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K. KANNAN, B.E., B.O.E., M.B.A., (D.W.E&T),
M.I.E., Assistant Executive Engineer/Mechanical Boiler Maintenance/Mettur TPS, Mettur dam – 636 406
1. What is high pressure Boiler? Boilers, which operate at, pressure higher than 15 psi is called high-pressure boiler. 2. Why steam is chooses for power generation? The simplest explanation is that it is a convenient way of transporting heat from the fuel being burned in the boiler to where in the process it is required. 3. TNEB boilers are sub critical or super critical? Sub-critical 4. What is a super critical boiler? Boiler producing steam above pressure i.e., 218 ata critical
At varying operating load conditions in which the unit is shut down and start up too frequently, non-uniform temperature appear in the wall cross section of steam drum due to thicker wall, producing high thermal stresses that brings about cracks of corrosion fatigue in the boiler drum. 9. What fuels are used for packaged boilers? Liquid and gases fuel 10. What are the design parameters of the boiler (MTPS)? 700 T/hr Super heated steam at 137 kg/cm2 pressure and 540ºC 11. Why the steam temperature is limited to 540ºC? For utility boilers, which are meant for power generation, the super heater outlet temperature is limited to 540 + 5°C due to metallurgical considerations. 12. What do you mean by the heating surface area of a boiler? It is the surface area of boiler tubes exposed to the hot gases of combustion in the furnace. 13. What is the heating surface area of the boiler at MTPS? 19,394 m2. 14. How many type of heating surface area may boiler have? Radiant, convective and radiantconvective type. 15. What is circulation ratio? The ratio of actual mass flow of water through circuit to the steam generated is called circulation ratio. 16. What are the types of circulation followed in boilers? Natural, forced and once through circulation 17. How the natural circulation boiler is working? Natural circulation boilers employ the effect of density differences between water and steam to produce circulation. This density differences together with the
5. How the steam is produced in sub critical pressure and super critical pressure boilers? In sub-critical pressure boilers, the furnace enclosure is cooled by constant temperature boiling water and the flow circuit is designed to accommodate the two-phase steamwater flow. The super heated steam is produced after separating the dry steam at boiler drum. But, in super critical pressure, the water acts as a single-phase fluid with a continuous increase in temperature to super heated steam as it passes through the boiler. 6. What are the advantages of supercritical boilers? Super critical boilers operate above 225 kg/cm2 pressure (critical pressure of steam) at which the water becomes steam instantaneously without latent heat. Normal power plant operates with cycle efficiency of 36% where as power plant with super critical boilers operates with cycle efficiency of 42 %. This will reduce fuel cost and reduce emission of green house gases. 7. What do you mean by utility boiler? Boilers that burn coal, oil or gas to provide steam to generate electricity are called utility boilers. 8. Why once-through technology is adopted in 500 MW and above capacity units?
height of the boiler constitutes a head, which overcomes the losses occurring in the circuit, and makes circulation possible. 18. How the forced circulation boiler is working? In forced circulation boilers a mechanical pump is added to the simple flow loop and the pressure difference created by the pump controls the water flow rate. 19. What will happen if the circulation ratio is less than that required minimum? Flow of water through a circuit should be more the steam generated in order to prevent the tube from over heating. If it is not so, tube deformation or leakages or tube to fin welding failures can take place. 20. What is the circulation ratio and pressure of natural circulation boilers? C.R is 4 to 30 and pressure up to 175 kg/cm2 21. What is the circulation ratio of the once through boilers? Unity (1) 22. What is the circulation ratio of the utility boilers? Between 6 to 9 23. What is the Circulation ratio of highpressure natural circulation boilers? 6-10 24. Factor that affects the circulation ratio are? Number of down comers, diameter and layout of the down comer pipes decides the effective circulation. 25. Why natural circulation is limited to subcritical boilers? Because, it works on the basis of density difference between steam and water. 26. What is the critical pressure and temperature at which the density difference of the steam and water is zero? 218 ata, 374ºC 27. How the steam is generated in the 210 MW boilers? The water from drum flows down through down comer pipes. There are six down comers connecting steam drum with furnace water wall inlet (ring) headers. The water travels around the furnace water wall circuit to generate steam. The water rises through the furnace wall to outlet headers (7 Nos.),
absorbing heat to become a steam- water mixture based on the natural circulation principle. The saturated steam produced in water wall zone is further super heated to a specified temperature in steam super heaters. 28. How the boiler operating pressure is determined? The boiler operating pressure is determined by adding Turbine throttle pressure and the pressure drop through the steam piping, valves, super heater and drum internals at maximum unit steam flow. 29. What is nucleate boiling? Nucleate boiling is formation and release the steam bubbles at the tube surfaces, with water still wetting the surface immediately. Since the tube surface temperature is closer to saturation temperature tube is always safe against the failure. 30. What is film boiling? Film boiling is the formation of steam film at the tube surfaces, in which the metal temperature rises sharply. This leads to a instantaneous or long term over heating of tubes or failure. Film boiling begins due to high heat flux or low velocity or inclined tubes. 31. How inadequate water / steam flow circulation affect a boiler? It will reduce the heat removal rate, causing higher metal temperature of boiler tubes 32. What is the function of super heater in a boiler? The function of super heater is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation temperature. 33. What is Raiser tube? Riser is a tube through which water & steam mixture pass from an upper water headers to drum 34. What are the types of super heaters? Pendent type, Horizontal type and radiant type 35. What is pendent type SH? Pendent type SH is hanging & supported from header. It is simpler in design, can be fastened more reliably but non-drainable. This may cause some internal corrosion & involve certain difficulties in boiler firing. 36. What is a horizontal SH? It is arranged across the boiler and has a more intricate design as regards their
use of steam foe soot blowing. 44. From where the water is supplied for Desuper heating? Feed water after the HP heater is taken for desuper heating of Main steam and reheater steam through SH/RH spray station. What is radiant SH? It will absorb heat by direct radiation from the furnace and located at the top of the furnace. excess air. burner operation. a feature called ‘Desuperheater’ is introduced in between LTSH and vertical platen super heater at penthouse. Also it will absorb both radiant and convective heat. Though the steam temperature is key for the heat rate and cycle efficiency. control is necessary to regulate the steam temperature within the required limits in order to correct fluctuations caused by operating variables and to avert increase in boiler tube metal temperature. In a radiant super heater. Kannan. 48. Simply reducing the pipe losses by increasing the pipe size or by adding number of pipes may increase the cycle efficiency. blow down are affecting the steam temperature. excess air. 41.fastening but self-drainable. In a convection super heater. For PRDS system water is taken from both BFP and CEP. cold re-heater headers before entering into boiler and PRDS system. So as a result of more intensive heat transfer in 3 . 39. What is the basic design factor governs the super heat and re-heat temperature? Total heating surface area available and ratio of convection & radiant heat absorbing surfaces. The operating variables. Why Platen SH coils outer most circuit is provided with stainless steel material? Front tubes are heated much more strongly than the other tubes in a platen. there is a corresponding change in the quantity of gas flowing over the convection super heater. fuel quality etc. What are the operating variables affects the super heat and re-heat temperature? Operating variables such as load. Name the locations where the Desuperheaters are used in the boiler? Main steam lines between LTSH and Platen Super heater. Why two steam lines are provided from boiler to turbine end instead of one line? The effect of pressure losses anywhere in the steam path causes a loss in the cycle efficiency by reducing the energy available for conversion into work. 38. feed water temperature. To maintain the outlet steam temperature within the limit. 46. Horizontal SH are supported by strips with other steam / water path tubes. To avoid this the outer most tube may be with higher-grade material/making outer most tube with shorter length/shadowing the tubes by another heating surface area. 40. 47. are causing temperature fluctuation in SH/RH system. changes in the fuel quality & ash deposits on the heating surfaces and specific burner combination in service. feed water temperature. Normally a proportioned combination of radiant and convection super heater surface is installed in series in a steam generating unit to maintain substantially constant steam temperature over the control range of the unit. How the boiler load affects the steam temperature? As load increases. 45. such as slag or ash accumulation. steam temperature increases with load. As a result external tube operate under critical temperature. How does the excess air affect the steam temperature? For a change in the amount of excess air entering the burner zone. Hence. Spacing between the coils is 6001000 mm. re-heater and to prevent thermal expansion from dangerously reducing turbine clearances. What is Desuperheater? The steam outlet pressure and temperature are maintained constant by firing rate. steam temperature decreases as load increases. 37. why it is adjusted or controlled within the limit? It is important to adjusted or control the steam temperature to prevent the failure due to excessive metal temperature in the super heater. load.k aee/bm/mtps 42. What is the important difference between the working characteristics of a radiant type and a radiant-convective type Super heater? The former superheat the steam to higherthan design temperature at low loads and the later maintains a relatively steady super heat temp over the entire load range. the quantity and temperature of the combustion gases increases. the rate of increase being less the closer the super heater surface is to the furnace. which is operating under lower temperature. 43.
