ud kay by& ud kay pisinang ud kay k a p s zsd / az Kay kayus kay syawanS isd ud az sy2warS key xosrdyzi7d '(when) Kawad was a minor he was in a ...I; 1 they exposed him in a river and he was getting cold pad kawadagd; Uzaw saw him; he took him out ... (and) gave
kabdd means 'grey-blue, pigeon' (MacKenzie) which makes no sense here. B.T.Anklesaria renders it as 'basket', evidently reminding of Moses and comparing k a h g 'container, vessel'. kawddaganrecalls NP. kiw8d? 'the wooden sill of a door' which also makes no sense. MacKenzie gives *kawa&g'young, baby'.


' aS. varacd,, mss. ai!vmctd,.
v&a& 'appropriated', lit. 'he turned it towards himself', certainly from the root vart'to turn'.

Kauui Pisinah (Phl. pisinang) is etymologically as obscure as the name of Lake Piginah in Y t5,37 padme vardiSpiSnqh0.
871:6. siiauudm- is also mentioned in $77:11-14 in connection with his son and revenger Kauui Haosrauuah.

§§ 73-77. Kay& Yasn, Karde XI

Kauui Haosrauuah

472. p~' / visp awua ~ 1 3 m a / vispe Samnqhq~ki w3pe yaracaghu~& b&n p / / vispeyao~tiuuuapta visp darS.killr(e> / kauue. 672. so that all of them became valiant, / all of them brave, / all of them watchful, all of them miraculous, 1 all of them radiant, I a l of them boldly acting Kauuis. l

$72: 1. Samnaghunta .. vmcaghylb ..yaoxJtiuuapb (cf. §9:4-6) are incorrect for 9rzmnqhuntcO~ better S m q % @ t O ) etc. by perseveration of the ending -a of (or the preceding auruua ... tkma. §72:2. dadikaike) is corrected by Bth1699 from Gdn's mss. reading ddikain' the erroneous final i of which is due to perseveration. §72:3. kauue which would be the correct of kauui- (cf. Skt. sakhe of &hi- 'friend') is used here instead of the expected kiuuaiia, possibly by perseveration of the endings of the preceding vjspe darSikari~e~. erroneous The reading kauuaC (as in rnss. K12 J10 D, cf. kauuae J18) is due to incomplete repetition of the acc. kauuaem which appears in the preceding stanza no less than seven times, thus being without critical value.

$74. (We worship the mighty Kavyan ~ l o r y which came over / to Kauui Haosrauuah ) / with regard to his well-formed impetuousness, / with regard to his victoriousness created by Ahura (Mazda), / with regard to his overcoming superiority, / with regard to his wellissued order(s), / with regard to his unshakable order(s), / with regard to his irresistible order($, / with regard to his having defeated his enemies at one stroke;


$74. Christensen, Kayanides : Haosravah (Xosraw = XosrOy) pp. 3, 18,20-2 1,23, 26,28-31, 34,40, 62,66. 70, 73,78-79, 82-85,88-93,96, 101, 103-105, 109, 112118, 127, 139, 141, 153-154,158. $74:1. As for $474-76 ya_t upaghaq kauuaem haosrauuagham amaheca @ti huHtahe etc., cf. Y tl3,132-134 kauu0iS haosrauuaghd &faunatiauua$im yazamaide amaheca paitihutStahe etc. where the long passage which is abbreviated in the mss. of Zamyad Ydt, is written in full. On the inflexion of the name of haosrauuah- see $56: 10. $74:2. It is not clear whether paiti in $474-76 means 'to (provide him) with' or 'owing to (his)'. The parallel in Yt13,133-134 ($74:1) points to the latter rather than the former, but our rendering 'with regard to' is intended as a compromise between the two possibilities. 474:3. amaheca paiti hutAYahe varaSraynaheca paiti ahuraSrTtahe vanaiptri'iisca paiti uparattfto,cf. Y 1,6 amaheca hutstahe huraosahe vm8rapaheca ahuraSalahe vanai~tiidsca uparaMt0. 474:4. The sag'has-ca (mss, saguhas-ca) is attributed by Hintze, p. 325 to a hapax saghu- f. 'command, order', belonging to the same rare type of formation as Ved, jcisu- f. 'exhaustion'. It also could be a metaplastic form from *sag'han-n. 'word, speech' (> MP. saxwan), correct *sarj"hgs-ca, with transition into the fem. gender.


5;74:5. ha9rauualahe ... hamara9angm , literally 'defeat of one's enemies at one stroke', is also found in Yt15,1, but ha8rauuata- 'defeat at one stroke', is an uncommon formation. Less enigmatic is the formation of ha9rauuanqt- 'defeating



Kayan Yam. Karde XI. $4 73 77. Kauui Haosrauuah



at one stroke' in Yt1,14 ha8muuane ngma ahmi (Ahura M h ) , Yt15.46 ha9rauucama ahmi (Vaiiu), Ny3,10 naqm ... ha9rauuana@tn hamam83 'men who defeat their enemies at one stroke'. Note also Y57,26 ha9rhiuuatb-m hamara9angm '(the power of) striking down one's enemies at one stroke'.


heroes, valiant', a meaning which certainly applies to Yt13,38 kdnazd huuira baon sauui.ta 'the valiant K d n a z (people) became most powerful'. Phl. wir 'memory, mind' adduced by BM858 is to be discarded. $755. If PhlT. is right when rendering pun-Snasag ($75:2), this must be a possessive compound 'of good acquaintance, well acquainted with, bound to' as is OAv. huzantu-, e.g. in Y49,5 &mat& ... a@ h&oM 'by virtue of rightrnindedness (being) well-acquainted with (or: bound to) truth*. In this case the phrase huzqt~7d a 2 of the present passage either stands for huqt3u.f @ti pr 15az;yltaiSor parparti be deleted. On the one hand, deletion of @ti disturbs the must b preceding the present meter, on the other hand, the fourteen occurrences of p ' one, and the four of them following it; made it easy for one more to creep into the text. Otherwise one has to reckon with a determinative compound huzmtu- f. 'good adj. acquaintance' which would be to the possessive compound OAv. h ~ ~ ~ a o t u -'of good acquaintance' just as OAv. hdaiti- f. 'good dwelling' is to OAv. hufaitiadj. 'of good dwelling'. Yet a meaning similar to 'good acquaintance' is already & covered by OAv. haoq9p- 'well-acquaintedness' found in Y45,9 var~h3u.fa h a o z ? 8 ~ mmaghd 'in accordance with the well-acquaintedness (or: with the a bond) of good thought with truth'. To come to a decision between the two possibilities discussed above one must take into account that huapkWmakes sense only if it does not denote the wellacquaintedness of Kauui Haosrauuah but rather refers to that of his successor, Kauui ViWspa. It was he who, being enlightened by the prophet, was wellacquainted with what to expect from the future life. §75:6. OAv. huzsntu- and haozg9ga- always govern an instr. In the present passage the required insh. is hidden in the phrase apaaid viiaa9ii;ilid which is slightly corrupted from aparaiim viiata$iiaiica>,the corruption being due to perseveration of the preceding series of words ending in -A. The stem of viiara9iiaiica) is viiam9iiii f., an abstract noun derived from the adj, vii--$a'off-duty' (from m $ a - 'duty'), and most likely meaning 'convenience, easiness' (literally 'off-dutiness'). In V17,3 viim9a- has the less favorable meaning 'neglected' which is not too much different from that of Skt. ty-artha- 'useless, vain, deprived or devoid of property or means': iihuua viiara8ahuua zamb 'at those neglected @laces) of the n ! iabayed kardan] andar earth', PhlT. pad r ~jud-dzdesmih [[ku jud@rkun&dkii &n zamig 'at those unlawful places [i.e., they do it in a way different from that in which it is to be done] on the earth'. §76. /= Yt13,135 xSa9raheca paiti biinumato / damyaiidsca pait; daraybjitciif / vispangmca paib: ahaptan& / vispangmca paiti baeSazangm;

' ' 475. /= Yt13,134 druuaheca parti aqo/&o / xrmnaghasca pb mazdaatnhe , dnnuiidsca pb dnruaffltb/ a~na~i'dsca ti viv~hui'dhaptdi3 / dymi'd viiganaiid , '' pi a x.fdi8mi'dspi~.ddi9riilj.d wd.bojd huuimd / huza~tdILF / paiti apmii'(a) / ni'ara9iiiui'(a, vahiJtahe aghau?;) 475. with regard to his healthy strength, / with regard to his glory granted by Ahura Mazda. 4 with regard to his bodily health, / with regard to his legitimate, good progeny, / (which was) skilled and eloquent, / majestic and clear-sighted, 1 saved from distress, valiant, / (and) well-acquainted with the future/ easiness of best existence;

$75:1. tanudsca ... dmua&to means 'bodily health', not 'health of body' (as suggested at first glance by comparison with Y68,ll tanuud huatatam etc.). Both ms. readings tanui'ds-ca-(Gdn. with ms. Mf3etc.) and tanuudids-ca- (ms. Fletc.) are simplified spellings of earlier *tanuuiids-cafrom a stem *huuiia- < *hviya'bodily', an adjectival derivation of h O - . $722. &n;ili'a'scii paitre vaghuiid fiazaptoiS dagmi'd viia~anaiidetc. recalls the similar Y62,5 t u 9 d g m asnqm fiazaiabin / karSd.r&gm vii2xanpn / hgm.raodgm huuapm /gzO. bl7jm huuivm 'thriving progeny, legitimately born, / cultivators of their grounds, eloquent, / f u ~ l - ~ r o wskilled, 1 saved from distress, and valiant'; n~, PhlT. iin in&nburdctr asnadag fiazand /ikilwar-w i i y ihmjmanig /hamrust ud xwabar / i az h g i h bOxt [az daSaxw] hu wir [ku abayiSnigJ ud pun-Snasag pad i ~ i p s udpas absyed k&m n 'famous noble progeny, cultivators of the land, members of the community, fullgrown, beneficent, saved from distress [from hell], proper [seemly], and completely informed about what is to be done in all future'.
§75:3. The basic meaning of &na- is 'born in wedlock, legitimately born', that of asn& 15azainbt is 'legitimately born progeny'. Yet the actual meaning of asna-just is 'noble' in Yt13,74 B S R ~... m d 'noble minds' and Vr1 l,3 Jsnaca maA saoSiiwtgm 'noble minds of the SaoSiiants'.

§75:4. In Y62,5 huuira- is rendered by PhlT. huwi5 glossed abayi3nlg 'fitting, seemly, appropiate' (see §75:2). Slightly different is F2ft93 huuiqm, rendered by PhlT. as xob-wir, glossed abayi$n& bod 'was fitting'. Ved. suvIm- means 'rich in
ha9rauurama Hu. : ha9rauuana ms. F1 : ha9rauuana Gdn. with ms. J 0 1. h?m.raoda-, cf. NP. hamruyanda 'full-grown'?


Kayan Yasn, Karde XI. 80 73 77. Kauui Haosrauuah



$76. with regard to his luminous power, 1 with regard to his long-lasting life, / with wt regard to all the boons (at his disposal), / i hregard to all the remedies (at his disposal);

476:l. darayaiidsca ... daray6.jl-tdiS lit. 'a long-lasting long life' is a figure of speech similar to the well known nmdnahe vd NnBnd.patt13 vfsd vB visp'riS .ztyltW vd zagtupru'o'S daIfhaILC vd d&jhupaitiS6the head of the house presiding the house etc.' in YtlO,l8. Note also Ved. gdpati- g d v m 'cattle-herder herding the cattle' which gave rise to gdpati- iiSvdnh 'herder of horses'. $77. yal c..r kauua haosmuua / t@m kamrauuazdagh)am / u p $m cam@m/ypm daramm nauua.f~9~arasw (@it6 w 2 p . a ' ~ranrram / ya_l dim main76 czruram / ) rmanbr / aspaeSu p i 5 para&&. / Vspe bauual api.d i d / ahur6 kauua haosrauua. / rJana_f,maiim lolirrn fragmli'2nam / baqdai'al karasauu8zd<ag%am/ pu9m kaeoa siiauuarSanI'/zwdjatahe namhe/ay1aem9aheca namuuahe. $77. so that c...) Kauui Haosrauuah / toumeuvered) Karasauuazdah / on that (famous) long racecourse of nine intersections 1 (around the All-Aryan) Forest / when the scoundrel of crooked mind>/ contended with him at horse racing. / Overcame all (his enemies) 1 the lord Kauui Haosrauuah. / (He slew) the Turiian scoundrel Frqrasiian, / he bound Karasauuazdah, / (doing that) in revenge for Siiauuab, he (= Haosrauuah), being the son of (this) treacherously slain hero, and (in revenge) for heroic AyraeraSa. $77:1. The stanza which offers the only substantial information regarding Kauui Haosrauuah is subordinated to the line ya_t upaghacal kauuaem haosmuuagham in the beginning of 574. From that it has been dissociated by the extensive but not much informative eulogy with its 19 (IS?) occurrences of piti $77:2. A parallel to the first half of the stanza is found in Yt5,50 where Kauui Haosrauuah entreats Araduui SQraAnBhiE: Yt5,50 ya! vispan(?myl~vtrlngm Yt.19,77 yat f c ..... azam fiatamam Sqqaiieni kauua haosrauua f Q m fkarasam f ana fxrarai3rnygm daraygm u p O m c m t g m yam d mygm nauua.lcr69Jarasfun frazlrrarn frazuram fy6 rngm mairiid fnurarn man0 yal dim main16 fnursrn f c .... ) aspaeSu paitipmtata aspaau paitipmtata Both stanzas are very corrupt. Part of the corruptions is old and deeply rooted in the phrase inventory of the YaSts, see Introduction 6.3.

§77:4. tgm in @m karasam is a mistake due to graphical anticipation of fiim of the following em m @ m , The mistaken @m is to be deleted if katasam is used as a proper name, it may be corrected into tam 'that notorious' if k a m a m is the adj. karasa- 'lean, emaciated' used as a common noun in the sense of 'rascal'. If karasam actually is a proper name, it is a short form of kansauuazdam which follows a few lines later and which itself is corrupted from kmsauuazd~aghxwn (thus explained by Bthl469, comparing the proper names &a-uuazdah- and vohuuazdah-). A similar mutilation of the proper name pisinah- is found in its pisinam $71:6. For PhI. karsawazd in Bdh35,17 see $77: 16. $775. can@- 'racecourse' is etymologically related to caratu- 'a measure of I ~ distance' and also to OAv. caratac-d Y ~ I , 'sill, door-step' (NP. card).. $77:6, upa O m cmw y- nauua.h-8Jaras~'on that (famous) racecourse of nine intersections'. The nine intersections of the racecourse recall a series of Aryan terms found in Kikkuli's book on horse training written in Hittite: aika-vartana, tiera-vama-, panza-vartana, Jib-vartana, nava-v&a '(horse-race) of one, three, five, seven or nine There the use of exclusively odd numbers suggests that vartana does not mean 'round' but 'turn'. The even-numbered turns are at the starting post (which is the same as the winning post), the odd numbered turns are on the opposite side. Thus a course of nine turns of Kikkuli comprises five rounds. Yet it must be left open (See also $3:12 on the mountain name &.va$ma.) whether nauua.BA9~amsa- 'of nine intersections' is actually synonymous with Kikkuli's nava-vartana. It may, indeed, refer to nine check-points that are to be passed on a much larger round. Note in this connection that the Av. term for 'turn, turning-point' is not fi&9,!3arasif- but uruuaEsa- as attested in Vyt29 a s p ... apara_t ham uruuacsaf fiataram uruuaEsem nsamna 'horses which, (approaching) from the rear turning-point, reach the front turning-point'. 477:7. r a m m certainly is the accsg. of the masc. r m a - 'wooded region, woodland, forest' which is not clearly distinguished from the fern. m d - 'forestland' (cf. $3: 11 on pauruuata- and pauruuata- 'mountain'). r m r a - and razuraoccur together in Yt15,31 where both of them denote wooded mountains, Vaiiu being worshipped in that passage by Auruuasara auui spaetiniS razlu;f upa spaetiram razuram upa f vimaibrn f r m a i i a which perhaps means '(turning) towards the white forest-lands, up to the White Forest, up to the center of the forest'. Cf. Bdh17,17 anis r&r ra.zur& rad 'the White Forest (is) the chief of the forests'; Yt12,2 1 upa virnai6im aijha zamd 'in the center of this earth'; Yt 15,32 j m ~ tam kauua haosrauua vispe.aire razuraiia 'Kauui Haosrauua was i going to slay him 'in the all-Aryan Forest'.
See, e.g., Mayrhofer, Die Arier im Vorderen Orient ( 1 974) 3 1.


$77:3. In out passage, ms. F1 has a gap after ya_t which is filled with piOoin ms. El etc. but $is paiti is suspect of having been intruded fiom the numerous instances of paii? in the three preceding stanzas. What is really missing is a verb meaning 'he overcame' or 'he outmaneuvered'.