53. higher the flue gas temperature and bring about higher superheated steam temperature that may lead to super heater coil failure by overheating. How does the feed water temperature affect the steam temperature? The decrease of feed water temperature results in a higher super heater steam temperature. 55. 57. What is the effect of expansion or contraction? Kannan. What will happen to the super heater coils in case of starvation? Coils will get overheated and causing warping or tube failure. for running of the auxiliaries. Because. Therefore. 54. 50. Mostly saturated steam is used for our auxiliaries. This may lead to starvation of SH coils. To avoid this problem. 56. 49. What is the maximum amount of steam that can be by-passed through re-heat system? 30% 59.What are the consequences of over loading of boiler? It will affect the design circulation velocity. the entire quantity of steam separated from the drum is charged to the super heater and part of the steam is de-superheated according to the requirements.this zone the temperature of the super heater steam increases. What are the prerequisites for steam flow through every tube? • Removal of all water from the each tube • The total steam flow equal to or greater than approximately 10% of rated steam flow. then why steam is not directly taken from the drum instead super heated steam is used after desuperheating? If the steam is directly taken from the drum. the heating surface of the super heater is fixed and as the feed water temperature decreases the steam generating capacity of water wall decreases with the effect that for the constant fuel consumption the quantity of heat absorbed by the super heater from the flue gases increases per unit flow rate of steam. Ash deposit is the most frequent cause of steam temperature fluctuations. 51. When it is more economic to adopt a reheat cycle? To generate high-pressure super heated steam for its expansion in the turbine for the generation of Electricity. Water is removed from drainable super heaters by simply opening the header drains and vents. The magnitude of expansion depends on the heating effect. How does the boiler cleanliness affect the steam temperature? Slag or ash deposits on the heat absorbing surfaces of furnace zone tubes increases the temperature of the flue gas entering the super heater section and subsequently. Non-drainable super heaters are not so simple. When heating and cooling is not uniform and may give rise to hot spot within the boiler. What precautions should be taken for non-drainable super heaters during steam raising/ The metal temperature of the SH tubes should not be allowed more than the limit and the firing rate should be controlled to avoid accumulation of condensate in the super heater coils. 58. When heated the boiler expand and contract while cooling. How are load changes controlled in boiler? By varying number of burners in operation and varying the rate of fuel burning the load changes can be controlled. 60. This condition can usually be corrected by changes in the sequence or frequency of the soot blower operation. because the water must be boiled away. Why constant pressure is maintained in Re-heater? Or why pressure drop in reheater is so important? The pressure drop in re-heater is critical because the gain in heat rate with the reheat cycle can be nullified by too much pressure loss through the re-heat system. the super heater may not receive as much steam as is required for the cooling of coils. the steam temperature increase.k aee/bm/mtps 4 . In a radiant 52. There will be no steam flow through a tube partially filled with water and those portions of tube not in contact with water will be subjected to excessive temperatures unless the gas temperature is limited. steam mass fluxes are generally somewhat lower in the re-heater.
Also called a manifold. What precautions should be taken to protect the super heater and re-heater coils during the startup of boiler? During normal operation every super heater tube must have sufficient steam flow to prevent over heating. If the water flows through one continuous larger diameter pipe the pressure loss will be more. many tubes be passed through the roof for connection to an external header. How the boiler is supported? Mostly it is top supported and allowed to expand downwards (Approximately to 250 mm). Why economizer coils and LTSH coils are sectionalized as lower bank and upper bank? To facilitate the operation and repairs. What is header? It is a larger pipe. economizers/LTSH are usually sectionalized in the gas path. Where the actual steam generation takes place in Drum type boiler? Steam generation takes place in furnace water walls 69. before there is steam flow through every tube. What will be effect of admitting the feed water below certain temperature to economiser? This may cause a sharp drop in the temperature of the flue gas. Why hot drain is recommended in the boiler? Draining all circuit while in hot may temporarily dry the surfaces to avoid atmospheric corrosion (Corrosion may taken place inside the tube material in the presence of atmospheric oxygen if moisture present inside the tube). leads to more heat transfer and needs more spray to maintain the design SH/RH temperature. Why the water tubes arranged in small parallel tubes instead of larger pipe? It is arranged to reduce the pressure drop due to the friction and to get better control over the quality of the steam.e. 66. 62. 73. It is located in the boiler second pass after the low temperature super-heater and before air-heater. 74. Also. 65.61. Why economizer inter-mediate headers are provided in high-pressure boilers? In high capacity boilers where the number of economizer coils is large. Inter headers and out let header are connected with minimum number of eco hanger tubes.k aee/bm/mtps 68. If the flue gas temperature drops to its dew point. 71. 64. the combustion gas temperature entering the super heater section must be controlled to limit the super heater metal temperature to 450ºC for carbon steel tubes and 538ºC to 580ºC for various alloy steels. 75. Hence. 70. with banks of a height up to 1 m. This will increase the gas leakage. Due to this cold end corrosion may takes place due to the condensation of sulphuric acid from flue gas. What should be the temperature difference between the gas side and steam side of the super heaters? 140ºC for the effective heat transfer which primarily depends on mass velocity and temperature difference. During startup. Why the feed water should not enter the economiser below a certain temperature? This may cause a sharp drop in the temperature of the flue gas. hot draining of boiler are carried out at suitable opportunity to flush out settlement and deposits. 72. tubes are connected with inter-headers to reduce the number of connection in the outlet header. What will be the effect of using low CV coal instead of designed coal? Low CV coal increases the flue gas flow. Why re-circulation is provided in economizer? Re-circulation arrangement is provided to prevent the eco coils from overheating i. 63. 67. What are the drum internals? 5 . Why economizer is used in a boiler plant? To pre heat the feed water before it enters the boiler. Kannan. Purpose of providing steam drum? For steam separation and steam purification 76. it will cause severe corrosion of the metal and even lead to tube failure. which supplies to or collects the steam or water from a series of smaller pipes or tubes. particularly while starting of unit there will not be any feed flow to the boiler.
The drier boxes are wire mesh boxes with more wetting surface. What is pre-boiler corrosion? Dissolved oxygen attacks copper in the presence of ammonia more severely in the feed water system (pre-boiler section) before entering into boiler. In the presence of certain dissolved or suspended substances. Where the Tri Sodium Phosphate is dosed in the system of steam generation? At boiler drum Kannan. Calcium and magnesium can form nonsticking sludge. the concentration of these salts rise to a value at which they can form scale / sludge. The secondary separator is plate type corrugated sheet arranged so as to have a horizontal flow in a zigzag path. 84. Moreover. the surface tension is altered and the steam bubbles remains small. How the TDS is removed from the drum? During steam generation at a high pressure. CBD & EBD pipe lines. rising quickly to the surface and burst. . Therefore they do not rise quickly. It fails to prevent the formation of iron oxides and copper depositions. 86. T he resultant corrosion product is transported more easily in a soluble form into the boiler and the liberated “ free copper ” gets deposited on the heat transfer surfaces at elevated temperature. which are removed from the system by blow down. The gravity separation takes place in the space between secondary separator and screen driers. and in effect the water into a foaming mass. turbo separators are used for steam-water separation. 85. What is the function of Drum internals? . screen dryers etc 77. .Facilitating blow down. It is consists of a primary axial flow turbo separator. 78. What are the probable causes for priming? 6 . The spinner blades within the separators impart a spinning motion to the mixture. separators. which causes the heavier water droplets to move radially through the lighter steam. 80. Can the phosphate dosing prevent the deposition of pre-boiler corrosion products? No. 81. which can then foam into the steam takeoff.Mixing and distributing feed water. 83. a plate type corrugated sheet secondary separator at the outlet of the turbo separator and screen drier boxes prior to the entry to steam outlet nozzles. What is foaming? Foaming is due to the chemical composition of the water. 79. Why the Phosphate is dosed in the boiler drum? To create the conditions that favour the formation of sludge instead of scale. . What is Intermittent Blow Down? Intermittent Blow Down (IBD) is a manual instantaneous system which is operated once in a shift or whenever found necessary to reduce the boiler TDS to reduce the boiler TDS well below the specified maximum limit and allow it over the period to build up to the maximum again. What is priming? Priming is the ejection of boiler water into the steam take-off and in general. 87. What may happen due to low water in the boiler? It may be any thing from leakage to explosion.k aee/bm/mtps 82. results from factors associated with boiler operation. What are the common causes for foaming? -High suspended or dissolved solids in the boiler water -High alkalinity in the boiler water -Contamination of the boiler water with detergent or saponable oil 88. Phosphate dosing line.. Pure water does not foam. How the steam is separated in the boiler drum? In high-pressure boilers. the phosphate dosing is done to prevent the formation of calcium scales rather than scales in general. to impinge on the separator wall and to discharge downward below the water surface through an outer concentric cylinder. which remains in the boiler water in a suspended state and can mostly be removed by Continuous Blowing Down.Removal of water bubbles from water volume of boiler from entering down comer.All apparatus within the drum is called internals viz.Separation of steam from steam water mixture. 89.Adding chemicals . and in a boiler the steam bubbles are large.
This is an essential reason for cleaning the boiler and blowing out the super heater and steam line before testing safety valves. it automatically vents some steam from the system with the effect that the system pressure returns to the normal working limit. The set pressure can be adjusted by the screw.k aee/bm/mtps 98. steam header or pipe line exceeds the working pressure. 105. steam wetness increases with the increase of steam pressure. What type of safety valve is used in the high-pressure boiler? Spring loaded safety valve. a pneumatic or electrically operated feed water control system is used. Why the upper water level and lower water levels are prescribed in the boiler drum? The upper water level is taken so as to ensure high quality steam generation while the lower water level is prescribed for reliable circulation of water through the circulation system. Why steam blowing is necessary before testing the safety valve? Safety valve seats are susceptible to damage from wet steam. What are all the three elements in threeelement control system? Drum level. Moreover. How will you detect the tube failure in a boiler? Loss of fluid from the system. 104. 94. What will be the relieving capacity of the super heater safety valves? Safety valves on the super heater will have approximately 25% of boiler MCR as relieving capacity. During steam raising what precautions should be taken for non-drainable super heaters? Firing rate should be controlled to avoid accumulation of condensate in the super heater coils as well as the tube metal temperature should be kept below the maximum designed temperature. noise produced from the leak 96. especially at utility boilers. It should not have any isolation valve in between the pressure vessel and safety valve. What type of control is used to maintain the drum level? For higher capacity boilers and those operating at higher pressures. 97. How does a safety valve works? When the steam pressure exceeds the working pressure. which alters the spring force. 100. 102. In case of high water level in the drum what will happen? It may lead to carryover of feed water and cause priming. The valve is 7 . What is the set pressure of the safety valve? It is the pressure at which the valve lifts off its seat for a pre-determined pressure. operating below the design pressure. inspection of leak and leaks are to be repaired. Why is the safety valve of super heater set at a lower pressure than the SV of the boiler drum? To protect the super heater coils from starvation by ensuing adequate steam flow to the super heater. demanding more steam than the design value. 92. 103. feed water flow and steam flow 95. 91. 101. The most widely used feed water control system. What procedures will you adopt in case a leakage has been detected? Boiler is to be shutdown and cooled. 99. What should be the total capacity of the safety valves? It should be equal to the design steam flow of the boiler. 90. for the same height of the water level. What is a safety valve? It is a device that lets out the excess steam when the steam pressure in the boiler. 93. Kannan. Boiler is to be drained. How the Spring Loaded safety valve works? Spring-loaded Safety Valves are the valves which operates automatically whenever on upstream of valves exceeds the preset pressure of valves. is the three-element feed water control.There are several possible causes like operating the boiler with too-high water level. How does the water level in the drum influence the contamination of the steam? Higher the level of the water greater is the steam wetness. This type of valve lifts at one pre-set pressure and re-set at a lower pressure 106.
which is packed with bundles of heating elements and is rotated through counter flowing air and gas streams. This valve is provided to prevent frequent opening of spring loaded safety valve. Simmer means that the valve is just about opening or has indefinite contact. What is Electromatic Relief Valve? ERV is normally provided on one of the super heater outlet header in 210 MW units. 118. density. How the Bottom Ash is disposed from boiler? Each unit has two bottom ash hoppers. The valve assembly consists of a main valve that is actuated by an adjoining pilot valve and the pilot valve in turn is actuated electrically. Each hopper consists of upper 8 . This is actuated automatically when pressure increases set pressure (or) also can be opened by pushing a button from UCB whenever necessary.also designed to give a positive lift when the set pressure is reached and so the valve does not simmer. Blow down is nothing but the difference between the set pressure and reset pressure of the valve. A rotor speed of one to three rpm is provided by a motor driven pinion engaging a rotor encircling pin rack. Each hopper consists of a set of scraper feeder and clinker Grinder at the furnace bottom. It consists of a cylindrical shell plus a rotor. 117. Particle size. What is SCAPH? Steam Coil Air Pre-Heater 116. This air enters the air preheater through the steam coil air preheater. economizer hopper. Metallic seals minimize the air to gas leakage and flow bypass around the rotor. air pre-heater hopper and ESP hoppers.k aee/bm/mtps 113. Bearings in upper and lower beam assemblies’ support and guide the rotor at the central shaft. 109. 107. Why SCAPH is provided? The forced draft fans supply cooled ambient air. velocity and physical arrangement in the flue gas path dictate at which point in the flue gas path the ash particles are no longer carried along in the flue gas. 112. 119. How the ash is removed from the boiler? Ash and residue from the combustion of solid fuels are discharged at four different points in the boiler flue gas stream via Bottom as hopper. A stationary housing that has ducts at both ends encloses the rotor. During start up and low load condition steam coil air pre-heater is utilised to raise the temperature of air entering the air heater to avoid cold end corrosion. It is based on the blow down of the valve that is varying from 3 to 5%. ID is to handle flue gas with higher specific volume than the air handled by the FD fan. How the air is heated in the Regenerative Air heaters? Regenerative air heaters are mostly used in utility steam generators. What is the function of Lower Adjustment Ring? The lower ring is used to obtain a popping action and to cushion the closing action of the valve. 111. Where the Air heaters are placed in two pass boilers? At boiler second pass below the economiser Kannan. If simmer is present or valve fails to lift. To increase the blow down move ring down-turn clockwise. the lower ring should be moved upward slowly. one notch at a time to remove the simmer. The overall efficiency of the plant may be increased by 10% by pre heating the air in the boiler. 115. What is the Re-set pressure of the safety valve? It is the pressure at which the valve closes or reseats. 108. Air flows through one half of the rotor and gas flows through the other half. How many Air heaters are there in 210 MW boilers? Two Tri-sector Regenerative APH 114. Why the size of the ID fan is always larger than FD fan? Because. To reduce the blow down moves the upper ring upward anti clockwise. 110. Why air heaters are used in a boiler plant? It increases the temperature of the air supplied to the furnace by utilizing the heat of the flue gas. What is the function of Upper Adjustment Ring? The upper ring is used to obtain the required blow down.
What is the expansion of the boiler? Maximum 250 mm 130. where their charges Kannan. What is draft? 9 . Ash in the transmitter is transported by pressurised air to silo where it is loaded to trucks. 127. How the Fly Ash is disposed from boiler? The fly ash collected in the Economiser. The steam for soot blowing is supplied from which stage of super heating? The steam required for blowing is taken after super heater header No. What is the effect of expansion or contraction stress on boiler tubes? Leakage develops 129. When the transmitter is filled to a certain level. The dust concentrated flue gas enters the ESP through an inlet channel and passes through a gas distributor that distribute the flue gas evenly over the parallel array of discharge electrodes spaced alternately with collecting electrodes. Why the thermal drain is provided in the soot blowing steam supply line and what is the significant of it? Steam supplied for soot blowing should be in super heated form. The collecting electrodes come in the shape of plates that are usually positively charged or grounded. the ash collected at ESP hoppers is disposed in dry mode by Highpressure air system as fly ash utilization. slag bath and scraper feeder trolley. Nowadays. Super heated steam is used from nozzle to dislodge the deposited soot as the soot blower traverses or rotated to clear the deposit from a section of the boiler. pneumatic equipment and controls. a conveying cycle is initiated by a signal from the level indicator or by a timer if wanted. 124. The discharge electrodes are in the form of wire. 123. What is Soot blower? It is a device used to blow accumulated soot off tubes and heating surfaces in a boiler. What is the frequency of the wall blower? The blowers can be operate and keep water wall tubes clean if super heater steam temperatures are more than desired.k aee/bm/mtps get neutralized. These charged particles accelerate towards collection electrodes. Around the top periphery of the upper hopper. 121. whereupon they fall into a collection hopper.10 and line pressure is reduced to 22 kg/cm2. What will be the impact of the flue gas velocity in boiler pressure parts? Material wastage will be more over the convective pass tubes. How the ash is removed at ESP? An ESP electrically charges the ash particles in the flue gas to collect and remove them. 122. Because. The system consists of individual transmitter (Which is connected to ash hopper on the ESP) equipped with the necessary valves.hopper. What is the effect of soot deposition in the flue gas passage of a boiler? Impairs heat transfer 131. Quenching nozzles are provided in the upper halves to quench ash collected in the ash hopper and to help move large slag. If moisture is present in the steam. Air heater and ESP hoppers drops continuously through a vertical pipe connection to the mixing box provided below each hopper. blowing frequency can be reduced. In order to maintain the super heated steam in the line. a temperaturecontrolled valve is provided to drain the condensate automatically. seal trough is provided to effectively seal the furnace draft. The nozzles provided in the mixing box continuously mix the fly ash with water and discharged to the common trench for fly ash disposal. 120. 125. erosion rate will be more and leads to water wall tubes failure. The transmitters of hoppers are connected by a piping system to the silo. The ash collected at bottom transfer to clinker grinder where it is crushed to size and then falls into trench below the scraper feeder. Design flue gas velocity of the boiler? 15 m/s 128. which is connected to a high voltage power source. 55 to 75 kV DC with a negative polarity. the erosion rate will be proposal to an exponential function of flue gas velocity. 126. If it is lower than required. The high intensity electric field created causes the particulates in the gas stream to acquire negative charges transferred from ionized gas molecules of the same polarity.