Kayan Yam, Karde XI. $4 73 77. Kauui Haosrauuah


577% Horse-races are usually held in open areas, not in woods. Therefore the idea of taking together, in spite of their apparent grammatical incongruence, nauua.ffil$~ataspm m and m in the sense of '(the race-course) through the wood of nine glades' is most abnormal from both the grammatical and material point of view. As a matter of fact in the present passage and in Yt5,50 as well, the acc. sg.m. nrnvam is completely isolated. It is obvious that something is missing in both parallel pieces. The underlying original text could perhaps have been ca1pih7 ~ispe.~te> razuram '(leading around the all-Aryan) Forest', cf. Yt15,32, above $77:7, §77:9. :The mss. have n m m in both parallels which is likely to be corrected into czmmm 'crooked'. In the present passage we have restored mano after the parallel ~t5,50.' The restored muram (man& 'crooked (his) mind, of crooked mind' is a parenthetical attribute of the same type as raeuua_t ci$tam 'rich (her) family' in Yt5,64 kainind ... raeuuai ci9ram &zz%uj.B 'of a girl, rich (her) family, a noble one' which is synonymous with the possessive compound mi?uuasci8ra- in H2,9 kainind ... c~zataiii raeuuasci9~-a1j.d 'of a girl, a noble one, of rich family'. Cf. furthermore auuimand 'his mind being directed towards (him)' in Yt10,9 ($48:3). $77: 10. vispe bauual a@. vmiiif 'he overcame all (of his enemies)', cf. $29:1 ya_r bauuai a@i vaniid vispe daeuua ma$iBca 'so that he overcame all daeuuas and mortals'. 577:ll. A parallel of the second half of the present $77 (=Yt19,77) is found in Yt9,18 where Haoma entreats DruuBspB: Yt9,18 (Haoma speaks:) ya9a azam bwdaiieni $77 (Kauui Haosrauuah is described:)

Yt9,18 that I may bind

$77 (=Ytl9,77)


the T. scoundrel Fragrasiian


Overcame all (of his enemies, the lord Kauui Haosrauuah, che slew) the T. scoundrel Fraqrasiian he bound Karasauuazdah,

and lead him away as prisoner and extradite him as prisoner as a prisoner of Kauui Haosrauuah. Kauui Haosrauuah shall slay him at the bank of Lake Caikasta, the deep and wide (lake), in revenge for Siiau.uuarSan, being the son of that treacherously slain hero and (in revenge) for heroic AyraeraSa




in revenge for Siiauuarkn, being the son of that treacherously slain hero, and (in revenge) for heroic AyraeraSa;

$77: 12. kauui haosrauuah @na,Q mazm Miim fiar/rasiiianam 'Kauui Haosrauuah (slew) the Turiian scoundrel Fraqrasiian': The verb janad 'he slew' is lost and must be restored, cf. $93 vacznam ... yim bara,kauua haosrauua yal Nrbjaini fiqrase 'the mace which Kauui Haosrauuah wielded when Frarpiian the Tura was slain (by him)'. 77: 13. pusro kaena siiauuarSzinai .. ayrac?ra&heca narauuahe '(Haosrauuah) in revenge for SiiauuarSan, being his son, and in revenge for heroic AyraeraSa'. Less complicated is the construction with kaena 'in revenge for' (literally 'with revenge for') in Yt 15,28 (Karasaspa entreats Vaiiu:) yaj kaena n i j a a i azam bM8rd uruu&Saiia ya_rjmmi h i ~ s p a m raise paiti vazai6iiai 'that I may pounce on (Himspa) in revenge for my brother UruuaSaiia, that I may slay Himspa to carry him away on my chariot'.
477: 14. sii~uuarS2nrTi narahe ayraera9aheca narauuahe, cf. Yt 13,131 ayraera...



mairiim mirim fiagrasiirinam


vispe bauuai aiai.vaniiif ahurd kauua haosrauua ,jana_t, maifim Nifim fiagrasii2nam bwdaiiai kmsauuazd~agh)am

uta bastam v&Yaiieni uta bastam upanaieni bastam kauudiS haosrauuaghahe jm2. tam kauua haosrauua pasne vm-it cakastahe jafhhe umi2pahe pu9r6 ktena siikmw&n2i zurdjatahe narahe ayraera8aheca narauuahe


Sahe narauuahe. According to the Phl. tradition ($77:16), AyraeraSa is a goodtempered and pious brother of Fragrasiian. The coordinating -ca is, therefore, not to be deleted.
fj77:15. The attribute narauua- is hardly a patronymic 'son of Naru' (in which case also Fragrasiian, the ill-tempered brother of AyraeraSa, would be a Narauua) but it rather is a common adj. from *nara-yuua-'belonging to a troop or family of heroes, co-hero, heroic', cf. the proper name YAv, huubuua- <OAv. huud.guua-. Note the evident link between nara- 'hero' (SiiauuarSan) and narauua- 'co-hero' (AyraeraSa).

' mandis also found in Hintze's ms. J18 where it could have been restored by a copyist.



$77:16. The genealogy of Fragrasiian, Karasauuazdah and AyraeraSa is described

in Bdh35.17 152~1j.a~ ip&g /i %&imrn"6i g i ~pa~niiasp"' i idu&acs>p8 i t j i &don / ciydn karsewaz kg kedan xw&cWd / cud) a @ n 9 har sg bHd bod d head Fmiyaw son of PaSang / ..... / as also Karsewaz whom they call K & h , and AyreraS were three brothers; Bdh29,6 pus i ayrera9 ipaSmg& / p a d zarmg i gdpatesWgdbedesMn / u-S gdpaLfah/gbb&ah xwanend 'the son of A@raS son of PaSang /is in the country of GbpatestWGbbedesKtn / and he is called ~ d p a t ~ d d ~ b b e d ~ a h ' ? B&35,23-25 Ud az a p n 9 g 6 p M uTd. / Ud ka fkls~yawmanufcihr abtg erdnijm andargaripad3kwrIrgargiraltTrkard/ud s@'ud axt abar hiSt /a@ra9 azyazdm ayMxwast/u-S& newa.ki3 vin&d/kr13& s p h u d g u n d i emIj.& a z an sax@ bdxt. /Frds&riwpad & 'wih&!nag lo 6iad a p m 8 . /Ayrem$ p a d an padan fiazand ciybn gbpatC2h z2d 'And from AyreraS GbpatSah was bom. / And when Frasiyaw had captured ManinuScihr with the Iranians in Mount PatiXxwWar 1 and let loose trouble and misery over them, / AyreraS asked the Yazatas for a boon / and he obtained that favor / that he could save the army group of the Iranians from that hardship. / For that reason Frasiyaw slew AyrEraS. / AyreraS, in recompense of it (= his achievement), begot a son called GbpatSfth.

$8 78 - 82. Kaysln Yasn, Karde XI1

979. ( U p m kiiuua&n xvmnd ...yazamaiie) yaJ upagbacaJ &uunam zara9uStram / anumaoe daeniilW / anuxBe daenaF81' / annuarSk3e &i?ni~1j.81' yai c&s vispahe a@& / asluuat6 / #am &auuastamb / da9ram buxJa9rd.tamd / raem raeuuastamd / x'mnd x varanagvhastam6 vara91-a vara9rauuastam6. / 479. (We worship the mighty Kavym Glory) which came over to truthful ZaraSuStra / (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion, / to speak in accordance with the Religion, / to act in accordance with the Religion, / (to ZaraSuStra) who, among all the corporeal existence, was / the most truthful in tnith, / the most powerful in power, / the most splendid in splendor, 1 the most glorious in glory, / the most steadfast in steadfastI ness.

hi... ic&s ...x v m d x'aranw%astamd y ~ 'the Kavyan Glory ... which came over to truthful ZaraSuStra, (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion .. (to him) who was ($36:2) .. the most
glorious in glory'; ..-cf. $84 (kauuaem xvmnd) ya_t upaghacal kauuaem viS@spam anumatae daena. llal... yaL imgm daengm astaota 'the Kavyan Glory ... which came over to Kauui ViSmspa, (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion ... so that he vowed himself to this Religion'. Actually, ZaraSinuStra's and ViStZispa's piety were a prerequisite for reaching the anuxtse daenaii2i mu.glory, not vice versa. It seems that anmame daenaii~i varS3e daenaiiaiwas a set phrase used by the authors of the YaSts regardless of its outcome.
$79:2. Further parallels of the set phrase: Yt5,18 (Ahura Mazda entreats Araduui Sara Anahim:) ya9a azam hacaiiene ...

'In Av. script.
Anklesaria's correction.

In Av. scrib.

a$auuanarn zara9&mm anunatge daenaiiili ... 'that I may win truthful ZaraSuStra, (inspiring him) to think in accordance with the Religion ...;' Yt16,15 (Huuduui worships RaziStA Cis@) vohu. ba yam isamnca? dauuanam zara9uStram anumat.e daenaiirli ... 'desiring truthful ZaraSuStra to be her dispenser of goods, (inspiring her) to think in accordance with the Religion

Humbach, Boyce Volume (1 985) 327-334, particularly 332f. Anklesaria's correction ("vahilna').

49 78 - 82. KayBn Yasn, Karde XII. ZaraSdtra


Y8,7 (ZaraSuStra speaks:) h8yMia azamcd yd zmS&bb htam nmanangmca viqmca zaghm(unca ddiiiu(unc8 @hit dat?nai$ anumatzuiae~aanuxhiiaeca a mu. varS&iia&a y &iiin3zataS&b77 'let me, who am truthful ZaraSuStra, win the chiefs of the houses, the villages, the counties, and the lands, (inspiring them) to think ... in accordance with this Ahurian ZaraSuStrian Religion.'
979:3. The dat. of darn- in ammafie da&aY&' is the result of a syntactical attraction of the gen. damiui'd as attested in Y8,7 iuijhd daenad anurnatuYae(ca). Such attraction is already found in OAv., e.g. in Y30,2 ahmai na sazdia 'to proclaim it (ahmb3 for us (na) '. 979:4. The series of phrases &m a$auuastamO xSa9ram huxSa$fl.tamd nm meumtarnd x V m dx''nq"hdstam0 m 9 m vara9muuastarnb 'the most truthful in'tmth, the most powerful in power, the most splendid in splendor, the most glorious in glory, the most steadfast in steadfastness' is syntactically incongruous due to its transition from the acc. dam, xSa9ram, raem, x V m n bto the instr. vara9ra. Its last member vars9za vara9rauuastarno certainly originates from a passage such as Yt l4,3 m a ahmi amauuastamd vam9ra ahmi vara9rauuaslama 'owing to my impetuousness I am the most xvaranagha ahmi xVaranag%asfarno impetuous one, owing to my steadfastness I am the most steadfast one, owing to my glory I am the most glorious one'.

$80:4. niuuaracikiian 'they used to rape them', literally 'they used to throw them down', is corrected by us from Gdn's niuuarazaiian. The transmitted readings such as rns. F1 nauuarami'an sec.m. (for nauuarazafbn pr.m.) are influenced by the common varaziia- 'to work' but actually the verb belongs with Ved. ni-makti 'he p@ivy& n f N i p SayddhM dqmak 'he threw throws down' in e.g. RV2,17,6 down w i to lie on the earth'. An inverse deterioration is uzuuaZaj $86:1 which is corrupted from uzuuaczq'. The opt. niuuarac/iaiian is either from an a p e s nivara,j,a-or from an aiia-pres. niuuaracj>aiia-, the latter case with haplology of in 4rz1iian> -aiian as is usual in the 3rd pl.opt.



$81. Aal tt?at?uud ahund vanid / yim a$aub(a)zara8d&cd>fm~uuaiial vibara8/ ja@m .%n'Diirn apararn xraoZdiiehiia franliti / zca)marag&a auuazad / vispe da&ua / aiiesniia auuahmi'a. $81. Yet one Ahuna Vairiia / which truthful ZaraSuStra recited I with breaks in beween up to the fourth time, / each subsequent time with louder recitation, I drove down U (all the daeuuas), causing them to hide under the earth, 1 a the daeuuas unworthy of being worshiped (and) unworthy of being praised.
i f a t tt? atsuua ahun6 vairiid yim a$auuca> zara$db& fiasrduuaYaf etc., cf. Y9,l4 him paoiM3 ma9ufh-aahunarn vairIm fias~uuarYd vLbam9fla~tarn / &mink aparam xraoidiiehiia fiasnliti 'you, 0 ZaraSuStra, have been the first to recite the Ahuna Vairiia 1 with (short) breaks in between, up to the fourth time, each subsequent time with louder recitation'; PhlT. ud m h d o m zarduxSt ahunwar fizz sriid [kt34 y d t ina war kardJ/pad bebanTnih [[pad be-gbwiSn] cahifr &lg ud 6 & i pas pad xrozdg 152z-srayifnih [tuxSagihaj SktV. t v q p13rvafI jarathqsba ahunavp~SvocafI/vina krmwena abhqsanenaca (,..) pakcst g2dhalarab praudhasvarena.

tj 8 1:1.

$80. Vaenamnam ahma1 para daeuua pabiien / vaenamnam m a 2 tiauud$ / vaenamnam apra, karSaiian /jain3 haca maSii'aeibiid. / Aal ta' snaoSa@ garazanif / hazb niuuara&wi'andaeuua. $80. Before that time, the daeuuas used to rush about openly, 1 lust pushed them Iforward openly, 1 openly they used to abduct I the wives from their husbands. 1 There- 1 upon, (notwithstanding) their crying and lamenting about the abuse, / the daeuuas used to rape them. $80: 1. The verbs pataiian ... fi&!uudd ... apca>.karSaiian ... niuuaradxaian are opt.pres. in iterative function. apca).karSaiian is corrected by Bthl456 from mss. apara.karSaiiian. $80:2. maiid fiauudi~ 'lust (pl.) impelled them, lust pushed them forward': h - u u ~ d< fia-auub$, cf. Ved. pra-dvati in the sense of 'to help on, to drive forward, to give wings' e.g. in RV1,102,3 riftham ... prhva 'drive forward our chariot', 4,30,6 pdv& ... 6aSam 'drove forward the horse'. §80:3. gara&nB hazd 'lamenting about the abuse' is a further example of the f phenomenon of enjambment ($5:4). Although separated by an end o line, the two words form a phrase.

98 1:2. zcarnaragnza auuazat 'drove down, causing them to hide under the earth', cf. Y9,15 him zamargmc5 akaranuud vispe daeuua zara9uJtra / ycii para ahmai_r vFrO.raoSa apataiianpairi aiia zama 'you, 0 ZaraSuStra, caused all the daeuuas to hide under the earth, who previously used to rush over the earth in the shape of men'; PhlT. td andar zam& nigan kard h6nd hanvisp dew zarduxSt / kc?pc?S az iIn wiramyiSn padid bend abarpad 8n z m g ; SktV. t v q jagaiYgupm akaroh viSviIn deva jarathuitra / y e pr& tasmat viravikrm* apatm upari a s y mjagatym). 481:3. zcamaragriza is Gdn's correction from zarnmguza of ms. F1 etc., the latter being followed by Bthl1665. The ending -a is perhaps corroborated by Ved. guhi kc 'to conceal' but -0 is found in both the variants of the present passage

$8 78 - 82. Kayan Yam. Karde XII. ZaraSuStra


(zamaragILz0 mss. B27 R115, cf. mss. J18 J10) and its parallel Y9,15 zammguzd ($8 1:2), furthermore in FrW4,3 zamm.gUz6 bauuq agro rniuniiuf zarnaragrlzd bauuanti daeuua
981:4. In the present passage, a t w 6 ahunil vmiiid 'one Ahuna Vairiia' obviously denotes the complete recitation of a series of four Ahuna Vairiias, which is not lucid, See V10,ll ime aete vaca ydi ba?.lb' gA9&uua ca9damnlh ime vaca BxtLvii9m framruua: Ya96 ah0 vruiiid, Mazda a_tm64 A ain'3ma iSi0 'these are the texts found in the G89as and to be recited four times, and you should recite these texts up to the fourth time'.

$8 1 5 . The mss. reading y h a$auuanam zara9ILPIram fiasn7uuaiia~ corrupted is #auuca) zara9dtrcd) fiasrduuaYa_t by perseveration of afauuamm from ~ l i n z a r a 8 u h m in the preceding 879, see Introduction 6.3. §81:6. v13aara9Fantarn 'with short breaks in between (after each single Ahuna Vairiia)' is rendered by PhlT. be banznih [[pad be g b w i w . This is misunderstood by SktV. as vin8 kramagena abh,&qenaca 'without repetition and omission'. $81:7. gxh7iifm 'up to the fourth time' is different from ca9m.f 'four times' in @SrzLCrnB- ( i s 1:4). $81:8. auuazai 'he drove (them) down' is slightly incorrect for auucilm$ < auuaazad, Cf. Ved. ava-aj, e.g. in RV1,161,10 udak* g h dvqati 'drives the cow down to the water'.

$82:3. auui.vci>iw'approaching, soliciting, impelling, requesting' (Gdn. with ms. F1 auui vaiign) is of the pres.ptcp. auui. viimt-. The vulgata spelling -gn of the ending is slightly incorrect for -p, cf. e.g. V8,100 baraziiaoga_t vacd ram.~Y,m. 'raising his voice loudly'. It alternates with the vulgata spelling -6 in is6 ... auui.viign as it does in $84:3 siidiiia . apcaB>auupn'frightening off ... driving away'. The ptcp. auui.vci)igneither comes from Mi-vl'to approach, solicit ' (cf. abhivita sbkhibhy& Ved. abhi-vib- 'desired, welcome' in RV7,27,4 d&iM 'the donation is welcome to the friends', or it comes from a@;-vi-i 'to approach and spread over' (but Ved. abhi-vi-i is rendered as 'to approach from different sides' in RV6,9,5 dev& s&nana@~ ... &arp Mhun abhf vfyanti ).


§82:4. viBp(a)- is the name of a mythical being, possibly another name of Apam Napgt. If auui,viiw viMpam is a figura etyrnologica or pseudo-etymologica, vita;o(a)- is from vib-Sp(a)- or vi-ita-ilp(a)-. Yet the segmentation vi-Hpa'heating' is also thinkable (cf. Ved. vi-tapati'makes something melt'). $82:5. uruuisiia tarn 'tum him away' and jasag) tam 'reached him' are corrected by us from Gdn's uruuisiiatarn and jasatarn which have been misunderstood as dual forms.' §82:6. aez6 jasai tam a e d e 'the urge of the urging one reached him (the urged one)' is an idiom. aez6 is from the -ah stem a & 'urge, desire' (= Ved. &bas-in &an-ebis- 'without desire, not exposed to the envy of others'), but a.?zabe is from the a-stem &za- 'urging, desiring' (= Ved. ebd- 'desirous, wishing' in AV 13,3,33).~ also §4:1 on aea-xa-, name of a mountain. See §82:7. ya9a ka9aca te bzaoSd mana ya_taburahemazda' 'just as it was my, Ahura is Mazda's, pleasure': The function of t@ not clear, perhaps it is an ethical dat. As for the whole passage cf. V2,11 h c m ~ t a huu,?m anu ILPBrn moSamca ya9a ... ka9aca he zaoS0 'they moved along .. (moving) in accordance with their own desire and pleasure, just in the way in which it was their pleasure'.

$82. (zara$&trCi) yedhe & x'ann6 is& / main'o t~iiiidfmgrase / vispifiJ auui L aS aS kaduugn y i hapta; /par; y i hap& kaduu,m / manid apahl fmgme / is0 xVmn6 me zara$&m: / A tal x m n 6 frazga6ah / auui vcbign vjiaparn: / I ~ j a uruuisiia tam. / Aezd jasaq) tam aezabe / ya9a ka9aca te zado / mana ya_t ahurahe mazda' / da&aiia'sca mazdaiiasndi3. $82 (ZaraSuStra) whose Glory the Tiiriian scoundrel Fraqrasiian sought 1 all over the seven continents; / around the seven continents 1 the scoundrel Fraqrasiian rushed up, seeking the Glory of ZaraSuStra. / Then that Glory darted forward / approaching Vitapa (and urging him): "Hey, turn that (scoundrel) away from me". The urge of the urging one reached him (= Vitapa) / just as it was my, Ahura Mazda's, pleasure / and that of the Mazdayasnian Religion. §82:1. yejhe taf x'aranb isal'whose Glory he sought': More literal would be 'with whomc(or: in whose poessession) he sought this (Kavyan) Glory' which, however, with regard of the following is0 xvaranbzara8uStrdi 'seeking the Glory of ZaraSuStra' does not seem to make sense. ErazgaaGata 'then that Glory darted forward' as in §56:3which §82:2. d ta_txVarand see on 2 ... fra-. The phrase crf, &iyxvaranbis restored by us in $51: 1.

' Cf.Humbach, ibidem.

Cf. Hurnbach, Krafylos 32 (1987) 52.

$9 83 87. Kayan Yasn, Karde XIII. Kauui ViBtaspa



$$ 83 - 87. Kaygn Yam, Karde X 1 I1

Kauui ViWspa
$84.: ( U p mkauua&n xvaran6 ...yazamai'de) ya_t upallhaca~/kauuaem VlSteFpam/ anuma&e oln.?nah2i/anux& da.?naW/aauusrS~e dadnai'&'/H i&un datngm ashoh, I ddmadiim siZdiid/da€uugnapca.hauu,w; $84. (The Kavyan Glory) which came over / to Kauui Vi&ispa / (inspiring him) to 1 think in accordance with the Religion, / to speak in accordance with the Religion, / to act in accordance with the Religion, 1so that he vowed himself to this Religion, / frightening off the archenemy (= b r a Mahiiu), I driving away the daeuuas;

§85:2. dru is instrsg. of d m - 'trunk, piece of wood' (§42:12). Hence we must attribute instr. use also to paurnurn, of pauruuan- 'knot' (= Ved. p&van-). Cf. the use of kduugn, of kduuar-arSuuan- 'clime', in the sense of an in Y61,S haca karSuu+n yaiShaph. §85:3. dnrca paumuwca 'with stock and knots' is an idiom for something that is complete ('completely'). Here it could mean as much as 'with body and limbs' but it refers rather to the shaft and the spiked ball of ViWspa's wooden mace, an interpretation which is favored by the textual connection with ViSmpa's attribute darSi..dnr-'boldly (brandishing) his wooden (weapon)' in Yt13'99 ($85: 1). §85:4. yd ... @rauub cii)a&a I... &~rauudviuuaC6a 'who sought space for truth (and who) found space for truth'. As for the collocation 'seeking finding' cf. Y68,13 raziStaheppa96 aeSamca vaedamca 'seeking and finding of the straightest way' (PhlT. an i m i 3 t rdh xwahiSn ud ayabiSn ); Yt13,107 hauua.-?ibiia bazubiia hmuiie rauud a&iSt6 ... hamara9arn paih' yOi6iitd 'the best to seek space for himself with his arms, (and) the best to fight in the battle'.



$84: 1. See 579:1 on the set phrase anumat'de da&aiiiZi


§84:2. si2dii0 is nomsg. of s i 2 d i i ~ t -'frightening off, cf. med. sizdiiarnna'flinching (from)'. $84:3. daeuugn apca.S',auugn'driving away the daC?uuas' is corrected from transmitted daeuugn a p dauupn (ms.F1 etc.), cf. Hintze, p. 354. The correction is doubtful, apca.bauuw being more or less synonymous with siZdiidpreceding it. As for the alternation -6 : in the endings of the pres.ptc., see §82:3 on is6 ... -gn auui viign. The final -pn being a vulgata reading for -g ,Hintze wants to delete the redundant -n. It is, however, impossible to eliminate all vulgata features from the transmitted text. $85. (kauuaErn viJt2spam) yo aiuca /= Y113,PPpaumugnca/aBirauuo ciiL@a /yo dmca pauruugnca /aE(Simuu0 viuuaesa / y o b&uSca upastaca / visa&aijhd daenrui'a'/ya_t &1r2rbiS zara9ILFmiS); $85. (Kauui ViStaspa) who with stock and knots I has sought space for truth, / who with stock and knots I has found space for truth, / he who agreed to be the arm and support I of this Ahurian ZaraSuStrian Religion; $85:1. (kauuat'rn vi..aspam) yo dmca pauruuwca a$ai rauud (iZatTSa yb a ' ' paumugnca d z i rauud viuuaeisa, cf. Yt 13'99 kauuOiS viSMspahe ... darS.draoS auiriiehe yd druca pauruuwca &i rauud cii>a~S'a druca pauruu~nca r a w viuuaea yd a@i 'of Kauui ViSmspa .. who boldly (brandished) his wooden (weapon), the lordly one, who with stock and knots 1 has sought space for truth, / who with stock and knots 1 has found space for truth'.

$86. (kauuaem vi#k?spam) /= Ytl3,OOyo him sM@m h i m haitim / uzuuacz)a~ haca hin01Piid/nihim dash maisidiSa6am bbarazi.r&arn /ahzlka&uuaitm &aoniin / Sr@pn g3dca Vastraheca/fi&m gMca v&Meca.} 986. (Kauui ViStaspa) who freed from her chains / this (Religion) which was immobile and fettered, / and who placed her (beside himself) to sit in the middle, presiding at an elevated place, / truthfully wiping away obscurity, / being satisfied with caffle and pasture, / being contented with caffle and pasture. an $86: 1. uzuuaczxg is corrected from transmitted uzzfuaia.l_r, uncommon verbal form in which the original sequence z-zis dissimilated in the tradition into 2-2 See §84:4. $86:2. ni him dash rnaiSiidiJadam 'placed her (beside himself) to sit in the middle' shows the same indirect reflexive meaning of the med. of ni-da as it is also found in Yt10,32 nihjJdasuua garonmane 'deposit the ZaoSras (= libations) (with you) in the Garbnmilna'. §86:3. In maidiidiSaSam barezi.rBam there is an evident parallelism between the compositional members rnaiSiidi 'in the middle' and bamzi This parallelism suggests that barazi is not the "Caland form" of barazagt- 'high' but rather the of baraz- 'height, elevation' (nomsg. baraS). The same possibly applies to barazi.aoga_t 'exclaiming with loud voice' in V8,100 baraziiaogai vacd r&iign 'with loud voice giving the (warning) call' but for the rest the similarity of this phrase with bargzi.rrizam seems to be of an outward nature only.

' cii,aeSa :ya&a

Gdn. with mss.



886:4. a~a6auuar'rim 'wiping away obscurity', see g42:7 on ahkatacim 'running secretly'. #86:5. SpfF@m @ a v & M e fn'tpn gadm vrZFrrahe "satisfied with cattle and & pasture, contented with cattle and pasture', cf. sih-agaufca vastraheca 'rich in cattle and pasture' in $54:3.


§ 8 88 90. Kayan Yasn, Karde XIV


Saoliiant (= the Savior)
$89. ( v m m kauuaem xVmn6 ... yazamide) ya& upqhacc&l / sadiiaptwm / vara$~jaoam u$ aniiAsc$ haxak? / ya_C karanau* fia&m ahUm / azerasa~tam amam&p&m / afii$iiaptam apuiiaptam / yauua.$m puuaesm vas~.&$ram / yai &. juuaiib amamx6:S/da9aiteh.famvmna a& irista paiti usabiSt(gn) $89. (We worship the mighty Kavyan Glory) which will (have) come over 1 to SaoHiiant VaraSrajan (= the Victorious Savior) I and (his) other companions 1 when he will make existence brilliant, / not aging, imperishable, / not rotting, not putrefying, / enjoying eternal life, enjoying eternal benefit, enjoying power at will / so that the dead will rise again, / (so that) imperishability will be bestowed on the living, / (and) existence will be made brilliant in value.
$89:1. For reasons of meaning the transmitted pret. upaghaw 'it came over' must be corrected here into the subj. upghacra,t. 'it will (have) come over' (past of the future'. The erroneous reading upaghaca_t is due to perseveration of the eight occurrences of the same form in the preceding $§26,28,31,39,71,74,79,84.See vara9Mjmam) 'which is coming over also g66:l on ya_t upaghacaib' csaoJiia~1tam (to SaoSiiar;lt VaraSrajan)'.

$87.;Bauua,t @i.iA / p s a lZLvnd kaum nSW@ / $9n'ih~uapbm duZ&&am / pa@namca clinediasnam / dmwtamca arajaJmpam/ uta atiii'Bsc8 aya / duZuua&auub Aiaondghb. $87. Brave Kauui ViStaspa / overcame TqSriiauuant of evil religion, / and Pgana, the daeuua-worshipper, I and deceitful ArajaI.aspa, 1 and aU the other wicked / X'iiaonas of
evil guardianship.


887: 1. baumj a& vaniiil $Sriiauuaptam duidaenam pa$mamca da~uuai?asnam druuagbmca araja~.aspam, cf. Yt5,109 (ViStaspa entreats Araduui SiirB Aniihita) ya_t bauuani iu$3ivadi;;3' $Sn?duuafltam duZda6nam paSanamca da&uru'ianam &ua.@rnca araja,r.a.spam ahmigaeSepaSmahu 'that 1may overcome etc. ... in the battles (for the rule) over this world'. In both of these two passages pa$ma- m. 'fighter, enemy' seems to be used as proper name' but in Yt5.109 just quoted the masc. proper name is contrasted with the fem. common noun pa$anZ- 'battle' (cf. Ved. pftana-'battle, contest, strive, a hostile armament, army'). The fern. p$m& 'baffle' is also found in Yt13,37 uyz2fhu pa$mh!hu ... taSa nijaan xStauu1$3iid taSa ydi taxma xJHuuai'0 dmubiio azan &mil 'then, in the grim battles, (the Frauua.$is) descended to the XStauui people, then im -the fr XStauui people gave battle to the D&u people'. Yet in a similar context we find p e a - n.: Yt9,30 (ViStaspa entreats Druuaspa) ya9a az;ini p a h a mainyehe xhaonahe araja_taspahe ya9a az&i pa$ana ddinikahe daeuuaiiasnahe uta azam nijanmi $$n?auuagtarn du2daenam 'that I may give battle to the Xiiaonian scoundrel Arajapupa etc.' y nNote that Ved. p& $ means 'rushing to the contest', said of horses.

g87:2. duZlluandru- 'of evil guardianship', see §9:1 on dvzpdra- 'of excellent guardianship'.

§89:2. The transmitted phrase saofiYm@mvara9r;Imam 'the VaraSrajan among vara9I;ijmam 'SaoSiiant the SaoSiimts' is an ordinary corruption of saoSi&?tcam VaraSrajan', as found in: Y59,29 saofiiqtam vix-a9Idjanarn yazamaide 'we worship SaoSiiwt VaraSrajan' ; PhlT. so&ms / srldomand] perdzgar yazcm. i Cf, also Y26,lO haca gaiiq m m 9 @ a saoSiiq&J vvara9rayna.l 'ftom Gaiia Maratan up to SaoSiiant VaraSrajan', % PhlT. azgayomard L 6 sOdomandpL!rdzgar[sdfiiZns], S ktV. yat gaiomardapm,si?t vat labha v a n w ("labha vdm) v~ayakwtii y2 [saukiosa/g. See §92:1 on ashrua_r.mta'of corporeal truth', another name of SaoSiiant VaraSrajan. A secular kind of combination of saofiiwt- with vara9rajan- is found in Yt13,38 ydi taxma xJ&uuaiiOyOi taxma saoSiimM ydi tzvma vara9rBjmd where XSauui is * . an ethnic name. The corruption of saoSiiqtcam into saoSiiap$m took place under the influence of the many OAv. and YAv. occurrences of the saosiizptqm, among which $22:1 z3tulgmca azatangtnca f i d d . c a r a 9 saoSiiw@mca.. ~



§89:2bis. varaSldjmam and vara9rdjmd vs. vara9raja and varaSrapa_t are further examples of the rhythmical lengthening discussed in 8 1:2. $89:3. By perseveration of the ending of karanauug , the transmitted sg. usahiS@' 'he will rise' is corrupted from the pl. usahi+in 'they will rise'. $89:4. The text of $89 has been made use of by the author of the more recent $ 11 and its repetitions in $19 and $23, see $11:1.

$5 9 1-96. Kayan Yasn, Karde XV
The Frdd.karaiti at the end of time

$90. Imperishable will be the world / of truth, being endowed with strength. / Deceit

a z i d ajim:~ ~ ~ 492. t...) when (SaoHiiapt) Astuual.arata will rise / from the Kqsaoiia Sea, / the Imessenger of Ahura Mazda, I the son of Vispa.tamuairi, / brandishing the triumphantl mace, /which brave BraHaona wielded / when A5i Dahaka was slain (by him);



will be done away, (sending) it back/ to the place whence it has come / for making the truthful one perish, / himself, his progeny and his property, / in terror and detstruction); / and the scoundrel will be done away as well. / Such is the judgment.
$90:1. This is the original place of the text which was already corrupt at an early time and which was transferred in its corrupt form to the more recent 5 12 where it is written in full in the mss. tradition (along with its abbreviated repetitions in 520 and $24).

492:l. astuua_t..arata-'ofcorporeal truth', is a posessive compound formed from OAv. astuua_ta#am'corporeal truth' in Y43,16. Here it is used as a further name of SaoSiiant VaraSrajan. See the explanation in: Ytl3,128f. astuuagkmtahe &aond fiauu&im y m a i d e / y d aghal sadiigs vara9raja ngma astuuaf.aralasca n w a ; / auua9a saotiigs ya9a vispm ahifm astuumtam sauuai'd,r; / auua9a astum_t.aratdyaSa astuud hg dtanauud asluuai ai9iiqkhim paib'Sa_t 'we worship the frauu4i of truthful Astuualmata I who will be the S a o l i i ~ t VaraSrajan (=Victorious Savior) by name and Astuua1.arata by name. 1 (He will as be) SaoSiiant (= benefactor/savior/st~engthener) he will benefithavelstrengthen the entire corporeal world; / (he will be) Astuua1.arata (= of corporeal truth) as he, being corporeal and vital, will restore corporeal intactness'. Cf. 5 15:3 on astuual ai9iiejahim.


$92:2. yai astuua_t. t 0 fiaxSt2ite haca a kgsaoiidd 'when Astuaprata will rise m @ from the Kqsaoiia Sea', cf. §66:3yo auua6aL fiaxSctif,iteya9cr)a zraiid ya_t kgsaem 'who will rise from (the area) where the Kqsaoiia Sea is situated'; V19,5 zara9dtrd ... yahrnai us.zaiiditi saoSiigs vara9raja ngma haca k9saoiiaL 'ZaraSuStra to whom the SaoSiiant VaraSrajan by name will be born (rising) from the Kgsaoiia Sea'; i PhlT, t2 ka uz-z2yed sUd0rnand iperbzga az db-ikayrlnsih. §92:3. vispatauruuaicri)iA is corrected from transmitted vispataumuaiid. The name of Saosiiant's mother is more correctly transmitted in the vispa.tauruuairi in Yt13,142. d t d mazdd a h d e see §46:3 on d a 'messenger'. t -

' ai9iiqkhim Bthl. with rns. F1, ai9iiejaghamGdn.

§ $ 9 1 96. Kayan Yasn, Karda XV. The FraSb.kaniti



§92:4. vacmam vaq8 'brandishing the mace' is corrected by us from Gdn's

vr -n vatljd. Unless the hapax vat?&- is a ghost-word at all, it has been intruded into the present passage from a lost Avesta text in which its meaning is likely to have been 'needle' or 'some surgical instrument' or, at best, 'a kind of stabbing weapon' (cf. Skt. v d a - 'piercing, penetration, puncturing, wounding') neither of which makes sense in the present passage. Bthl1320 drew attention to the fact that Braetaona's "va&a-" must be the same as Faridtin's gun i gawsar 'the mace with the bull-head' as described in the hhname. As a matter of fact, the characteristic weapon brandished by the heroes of the Kavyan period indeed is the vajm- > NP.gun 'the mace': Yt10,132 vazram ... huniuuixtam 'mace (which is) well-brandished down'; i Yt 13'72 karat6 huhgharStd / v . huniuuixtd ... / Mx18axtd ... / dtiS ammb.~utb blade well discharged ... I the mace well 'the huuat;BiiiZstb ... /&d brandished down ... I the arrow well aimed ... / the lance well thrown ... I the stone(s) flinged (well) by one's arm'; Yt 10'40 karatacit aE&m hufi@uxtay d i niyldrie d u ma$ii&anpn ... vaaacd t a&&n huniuuixta yai nip&= sarahu pi maSiiakangm 'their blades which come down upon the heads of the men are well-aimed, their maces which come down on the heads of the men are well-brandished'; Yt6,5 v m m huniuuixtarn kamade @li; daeuuanpn 'the mace which is well brandished down upon the head(s) of the daeuuas'. Yet Bartholomae did not draw the necessary conclusions from his discovery. The transmitted va&m is obviously corrupted from vacmam by a copyist who anticipated the first letters of the following valj0. Realizing his error, he tried to make the best of it to avoid spoiling the manuscript.


/ya_tdu zaingdd BIN /yin baral kauua rd 93. (va rmam) yim bar&h g m e haosrauua /ya_t hrrd jaini fmgrase /yim bm_tkauua nS&p /acrana,haend cadamad. / Tkc& auuua6a drujam mfbat++/a$&e gae&biio. haca $93. (the mace) which Fragrasiian, the Tura, wielded 1 when deceitful Zainigu was slain (by him), 1 (the mace) which Kauui Haosrauuah wielded I when Fqrasiian, the Tura, was slain (by him), / (the mace) which Kauui Vigtsspa wielded / when claiming tatonemenb from the enemy army - I with that very (mace Sadiiapt) will, then, expel deceit / from the world of truth.


993:l. On the one hand, the complete command of the mace, one of the attributes of royalty, must have passed over from the slain person to his slayer, but on the other hand, the slayer must already have been in command of the weapon when he slew his victim. That is illogical in all the cases described in §$92-93 unless we assume that the mace was wrenched by the slayer from his victim during the fight. It must, however, be admitted that the author of the passage may have been less pedantic than we expect him to have been. In the present passage, Fraljrasiian gives a less negative impression than elsewhere, having slain deceitful Zainigu. §93:2. The phrase w e haenaiid caeSamnd as transmitted in the mss. has resisted hitherto all attempts at a reasonable analysis, the combination of $a- 'truth' with haen& 'enemy army' being contradictory. Since it is unlikely that #a- (and particularly its gen. m e ) occurs twice in one and the same paragraph, we assume that &e in m e ha(Enru?d) is due to erroneous anticipation of the following m e ha(ca gae92biid). Our restoration acrana) haenaiiA ca&amna is based on comparison with arana$caHa-, an attribute of MiSra which we understand as 'claiming atonement', see Yt1O,35 mi8nm ... arana_l.ca8am vf~dal,spi?6am hazagmyaoxSlim xSaiimtam xSaii'ammnam vispo. vi6Jagham 'MiSra ... who claims atonemen?, who levies armies etc.' 493:3. Neither cae'amna nor (aranad.caeSa-are from the root ci 'to pay, revenge, punish' (Bth1464) but rather from the root ci.In its act. forms this root means 'to assign, adjudicate' from which we deduce the meaning 'to claim, demand, call in' of the med. cat3mnd. 493:4. haenaiid is the correct of haen& 'enemy army'. In less reliable tradition the form also could stand for both the haenaii'i and the haenaiiad but no correction is necessary in the present passage, whereas §54:5 haena-iia' xruuiJiieitlTC is slightly corrupted from haend yd xruuiSiieitiJ $93:5. t (= tiia!) of the mss. hardly is an ordinary corruption of tc& but something i must be lost after 8. For this reason we restore Mcir,.