CD & EF). Which is more economical. 140. Why oil re-circulation is necessary? Before putting in the first burner into service. for better mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. 137. facilitate ignition energy to the coal air stream. How the burners are arranged at burners corners? In 210 MW boilers. so that 10 . two wind boxes (combustion air boxes) are arranged one at right & one at left side of the furnace. The quantity of secondary air (fuel air + auxiliary air) is dictated by boiler load and controlled by FD Fan inlet guide vane regulation. the pressure energy of the steam converts into velocity energy. 139. How the coals are graded? Based on the moisture. Which type of coal is contributing more for power generation in India? Sub-Bituminous coal. sustain the ignition and provide a stable flame during the operation. While passing through the spray nozzles of the oil gun. End air nozzles are arranged one at the bottom and one at the top of burner arrangement. is provided from FD Fans. The oil burners are located at different Kannan. referred to as Secondary Air. is admitted through the auxiliary air nozzles and end air nozzles. called 'Auxiliary Air’. Actually. What should be the viscosity of the HFO for better atomization? For satisfactory atomisation the viscosity shall be 15 to 20 centistokes. The rest of the secondary air. Forced and Induced draft fans. 136. Because the power requirement in the case of speed control is less than that required for damper control to bring about the desired change in airflow quantity. 133. Mostly Grade ‘F’ coal 142. The secondary air heated in the Air heater is directed to wind box and the damper regulate and directs in to the burners. the wind box assembly is divided into 13 compartments (6 coal burners. meaning that the pressure in it is approximately atmospheric. ash fusibility temperatures and sulfur content of the coal.Damper control or speed control? Speed control. 135.It is the pressure difference between the combustion product in side the boiler and the cold air outside the boiler 132. particle size. How the air required for combustion can be controlled to meet the variable load demand? It can be controlled either through damper control or speed control 134. How the air required for combustion is distributed? The Combustion air. What is balanced draft system? Coal fired boilers are designed with balanced draft firing system. Why oil is used as an auxiliary fuel in coal-fired boilers? Coal is the main fuel in utility steam generators as well as many industrial boilers. 3 oil burners and 4 air compartments) from top to bottom. What factor determines the quantity of primary air to be used for drying and transportation of pulverized coal? Fuel quantity. 144. What do you mean by “atomisation” of liquid fuel and why is it necessary? Atomisation is the process of spraying the fuel oil into fine mist. 145. In a tangentially fired boiler. it is kept at a slightly negative pressure to ensure that any leakage would be inward. What is the function of coal burners in boiler? Burners undertake the task of delivering coal and air in a proper proportion. which breaks up the oil stream into fine particles. This system is provided with Primary air fan. The coal and oil burners are sandwiched between air nozzles or air compartments. 141. it is necessary to warm up the long oil supply lines to the burners. Particularly the moisture content. Define Wind box? It is the box surrounding the burner damper on a boiler. complete the task of combustion and delivering heat to the intended purpose. ash. 138. but a considerable quantity of fuel oil is also used as an auxiliary fuel for boiler warm up.k aee/bm/mtps levels or elevations of the wind boxes (AB. A portion of secondary air called `Fuel Air’ is admitted immediately around the burners (annular space around the oil/gas burners) into the furnace. ignition of coal and coal flame stabilization at low loads 143.
How the firing rate is controlled during the oil firing? The firing rate is varied by controlling the oil pressure with a constant atomizing steam pressure. This shifts the flame zone across the furnace height and enables control over steam temperature. These dampers are to be modulated with reference to the amount of fuel fed to that elevation of fuel nozzle. The formed solid carbon particles build up over the heater tubes. 147. What is the Range of burner tilt? Plus 30 to minus 30 degree 153. the oil pressure is decreased? As the oil pressure is gradually decreased. Which factor decides the opening of fuel air damper? All fuel air dampers are normally closed. Kannan. sooting. 146. What will happen if. Atomising steam is supplied through holes in the spray plate and oil at specified viscosity is also fed through the same hole and gets mixed just before getting discharged together in a spray plate.the oil does not get cooled in the colder piping and that the oil at correct atomising temperature becomes available at the burners. What is the function of primary air system? First to dry the coal in the pulveriser and second to transport pulverised coal to the coal nozzles in the wind boxes at the four corners of the furnace.k aee/bm/mtps 151. and plug up the strainer. increased carbon loss and finally flame failures. 11 . What should be the effect of low and high temperature of fuel oil? Low heating of oil is "higher oil viscosity" which impairs atomisation at the oil gun. Over heating or high temperature of the oil is not desirable from the point of thermal cracking of oil. 154. soot forming. leading to poor flames. How wind box compartment dampers positioning affects the airflow distribution to the furnace? Opening up the fuel air dampers or closing down the auxiliary air dampers increases the airflow around the fuel nozzle. 149. which is an externally mixing type oil gun. They open at a definite time interval after the associated feeders are started. in unison at all elevations and corners. What is tangential firing system? The fuel and combustion air streams from these burners or compartments are directed tangentially to an imaginary circle at the center of the furnace. 150. 152. What is the clearance between the nozzle tip to frame or compartment? 10 – 15 mm 158. To achieve this the heated oil is circulated up to the burners and back to the oil tank through oil return lines till adequate oil temperature is reached near the burners. leading to poor flames. Correct proportioning of secondary air distribution between fuel air compartment and auxiliary air compartment influences the degree mixing. What type of oil gun is used for oil firing and how it works? Normally ‘J’ type. Closing down the fuel air dampers or opening up the auxiliary air dampers decreases the airflow around the fuel nozzle. Tangential firing arrangement creates a single flame envelope with a rotating fireball in the center of the furnace. Why oil temperature is important for firing? The result of inadequate heating of oil is "higher oil viscosity" which impairs atomisation at the oil gun. increased carbon loss and finally flame failures. combustion and the flame pattern within the furnace. 156. during atomization. intricate passages of control and shut off valves and atomisers. What is the minimum clearance allowed when the secondary air dampers are in closed condition? 6 mm clearance 157. The firing rate is varied by controlling the oil pressure with a constant atomizing steam pressure. 148. What is the effect of burner tilt in Tangential firing system? The burners are tiltable Plus 30 to minus 30 degree about horizontal. The carbon particles also cause faster atomiser wear out and sparkling in the flame. the droplets of atomized fuel oil will grow in size. is used for oil firing. Ultimately there will be a minimum oil pressure at which the droplet will grow too large to burn completely. 155.
95ºC. but is also influenced by the amount of excess air supplied to the burners. 163. Hence. What is the advantage of excess air? It will increase the combustion intensity. 164. mean particle size and distribution. 169. increased heat loss in the stack. 166. Low temperatures. Maximum CO2 and Nil unburnt in Flue Gas 160. Unfortunately Nox emission and slagging can also increase with these conditions. The quantity of gas is dependent on the fuel being burnt. What is the lowest load for the stable operation of a boiler? It is usually 30-40% of the rated load. reduced carbon loss and CO formation and reduced slagging conditions. 170. This. is dependent on soot blower and air heater operation. 167. What is the disadvantage of using excess air to reduce the combustibles in flue gas to Zero? Lower the furnace temperature and excess fan power 161. The NCR of the boiler is 75-80% of its MCR. what harm it will cause? • Excessive use of coal • Operational problems • Poor functioning of ESP 162. What are the consequences of overloading a boiler? Affect the circulation velocity of the water. 12 .k aee/bm/mtps The carbon monoxide measurement is taken along with oxygen reading for checking that the combustion airflow is at optimum level. How many kinds of boiler start-up are there? Hot start. 168. The temperature of the flue gas is affected by the cleanliness of the heating surface area. What are MCR and NCR? Maximum Continuous Rating and Normal Continuous rating. increased tube erosion and possibly increased NOx formation. in turn. as the precise relationship between damper position and the amount of draft is not known. What are the factors affecting the stack loss? The quantity and the temperature of the flue gas can control the total heat that exits the stack. the air used more than the required for the complete combustion will take away more heat. What will temperature? 70 . worm-start and cold start. finer and at higher pressure. What is the cause of incomplete combustion? Lack of air in one part of the stream causes incomplete combustion even though high overall excess air is maintained at the furnace outlet. What is the purpose of measuring CO2 and O2? Kannan.159. How to determine the correct draft for introducing minimum excess air required for operation? This is obtained by a trial and error method. lower pressure and larger particle size contribute to less complete combustion and increased unburnt carbon in the ash. What should be the condition of the fuel to be used for combustion? Liquid fuel conditions are temperature. 171. combustion is improved. 175. If the fuel is hotter. If a thermal power plant burns inferior quality of coal different from the designed coal. What is the fundamental indicator of good combustion? Minimum O2. What is the drawback of operating a boiler at part load? The running equipments consume almost the same amount of energy as in full load condition. What is the disadvantage of excess air? Increased fan power consumption. pressure and if solid. 172. 165. 173. be the mill outlet 176. higher flue gas temperature and higher SH temperature that lead to SH coil failure. 174. If the bowl mill temperature is raised above the above said temperature limit what will happen? Volatile matter of coal will quickly evaporate and explosion can occur. How the flue gas and steam temperature between left & right can be minimized? It can be minimized to the extend possible by adjusting the burner loading and loading of left & right side of draft fans.