§92:5. The mss. reading vrZra9raynam is corrupt, it should be corrected into v&a9raynci>m. Similar is Yt33 m@hngm v?ira9rayncim... va.ra$rayniid.tamam in which both the mss. reading vrZra9raynam (Bth11412) and Gdn's conjecture v&z~$raynci)are erroneous as is born out by Y57,22 mg8rd yd v&drayniS. Also Bthl's reading (haomangm) viTra9rapangm in Y10,9 is to be given up in favor of cf. Gdn's vrZra$rayn~ngrn, Vr9,l haomangm ... vm9rayninpn. Note that v,ira9rayni- 'triumphant' is a qddhi formation from vara9rayna'victory' whereas Ved. v&aghna- 'referring to the slayer of Vytra' (VS), unconvincingly adduced by Bthl. 1412, is derived from m r 'slayer of Vytra', i n i.e. Indra. §92:6. vaimam ... yim bmad t a m 0 9raetaond yai aiiS dahrTk0 jaini 'the mace which brave Oraetaona wielded when Aii Dahilka was slain (by him)', cf. the active construction in $37 $raetaonb ... yb janai aiim dahaam 'Oraetaona who slew (the serpent) Aii Dahilka'.

The Av. letter 6 is most similar to a slightly mutilated or smudged letter j.

' Differently Gershevitch, Mithra (195911967) 186 'punishing the wrong'.



49 91 - 96. Kayan Yasn, Karda XV. The Fr&b.kaaiti


$94. Hd &Sad xnit(3)llS ddisnlbiia / !&pa okwn p'Li.vaena~./ Pasca ( e m &
duCci9crariid / hd vLspam a m asfuwtam / iZrll7.4 vaena?_t h ddi9Hbiia / / s c a m amaraxfiimliin/ vispiun ypm asfuuaitiin gae&m. &9a,t
494. 'Beholding (them) with the eyes of (personified) intellect, / (SaoSiia~t) will view all creatures. / After the fading (of deceit) of evil origin / he will look at all the corporeal existence / with the eyes of (personified) abundance, / and by his look he will make I im~erishable the entire cornreal world.

495. AIfhe haxah'd fm7egte / asluuat.t.aratahe vaia9rapd / bumanaghd huuaca*


hdiao9ndghd h u h a /naed;zc~Q'mi96 twaoxgghd / aeSm x *a&p'$iia himud. / A & pard hlnambbte/ axmui&u)S dufx'mnd. / Vanad a akgm h j m / ygm & dufci9m tamaghaenixn.
$95. His companions (will) make their appearances, I (the companions) of victorious

Astuuai.arata, / (who are) of good thought, of good speech, / of good action, (and) of good religion, / having never spoken. in falsehood 1 owing to their self-control of tongue(s). I Inglorious wrath of bloody weapon / will flee from them. / Tmth(s) will

$94:1. di6Bd ... pr.vai!nai ... vat!n&' lit. 'he will behold ... he will view ... he will 'i look at'. The non-coordination of the two verbs d i a l ... paitivaenai being rather clumsy, one would expect the ptcp. discas, (or di6qs) 7) instead of di6@

wercome evil deceit / which is of bad descent, spreading darkness. fj95:l. fiaiiente 'they (will) make their appearances' < fia-a-iieple, pres. stem iia_ (iya-) with intensive meaning and med. form as a-iiai in Y3 1,2 aCvA visppg bY6i 'then I approach you all'. Ind.pres. instead of subj. followed by the subj. franmaite, cf. $96: 1 vanail(e> vana'ri van@... fianiimdtte). ...

§94:2. mtdd ddi9rabiia 'with the eyes of (personified) intellect' is corrected by Gdn. from the mss. which point to mt&ddi9rdbiia, cf. the following i i a i d ddi9rrfbiia'with the eyes of (personified) abundance' (494:5). §94:3. pasca wa)& 'after the fading' is a tentative restoration of the mutilated reading ......Sd of rns. F1, cf. pcai!Sd mss. Elsec.m.'N107 B27 J18 (cf. ms. J10). Yet va&&- means 'rotting' rather than 'fading'. Further stems ending in -Sah are J a a - 'enmity', $&&ah- 'fear, terror', r t & - 'injury, hurt', and Ved. hesasbBh a!& 'shudder'. Neither Av. *asah- nor Ved. %$as- are known. $94:4. d&ci9tr~hd'(of deceit) of evil origin' (ms. 518, cf. ms. R115) is corrected by Bth1753 from Gdn's dufci9nYaiid (ms. F1 etc.), cf. $95 drujim dufci91pn 'deceit of evil origin'. $94:5. iiaii' v e & ddi9rabiia 'he will view with the eyes of (personified) an ' abundance', cf. Y50,8 ma1 vci padaiJ ya fiasnii2 iiaiid pairijasai 'I will approach you with footsteps celebrated as those of (personified) abundance'. $94:6. darasta,-ca, instrsg. of darasa- 'sight, seeing', is corrected by us from dam-ca of the mss, which is an ordinary mistake. $94:7. da$a_l a m a d i a n t i m vispm ygm astuuaitrlm gae9gtn 'he will make imperishable the entire corporeal world' is to be compared with $12: 1 bun gae8d amarac&qb;(: world will become imperishable'. No difference in meaning is 'the discernible ?elween amataxSiikpt- (fut.ptcp.) and amarac&qt- (pres. ptcp.) both of which seem to have the intransitive meaning 'not perishing, imperishable'. The fut. amanxfiiant- possibly means 'not exposed to future destruction'. Its intransivity could be the reason for its being formed with the weak root in the same way as the fut. b M a - from root ba See also 4 11:2. $94:8. We do not know what is the exact difference between vispam ahm astuuantam 'all the corporeal existence' and vispgm ygm astuuaiBm gae9gm 'the entire corporeal world' both being found together in the present passage.


$95:2. mi96 vaoxvdgh6'having spoken in falsehood' is convincingly corrected by Instead of mi96 most mss. have mi$rd as Skjzrver from Gdn's rni$d.aojAgh~.~ first member. Important ms. variants adduced by Skjserver are mi9r6. aoxdghd ms. F1, mi96. vaocAgh0 Ptl, mi96. vaozdghd M12, mi9rd. vaojdghd N107etc. Cf. n6ixyauua ...mi96 vauuaca P18. $953. In the present context xvaCpai9iia- is not an adj. 'own' (BW1861) but a noun which we render as 'self-control'. duSxvaranah-'inglorious' or perhaps 'of evil personality', see Introduction 3.1, n. 9.

a $95:4. van21 @ akqm drujim must originally have meant 'truths will overcome deceit', but the author of the passage most likely understood it as 'truth will overcome deceit'. The use of the #a 'truths' originates from Y48,l yezi adaiS a$. drujam vgnghaili 'if truths (= utterances of truth) can defeat deceit through these (activities)'. A less close reminiscence of the GaSa passage is found in Y60,5 vainQahminmcine ... arSu60 vriuSmi9aox6am vacim &a dmjam 'in this house the voice of straight utterance will overcome the voice of false utterance, truths (will overcome) deceit' (cf. Bth1240, 1351) unless Gdn. was right when reading mi8aoxfiam vacim a$a.drujim 'the voice of straight utterance will overcome the truth-deceiving voice of false utterance'.

495:5. The a$a in the sense of 'true words, truths' is well attested in Yt5,77 ta b2 $a ta arSux6a ...ya1 me auuauual daeuuaiiasnanfun nija tbam ya9a azam smm-a varsangm b m i 'these are truths, this are straight utterances, that I have slain as many daeuua-worshippers as I have hairs on my head'.

' ni/b&am

S k j z r v ~JAOS 117 (1997) 145-147. , Hu. : njja9am Gdn. with mss.



$96. Vanaitce)akamca man0 / vohu mand Ea_t vanm* / vantu'tce)mi&oxc&b t ) m/ am2:ux& vaxS tam vauiuw / van&' haudsca arnandsca / mua cS,uhmca tarsnamca; / w d i hamubca maradsca / apm cSu,Sarnca tdnamca; / fnln&n&fee)duZuu&tB-

Bibliographical References
Bailey, H[arold] W[alter]: Dictionary of Kholan Saka. Cambridge-London-NewYork-Melbume. 1979. Bthl. Bartholome, Christian Albianisches Wdderrbch. Strassburg 1904. -: Zum Alt~mischen Wlirtrbuch.Nacharbeiten und Vorarbeiten.Strassburg 1906. Boyce, Mary: H i s t o ~ ~ ofZoroasInanism.Parts 1-11, Leiden-K6ln 1975, 1982. Part 111 (with Frantz Grenet), ibidem 1991. -: A word-~ist of~anichaaea i d d l'Perrimand~artlimTbdran-Liege 1977. ~ e Christensen. Artur: Les @pes du premier hornrne et du permer roi dans /'histoire I&endaire des tribus iraniennes. 1' partie. Gajdmrd, Masjay et Masjanay, HdJang et Taxmdruw Stockholm 1917.2'partie. Jim. Leiden 1934. -: Les Kayanides, bbenhavn 1931. (Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. Historiskfilologiske Meddelelser. XIX.2). Eilers, Wilhelm: Geographische Namengebungin und um Iran . Miinchen 1982 (= Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1982,5). -: lranische Ortsnamenstudien. Wien 1987 (- Sitzungsberichte der dsterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 465). Gdn. = Geldner, Karl F[riedrich]: Avesta. The SacredBooks of the Pads. 3 p t ,Stuttgart 1896. rs Gershevitch, Ilya: A Grammarof Manichm Sogdian. Oxford 1954. -: Amber at Persepolis. In: Shrdia Classika et OrienC?liaAntonino Pagfiam obfah.Rorna 1969, pp. 167-251. -: Approaches to Zoroaster's Gathas. In: Iran 33 (1995) 1-29. Gnoli, Gherardo: Ricerche storkhe sul Sislan antico. Roma 1987. -: ilber das iranische huamah-. Lautliche, morphologische und etymologische Probleme. Zum Stand der Forschung. In: Aftorientdische Forschungen 23 (1996) 151-180. Henning, Walter B.: Sogdca. London 1940 = SefectedPapers,I, Leiden 1977, pp. 1-67. Hintze, Almut: Der Zamyad-Y f Editon, hrsekung, Komrnentar . Wiesbaden 1994. at - [= Hintze 21: Zamycld YaCt Infroduction. Avestan Text, Transfation, Glossary, Wiesbaden 1994. e Hoffmann, Karl: A u f ~ &zur IndoiranisbP. Bande 1-2, Wiesbaden 1975. Band 3, ibidem 1992. Humbach, Helmut: Kompositum und Parenthese. In: Mhchener Studien zur Spmchwisenschfi 5 (1954) 90-99. -: Review of Jacob Wackernagel, Alfindische Grammatik, Band II,2, von Albert Debrunner, Gottingen 1954. In: DeutFche Literafuneitung78 (1957) 289-301. -: Zur Textgeschichte des jkngeren Avesta. In: Mhchener Sfudien zur Sprachwissenschaft 3 (1953) 67-71. Rev. Nachdruck (1958) 73-79. -: Die awestische Llnderliste. In: WienerZeitFchrifi fir die Kunde SCd- und Oshsiens 4 (1960) 36-44. -: Beobachtungen zur IjberlieFemngsgeschichte des Awesta. In: Mhchener Studen zur Spmchwissenschafi 3 1 (1973) 109-122. -: Problems of Mihr Y d t in the Light of Philological Evidence, In: Richard n. Frye (ed.):Neue Me&odologiein derlranisbl. Wiesbaden 1974, pp. 85-92. [Festschrift fiir Wolfgang Lentz1.-: Vayu, Siva und der Spiritus Vivens im ostiranischen Synkretismus. In: Monumentum H. S. Nyberg. Part I , Leiden-Tehran 1975, pp. 397-408. -: About Gbpat56h, his country, and the Khwarezmian hypothesis. In: Papers in honour of ProfessorMary Boyce , Leiden 1984, pp. 327-334.

uuac1~5 /al]rb mahiufanCcwiacmm0. 996. Evil thought will b e overcome, / good thought will overcome it; / the voice of
false utterance will be overcome, / the voice o f straight utterance will overcome it; / integrity and immortality will overcome / both hunger and thirst; / integrity and immortality / wl overcome evil hunger and thirst. / The (notorious) malefactor will take il to flight, / A p Mahiiu, (having become) powerless.



$96: 1. vana'f(e) vanaiti is corrected by Gdn. from the mss. which point to the ... erroneous lectio facilior vanaib' ... vanaib: 1nd.pres. instead subj. as in h-iiegte #95:1 which also see wuth respect to the transition into the subj, van&+ ... fianmairce,. $96:2. cSu,Gamca Mnamca is corrected by Gdn. from a confused rnss. tradition: m .F1 has sudimca trasnarnca ...sadamca trasnamca s §96:3. fh&ndit(e> is corrected by Kellens from mss. f % I ~ & n ~comparing $95 ti,
fianma're 6.


$96:4. ax&a)iimd is corrected by Kellens from Gdn's reading ax4Yamand (ms. F1 etc.)'

vaxS is $965. For reasons of symmetry the transmitted mfiaoxtb viZvSara~60 to be corrected into d a o x ( 6 , b vL S araZux86 v a J . The correction is confirmed iv ahminmae ...arSux6d v&#mi9aox&m vacim quoted in §95:4. by Y60,5 vain&+


* Kellens, Le verbe avestique (1984) 23, n. 1.

'Kellens, ibidem (1984) 323f.


Bibliographical Refemces

Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, E&rnologjsches Wdrterbuch des Alttndoanichen, Band 1.1. In: Ktafyl0~32 (1987) 50-52. -: Review of Manfred Mayrhofer, E@mologisches Wdrterbuch des Altindoanschen, Band I. In: Ktatylos38 (1993) 40-42. -: Der alte Name des Hindukusch. In: Ac$ Orienkdia Academae Scientiarum Hungm'ae 48 (1995) 67-69. -: Die &Mac desZBlllMuc651.2 Biinde, Heidelberg 1959. - et al.: The OBI%&o f Zarathushbsa and L6e orher Old A vestan T a b . 2 parts, Heidelberg 1991. and Pallan Ichaporia: TheHeritage ofZarathushba. A new bmslation ofhis Ga16as. Heidelberg 1994. Kellens, Jean: Les nom-racines de I 'A vest?, Wiesbaden 1974. -: L'Avesta comme source historique: La liste des Kayanides. In: Acfa Antiqua Acadehe S c i e n t i m Hmpicae 24 (1976[1979]) 37-49. : Le verbe avestique, Wiesbaden 1984. ~lin~enschmitt, Frabang-i Oim. Edition und Kommentar. Dissertation University of Erlangen, Gert: undated (about 1970). This important work has never been published More information is available from Instihrt fir IndogennanischeSprachwissenschaft,Kochstr. 4, Erlangen, D-91054. -: Altindisch Uhat-. In M&chenerSludienzurSprac/lw'ssenschafi 33 (1975) 67-78. Lommel, Herman: Die Y W s des A we&, GBttingen-Leipzig 1927. MacKenzie, David N.: The Khwarezmian Glossary 11. BuJetin of the School of Orienlal and A h i m Sludies 34 (1971) 74-90. Malandra, William W.: An In&oduction to Ancient Iranian Religion. Readjngs h m L e A vesta and h the Achaernenid InscnjZions. T d a t e d a n d Edited Minneapolis 1983. Band 2, L eipzig 1905. Marquart, JoseF: Untemuchungenzur Geschichte von Em. Mayrhofer, Manfred: KEWA = Kmgefisstes e@nologisches Wdrterbuch des Altindischen .BHnde 1-111. Heidelberg 1956-1976. -: EWAia =E@mologisches WBrterbuch des Althdoanschen .BHnde 1-11. Heidelberg 1986-1996. -: Die Arierim Vorderen Orient. Wien 1974. livre du Denkart. Traduit dupehlevi. Paris 1973. de Menasce, Jean: Le troisi&me Monchi Zadeh, Davoud: Shdien m m imnischen Nationalepos. Wiesbaden 1975. Morgenstierne, Georg: Indo-Man Frontier Languages. Part 11, Oslo 1938. - : lndo-Dardica ,Wiesbaden 1973. Narten, Johanna: Der Yasna Haptagh2iti. Wiesbaden 1986. Panaino, Antonio: TiSbya. 2 parts, Rorna 1990-1995. -: A Daevic Speech. (Forthcoming article). -: The origin of the Pahlavi name Burz "Amm Napat". In: Acd Orienfalia Academiae ScientiarumHungaricae 48 (1995) 117-126. -: Review of Hinbe (1944 and 1944-2). In: Kratylos 42 (1997) 63-71. Pirart, ~ r i c Kay& Yasn (Yasht 19.9-96). Barcelona 1992. : Skjma, P. Oktor: Famah: mot mllde en vieux-perse? In: BuUebn de la SociPtP Linguis6gue 78 (1983) 241-259. -: Avestica 1: A Perfect participle: vaoxvifilhd. In: Journal of Lhe American OrienfalSociety 117 (1997) 145-147. Tremblay, Xavier: A p r o p de deux tdit~onsrtcentes du YaSt XIX. In: Die Sprache 37 (forthcoming). Utas, Bq The Pahlavi Treatise Avdeh u Sah11Ph i SakisHn or "Wonders and Magnificence of Sistan". In: Acd Antqua Academiae Scienbamm Hungan'cae 28 (1983) 259-267. Walker. John: A Calalogue o f the Arab-Sassanian coins. Repr. Oxford 1967. Watters, Thomas: On Yuan Chwang's Travelsin In& 2 parts in one, repr. Delhi 1961. Williams, A. V.: The Pahlavi RivJyat Accompanying the DSdesMn i D&&. 2 ppatts, Copenhagen 1990. p e t Kongelige Danske Videnskabemes Selskab. Historisk-filosofiske Meddelelser 60:l-

Particular signs and abbreviations
Asterisc (*) precedes reconstructed forms of single words or phrases; it is not used if the reconstructed nature of the form in question is self-evident Pointed brackets (< >) include corrected or restored elements of single words or phrases Braces (( 1) include repetitions of text abbreviated or completely omitted in both the manuscripts and our edition Square brackets ([ I) include glosses inserted in the Pahlavi translation and its Sanskrit version Double square brackets ([[I]) include passages to be deleted Grade sign (") is used in repetitions of Avesta passages to draw attention to variants found in their basic texts Crux (indicates compted form i ) Bthl. = Christian Bartholomae: AIbransches Woirtrbuch Gdn. = Karl Friedrich Geldner: Avesta In the critical apparatus also: Hi. = Hintze, Zamyild Y d t Hu. = Humbach-Ichaporia Ke. = Kellens add. = addidit, added corr. = correxit, corrected del. = delevit, deleted ms.= manuscript; mss. = manuscripts sim. = sirniliter, similarly et sim. = et sirniliter, and similarly (other manuscripts) suppl. = supplevit, supplied Av. = Avesta, Avestan, A vestic Phl. = Pahlavi PhlT. = Pahlavi translation MP. =Middle Persian Man.MP. = Manichaean Middle Persian NP. = New Persian Khwar. = Khwarezmian Sogd. = Sogdian Khot. = Khotanese Bactr. = Bactrian Skt. = Sanskrit SktV. = Neriosangh's Sanskrit version of the Pahlavi translation Ved. = Vedic Old Indian ("Vedic Sanskrit"), pereferably used in reference to quotations from the Rigveda




Alphabetical order:.

a # d a a a e t o d i i u f f /k x . f x v g y c j t 8 d 6 1 p f b B

/ g r f g ' a d ~ m v r szfZ8y.h.


a- dem.pron, in m a $54(2x) 1 ahmai $457, 60(2x), 63(3x) ( a h & $433 (para ahmad; $02. 34 (ahma! haca); $80 (ahmi para)( ahe $$13+; 54+ / arfhe $95 1 ahmi $68 ( a m $95 1 a& $95 / aiia $ 1 :2 (aia zama) I a j t d $85 1 d$i~n $18 atuua- num. 'one' $8 1 aeuuandasa- nun. 'eleventh' $2 at?&- dem.pron. in a t 4 $647-51 1 at?lilhm(II1 ( *aete $8:3 $46 a&n dern.pron. $$33,34 aeza- adj. 'urging' $82:6 aezaxa(n)- m, name of a mountain ('of gushing springs') $4: 1 aezah- n. 'urge' 882% aeSah- n. $94, read waeSah- 'fading' ae@m dem.pron., see aaeSu dem.pron., see aa&na- m. 'wrath' $446 (at%amamca);/ 95 (aamd) aoi prep. +acc. 'against' $37 h o j in ptcp, aojana- 'speaking' $49 aojah- n. 'strength' $$68(3x), 75 aojSta- adj. 'strongest' $38 aota- n. 'cold' 4933, 69:2 aom dem.pron., see auuaaiiapta- n. 'boon' $76, see Biiaptaaiiah- n. 'iron @ot)' $40:6(2x) aiiesniia- adj. 'unworthy of being worshiped' $8 1 ai9iiejah- adj. 'unendangered' 4 15:3


prep. +acc. 'for (the duration of)' $$26, t28:2), 31 (darayamc$ aipi zruurlndm)

aipi ptcl. in: yauuai [am] aipi ... auuai aipi $8:1-3 a@i.vaghu-/~~pi.vohu- m. name of a kauui $71:1-2 a$Xg&na- m. 'year' $29 a.$i ...jaymad 'it has come' $412, (20, 24,90). &am @i.vaenaciAi 'he views' $ 17. ./"a& a$i. variiiah- adj. 'overcoming, superior' $$29,77,87 @ii&Star- m. 'overseer' $18 qiiiama- adj. 'endowed with impetuousness' $15:4 a@itd postp. + acc. 'around' $66:5 apiti- f. 'visit' $6:14 atjhA dempron., see aairiia- 'Aryan' 9$56, 57,59 , 60, 62, 63, 64,69; see w3pe.aire razurah u in opt. friluub$ 'itlthey used to push forward' $80: 1-2 auua- dem.pron. in: aom $512, (20, 24), 90; 35, 36, 38 (aom xVarand) I auual448; 48,50 (auua_tx'arand) auua adv. 'off' $445 auuae9e interjection of lamentation $960 (auuae9te,); 63 (auuac&?e); see 957:l auuaenapt- ptcp. 'following with his eyes' 934: 1 (auuaend). h a e n





auuauuapt- adj. 'so much' $68 auua9a adv. 'thus, as follows' $543, 47,49 auu& adv. 'then, at that (future time)' 893 auua&,z adv. ' r m that (area)' $66 fo auual dempron., see auuas u m p @ 'he m h e d down' $858, 61. dkt auuanama- adj.ptcp. 'irresistible' 474. auwnai'eni ' I will lead down' $44. h i auu-1 'he drove down' $ 8 1. daz a u d - n. 'help, support' $69 auuahmi'a- 'unworthy of being praised' 481 au& prep. + acc. 'to, towards' $$17, 51,58,61,67(3x), 82 auui. viiapt- ptcp. 'approaching, impelling' $82 (auui.vci>iw). h i a u k hg&ca'b' 'it flows to join' $67 (2x1. dtac auuihgm.yaziille 'it hurries to join' $67 (2x). I4yaz aunrua- adj. 'swift, valiant' $72 aunrucylt- m. 'racing horse' in afta aUrUUa&VbI adj. 'swift', see next aunrua_taspa- adj. 'of swift horses' (of A p m Napat) §$51(2x), 52 aka- adj. 'evil, wicked' $96 ( d g m drutm) ; see next aka- manah- 'evil thought' $$46,96 axfwiiamna- adj. 'powerless' $96:4



axrafniia- adj. (f. -4 'not sleeping' $39 axram&- adj.ppp. 'unappropriated, unpossessed' $$45:1, 55, 65; 46, 47, 48,49,50,51,53,54+. h v a r aya- adj. (f. a@-) 'evil, bad' $937, 57, 60, 63, 87, 96 ayra&a%- m. proper name $77:16 q i ' i m a - adkptcp. 'undiminishing' $32. $i a9a adv. 'SO, thus, hence' $7; in a9a' r a w 'such is the judgment' $$12, (20, 24), 90 which agrees with the

same phmse found in the first line of the Ahuna Vairiia prayer a9aun1nJB9rauuan- 'member of the priest class' $88:4,53:1(3x) a9ra adv. 'there' 869 . a& adv.'then, thus' $$48,50,56,59,62 adv. 'therefore, thereupon' $646, 47.49 a&- or *a&&- f. 'water-course', see next a6ubiuuapt- m. name of a mountain ('rich in water-courses') $6:2 (a&&uui2sca) a_t encl.ptc1, $46 a p / a p f. 'water' $632 (ap);40 (apam); 62 ( ) 66(8p6); 92 0; &; in apiun nap& $$51,52:2,4 apcru.k&u'iao 'they used to abduct' $80:l. && apa.gaufllur?li'a_t 'he withdrew (hands, paws)' $$48,50. ./grab apa.ds(a)- adj. 'loosing its direction' $42:10 apai'a adv. 'again, in the future' $48, 50 apayBm- m. 'outlet' §$56:8,59,62 apatacat 'helit fled away' $$40, 56, 59, 62. &c apabl 'he rushed up (to)' $841, 82. '/pat apana-Apana- n. 'attainment, gain' §44:6 (apanam) apanamata 'it turned away' $935, 36, 38, h a m a m - adj. (f. a m ) 'future' $75:6; 'subsequent' $81:4 apastanah- adj. 'out of breath, exhausted' $42:13 apa.spaYa_1 'he threw off $556, 59, 62.

apa.hi& 'it escaped' $$56:6, 59, 62. hid apa. chauuvt- ptcp. 'driving away' $84:3 (nom. apa.chauugn). &i&u ap9aciieni) ' I shall blow out' or 'I shall chase off $48:1. 4 9


aHm napat- m. name of the only Young Avestic divinity continuing the Gathic group of Ahuras other than Ahura Mazda 4451, 52:2,4. See also Introduction 5.7 apamnmi'u- adj. 'under-age, minor' $43:3 apuiiapt- adj.ptcp. 'not putrefying' $811. (19,23,89). $0 afraka- adj. 'secret, obscure', see §42:7 atiakauu@ (f. afraGauua't?-) 'disposing of hiding places' Yt13.26, see 642:7 a f r a k a ~ a u ~adj. (f. aMa&uur?lK ) t'wiping away obscurity' $86:4 afrakatac- adj. 'running secretely' $42:7 afmpatai 'you will rush up' or 'to rush up' 850:3. ./pat afji9iikgt- adj.ptcp. 'not rotting' $511, (19,23,89). dfi9 ab&- adj. 'marvellous, wonderful' $1O:4 a~Z&uuan- f. (@zddanu- ?) name of a water body $62:1 qra- adj. 'destructive, evil', see next agm- maniiu- m. 'destructive spirit' $$29,44(2x), 46,96 aghaoSama- adj.ptcp. 'not drying up' $32. &UP agha'9iia- n. 'untruth' $$33:4,34 'aghu-/ahm. 'life, existence' $$I l(2x), 19(2x), 23(2x), 75, 79, 89(2x), 94 2aghu-/ahu-m. 'lord', see $13:2 on Vr16,3 aghuca rawca, v.1. aghufca ratufca ajhd, ajhe, ma dem.pron., see amania- adj. 'non-Aryan' $68 madm111- f. 'not-lying, non-existence of deceit' $33: 1 mu.ajti- f. 'closing up, one following the other' $8:3 anuuarSti: f. 'acting in accordance with' §979,84 anuxti- f. 'speaking in accordance with' §§79,84

mumati- f. 'thinking in accordance with' Ss79.84 &?a- adj. 'other' $§I; 9+, 45+ (adiidrz h); next); 36, 38. 42, 87, l7(see 89 adiid atfiia- adj. 'each other' (?) 8 17: 1 aflku- 'hook', see fni& ~ t a r a h y h name of a mountain mass ('situated inside the country of Kqha') $4:11 aptara.d@u- m. name of a mountain ('situated inside the country') $2:9 a m - m. 'irnpetuousness, attack' 474 amaeniyna- n. 'power of striking down at the attack $54 ainar(hapt- adj.ptcp. (f. a r n m b ~ t i - ) 'imperishable, immortal' $8 11, (19, 23), 89; 12 (20, 24. 90); 32; cf. amaraxsiikpt-. ./marc amaraxti- f. 'imperishability, imrnortality' $$11:4, (19,23), 89 arnaraXrli'apt- adj.fut.ptcp. (f. arnaraxfii - ) 'imperishable, immortal', possibly 'no longer perishable' $94:7. {man: arnan#t- f. 'immortality' $96 &aadj. 'immortal', see next arnda- spaph- m. $15 where the number of the Arnasa S p a ~ t a sother than Ahura Mazda is seven amuiima- adj.ptcp. 'unshakable' $74. ./m-imff carraosa_l 'it rose' $40:3. & u d amska- m. 'envy' $33 aqkaaspa- m. proper name $87 a d a h - n . 'side' (vs. ads- m. 'idem') $l:9 arana- n. 'atonement' conjectured in $93:2 (acrana, haenaia' ca&amno, mss. dahe haenai'a' ~ a d d m d ) ) cf. , next arana-1.caeSa- adj. 'calling in debts, claiming atonement' attested in Yt10,35, see $93:2 araza- m. 'battle' in gatb.araza- $42:1, cf, arazah- n. 'battlefield' and see next arazb.famana- m. proper name $42: 1

I 18




dhg in ptcp. ara).iylt- 'tumultuous'
$44:3 &- 'steed, virile being' $52 m. a&n- m. name of a Kauui $7 1:1,2,5 &u&- adj. '(voicdword) of right utterance' $ 13+, cf. am21~6a&- n. 'truth' $812, (20,24,90); 37,41, I 46, 48, 50, 79, 85, 93; 95:5 (pl. &; ) m e haeniili'd $93, see armna-. In astuua_t.arataIqCzs&mbana- m name of a mountain ('pillar of truth') $ 5 3 a,buuan- adj. (f, Haoni-) truthful' $8 12, (20, 24.90); 15, 53, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63,64,68,69,79,8 1 &utrasbma- superl. 'most truthful' $79 Mi- f. 'reward' $54 as 'he was' $79 read (as. { ' a h w i ' a - m. name of a mountain ('shadowless') $4:4 (asakws>ca) m- 'stone', partcularly 'slingstone', m see next asciunum~t- m. name of a mountain ('covered with slingstones') $5:7,uua- adj. 'whose hands are of stone' $43 asti 'is'. d'ah astu $32:3 read c&st(am, 'both were'. d ]ah.. asluua,r..arah- m. name of (the eschatological) SaoSiiagt, the Savior ('of corporeal truth, representing corporeal truth') $992: 1,95 astuuqt- adj. (f. astuuaiti-) 'corporeal' $$37,41, 79, 94(2x) a s p - m. 'horse' $829, 68, 77; in auruua_l.aspa-, araja$asp-, hihispa-, huuaspaapd.gar- adj. 'horse-devouring ' $40 asman- m. 'heaven' 943 qaz in pret. auuazad < auuca,za,r 'he drove down' $8 1:8 azamant- .adj.ptcp. 'not aging' $811, (19,23), 89. &ar &b- adj.ptcp. 'unborn' $922, 56, 57, 59,60,62,63, 64. &an *azha-n. 'skin, fur', see next

azinauuqt- adj. 'wearing a (fox)fur' $285 &.a@- adj.f. 'very strong' $37 af;adastama- adj.super1. (f. - d ) 'most strong' $37 &.pariika- adj. 'much devoted to witches' $41:5 ctzr.vapdra- m. 'excellent guardian' or adj. 'of excellent guardianship' 8$9:14+, 45+ d.yaracah- adj. 'of high miraculous power, much dignified' $$57:2, 58, 60.61.63 &&- m. 'messenger' $$46:2-4(3x), 92 d t a num 'eight', see the next two d t a aumuanM name of a mountain mass or mountain ridge ('eight racers') $3:13 d t a @mca) name of a mountain mass or mountain ridge ('eight necks' or 'eight mountain passes') $3:13 afhma- num. 'eighth' $2 aZi- m. 'serpent' $847, 48. 49, 50; see the next two aZi- &akam. name of a monster $$37,46,50,92 aZi- sruuara- m. name of a monster $40: 1; see sruuaraJafa- adj.ppp. 'restless, having lost his hornstead and peace of mind' $34:4. {'ah in : pres. ahmi 'I am' $843 1 asti 'is' $$lo, 15, 16, 22, 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69 1 hapti 'they are' $18 1 ptcp. haibi- f. 'being' $68 1 pret. & 'he was' $$36, 38, 82; 79 (c&s)l c.%stcam) 'both were' $32:3 1 perf. &ha 'helit was' $$33(2x); 48, 50 (b@iuudgha) 'he was about to dZah in subj. &Ifh&' upset' $40:7 1 ptcp. nii(a4hmnna'sending down' $67:5 ahe dem.pron., see aahu- m. 'life existence', see 'aghuahuna- vairii- m. name of one of the four most holy prayers $81:1.4



ahura- m. 'lord' $452 ( a ~ nap&; 477 m (kauua haosrauua); see next ahura- mazdii- m. $$10(2x), 16, 18, 35, 46, 53, 58, 82 1 m d d - iih~ra-$947, 48,49,92 ahura6&l1- adj. 'created or granted by Ahura (Mazda)' $$48,50 a h m a - name of a mountain ('lordly. Ahurian) $5:2 ahma; ahma, dem.pron., see aahmi 'I am' $43 .d'ah ahmi dem.pron. $68, see a, a prep. + acc. 'towards' $401 postp. + acc. 'up to' $ l(2x) d = da_r in d ta_T $$*51:1, 56:4, 59, 62, 82:21adim $51 Ba_t adv. 'then, thereupon' $834, 47, 49, 53,54(2x), 57.58, 60.63.80, 81 ai interjection of polite address $53 Biia dem.pron., see aBi9i- f. 'terror' $$12:4-6, (20, 24, 90) (a&-&a) &mui'&~t- ptcp. 'heading down' $ 17:5 (duuaiia@m). d auudiia interjection of lamentation $63, see $57:1 Biiapta-hiapta- n. 'boon' $76 (aiiaptan?m) &Midm adv. 'up to the fourth repetition' $81:7 8 - m. 'fire' $$46,47,48(2x), 49,50 $9 in aps9aciienirj ' I shall blow out' or 'I shall chase off $48: 1 a9aJca $12 (20,24,90), see ai9iil8jiiiini- adj. patronymic of Oraetaona 636 a9rauuan-/a$aurun- 'member of the priest class' $8:4,53:1(3x) 8 9 d m adv. 'for the third time' $62 adarana- m. name of a mountain ('supporter' or 'with cracks on it') $3~1 @bitim adv. 'for the second time' $59 3 p f. 'water', see a p apana-hpana-n. 'attainment, gain' $44:6 (apangm) arSbi'a- n. 'spear length', see next

a.dtti'd.barazan- (?) 'of the height of a spear-length' $40 (a.dtiid.bmza). Bs 'he was' $$36,38; 79 ( a ) ; 82. d'd~ c8,sana- n. 'rise' $44:7 Bsita- adj.ppp. 'set up, planted' Y10,14;. d s ~ Osee next ; &citd.gatu- adj.f. 'set up at its place' $39:1-2 dsiSh- adj. 'swiftest' $46 &hots 'he vowed himself $84. h l u f&stcam, 'both were' $32:3. dfah 'legitimately born, &ma- adj. (f. m-) noble' $75:3 Bh111n- adj. f. 'Ahurian, originating from Ahura Mazda, lordly' $85. Not clearly distinguishable from the next ahOini'a- adj. 'Ahurian, of Ahurian nature, refening to Ahura Mazda, lordly' $15 dgha 'helit was' $$33(2x); 48,50. +ah dghilm dem.pron., see a@.bUj- adj.f. 'saved from distress' $75 anyapt- adj. ptcp. 'tumultuous' §44:3. darg variant am&- n. 'truth' in, of $aam6pd.zq?ga- adj. 'of erect shanks' $39 arazifiia- m. name of a mountain ('eagle') $2:4 amzicda- (arazd)a- ?) m. name of a mountain $2:10 arazi- f. name of a river $67 arazura- (ca)razum- ? m, name of a ) mountain $2:5-6 araiux6a- n. '(voice/word) of right ~Ttterance'$965, cf. arS1ty6ad in pres. lidiente 'they make their appearances' $95:1 1 ptcp. auuaiiapt'heading down to' $1?:5 (Buuaiia@m) (;;,at% perf. 'he sought' $85:4. & i9a adv. 'in this way, thus' $$57:1, 60(2x), 63(3x) i8e interjection of lamentation $57:1 i6a adv. 'here' $68 inja interjection 'hey' $$48, 82 ima- dem.pron. in impn $84

iris&- ppp. 'deceased, dead' $$11, (19, 23). 89. dri9 isa- pres.stem, see &S dk in pres. iziieiti 'he urges' $51 #il pret. isal 'he sought' $56, 82 1 opt. isaeta 'he should seek, he should strive for' 853 1 ptcp. isapt- 'seeking* $956, 59, 62, 82 @)I perf. cii>a& 'he has sought' $85:4 & in ppp. tiaBk- 'driven off' or J 'driven out' $34:2 1 pres.ptcp. isiiaptpossibly in xruu-isiiapt- 'bloodshedding' $54:6 ildghaeta $ $53(3x) read chdighaeta 'he should try to win'. vhan ilkah- m. name of a mountain ('homehouse of refreshment') $3:3 il& f. 'energy' $32 iia- f. 'abundance' $94:4 uiie 'both' §32(4x), see uuauiri adv. 'thus' $$47:3(2x), 49(2x), 53 uua- adj. 'both' $429, 96 (uua); 32(4x) (uie) uuaiia- adj. 'both, both kinds' $58,61 u f i - n. 'utterance' in araZux6a-, a&&a-, mi&oxc&aurn- adj. 'mighty' $$9+,45+; 38,39 uta conj. 'and, furthermore' $887, 89 udriia- m, name of a mountain ('otterlike') $6:12 u p prep. + acc. 'on' $77 upadag'ha- adj. 'situated in the rosy dawn (= eastern?)' $1:6 upairi prep. + acc. 'over, above' $$34:7, 40(3x) upaghaca- pres.stem, see h a c u p t a t - f. 'superiority' 974 upm-kaini'a- adj. 'whose business is in the upper region' $$9:2+, 45+ upasta- f. 'support, help' $85 cu>pa.fitri- 'settling' $6: 14 f. upiiisaena- m. name of a mountain (Hindukush) $3:5-6 upJp- a&j. 'who abides in the waters' of Apqm Napat $52 umuan- m. 'soul' $$17:1 umuars- f. 'plant' $32