the rest of the primary air. 183. The lower side is to take care of the velocity and the upper side is to limit the erosion of the coal pipe. standard sieve. Coarse particles drop back into the bowl through the center cone of the classifier while the fine coal dust air mixture is lead away to the burner.0029 inch or 0. 178. If the grindability is less than design value. What is the function of coal bunker? It provides intermediate or short-term storage ahead of feeder or coal mill.S. How the Mill outlet temperature is maintained? Two primary air fans discharges air into a common duct that required for combustion. 181. Hot primary air introduced into the pulverized through the bottom of the bowl carries off coal-dust into the centrally located classifier fitted at the top. Coal fed through the hopper gets pulverized by attrition as it passes between the sides of the rollers and bowl. What is the velocity of the pulverized coal –primary airflow at the burner outlet? The coal air mixer velocity within the pipe is between 20and 28 m/s. How the coal is pulverized in the bowl mill? Bowl mill consists of stationary rollers mounted on an electrically driven rotating bowl. Why the primary and secondary airs are given into the furnace at different speeds? To ensure good intermixing of the ignited fuel with the secondary air to complete the combustion and consequently active burning takes place in the furnace space. the mill output reduces for the same fineness to be maintained. by passes the air pre-heater and joins the hot 13 . The diameter of the wire determines the opening size. Pulveriser capacity is expressed with reference to a particular grindability index. 188. 191.000 openings per square inch. How the coal flow through all pipes is made nearly constant? One bowl mill feeds four burners placed at different elevations in the boiler. which compensate for variations in bulk density due to moisture. Gravimetric feeders are generally used in modern power station.074 mm. By placing orifices in each pipe feeding pulverized coal to the burner. in which the number of openings per linear inch designates the mesh. 180. The opening size for the 200-mesh will be around 0. 189. Part of the air passes through a separate section of the air preheater where it picks up heat and pass on to the Mill. 187. What is the function of classifier in the mill? Classifier is provided in the mill outlet to regulate the size of the coal particle by returning back the higher size coal particle to the mill. the flow through all pipes is made nearly constant. which monitor the coal weight on the belt. Higher the mesh size. 182. Kannan. What will be the coal size in 200mesh screen? 74 microns 184. finer the screen. coal is carried on a belt over a load cell. What are 200 mesh screen? It is the U. 179. coal size and other factors.177. 190. A 200-mesh screen has 200 openings to the inch. What is Gravimetric feeder system? In gravimetric feeder system. Flow is restricted most in the case of the shortest pipe. Why a minimum down spout height is maintained between coalbunker and feeder? A minimum height should be maintained to minimize the air loss from the pressurised pulveriser. 185. softer the coal higher the index. What is the ill effect of more fineness of coal? It will lead to fly ash loss and ESP loading. What is Grindability Index? Grindability Index of coal indicates the ease with which coal can be pulverised.k aee/bm/mtps 186. What determines the temperature of the coal inside the bowl mill? Volatile matter of the coal decides the temperature. Adjusting the vane position of the classifier increases the fineness by recirculating the coal flow through the mill and hence the mill loading is increased. What is the desired fineness of the coal in pulverized coal firing? The fineness shall be 70% (of the pulverized coal) pass through 200-mesh screen. or 40.
oxidation due to high temperature and creep strength. But it is made up of casting.k aee/bm/mtps supply the required quantity of air for sealing. the excess air level as well as stack losses can be estimated. For optimum combustion of fuel oil. the CO2 or O2 in flue gases should be maintained at 14-15% of CO2 and 2-3% in case of O2. 196. How can the flow quantity of air be adjusted by speed control? 14 . 195. To improve the low load capability a divider plate is introduced in the coal nozzle to divide the coal nozzle into two halves. What is the function of the coal burner? Its primary function is to produce two individual flows: one is fuel-air mixture and the other of secondary air for ignition and active burning in the furnace. These fans boost the pressure to a slightly higher value and discharge the air into a separate duct arrangement. the carbon steel is enough for this condition. 198. In practice some extra amount of air is required to make sure that complete combustion takes place and this air varies dependent on the type of fuel being burned. Chromium is the alloying element for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Explain the design features of coal nozzle for effective burning of pulverized coal? Coal nozzle inlet is of same size as the coal pipe and has continuously decreasing cross-sectional area. hard facing of the base material is necessary. to create an independent fuel rich and fuel lean stream. as the shape of the coal nozzle is little complicated for fabrication. What is the difference between GCV and NCV? The difference between GCV and NCV is the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour generated by the combustion process. Chemical analysis of the gases ia an objective method that helps in achieving finer air control. Normally Cr-Ni alloy stainless steel is used for nozzle tip. GCV assumes all vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed. What is the design efficiency of MTPS boiler? 86. 199. 200. control dampers and hot air shut-off gates in the individual hot air ducts. But.14% 202. How can the supply of air be controlled to meet the variable load demand? Damper control and speed control 203. The boosted seal air is then delivered through a filter. Hence.air duct ahead of the pulveriser for proper temperature control of the coal-air mixture leaving the pulveriser. How to control “Excess air”. What material is used for the construction of coal nozzle & tip and why? Since the nozzle is exposed to the maximum temperature of secondary air from wind box. which is greatest at the choke area. to those points in pulveriser components. What is “Excess air”? Why is it required for combustion in a boiler? For all fuels it is possible to calculate the exact amount of air that is needed for combustion. What is the function of seal air fan? Two seal air fans in parallel are draw the cold from the cold primary air duct and Kannan. What is boiler efficiency? It is the ratio of the heat utilized by feed water in converting it to steam. By measuring CO2 or O2 in the flue gas. 201. To improve upon the erosion resistance. these alloying elements are not good for erosion resistance. 193. So the quantity of air admitted in excess of the theoretical requirement is called “Excess air”. 197. to the heat supplied by the fuel over the same time. A control damper is installed in both hot and cold primary air ducts to each pulveriser to control the temperature & the quantity of air supplied to the pulveriser. Due to this the velocity of coal stream increase from entry to exit that avoids the coal particle accumulation at throat area of nozzle. 194. Why hard facing is done in the nozzle tip? Normally Cr-Ni alloy stainless steel is used for nozzle tip. the material should capable of withstanding erosion. As per the nozzle tip is concerned it is subjected wear due to coal air mixer and as well exposed to furnace temperature. NCV assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. 192.