UNUB- f. name of a river $67:2 muBva- or uruuat$m- n. 'soaking wet' $69:2 dmuis in impv. umukiia 'turn (him) away' $82 (uruiuv'satarn read w u s i i a tam) urupii- m 'fox' in &ma- urupi- name of a mythical ruler $28:3 (unrpicm3 unufia- adj. §5:5 name of a mountain, read c h r d i a - ('granting a good state of soul') u s a h - m. name of a kauui, elsewhere called usan- $7 1:1-2.4 usahiS@n 'they will get up, they will rise' $411. (19,23), *89, l/sM usca adv. 'away', intensifies following LLF $68:1 uspataiieni 'I will make rush out' $44. &t uspa&i 'he rushed out' $557, 60, 63. &t usfErsuua~i'd~ 'it would sweep away' $68:1. { f i , uzuuaial read uzuuamai 'he brought out, he freed' $86. dvaz uzuxS&ne ' I will flare up' $50:1. d v a x ~ uzbml 'he got out, removed' $32. d 'bar mocr31Yr?lr?l 'you will blaze up' or 'to blaze up' $48 1 usmocaiieni 'I will blaze up' $50. dmc ufaoma- m. name of a mountain $5:8, read chmfaoma-, i.e. ch,uf.(h>aoma('of good haoma plants') &&or &i.da- m. name of a legendary mountain $$2:2-3 (fusasb), 66 (&a&) ufi-darana- adj. 'of reddisch cracks', attribute of Mount maSa, also used as another name of that mountain $2:2.3 UPta.xvaranah-m. name of a mountain ('possessing glory at will') $5 LL?tauuajti-f. name of a river $67 dtana- m. 'life, vitality', see next UPHnO.cinahii8- f. 'love of life' §§48:4, 50 &a- m. 'camel' $68

ka- pron. in kasc12 'everyone' $53 1 yagna kahmai 660 kaen8- f. 'revenge' $77:13 kaoiiw of kauui- $§26,28,3 1 k a ~ i ~ s am. name of a mountain ('wearing a gorget') $6:7 kaofa- m 'mountain', particularly 'mountain with a dome-shaped top' $3:15 kauui- (better kauuai-) m. 'kauui' $$26, 28, 31 kaoiim); 71(7x), 74, 84 (kauuaem); 77(2x), 87, 93(2x) (kauua); $72:3 ( kauue) kauuaha- adj. 'kavyan' $$9+, 13+(2x), 68(2x), 69 (kauuaEm) kauuata- m. name of a kauui 97 1:1-3 kakatriiiu- m. name of a mountain $4:10 k a w - pron. in kafarasc~]'each of the two' $46 ka9a adv. in ya9a ka9aca 'just as' $82 kadruuaaspa- m. name of a mountain ('having brown horses') $6:6 kagha- f. name of a country, in ~ y l t v a . kaghadkar in subj.karanauuq 'he will make /render' $89 1 karanauuiu, 'they will make/renderl $ 11 1 karanauuae ' I will make (into my)' $43(2x) karapan- m. 'karapan, ritualist' $926, 28,3l k m - m. 'border, edge, end' $29 &arf in pret. fmca karaptai 'he fabricated' $37 dkad in opt. ap(a,.karSaiian 'they used to abduct' $80:1 kaduuar-kaduuan- n. 'continent' 982 (2x1 kasc12 'everyone' $53 kgsaoiia- n, name of a "sea" (Lake Hamfin) $ $66 @raiiid ya_l kgsaem); 92 (apa! kgsaoiii?$ kgsd.tafa6ra- m. name of a mountain ('heater of...') $3:9 karanauu- presstern., see dkar karasa- adj. 'meager, thin', see next karasauuazda<h)r- m. proper name in karasauuazdam $77: 16, and most

likely in karasam $77:4, both of which to be restored to karascauuazdarJh>arn karas&p+ m. proper name $838: 1, 39, 40(2x), 44 k a h p f. 'body, shape' $$29:3, 34, 35, 36.38 2iiaona- m. name of a people $87 moZdiiah- comp. 'harder, louder' $81 xratu- m. 'intellect' $94 xruui.dru- adj. 'of bloody mace' $$46:7 (muidnrm); 95 (rnUi.dnr<S, xruuiXiiapt- adj.ptcp. (f. xruu13iiei&) 'blood-shedding' $54:6. v"iS xSaia- presstern., see h a xSaeta- adj. (f. xEdiM-) 'majestic, bright' $$15; 31:1, 34, 35, 36, 38; 52; 75 (xSai9N) xla9ra- n. 'rule' $832, 33, 76, 79; in huxla9rb.tarnaxSa9nYa- m.. 'ruler' $52:2 &Sa in pret. xSaiat? 'he ruled' $526, 28, 3 1.I ptcp. in axS(a)iiamna- 'powerless' xSbi9ni- adj.f. $75, see xlaetaxSuuaepil- f. 'tail' $40:4 xSuud..aSi- adj. 'of six eyes' $37 x W a - adj. 'liquid' $$58,61 xShrua- num. 'sixth' $2 xSnut- f. 'appreciation' in moxSni.xJnut-, pouru.xSnutxvai?pa'9iia-n. 'self-control' $95:3 xvaini'a- adj. 'to be consumed, available for consumption' $32:3 (xvahiiryllu to be read xvairiice,) h'ar 'to eat, consume, take possession o f in ppp. axvmta- 'unappropriated, unpossessed'; cf. next xvara9a- n. 'nourishment' $32:4 xvaranag"haiti- f. name of a river' $67 x*aranag%wt- adj. 'glorious' $67 xvmnag'hastma- adjsuperl. 'most glorious' $535,79 xvamnah- n. 'Glory/glory ' $ $9+, 13+ (2x), 34(2x), 35(4x), 36(4x), 38(4x), 45+, 47, 49, 51(2x), 54+(2x); 56(4x), 59(4x), 62(4x); 57, 60, 63; 64, 68, 69, 75, 79, 82 (3x); in ILSta.x'aranah-.On





the etymology of the term see Introduction 3-4 xv&Cra- f. name of a river $67 in pret. xTsa1 'started sweating' $40 g&&ia- adj. 'material, worldly' $22 gae9a- f. 'material property. material world' $94; pl. 'world' $4 12, (20,24, 90); 37 (gae9duuib, ga~%+m, gae9aam) ; 4 1,48,50,93,94 @a- m. 'life' $44 gairi- m. 'mountain' $$1(2x), 2, 6(3x), 7'8'66 gair&c- adj.f. '(rivers) flowing along the mountains or coming down from them' $66:6 (gahIc6) gau- f. 'cow, piece of cattle, also animal of the good creation' $554, 69, 86 (gdd).; 'milk' $ 13+, 54+ gauua- rp. 'paw, hand (daeuuic)' $50; in maogd.gauuagab- ppp. &am, see next gatbmza- adj. 'having entered the battle' $42:1 gwd@a- m. name of a monster $4 1:1 & d j a m in pres. hgrnjasaotci. 'they meet' $66:7 1 pret. jasa! 'it reached' $82:5 &satam read jasaq) tam) 1 subj. jkqt 'it will reach' $81 1, (19, 23), 89 1 perf. M i ... jayma1 'it has come' $$12, (20, 24), 90 1 ppp. gata- in gat6.araza- 'having entered the battle' 'gar- adj. 'devouring' in aspagar-, namgarf. 'song of welcome', see next gard nrnba- n. 'paradise', tit. 'house of song of welcome' $ $ 17'44 gmrna- m. 'heat' $33 &an in ptcp. garazaa- 'lamenting' $80 gatu- m. 'stand, seat, throne', in &ito.gatugauruuaiia- prtptem, see &ab g3uJ see gau- f. 'cow' $854, 69, 86 (W garat3a-/grafSa-pres.stem, see &rab garazana- ptcp., see

gufm- adj. 'abyssal' $5 1 dPb in pret. apa.gauruuaiia_t 'he with drew (his hands, paws)'$$48, 50 I h&ngaurumi'a~ reached for* $51 I 'he hiylgamuahh 'he reached for' $!2 355, 36, 38 1 presmbj. h ~ a r a & e / h a ~ g r a h e'I want to gain hold o f $$47,49,51:3 -ca ptcl. 'and' passim; redundant in sadiiw@n[caJ 922:l but not to be deleted in apem9aheca $77:15 1 ya9a ka9aca 'just as' $82 ca&ama- ptcp. 'claiming (atonement), calling in (debt)' $93:3. &is c a m - rn 'wheel' $43 ca9flar- num. 'four' $83 (ca9flW); 7 (ca9flmca) num. 'forty' $7 ca9~satam ca$j&6 ~1'6flana name of a mountain' $3 caraM- f. 'race course' $775 ci9m- n. 'progeny' $$12, (20,24,90) -c$ ptcl. $81; 12, 19, (20, 24, 90); 23, 89; 26, t28), 31; 87, 95, 96; in kmc$ $53 cinahh- denom.pres. 'to love, enjoy' in &&6. cinahiiiaciman- n. 'desire, aim' $$33:5, 34 (cihmlne) .\/Cis in ptcp. ca&amna- 'claiming (atonement), calling in (debt)' 993:3 jar% f. 'woman' $80 jatm- 'resin, rock asphalt' in y a h m k jataraja$uru-/jiyiauru- adj. 'vigilant, alert' $$39:1 UaY); 42:6 (jiy) jayma1 in ai$t7ic1fjayma1 'has come' or 'had come $$12, (20, 24, 90). &am/ jam jafm- adj. 'deep' $51 $' in pret. jma! 'slew' $$26, 37, 40, 41(3x), 42, 43, (77) I subj. jmal 'will slay' $44(2x) 1 aor. jaini 'was slain' $$92, 93(2x) / ppp. jah- in zur6jala'treacherously slain' $77 /ma- presstem, see root gam/wn jiyaum- see jayiaum-

J '


jim- adj. 'crafty' $42:4 $i in ptcp. a j i m a - 'undiminishing' juua- adj. 'living' $91 1:3, (19, 23), 89 &uai16) ta- dem.pron. in tam $$13+, 44,54(2x), 67(3x); 82 (uruwsiia &m, s a @ tam); j 96 1 tal $912, (20, 24, 90); 51; 56(4x), 59(4x), 62(4x); 57, 60, 63; 64, 69, 96; t.5 944 1 t(B) $93 1 82 ('dhe tam12 $$19,23.1 G n $$76, t77 I Qsca u dsca $ 13 1 t3 $$SO, .t93 (tacc&) hem- m. 'peak' $6:8; [sJtaem- Y lO,11 taxma- adj. 'brave, f r ' $$IS, 28, 42, im 72'87.92 taxma- umpi- name of a mythical ruler 28:l; see umpitac in pres, auuihqtacaiti 'it flows to join' $67 ( pret. apatacal 'helit fled away' $$40; 56,59,62 b6a adv. 'then' $51 ta! dem.pron., see tatalpaiti 'back to that place' $812, (20, 24.90) v!hP in pret. tafsa1 'started sweating' $40 tanuiia- adj. 'bodily' $75: 1 tmdi~t-/tara~%t-/tua&t- adj. 'setting aside, outdoing' $$9:7+, 14+, 45+ &r6.y2r(a)- adj. 'persisting over years' $54:4 tadu- adj. 'solid, dry' $58 t&a- ppp. 'frightened' $40. d9rah tadna- m. 'thirst' $$69,96:2 dtas in perf, taMa 'he shaped' $52 1 ppp. Wta- in huwta- 'well-shaped' $9nYiauu~t-proper name $ $87 Ttgm 577:4, fca' $935 from dem.pron. tatanqhaena- adj. (f. -i) 'spreading darkness' $95 tP dem.pron. $44, see tate encl.pers.pron. $581, 82 bbja interjection 'hey' $50; cf. ipja luiriia-/&?a- adj. 'Turiian, Turanian' $$56:1,77, 82 h16aska- m, name of a mountain ('little point') $4 (h6askacsrca)


m. 'Tura, Turanian' $ 857, 58, 60,61,63,93(2x); see $56:1 d 9 a j in subj. 9apjaiid~te'they shall pull' $44 Samnar~wt-adj. 'intense' $$9:3-4+, 45+; 72:l SJaraxJ&w- m. 'shaper' Q 18: 1-2 d$fl@j in pres. Sfl@jaih' 'is in action' $4 58:2,61 S m pers.pron. $$48,50 Smetaona- m. proper name $$36:1,92 d91ah in ppp. M t a - 'frightened' $40 ?% ,I & n. 'protection' $$42,69 Sqp- f. 'satiety' $32 (&fi perhaps S@fiS)-ca) SqfaSa- adj. 'satisfied' $86:5 Sn'tGm adv. 'for the third time' $38 Srisatam num. 'thirty' $29 Sn'zdan-/Mafa- adj. 'of three mouths' $537 (9nidanarn); 47, 49 SrizaA); 50 (9niah) Sn3uua- n. 'third (part)' $26, on formation see $ 1 :6 daeuua- m. 'demon, devil' $$26,28,29, 31,32,80(2x), 81; 84 (daeuugn) daeuui- f, of dac?uua- $37:2 dac?uuai'as~a-m. 'daeuua-worshipper' $87 daeuu6.diah- adj. 'produced by the daeuuas' $33 daPn8- f. 'religious view, religion' $$69, 79(3x), 82, 84(3x); in huhena-, duZdaenadaoi9ri- f. 'speech (daeuuic), curse' $$57,60,63 drao2ag"ha- see duiag'ha- n. 'hell' 544 daomna- ptcp. 'speaking (daeuuic), uttering (a curse)'. 4du dauuagt- ptcp. 'wiping away', in akakasauuapt-. dd0 d a k - presstem, see dd2 da& 'he created' $52. dd2 da6uua.h- m, pedptcp. 'creator' $ 16. dd2 dagra- adj. 'skilled' $75 daghah- n. 'skill' 9 13





d;llhu- f. 'land, country' $$1(2x); 35; 56,57,59,60,62,63,64,68; 69 &jfhupaiti-m. 'lord of the land' $35 d dm in ni&d 'he fled downwards' or 'he hid' $345-7 b y a - adj. 'long, long-lasting' $926, <28:2), 3 1; 76.77 d;sraydjIb: f. 'long life' $76 darasa- m. 'look' $94 &i.kahiia- adj. 'of bold action, boldly acting' $72:2 &ama- num. 'tenth' $2 d M a - m. in a dahaka-, name of a & monster $$37,46,50,92; see also aZi'serpent' Y'da in pret. &&l 'he created' $10 1 ftada9a.4 'he appointed' $35 1 ni him data 'he placed her (beside himself)' @6:2 1 subj. da9ad 'he will makel render' $94 j da9an 'they will makel render' §$19, 23 1 da9aite 'it will be rnade/renderedl $8 11, (19, 23). 89 1 ptcp. da9&b 'engaging' $$58:3. 61 1 perf. cia& 'he created' $52 1 &&m 'they gave' 46 ( daJuu4 'creator' 4 I6 dBum-/dm- n. 'tree, stock, wood, wooden mace' $42:12 (daunt); $85:23(2x) (druca paumupca); in x&.drudata- m. 'creator' $ 18:1 daSm 'they gave' $6. {dB d8naiana- m. patronymic $41 d8man- n. 'creature, creation' 559+, 45+ (ariiiaC3 dhgn); 10, 58, 94 (dam&; 61 @iti($)B dm(ul); 18 (dghgm dmmgm) d&taiihi- m. patronymic used as proper name $41:3 d~~lS.manahiia- 'enmity' or 'madn. ness' $345 ddi9ra- n. 'eye' $94(2x) di611 'he-will behold', perhaps to be read di6m)/di6(p, $94:1. ddi dim encl.dem.pron. 'him, it' $939, 51, 68,77 ddis in impv. hapdaesaiag'ha 'bear in mind' $$48,50

ddi in subj. dial 'he will behold' $ 94: 1, perhaps to be read d i 8 ~ ~ / & 6 < g s 1 ddu in ptcp. &omna- 'speaking (daeuuic), uttering (a curse)' $447, 57, 60,63 /do 'to wipe away' in ptcp. &a&uua@ 'wiping away' $86:4 duua- n u n 'two' $53 (duua); 7 (duuaka mite duuaeca hazqm) ; 26 (duua SriSuua) duuadasa- num. 'twelfth' $2 dduuar in pret f d fraduuarad 'he ran ahead' $47:2 1 p k d i cfm.duumd 'he hunied up from behind' $49: 1 duSx'aranah- adj. 'inglorious' $95 ddci9ra- adj. (f. d u i c i 9 ~ - )'of evil descent' $$94:4,95 duCmadiiu- m. 'of evil spirit, archenemy' $ 84 duiar~*/a- 'hell' $44:22 n. dllzuuapdru- adj. 'of evil guardianship, oppressive' @7:2 duZuuarWuuan- adj. 'maleficent, malefactor' $96 duZdat?na- adj. 'of evil religion' $447, 49,87 dmoga-/draoya- adj. 'false, deceptive' $$33:2,34 ahonah- n. 'share' $8 *ah&- n. 'burnt down area' in: dndiSuuqt- name of a mountain ('the surface of which is burnt down') $4:7 a h (druca) $85:2(2x), see daum h a - 'healthy' $75 dmuaKt- f. 'helthiness' $75 dmuant- adj. 'deceitful' $426, 37, 87, 93 dmj- f. 'deceit, lie' $812, (20, 24, 90); 37,93,95 dbiS in ibiSaiiwt- or 1biSiiant- m. 'enemy' $54:7 paoin'ia- num. 'first' $1 paoin; adj.f. 'many' $67 &oin'S), see paoin-m adv. 'for the first time' $35 paib' prep. +acc. $812, (20, 24, 90); 26, 28, 31, 48(2x), 50(3x) 1 +instr. $1 I