There are 32 scanners employed in 210 MW units out of which 12 Nos. What will be the steam/water mixer temperature at water wall tube outlet? It varies from 300 – 350ºC at the boiler pressure 100 – 165 kg/cm2. 211.8 MW approx 207. 204. How does the volatile matter content determine the rank of the coal? Higher the VM content of the coal. 212. The interlock & protection system takes care of sequence of starting protection and interlock of boiler auxiliaries like FD fans.. At any time if the signal is less than the lower threshold. of discriminating scanners are located at oil elevations and others 20 scanners called fireball scanners are used for coal burner flames. waiting for the signal to start the burner once again.By changing the fan rpm to bring about the desired change in the fan characteristic. The probe outputs are significantly different for steam and water. It works on the basic principle of differing conductivities of water and steam. 206. The flame safeguard system will also continually monitor burner operation when the boiler is on-line. If the flame is extinguished for any reason. What is Furnace safeguard system? Safeguard system is a set of controls used on a boiler to ensure safe burner operation. An array of probes mounted on the pressure vessel is used to measure the resistance of water and steam. The energy released by the igniters used in 210 MW boilers? 1. 209. Usually it ranges from 0. 208. These thermocouples are located outside the flue gas path in the penthouse zone. For example it will purge the combustion chamber of gas. 213. When the signal is greater than the upper threshold.k aee/bm/mtps explosion. This can be accomplished either automatically or manually. What is the sulphur content of the coal? It varies depending upon the nature of the coal. the output displays steam. valves etc. The signal from the probe is precision rectified and compared with lower and upper threshold values.e. It consists of a pressure vessel attached to one end of the drum. it will standby during down time. the lower is the rank of the coal and vice versa. it sends a signal to close the fuel supply valve to prevent a possible Kannan. What is a flame scanner? It is a device used to observe the flame in a boiler.400ºC 210. What is boiler control system? The control systems for boiler are divided into two major classifications i. ID fans. interlocks & protection system and sequence controls & analog controls. Conductivity signal from the electrode is amplified and detected as water or steam. dampers. What will be the metal temperature at water wall tube? Metal temperature on the surface will be 375 . light the pilot and then open the main gas valve. How the boiler drum level is measured? Electronic water level indicator is used for drum water level indication in control room as well as boiler floor. 214. The system will protect the boiler from excessive pressure or temperature conditions It will also regulate the firing rate according to the demand for heat or steam Finally. The thermocouples signals are taken to control room for continuous monitoring. Where the tube metal temperatures are measured? Metal temperature thermocouples are provided for monitoring super heaters. 205. The FSSS takes care of interlocks required for starting. air heaters. When the temperature exceeds permissible level alarm is given. supervising the operating and safe shut down of the equipments connecting with firing system.5 to 3%. The primary functions are: A safe way of starting and shutting down the burner. What is boiler inspection? The inspection of boiler serves two purposes one is familiarization of operator with the equipment and another one it 15 . then the output displays water. A flame safeguard system also starts the burner in the proper sequence. re heater tube metal temperatures. Drum level transmitters are also provided for remote indication in addition to hydra step.
Hence boiler preservation is required to protect the internal surfaces from corrosion. 227. At what intervals. What is the objective of forced outage inspection in boiler pressure parts? The main objective is to discover if any secondary damage is experienced at the adjacent areas and to determine any other tubes are close to failure due to same mechanism. A boiler inspection scope is developed in accordance with prior knowledge and experience. 217. 216. Why is inspection of boilers and their auxiliaries to be carried out on a regular basis? To detect the defects. One important item often overlooked during the inspection is the provision or lack of provision for expansion. Sufficient notice is generally given to permit removal of the boiler from service and preparation for inspection. are preserved by the wet method. 226. it can often locate damaged tubes immediate concern and can provide information for planning a subsequent outage. which are kept ready for stand-by service and may be required for sudden demands of operation. 215. locate deterioration of material. the following maintenance are being carried out. What is the validity of the boiler certificate? Twelve months 223. How many methods are for Boiler preservation? Wet method and dry method. which are scheduled to be kept out of service for a long period and which are not expected to be put into operation at short notice. Kannan. abnormal wear etc. or periodic maintenance programs. replacements. What type of maintenance system is followed in boiler? Maintenance of boiler can be divided into: Annual maintenance. ducts. 222.verifies the condition of equipments. Also. are preserved by the chemical water. How annual maintenance is carried out? Statutory regulations require a periodic inspection of the pressure vessel by an Authorized Inspector. For which type of boilers.k aee/bm/mtps • • • • • • Soot blowing for water wall tubes & APH Furnace oil filter cleaning Scanner air filter cleaning Maintenance of soot blower equipments. 219.. Certain areas may be experiencing degradation of specific nature. 225. is preservation by Dry method recommended? Boilers. 16 . is internal inspection of a boiler normally carried out? Once in a year. valves & actuators Lubrication for fans & APH gear box Oil gun cleaning etc. is preservation by wet method recommended? Boilers. Periodical maintenance and Breakdown maintenance 218. which would require detailed inspections. 220. or repairs that cannot easily be done at other times. temporary supports provided for various purposes must be removed. This also serves as a good basis for establishing a schedule for annual. What type of works is carried out in Periodical maintenance? To ensure the continuous operation of the boiler. What is boiler preservation? Boilers. soot blower piping and drain piping. What is the objective of planed / scheduled outage inspection in boiler pressure parts? The goal of the scheduled outage inspection is to eliminate boiler tube failure between the scheduled outage. which are kept ready for stand-by service and may be required at short notice. This major inspection can often be used to accomplish maintenance. Chemicals used for preservation are ammonia and hydrazine 224. New phenomena can also be discovered. so that these can be rectified to avoid serious damage. Before pressure is raised in the boiler. monthly. The boiler expands as the temperature and pressure are increased and also in steam lines. Why boiler is preserved? The internal surfaces of boilers prone to corrosion by leftover water after operation by atmospheric oxygen when they are out of service. 221. For which type of boilers.
Explain the venting system of the boiler? Proper air venting is a must for steam generating equipments. Name the drains provided at waterside of the Boiler? CBD.5 times the boiler design pressure is applied to all new boilers and maintained for a sufficient time to detect any leak.What is the objective of the operating procedure? • Protection of pressure parts from corrosion. Why hydro test is conducted? After the pressure parts are assembled (incase of new boiler) or repaired but before the refractory and casting are installed. pressure and purity 231. The steam side drains from various drainable super heaters are connected at a common header at boiler 16 m level then connected to IBD expander. Waterside system comprising water wall drains and economizer drain connected at a common header at ‘O’ meter level called Low point drain. During the boiler filling. 235. air vents should be kept open to displace all air inside the boiler with water. If the air is not removed. Explain the system provided for boiler draining? There are two-drain systems: one is at waterside and another is at steam side. however certain steps are required for all boilers.25 times of working pressure. over heating and thermal stress • Prevention of furnace explosion and • Production of steam at the desired temperature. Improper mixing of fuel with combustion air results with unburnt and this unburnt fuel subsequently get ignited above the furnace regime and cause sudden pressurisation. of drum air vents and 1 No. What is an operator requirement? • Every operator must be trained to understand and fulfill the responsibility assumed for the successful performance of the equipment and the safety of all the personnel involved. 236. 229. safety valve testing and initial operations for adjustment and testing. Any air trapped in the system will lead to corrosion. What is the quantity of the water drained through CBD system? It will be around 1% of the rated steam flow. 233.k aee/bm/mtps conditioning. auxiliary equipment preparation. steam blow out. of Economiser air vent are provided 17 . down comer drain. The system may be drained either through atmosphere or IBD expander according to the condition of the boiler. a hydrostatic test at 1. purposes. • The operator must have a complete knowledge of all components. The provision of properly sized and installed air vents ensure that trapped air is quickly vented out.their designs. EBD. 234. 232. recalibration of instruments. refractory Kannan. limitations and relationships to other components. • Required excess air is maintained (judged by oxygen level in FG) • Burner tips are clean and no clinker / carbonisation is taking place and clogging. In waterside 2 Nos. Bottom ring header drain and economiser drain. The procedure varies with design. Best practices to be followed are: • Proper wind box furnace differential is maintained. How a boiler can be prepared for the startup? A systematic approach is required in the preparation for service of a new boiler or any boiler that has undergone major repairs. Both the drains are used for boiler back filling purpose for lighting up or to conduct the hydro test in boiler. If the boiler is in good condition certificate has to be issued after conducting the hydro test for 1. What are the causes of momentary boiler pressurisation? How to get rid of this problem? what are the best practices to be followed in a boiler operation and maintenance? Improper combustion regime only can cause such momentary furnace pressurisation and puffing. 230. The steps may be listed as follows: Inspections. cleaning. chemical cleaning.228. • The burner tips are not own out or the coal burner edges are not eroded • Burner diffuser might have wearer or dislodged from its position. not only corrosion will take place but also it restricts flow in the system making it less effective in carrying heat around. hydrostatic testing.