+gen. $$74:2 (7x), 75 (4x), 76 (3x); 771 ( +lot. $546.77 pru'b' adv. 'again', as second verbal pref. in $811, (19,23), 89; 48,50 paiti.paratata 'contended with' $77.

pwo adv. 'formerly' $$6, 95 1 prep.


d w
j.&'b:barata 'adopted, reproduced' $33:3,34. Pbar par'b'.w&na~ will look at' $94:1. 'he dvaen jxiiti~ha- adj. 'opposed' $58:3,61 pai'n' prep. +acc. 'around' $§29,82 prun.abaom 'I caupht up with, I seized' $$57:2,60,63. h a paii..abauuaJ 'he seized' $64. 40 piunka- f, 'witch' $426, 28,29,31 paum- adj. (f. poiif-) 'much, many, numerous' $8 lO(5x). 66; 67 @aoiif$ pauruuata- m. 'mountain, mountain range' $3:11(2x) paumuan- n. 'knot' §$85:2-3(2x) ( h c a uruu+?nca) p c in pret. pacab 'he cooked (for himself)' $40 t/pat in pret. auua.pta_r 'he mhed down' $458, 61 1 uspatad 'he rushed out' $857, 60, 63 1 a p a a 'he rushed up' $841, 82 1 subj. or inf. &mpatai 'you will rush up' §50:3 1 opt.patcvi'an 'they used to rush about' $80:1 1 caus.subj. uspatcvi'eni 'I will make rush out' $44 pa9ana- m, proper name $41:2 (pa& naiia) pa(lcd.hiia- adj. 'of five species' $69 pq~tan-m. 'path, way' 5 17 (pantand) para prep.postp.+abl. 'before' 5$33:1 (tpara a n a d ~ t o $ read pard) anBdnurt&3; 33 m a abmgd; 34 (ahma.para) para&% adj. attribute or title of HaoSiiagha $26:3 pam'iha_t 'he was about to set up' $40:7.

abl. 'owing to* $533 @ar(d) mauiuxt01W;38 I +lot. $95 (aeSupan7) dpart in pret. piu'1F.paradnta 'he contended' $77 1 paratbaA9e 'the two struggled' $46:1 p u - m. 'cattle, small cattle' $32 paskd_r adv. 'from behind' $$47:2,49:1 p a prep. +acc. 'after' $94 parcaeta adv. 'then, thereupon' $69 paii.saire 'it lies all around' $1:3(2x).
d '(at) the yonder side, beyond' $l:8 pnnr?ri'u- adj. 'of full age' $$43:3(2x) pasma- m. proper name ('fighter')
.A . "

paraptaram d




pouru.xJnut- f. 'manifold appreciation' $53 p o w . vastra- adj. 'rich in pastures' $67 p o d . x % $ m - adj. 'granting much comfort' $54 ./pi 'to swell' in frpinuucala, 'swelled forward' $51 pitaona- m. proper name $41:5 pitar-,$tar- m. 'father' 16 (patacdpli5--\ cay

pi&- m. 'meal' $40 pisinah- m. name of a Kauui $71:6 (psjnrqh)am) pu9ra- m.'son' 9$36,46,77,92 &O in ptc. apuiiwt- 'not putrefying' $811, (19,23),89 ptar-/pitar- m. 'father' $16 @ a t a d PKC~) fra&ta- adj.ppp. 'driven off or out' $34:2. d2if fiaoxSipn 'they were ordered to grow forth' $2:1. l/v& fmorapa- adj. 'precipitous' §2:4 IraxSaiieite 566 read fiaxSdi?)ite, see next fmSti2ite 'he will rise' $$*66:3, 92. fraka- 'open' in afrakatacfiawSni adv. 'prudently, precautiously' $48:3 fiaca kx.zqta_t 'he fabricated' $37. Ilkart

Pm a -

para'nc- adj. 'aside, away' $40 (par#)

paract)&'$e 'the two struggled' $46:1. &art





frada$a_t 'he established' $35. vda frada9a- f. name of a river $67 cfmduuang 'he ran ahead' $$47:2, *49: 1 fipinuurab 'it swelled forward' $51.


adj. 'of overhanging rocks'

./pi fiaJlrasiim- m. name of a legendary ruler $$56:1, 57,58,60, 61, 63, 82,93 ( f w m e ) ; 77: 16 (lhgmiir?nam) f-caid 'he sent out' $46(2x).


M a ppp. 'exchanged, transformed' t or 'degraded, outstripped' $29:2 dm' or m i fmasti- f. 'renown, fame' $32 fraFBr&r- m. 'master' $16 tiasparad 'it jerked forward' $40:6.

&par frarduuaiia_t 'he recited' $8 1. dm fmnXI'ti- f. 'recitation' $81 franaipb: f. 'progeny' $75 frazya&a& 'it darted forward' $ 565, 59,62,82:2 f&- adj. 'brillant' $$10:5, 11(2x), 19 (2x), 23 (2x), 89(2x) fddxarahr- m. 'brillant-maker' $22 fracha adv. 'ahead' $$47:2 (frarha hgm.r&aiiaata), 49 (fracha cfra)duua* frachsa_r 'it flew away' $34. & i d u fduudQ 'itlthey used to push forward' $80:1-2. dw f13 second verbal pref. in $948, 50 fraieote 'they make their appearances' $95:1. d fM9flaras(a)- 'intersection' in nauua.fk89~arasa- '(racing-course) of nine intersections' fipai'a- adj. 'extending towards the watery regions (= towards the west?)' $ 1 :4-S(2x) (fi8,ckvi'a'&g%ff>S) frspaiia- or f@pacuu)et- m. name of a mountain $6: 11 (fdpaiia'sca) frdnwaite 'will take to flight' 595; 96:3 rairte,). h m a fIdzdta- adj.ppp., see $42:3. h . uf

adj. 'forward' in f q f faparad 'jerked forward' $40:6 @n'9 in ptcp. afi9iikpt- 'not rotting' $811. (19,123), 89 fib- adj. (f. fi9a-)'contented' $86 dhu in opt, uctiau~dli'd& 'could sweep away' $68:1 &on& f. 'herd of small cattle' $32 A'uia- denom.pres., ptcp. fluii'wt- 'cattle breeding' in vmhia- I[Fuii'wt- 'cattlebreeding farmer' $8 baWa- n. 'remedy' $76 ba-tptcp. 'feeling' $69(2x). d u d baiiana- m. name of a mountain ('frightening, temble') $3:2 bauua- presstern, see h b l o h j in pret. Mad 'yielded, apportioned' $8 d&d in pret bwdaiiai 'he bound' $77 #'bar in pret. bara_t 'he wielded' $592, 93(3x) 1 uzbara_t 'he got out' $32 1 barata 'he rode' $29 ( papiuti.barata 'he adopted, reproduced' $$33:3,34 1 subj. ni3ba~d'he will expel' $93 @bar in pret brasad 'he was whirled around, he got excited' or 'he fell into mental distraction' 934:3 barana- name of a mountain ('carrier' or 'riding horse') $6:10 barazan- n. 'top, height' in &%id.b m z m - adj. 'of the height of a spearlength'; b d n a $40 better read b d n cu, bard see baraz- f. 'height' bardnu- f. 'back' possibly in $40 (bmsncu,) bard.sraii'(a)- m. name of a mountain ('bearing the glare of beauty') $6 bard.z&(a) adj. 'carrying away valuables' or 'wearing adornments or jewelry' $42:9 baiad 'it yielded, apportioned' $8. d a j baun 'they became' $72. 40



b8nuniagt- adj. 'luminous' $76 b&aadj. 'bright' $10 b&u- m. 'arm' $85 baraz- f. 'height' $ 1:l ( a) in barazi.b r; rBzbaxawt- adj. 'high, lofty' $$15,52 barazi..m- adj. f. 'presidmg at an elevated place' $86:3 b i i h - m. name of a kauui $71:I-2,5 bibi'a- num. 'second' $ 1 bitch adv. 'for the second time' $36 h in bgiuudgha (< bgiuud rhgha?) i 'h&t was terrifying' $$48:5,50 &d in ptcp. bao8wt- 'feeling' §§69(2x) bu(u)- aorstem in burn1 bun, see d b ~ buna- 'bottom' $51:4(2x) dbn in pret. pairiabaom 'I caught up with, I seized' $57:2, 60, 63 1 p n . abauual 'he caught up with, he seized' $64 1 bauuad 'he became' $$29, 77, 87 1 baun 'they became' $72 1 subj. bauuani 'I will become' $43 1 aorsubj. buua_t 'it came into being' $956, 59, 62 ( bun 'they will become' $212, (20, 24)' 90 bumi'a- m. name of a mountain ('table mountain') $2:6 bffmi-f. 'earth' $$26,28,31 bras@ 'he was whirled around, he got excited' or 'he fell into mental distraction' $34:3. {'bar nae6a neg. 'not' $95 (nae&c~l,l naoma- num. 'ninth' $2 naire.manah- adj. 'heroic-minded' §$'38:2,40,44(2x) nairiia- adj. 'manly, heroic' in nairiiahgm.vanihh- 'heroic defence' $$38, 39(2x) nrlliiipn.hgm.varcai)thuant- adj. 'endowed with heroic defense' $42:2 nacuwa num. 'nine' $41 nauua.ffi8@sa- adj. 'of nine intersections' $77:6 nap& 'grandson' in apilm napt§$51,52 *nagb&- n. 'refuge', see next

naghdmagt- m. name of a mountain ('offering refuge') $4 h m in f&&m&fe 'he will take to a flight' $595; 96 (0s'tre)).l apanamah 'it tumed away' $935.36.38 nar- m. 'man, male person, hero' $ $52:3(2x) (acc.pI. nard&); 69 nara- m. 'hero' 877 narauua- m. 'member of a group of heroes. heroic' §77:15 h J in subj. niS n&Ie ... cniS,a n&%ta&a 'shehe will be done away' $4 l2:4, (20,24), 90 n B - n. 'name' $$6 (nwiun); 56,59, 62 (nwa) namgar- adj. 'man-devouring' $40 nard& see narno& neg. 'not' $$33(5x),43,44,48, 50, 57,60,63,64 mka@hamna- ptcp. 'sending down' $67:5. @ah niiacsa_t, 'he took hold of' $42:11. +amC'ya niikdghe 'you will grab at' $548, 50. +an?ya niuuarac/iaiian 'they used to throw down or to rape' $80:4. hqj niuuika- m. proper name $41:3 nid-_t perhaps 'he fled' or 'he hid' $34:6. d2dar nipatar- m. 'protector' $ 18 niS ... n&:aite ... cniS,.n&afa&a 'shehe will be done away' §12:4, (20,24), 90;

hs a
nifhamhr- m. 'guardian' $18 ni2bM-t 'he will expel' $93. d'bar h in subj. auuanaieni 'I will lead i down' $44 ni ... dasta pret. 'he placed (beside himself)' $86:2. dda nuram $77:9 read cz,uram 'crooked' nmaa- n. 'house' in gar0 nmana'paradise', literally 'house of song of welcome' ma&axa- m. name of a mountain ('of ... springs') $4:1





mdah- n. 'lust' $80:2 (ma$) maf'6idiSa6- adj. 'sitting in the middle' $86 mania- m. 'scoundrel' $812, (20, 24), 90; 40,56,77(2x), 82(2x) mayna- 'naked' $$56,59, (62, dman in aor.ptcp. marJhdnd 'thinking' $047. 49 1 ppp. mato- in humah"well-thought (thought) mana pers.pron. $82 manah- n. 'thought' $816, 46(2x), t76), 96(2x) manda- m. name of a mountain $ 1:10 mahiauua- adj. 'spiritual' $$22,35 mafiiu- m. 'spirit' $529, 44(3x), 46 (3x),96 maraxS&- (*maraStarr-) m. 'former' $18:1-2 ~ m in pres.ptcp. amarcbapt- 'imperm ishable' $811, (19, 23), 89; 12+ 1 fut. ptcp. amaraxfiiant- 'no longer perishable' $947 1 aor.ptcp. mamxS;znd 'trying to destroy' $41 rneiia- m. 'mortal, man' $926, 28, 29, 31,36,38,53 nqfiiaka- m. 'mortal, man' $6; 'husband' $80 masan- n. 'greatness' $ $58,61 *mad- 'quarry' or 'quarried stone', see next mazifuuant- name of a mountain ('where stones are quarried') $2:8 mazdasata- adj. 'created by Ahura Mazda' $$9+, 13(2x)+,45+, 54+ m a d - ahura- $$47, 48, 49, 92; see ahura- mad2 mahrka- m. 'destruction, death' $537, 50 mahrka9a- m. 'destruction' $12, (20, 24,90) mazmi'ia- adj. 'gigantic' $26:4 madaiiwi- adj. 'Mazdayasnian' $ $69, 82 mg9ra- m. 'manthra' $513 mgm pers.pron. $44 m a d i i u - m. 'death' 433; possibly in marac...) $$12:3, (20,24), 90

maraga-Lmaraya- m. 'bird' $534, 35, 36.38 mara9gapt- adj. 'dwelling in thought' $8 17(3x) mampca7B- f. 'destruction' possibly in man(...) 8$12:3, (20,24), 90 me encl.pers.pron. $84482 dm. or mi in ppp. Ma 'exchanged, t transformed' or 'degraded, outstripped' $29:2 miLkoxc8m adj. '(voicdword) of false utterance' $96:5 mi80 adv. 'falsely' $95 m i h - m. 'MiSra' $35(2x) h f u r n ~ in adj.ptcp. amuiima'unshakable' d h in pret. m o d 'he spoke' $53 ~ vae/;ylt- 'brandishing' $92:4 (vaejd.

va&- $92:4 read vaczrm 'club, mace' haen in pres. @. vaenaili 'he views' i $17 ( subj. vaena,r 'he will view' 494:l 1 parEvaena_t 'he will look at' 894:l 1 ptcp. auuaenant- 'following with his eyes' $34:1 1 vaenamna'visible' in adv. va&mnnam vaena- f. 'nose' $40 vaenamnam adv. 'visibly' 4834, 80(3x). dvaen vaoxvah- perf.ptcp. 'having spoken' $95:2 (vaox qghLs). dvac vaoziram 'they would roam along' $69. dvaz vairi- m. 'lake' $5515 (vaini'angm); 56.59 vain's- adj. in abuna- vairiia- 5$81 vaxaSra- n. 'speech organ', in v~a6rikadwS in subj. fr;3 ... uzuxS&e $1 will flare up' $50:1 I fraoxSii8n 'they were ordered to grow forth' $2:1 dvac in perf.ptcp. vaox%'gba 'having spoken' $95:2 1 ppp. uxta- not in fmi9aoxta- which is corrupted from mi$aoxd)a- 'voice/word of true utterance'

vac- m. 'voice, word, speech' $$13(2x), 33,34,96(2x) vacah- n. 'word, speech,' $816, 49; in huuacahm. vdmcuu~q~t- name of a mountain ('covered with snow') $5: 10 varjhan- n. 'goodness' $$58,61 vzyhu-/vohu- adj. (f. vq'hi-) 'good' $0 10; 46.96 (vohummd); 75 (vqhuid) vaihazda- m. name of a lake $59 {van in pres. vanaitce) ... vanaiti 'it will be overcome ... it will overcome' $$96:1 (2x) I subj. vanad 'it will overcome' $654 (2x), 95, 96(2x) 1 ptcp. vanq~t-in vanaibtf- uparatst'overcoming superiority' $74 1 ptcp. in auuanamna- 'irresistible' $74 vanaha $40 read vaenaiia hand see next m@am. in d.viqdra- $9:1 m. 'excellent guardian' or adj. 'of excellent guardianship' vagdnr- in duiuuq~dru- 'of evil guardianship, oppressive' 887 varafcrw m. name of a mountain ('curved') $3: 10 vmcah- n. 'miraculous power, dignity', in aS.v m a h - and next varacqlha~t- adj. 'of miraculous power, dignified' $$9:3-5+,45+, 72 vamna- m, geographical name, in vamn'iiavaranah- n. 'covering, vegetation', in spiti varanahvanriiia- adj. 'inhabitant of Varana' $265 varami- f. 'surge' $67:3 (varamS vcamzi.ddi9ra- adj. 'sharp-eyed' $15:2 v d a u u a - m. proper name $41:4 dvarj in opt. niuuaratj,aiian 'they used to throw down or to rape' $80:4 dvan in ppp. huuadtav q h a - 'neck, mountain pass' $3:12 (&ta vaSanc6)) vasd.xSa9ra- adj. 'enjoying power at will' $81 1, (19, 23), 89

vastra- n. 'garment'