This will prevent corrosion of water wall tubes due to high concentration of ammonia present in the water. Where the seal trough is provided? At the bottom of every boiler a hopper has been provided with a sealing arrangement with water between boiler furnace and this hopper. according to requirement and it may be operated in any position from fully open to fully shut.M water or condensate treated with 10-ppm ammonia for pH control and 500 ppm of hydrazine for control of oxygen should be used for non-drainable super heaters and re-heaters. the vents should be open until water appears at vent points.at boiler left side 55 m level and there is no separate vent for water headers. As the unit is being filled. During the filling air vents should be kept open to reduce the oxygen corrosion and assure that all boiler tubes are filled with water. What is the function of Regulation valve? A regulating valve has to control the rate of flow. Hence. the balance water should be drained and chemical for normal filling of light up should be added & then the pre-boiler section should be filled. 18 Kannan. The Super heater & re-heater vents are provided at boiler right side 54 m level. Why by-pass arrangement is provided in the high-pressure valves? By-pass arrangements serves two purposes: First. What is the function of NRV? This type of valve permits the flow of fluid in one direction only. This hopper is always filled with water. Temperature of the water should be match with temperature of the metal to prevent the thermal stress. 238. What precaution should be taken to fill the boiler before startup? • • • • High quality water should be used to minimise waterside corrosion and deposits. Is it advisable to charge the preboiler circuit with balance water available after backfilling of boiler for hydro test or preservation? No. to balance the pressure on both sides of the main valve wedge or disc to bring down the opening torque. the pH of water should be as specified by the manufacturer. High temperature differential can cause thermal stress in the pressure parts and also it distorts the pressure parts attachments. 241. • D. Establish the correct water level before firing begins. What precautions should be taken to conduct the hydro test? • High quality water should be used to prevent the internal fouling and corrosion. to worm up the line before opening the main valve and secondly. 242. 245. 239. 237. 243. This is to give a seal against negative pressure maintenance in the furnace and also for the expansion of the furnace walls downwards on furnace heat up. • Water temperature should not be more than 56ºC above the metal temperature to avoid excessive metal stress transients. • The water temperature must be above the dew point temperature of the surrounding air to prevent the formation of condensate on the parts being tested.k aee/bm/mtps . • The metal temperature and therefore the water temperature must be at or above the code (ASME section I PG99) restriction of 21ºC • The water temperature should be kept low so hat the pressure parts can be touched and close inspection can be made. 244. The valve should do this automatically and it should give constant output irrespective of any fluctuations in the inlet pressure. in steam services. This may be Globe or Gate or butterfly valves. Clear or filtered water can be used for components that will be drained immediately after the hydro test. 240. • No air should be trapped in the unit during the hydro test. What is the function of Pressure reducing valve? It will reduce the pressure of the fluid passing through the valve. What is the function of Isolation valve? Isolation valve is normally fully open or fully close condition.
equal B. the temperature of tube is A. continuous make up water is added to the boiler water system.Water Wall tubes is --------A.Turbulence B. Secondary air is used fore oil gun cooling and scanner air is used for scanners & igniters. can exceed the allowable stress of boiler material B. During heating in a boiler. Gas Weld 257. none of these 252. 248.Temp. none of these 256. ordinary boiling B. carbon cracking is eliminated at elevated temperature. 247. C. remains same at all point. Varies from point to point B. more steam & less moisture C. Steam Power Plants are working based on A. Saturated steams have-------Kannan. same C.During heating in a boiler the temperature of tube ad the temperature of water that is flowing inside the tube are A. 99ºC C. should not exceed the allowable stress of boiler material C.e.Turbulence C.overflowing continuously at the top seal to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. more than the temperature of the water inside C. Its boiling temperature increases C.Thermometer 263. more heat stored in it C. Particularly cooling of oil gun tip ensures that there is no oil carbonization i. different D. Fin Welded B.. losses due to blowdowns and leakages have to be made up for maintaining designed boiler water quantity by means of the level gauges provided on the boiler drum. Fusion welded C. more steam & more moisture 253.Temp. reduced B. Its boiling temperature has no effect. temperature not connected to heat B. Why cooling air is continuously supplied to oil guns. Since this make up requires pure water this quality water is obtained by a Demineralised (DM) water treatment plant. equal to the temperature inside 258. Why make up water is continuously added to the system? Since steam is taken out continuously and returned to the boiler. C. True B. Though the tips are made up of special steels it is continuously cooled by respective cooling air system. Time. For this purpose a storage tank is installed from which continuously DM water is drawn for boiler make up. film boiling 262. Ranking Cycle. For this.Temp. 100ºC 250. Thermometer. different 259. 98ºC B.By insulating the pipelines in a boiler the heat loss can be A. water boils at A. no heat stored in it 255. B. In a boiler the temperature of drum at the outside surface and its inside surface are A. Super heated steams have ------------A. When pressure on water is increased A. less heat stored in it B. 246. 3T`s in Boiler Combustion Represents A. Its boiling temperature decreases B.In boiling of water in a boiler there is A. stopped C.k aee/bm/mtps A. Time. 251. temperature A. pressure is not connected to stress 261. OTTO Cycle. scanners and igniters? Oil gun tips. False 19 . less than the temperature of the water inside B. less steam & more moisture B. Diesel Cycle 249. no change 260. same C. During heating in a boiler. scanners and igniter tips are directly exposed to furnace flame and get heated. However some storage is essential as DM plant may be down for maintenance. At sea level.In a boiler the pressure inside A. nucleate boiling C. Steam is better Thermal Conductor than water A.
3 267. 8 274. Pressure Recorder De-super Heater 272. 6 C. B. PRDS Stands for A. Dry Bottom Furnace C.Most of the Power Plant in India. 2 276. For Conducting Tube Thickness Survey A.HFO Viscosity at Oil Gun will be around A. Type of Main Oil Gun Used in Mettur TPS A. 15 to 30 CST B. 34 C. 3 C.When the Ash Fusion Temperature is above the Furnace Temperature. Electro Static Precipitator C.Boiler Wind Box Consist of ---------. 24 B. No. None of the Above 283. Air Cooled Parallel Pipe. Atomiser Diameter B. FD Fans Used in Mettur TPS is A. 70-80. 3 C. None of the above 269. Micro Meter is used B. 2 x 29 B. 4 266. Steam Producer B. Pressure Reducer Degree Super Heater C. High capacity Boiler is also called as A.Total NO of FD Fans in Service at Full Load is in Mettur TPS A. Yes. J & JX-Type 288.Total No of Coal compartments per Boiler in Mettur TPS A. 2 x 30 275.What type of Burner Mechanism is employed at Mettur TPS? A. Fixed Type C. 90-100269. Such Type of Furnace is called A. Ultra sonic thickness meter Gauge C. In 90 J 16 Oil Guns Spray Plate type 90 stands for A. J-Type B. 6 C. JX. Radial Type C. Electro Static Power 284. 5 279. Total No of Turbo Separators in Boiler at Mettur TPS A. 14 Elevations B. Atomiser Spray Angle C.at each corner A. The corresponding FD Fan will also Trip A. B. Atomiser Length 20 . 2 265. 2 C.Total NO of ID Fans in Service at 210 MW Boiler at Full Load in Mettur TPS A. 30 to 45 CST C. Pressure Reducing De-Super Heater B.FSSS Stands for A. Recuperative APH 285. 286.When any one of the ID Fan Trips. Axial Type B. Steam Condenser 273. NO 270. Rotary Regenerative APH C. Dry Bottom Furnace Type C.No of Coal Mills Available Per Unit in Mettur TPS A.k aee/bm/mtps 278. Wet Bottom Furnace Type B. PA Fan Bearing Temperature working Range from A.Profile Type 268. Steam Generator C. 13 Elevations Kannan. 60-70 C. Oil Cooled Parallel Pipe. Radial Tilting Type 280. Radial Type C. Axial. No. Extra Sensory Perception B. 7 B. Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System C.PA Fans Used in Mettur TPS is A.Type C. Furnace Safeguard System B. Axial Type B. 5 B. Wet Bottom Furnace B. Boiler Furnace of A. 5 C. Furnace Safeguard Savings System 281. 2 B. 1 B. Type of APH used in Mettur TPS A. 45 to 60 CST 277. Tubular APH B.10 B. Of Down Comer Pipes in Mettur TPS boilers A. of Drum Safety Valves available at Mettur TPS A.264. In Thermal Power Plant “ESP” Stands for A. Mixed Bottom Furnace Type 282. 44 287. Tilting Tangential Type B. 15 Elevations C.Total NO of PA Fans in Service at Full Load in Mettur TPS A. 2 x 50 C. Air Cooled Parallel Pipe. 4 B. 271.