$856, sg, 62

varna- n. 'value, price' $$ 11:5, (19,231, 89 ~ V ~ Z Z pres. auui.hgm.v=aite in 'it hurries to join' $67(2x) 1 pret. muacz>a-t' 'he brought out, he freed9 $86:1 1 perf.opt. vaozinm 'they would roam along' $69: 1 vacma- 'club, mace' $92:4 VahiSh- adj. 'best' $46 viW see vac- m. vLEgaesa- m. name of a mountain $2:11 v~8im'Ska-m. name of a mountain $5:4,6 (vaesimi6kawca) v8xaSril.a- m. name of a mountain ('mouth-like') $4:2 (v&a6rikaacs)ca) v~yzjbiijd, vacim ,see vac- m. vamyna-/vh(a)jan-m. 'falcon' $835: 4, 36.38 v.9rayni- adj. 'triumphant' $92:5 v#a- m. 'chariot' $44 v&h- n. 'pasture' $$54,86(2x) vacihk- m. 'farmer' $8 vg8p- f. 'herd of cattle' $32; in buug9Javm9ra- n. 'steadfastness' $$54(2x), 79 vara9rauu~ct>- 'steadfast' $36:3 adj. vara9rauuasbma- adjsuperl. 'most steadfast' $936, 79 vara9rayna- n. 'victory' $74 vm9rajan- m. 'victorious' $$t66), 89, 95 vouru.ka$a- m. name of a "sea" (Lake Aral) $851, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63 vouru.gaoiiaoiti- adj, of wide pastures' $35 vounrrha- m. name of a mountain ('wide, spacious') $5:12 vohu- adj. 'good', see vaghuvohu- manah- 'good thought' $$46,96 vd encl.pers.pron. $53 v6iyn8- f. 'flood' $67 viiara9a- adj. 'off-duty', see next. viiara9iia- n. 'easiness' $75:6




viiitana- adj. 'eloquent' $75 viiizxman- 'assembly', see next viiifxmahia- denompres. in pret. viiitmahiah 'he declared' $43 v i u u a a 'he has found'. @vid $vd in ptcp. v a e a ~ t - 'brandishing' $92:4 (vae/'a) &idin perf. viuua& 'he found' $85:4 &m v% i m in ca9JtlrO v i w a $3: 14 dvis in pret. ~ s a t a agreed' $85 'he viS- n. 'poison' or 'poisonous plant' $40:3(2x) viSauuapt- m. name of a mountain ('covered with poisonous plants') $4:6 (viJauucitoca), cf. viSauuaptviSastua perf. 'they spread' $8. r / s ~ dvi in ptcp. auui.vci)iwt- 'approaching' $82:3 (auui vcihgn) vi barat- f. 'break' in next vibara9&t- adj. 'with breaks in between' $81 :6 viuuaghda- adj. patronymic of Yima 4035.36.38 viti?p(a)- m. name or attribute of a mythical being $82:4 vim- m. 'man' $$32,86 vis- f. 'village, clan' in next visOpu9ra- m. 'crown-prince' $36 visp- 'all' $88, 29(2x), 35, 54, 58, 61, 72(6x), 76,77,79,81,82,94(3x) vispa.taumuatii- f. name of SaoSiiagt's mother $92:3 (visphuruuiiliniri/) cvispe.aie) razura- m. 'name of a forest', guess in $77:8 visp6.aiiara- adj. 'persisting all days, persisting all the time' $54:4 vizafgra- 'open-mouthed' $4 1 viSauuaot- adj. 'poisonous' or 'covered with poison' $40, cf. vifauuagtviJt2spa- m. name of the last member of the Kauui dynasty $984, 87, 93 raeuuaol; adj. 'rich, wealthy, splendent' $67; m. name of a mountain $6:13 raeuuastana- superl. 'most rich, most wealthy, most splendent' $79 raemana- m. name of a mountain ('abode of wealth') $5:2

raonSna- 'luminous' $ $17, 44 ( raonSnBgha) moxSni- adj. 'luminous', see next moxhcu~.&ut'luminous appreciation' $53 r a w or camoSad 'it rose, grew' $40:3. bud radii%- name of a mountain ('red') $2 mi'i- f. 'wealth, splendor' $6 13+ (mi'a); 79 (kern); in raeuuapt-, raemanarauuah- n. 'space' $85(2x) m u - m. 'judgment, judge' $$12, (20, 24), 90 ra&- m. 'chariot' $43 m&eSts- m. 'warrior' $8:4 ra i9Jina-adj. 'of noon' $40 &j in fut.ptcp. qxJiiapt- 'who is setting out to do harm' Y12,4 etc., see $22:2 dm in h ~ . m i u i ' a t ? hurried' $547, 'he 49 raflua- m. 'forest' $77:7 rsrs- f. 'gift' $53(3x) HZ-adj. 'giving orders', in barazi..ri?z'presiding at an elevated place' dn9 in ppp. irista- 'deceased, dead' §§11, (19.231.89 in subj. hgrn.me8Baiieni '1 will mix up' $$58,61 {mc in subj. 'uzraocati'eni 'I will blaze up' $50 1 uzraocat2i 'you will blaze up' or inf. 'to blaze up' $48:2 v h d in pret. raosa! or <axao6a_C'it rose, grew' $40:3 saoka- f, 'fervor' $32 sadiia~t-fut.ptc. name of the eschatological savior ('who is setting out to bring benefit, benefactor, strengthener') $$22:2 (saoSim4rn); (66,; 89 (sadiimtcam). v h sacuua)g%a@ (f. samuaq %a& ) adj. 'endowed with strength, enjoying benefit' 912, (20,24,90) sata- num. 'hundred' $7 (duua&a saite). &aDh in ppp. husastasaghu- f. 'order' $74:4(3x) (sag%-ca)





sag'hanr- adj. (f. sag'hai'ti-) 'enjoying praise, praiseworthy, laudable' adj. $12:3, (20, 24), 90; better read safuuaqi5apts&iiuuapt- m. name of a mountain ('around which carrion birds are flying') $4:8 sizstar- m. (or satar-7) 'tyrant' $$26, 28 (sa9riun) hi in pres. pn.saite 'lies around' $8 1:3 1 ppp. dsita- in izsitclgatu- 'set up at its place' $39: 1 &iazd/sisiZd in ptcp. sizdiapt- 'frightening off $84:2-3 (s2diid) siiduuadm- m. name of a kauui $$71:1.2.6; 77:ll-14. sii&naka- m. name of a mountain ('dark-colored') $5:9 sicidauua- or sicidawa- m. name of a mountain $5:1 siZdi't- 'frightening off' $84:2-3. r/siiazcl/sisiZd surunuuak- adj. 'audible' or s u m uuapt- ptc. 'obedient* $13 (smuuata yasna). &N v h in fut.ptcp. saoSiiaQt- which see sum- 'strong, rich' $$54:3, 67 stanah- n. 'breath' or 'bodily strength', in apasmah&tar in ppp. stamta- 'laid low, fallen as a victim to' $ 3 4 5 in pret. hgrn.hiSta! 'it came into appearance' $ 1 1 subj. paib' usahiJ@n 'they wlll rise again' $1 1, (19, 23), *89 1 fraxfliir're 'he will rise' $$*66:3, 92 1 perf. viSastara 'they have spread' $8 1 ppp. s& 'immobile' $86. t% stambana- m. 'pillar', in a$a.starnbanastarata- ppp. see &tar sti- f. 'hausehold, domestics, property' $5 12, (20,24,90) htu in pret. &%oh 'he vowed himself $84 spaeh- adj. 'white' (f. spatihi-), see next spaetini- adj.f. 'white' $67:3 (spaebnif

&par in Pret. frasparai 'it jerked forward' $40:6 spafib: $6: 14 read cu@iti&spa in pret. apiispsli'ad 'he threw off 8056, 59, 621 ptcp. sispamna'parading' $67:3 spSra-ah- adj. 'endowed with abundance' $54:2 spots- adj. 'holy, wholesome' $844 ( 2 ~ ) .46(2x) (marliiu-); $15 ( W a - m. name of a mountain ('created by Spapta Mahiiu') $65. spihuaranah- m. name of a mountain ('of fertile surface, of rich vegetation') $6:3 spitgma- family name $41, 7, 57, 58, 60,63 (spihma za.1a9dh) spitium- proper name $465 spiti.ddi9w- adj. 'clear-sighted' $75 snao6wt- (f. snao&nt&) 'crying' $80. hnudsnauuiska- proper name $43:1 hnud in snao6apP (f. snao6a~ti-) 'crying' $80 sraiian- n. 'majesty, beauty' $58 sriii- adj. 'majestic, beautiful' $$lo. 67 &N in caus. fran?uuari'ai 'he recited' $81; see sunmuuatasmuara- adj. 'horny' or 'homed' $40 sruud.zmcu)- adj. 'of leaden jaws' $43:2 sru~.gaoSa- 'of (sharp-)hearing ears, adj. whose ears listen attentively' $35 sng.gaoSabma- superl. 'whose ears listen most attentively' $52:6 Za08riT- f. 'libation' $5 l3+, 17 zaoSa- m. 'pleasure, delight' $82 zainigau- m. proper name $93 zaii.pSna- adj. 'of yellow heels' $4 1 zairita- adj. 'yellow' $$40(2x) adj. 'who is of benefit when being called' or 'who benefits the calling one' $52:5 zauruuan- m. 'old age' $33 zaxSa9ra- n. 'curse, threat' $47 zadah- m.du. 'buttocks' $50:2 (zadaghaa)



Glossary $34 I ptcp, apa.(S',auuagf- 'driving away' $84 ( a p . drauu,?n) &iao$na- n. 'action, deed' $16; in hdiiao8naya- rel.pron. in yb $$13+, 54+; 16, 26, 32, 34, 35(2x), 37, 40, 41(4x), 42, 43, 52(3x), 56, 59, 66(2x), 85(3x), 86 1 p a P $87 lyim $$31,35,40(5x), 41, 43,66,71(6x), 81,92(2x), 93(3x) 1 y$ 'which' $510, 15, 22, 26, 28, 31:1, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 56(3x), 57(2x), 59(2x), 60(2x), 62(2x), 63(2x), 64(2x), 66(2x), 71, 74, 79:1, 84, 89 ( ya1 'who' $$36:2, 38:3, 79 1 yedhe $$32,33, 82 1 yahmi $46 1 yahmiia in yahm7a.j a b - I ybi $$15, 16(3x), 18, 19, 23 1 yB §§39(2x), 62,67(2x) 1 y a H v $86, 16, 17(2x) 1 y&S $82(2x) 1 y v 37 (2x), 77,94,95 (yd $$12, (20,24, go), 94; 9 4 . yaeSv rel.pron., see above. yaeSiiagt- (f. yaeSiiagb=) 'boiling' $40.


Glossary in pret, nii&sa_l,'he took hold o f #42:11 1 subj. nii&&ghe 'you will grab at' $$48,50 yaca reLpron., see yayasna- m. 'worship' $13+ ./Uaz in pres, yazamaide 'we worship' $99+, 13+, 35, 39, 52; 1 subj. y&' 'I will worship' $13+ I pass.ptcp. yezima- 'bein g worshipped' $52 yazata- m. 'divinity' §§22,35,52 &ah in ptcp. yaHiiipt- (f. yaefii'aati-) 'boiling' $40 yahmi rel.pron. see yayahmia rel.pron., see ya- and next yahmia./;?tara- name of a mountain m. ('on which resin and rock asphalt is found') $6:1 ./ua see v$arwYaa. y4 yaiS rel.pron. see yay & ~ -m. 'wizard, sorcerer' $$26, 28, 29,3 1 yd, yiun, rel.pron., see yayezi conj. 'if 9$43:4,44:4,48, 50 yezimna- 'being worshipped' $52. &az, yai, yim rel.pron, see yayima- m. Yima, mythical proper name $§31:1-3,34(2x), 35(2x), 36(2x), 3 8(2x) yim0,kara~ta-adj. 'dissecting or cutting up Yima, dissector of Yima' $46:5-6 ha- dem.pron. in ha §$34, 40, 43, 53(3x), 94(2x) 1 hascQ $1 1 ha $1 haemah- adj. 'formed by the River Ha?huna~t' $66 haettumwb- m. 'name of a river' $67 haend- f. 'enemy army' $554 (haend y d xmuiSieitL$, 93 (arnntb haenaiiq haoma- m. 'haoma' $ 13+; in ufaoma-< c.h>uf. ~.h)aomahaosrauuah- m. name of a kauui $$74:1 (haosrauuagham),77(2x), 93 (haosrauuah short for haosmuuagha-han-;see $56:11-12 haosrauuah- name of a lake $56:10-12 (haosrauui) haofiiqha- m. proper name $26:2 hauruatat- f. 'integrity' $96(2x)


z a h - n. 'mouth' $50:2 &an in ppp. zsta- 'born', azata'unborn' za@~- m. in huzaptu- 'well-acquainted (with)' m- 'earth': $$1,29,34,43,48,50 f. har in ptcp. azarawt- 'not aging' $811. (19,231.89 ~ara9dh$836.38 ( d i d ~91~#8db%&; 53, 68 (i,@um zara8dbzl); 56, 57,63, 64 (xvmnd a$aond zara9db;lhe); 79 (kfauuanam zara9dbam); 81 (a$auuca, zara9dtrrb~); 82 (xvmnO see zaza9dt~%9; spitha- zara8dh-. adj. zara8dtntn- 'ZaraSuStrian' $85 zadiid.pus& adj. 'of golden diadem' $4 1 zaranuna2.i- f. name of a river $67 zm&- m. 'hand (ahurian)' $48 z - adj.ppp. 'born' $522, gg.56, 57, & 59,60,62,63,64. &an. zammguz- 'hiding under the earth' $81:2-3 zaradaza- m. name of a mountain ('originating from the center') $ 1:7 cz~ura- adj. 'crooked, treacherous' §77:9 ((zruram cmand) zur6jata- adj.ppp. 'treacherously slain' 877 h i d in fiB-zidtam (...)&tam for which see $42:3 zd(a)'adornment, jewelry' in barb.zd(a)&-gad in pret. fm-zgahta 'darted forward' $456.82 &bar in ptcp. zbmmna- 'walking crookedly, pursuing crooked ways' $425 zmi'd- n. 'sea' $$51(2x), 56:2(2x), 57, 58,59,60,61,62,63,66 zmuan- m. 'time, period of time' $826, t28:2>, 3 1,40 Sud- f. 'hunger' $869; 96:2(2x) &i& in ppp, JB&- 'restless, having lost his homestead' $34:4 &iiudu in pret. h a 1 'flew away' $935, 36, 38 1 fra-S'usai 'flew away'



&ah. yaoxSti- f. <yaoSti; see next yaoxSbuuqt- adj. 'radiant, purifying, healthy' §§9:3-6+ yauuaeji- adj. 'enjoying eternal life' §$11. (19,23),89 yauuaesff- adj. 'enjoying eternal benefit' $911, (19,23), 89 yauua_l[anu]a@i 'as far as' §8:1 ya9a conj. 'since, as' $$lo, 48, 50, 97; $66:2 read ya9ma ya9a ka9aca 'just in the way in which' $82:7 ya9a ya_t conj. 'so that' $68 ydna '?' $$57,60(2x), 63(3x) ya8crra 'where' $ 66:2(2x) ya&_ll(the place) wherefrom, (the place) whence' $12 'yal rel.pron., see yayai conj. 'when, since, so that, in order (to do)' $811(2x), (19, 23), 89(2x); 26, 28, 29(2x), 31; 29(2x) 33, 34, (35:1>,36, 38, 39, 72, 77(2x), 79, 84, 89,92(2x) 93(2x) ~ B izafet ptcl. $8 18,41, 82, 85 J


haka_t adv. 'at once' 968 haui- (better hauai-) m. 'companion, friend' $$89,95 hac in pres. haca?i 'it follows' $68 1 upghacaiii 'it is coming over to' $66:1 1 pret. uparhaca_t 'it came over to' $926, 28, 31, 39(2x), 71, 74, 79, 84 1 subj. hacq 'it will follow' $$54:1(2x)1 upaghacca,t 'it wiU (have) come over to' @9:1 ( ptcp. hacima- 'followed' $54:1 haca prep.postp. +in&. $44:1(2x) I +abl. $42, 34 (ahma_thaca); 32; 35(2x), 36 (2x), 38(2x) (yimal haca); 57, 60, 63, 80,86,92,93 ha9ra adv. 'together, throughout, completely', intensifies following ham $51:2 ha9rauuafa-n. 'complete defeat' $745 hap$ num. 'seven' $5 l6(3x), 82(2x) haptdiia- adj. 'of seven parts' $$26, 28.31 ha &$a- num. 'seventh' $2 Y earn, to win' in des (hdigo haeta 'he should by to win' $$53(2x) hangaumuiui'a-r pres. 'he jeacied for' $51:3 1 hangaumuaiiata - 'he,. reached for' $$35:5,36,38. &rab hangamfS&ehangnfS&e ' I want to gain hold of $$47,49, 51:3. &ab. hipt- (f. haili-) ptcp. :being9 $\6. &I. hipdaesai'ag'ha 'bear that in mind' '$548, 50, r/dis 'hama- adj. 'same' $l6(3x) 'hama-h&na-adj. 'all, whole' $1:2 (ha hama ...h&ndhasc19 hama&una- adj. 'hooked together' $3:8 hamaraga-rn. 'enemy' $74 ham0.manah- adj. 'of the same manner of thinking' $ 16:3 hamb. vacah- adj. 'of the same manner of speaking' $ 16:3 ham0.3iiao9na- adj. 'of the same manner of acting' $16:3 haraiki- f. (=ha@) name of a mountain $l:l




&arc in pret. frqharacahad 'he sent out' @46(2x) hazqra- num. 'thousand' $2 (duua&a haam9 hazqrd.yaox.tti- adj. 'of a thousand rays' $$35:6,37:1 h a d - n, 'abuse, ravishment' $80 ha dem.pron. see hah h in ppp. hila- 'fettered' $86 di h&u dem.pron. §$56,59,62 hma- see 'hamahgm ... jksa~tci> 'they meet' $66:7. &dim. chgrn.)duuarat $49:1 read cfrauduuara~. dduuar. hpnyaraiti- f. 'defence' $$38, 39(2x); see next ham. v h i t i u u ~ t - 'endowed with defence', in nain' vamib'uuapt'endowed with heroic defence' $42:2 h?rn.rae9j,wi'emN I will mix up' 8858, ' 61. di91 hpn.&ai'a 'he hunied' $847, 49.

chddghaeta 'he should try to win' $53(2x). &an him encl.dem.pron. $$33,34, 86 huuacah- adj. 'of good speech' $95 huuruSta- adj.ppp. 'well-performed (action); n. good deed' $l7:2. dvarz huuaspa- f. name of a river $67 huq9ja- adj. 'of good herds' $$31,34 huuira- adj. 'valiant' $75:4 huxSa9~5. &ma- superl. 'most powerful, bestruler' $79 hut%% adj.ppp. 'web-shaped' $74.


hu&t?na- adj. 'of good religion' $95 hum- m. 'son (daeuuic), rascal son' §§41(3x) humlaadj.ppp. 'well-thought (thought); n. 'good thought' $17:2.

ch)unrrfiia-adj. granting a good state of soul' $ 5 5 humanah- adj. 'of good thought' $95 husasta- adj.ppp. 'well-ordered, wellissued (order)' $$74. Aq6 huzqtu- adj. 'well acquainted (with)'
d2::i6ptcp. aghaoSama- 'not drying up' $32 ch)uaoma- c chrucS.h>aoma- name of m. a mountain' ('of good haoma plants') 65:s h&iiao&a- adj. 'of good action' $95 (huS'iiao9n&gh6) h ~ ~ t adj. 'well spoken (word); n, good aword' $17


hgm.hiSt1 'it came into appearance'

4a r

8 1.

hagti 'they are' $1 8. $ah he encl.pers.pron. §$47,49 hb dem.pron. see hahi& ppp. 'fettered' $86. hai; see next hitaspa- m. proper name $41 h i d in pret. apa.hi&d 'it escaped' §56:6,59,62 hinu- m.? 'fetter' $86 hku- f. 'tongue' $96 (himud)