C B. Hollow Refractory Wall with Air Cooling C. Coal Powder Erosion B. Time Delay Systems B. Direct Fuel Firing B. EBD C. Chairman/TNEB B. Ultra Violet from Fuel Burning B. Glass Wool Mattress C. SA 210 Gr. Re-heater B.5 times of working pressure C. Low Alloy Steel C. k cal/Kg 297. Forged Steel B. Fly Ash Erosion C. Indian Business regulation C. Furnace heat Transfer C. LRSB Stands for A. Total Dissolved Solids C. There is no norm 308. Air Ingression 311. Carbon Steel B. Coal Nozzle Tips used in the boiler are made up of A. Drum Level Swelling can be controlled by Opening A. A Good Refractory material should be A. Indian Boiler Act formed in the Year A. Boiler Cleaning is necessary to increase the A. Flame Scanner is working based on Detecting A. The Competent Authority to Issue the B. IBD 303. SA 213 T22 293. C. Hard Facing of Coal Nozzles and Tips are done to reduce A. High Alloy Steel 294. Furnace Expansion C. The Unit of the Conductivity is A. Type of Boiler Furnace Used in Mettur TPS A. --. 1. Cast Steel C.Rays from the Fuel Burning 292. Total No of Wall Degassers Available per Boiler in Mettur TPS A. TDS Stands for A. Low Alloy Steel C. 48 hrs C. Emergency Blow Down C. Indian Bank Regulation 305. Furnace Explosion 302. Silica in Steam Can be controlled by A. 24 hrs B. Feed Water Heater C. Partly Direct Fuel Firing & Partly In-Direct Fuel Firing 290. High Alloy Steel 295. Chairman/Slum Board C. Certificate for boiler is issued after conducting hydraulic test for A. 1965 307. Sub critical boilers Water Wall Tubes are generally made up of A. Super heater 304. SA 213 T11 C. 2 Times of Design Pressure 306. 1. 1923 C. Kind of Fuel Firing System Available in Mettur TPS A. 56 C. Chairman/TNBD 309. Micro mho per cm B. Indian Boiler Regulation B. Choose the Carbon Steel grade from the Following A. 58 B. Indirect Fuel Firing C. A. Continues Blow Down B. Certificate in Tamil Nadu is A. --Rays from the Fuel Burning C. Furnace Dilution B. FSSS is Provide to Avoid Kannan.Total Dissolved System 296. Burner efficiency B.E. High Degree of Heat Resistance 21 299.5 Times of Design Pressure C. Hydraulic Test Pressure for newly Erected Boiler will be A. Insulation Tape B.k aee/bm/mtps . Intermittent Blow Down 301. W/MK C. Economiser is a A. Platen SH Coils are made up of A.O.25 Times of Design Pressure B. Normal Curing time for Castable Refractory should be A. 1. Long Retractable Soot Blower Long Returnable Soot Blower Long Radial Soot Blower B. Solid Refractory Wall B. IBR Stands for A. 1. In Water Chemistry. 36 hrs 313. Boiler Steam Lines can be insulated by A. Water Cooled Metallic walls 291. CBD B. 1920 B. Clay Materials 312. Stainless Steel 310. Carbon Steel B.289. Thermal Diffusivity 298.25 times of working pressure B. 60 300.
M. 316. Silicon Carbide (Sic) C. Boiler Duct Materials are A.B. 500ºC C. CBD B. Generally 500 MW Boilers are A. EBD C. For Controlling the Soluble Solids the Boiler Water --------. None of the Above 335. Supply the Combustion air to Boiler B. PA fan discharge header B. Total No of SH Headers available in Mettur TPS A. Alumna (Al2O3) B. A Component Authority from the Secretariat C. ID Fans are used to A. PA Fan Out-Let Inter-Connecting Duct B. 3 x 4 C. The Recommended pH value of Feed Water for HP Boilers ranging from A. Supply the Service Air to Boiler 332. FD & ID Fans C. Gas Re circulation Fans Required C. 10 B. Bowl Mill C. Emergency Air Damper D. SCAPH Stands for A. B. PA & ID Fans B.3 to 9. 325. Main Steam Stop Valve C. PRDS System B. SADC System 320. The most commonly used refractory cement consists of A. 14 322. FD Fans Supply the A. IBD 319. Steam Coil Air Pre Heater Steam Cooled APH C. Tube Mill 327. 8. Natural Circulation Type B. . 540ºC 22 B.5 C. Both (A) & (B) 329. 4 x 4 B.1 00ºC B. Bowl Mill C. Stands for A. To Absorb the Thermal Expansion C. Forced circulation C. Certificate for the Use of a Boiler can be Issued By A. Evacuate the Flue Gas from Furnace to Chimney C. To Absorb Flue Gases B. 11 C. Mild Steel B. SADC Stands for A. Atmosphere 336. The Super Heated Steam Temperature used for Power Generation in 210 MW units is A. Main Steam Safety Valve B. C. Service Air Damper Control Secondary Air Damper Control C. Furnace Explosion can be avoided by maintaining A. PA Fan is required B. Seal air fan C.Method is used A. Scanner Air Fans have tap off from A. Owner of the boiler 318.k aee/bm/mtps 331. Balance Draft can be maintained by A. Ball & Roller Mill B. Low Thermal Material the Above C. FD Fan Out-Let Inter-Connection Duct C.S. C. In case of FD fan failure the air for scanner air fan is drawn from A. Primary Air Required Secondary Air Required None of the Above B. 11 to 14 321. 2 x 4 328. To Absorb the Moisture in Ducting System 317. FD & GR Fans 333. Types of Coal Mill used in ETPS A. Both (A) & (B) 315. A Component Authority from Boiler Inspectorate B. 326. For 100% Oil Firing in 210 MW Boiler A. All 314. None of the Above 323. Carbon Steel Stainless Steel C. FSSS C. For Oil Firing in Boiler A. Both (A) & (B) 334. Primary Air for Combustion Secondary Air for Combustion Both (A) & (B) Kannan. 6 to 7 B. Type of Coal Mill used in Mettur TPS A. No of main Oil Guns used per Boiler in Mettur TPS A. The Purpose of Providing Expansion Bellows in Ducting Systems is A. Both (A) & (B) B.V. Ball Mil B. Both (A) & (B) 330.S. Once through circulation 324.
Steam sample Analysis B. IBR Certified Welder C. To Blow out the Water 353. How many Fields are there in 210 MW ESP A. The main Purpose of providing Scanner in Boiler Furnace is to indicate the A. Orsat Apparatus is used for A. Boiler Mountings are A. Convection alone C. is the Ratio of A. C. To Blow out the Foreign Particles from the Ring Header B. Steaming in Economiser C. 2` Boiler Left side 360. Artificial Draught B. 36 346. Fuels used in Mettur TPS Boiler are A. Boiler C. Bin card terminology is used in A. Conduction. Drum Level very Low Condition B. All the above 341. Dry Steam C. Wet Steam B. 150 gm/Kg. Increase the Conductivity of Boiler C. Deaerator B. Modes of Heat transfer take place in Boiler Power plant are A. Heat Liberated in the Furnace Kannan. Convection & Radiation 355.Drum slope in NCTPS Boilers are A. Starvation in SH tubes D.500 mg/Kg 347. Removal of Ash particles takes place in A. Heat Absorbed by Water to Steam. Excess Air is required C. Normally the High Pressure Boiler tube Root welding can be done by using A. Attemperation is used to reduce the Temperature and heat Content of A. Flue Gas temperature 352. TIG Welding C. MIG Welding 359. Super Heated Steam 351. Removal of Oxygen from Feed Water takes place in A. The Allowable limit of dust particles let out through Chimney is A.337. Arc Welding B. Very high furnace draft C. Non-IBR Welder 358. 24 C. Deaerator B. Steam Jetty draught 342. All the above 357. Decrease the PH value of Boiler Water B. For Complete Combustion of Fuel A. Air is used B. Conduction alone B. 4` Boiler Left side C. Turbine C. Excess Oil C. Diesel is used 340. Welder B. DM water Analysis 343. Pressure Gauges and Safety Valves C. Eco Coils Water Starvation B. 1. All the above 356. 2` Boiler Right side B. Chimney draught is also called as A. Natural draught C. None of the above 344. Water Wall tube Puncture may lead to A. Excess Oil end Corrosion in APH is due to Air present in the Furnace Oil Sulphur present in the Furnace Calcium present in the Furnace 354. Flame condition C. Economiser Re Circulation is necessary during light up to avoid A. To Blow out the Steam C. The Purpose of Providing Down Comer Blow off in the Boiler is A. Electro Static Precipitator 345. Flues gas Analysis C. 12 B. Cold A. Work Shop B. All the above 338. Water level Indicators B. High Pressure Boiler Tube should be welded by A. For Atomising Heavy Furnace Oil A. B. All of the above 339. B. Excess B. Heat absorbed by the water & steam to the heat liberated by the fuel 350.k aee/bm/mtps C. Coal B. 150 mg/Nm3. Foundry Shop 349. Stores C. Steam is used C. Package Boiler is necessary during 23 . In Sea Shore Plant Condenser Tube Leakage leads to A. Boiler Efficiency may be defined as. Heavy Furnace Oil & Light Diesel Oil C. Theoretical Minimum Air only Required B. Water level B. ESP 348.
Both Directional Flow C. Boiler Operation Commissioning C. H2 B. LOP Stop Alarm 374. Carbonates 366. 2 C. What is mean by Check Valve? A. Soot Blowing System 372. 147ºC B. Soot Blowers over run due to A. 70ºC C.A. Material used in Hot End Basket Element of APH A. OH. Restricted Osmosis C. 155ºC C. Spring C. 1. Soot Blowing Steam is being taken from A. Setting Pressure of a Safety Valve can be adjusted using A. Name the Cleaning Device used to clean the Basket while APH is in service A. NonReturn Valve 382. Wall Soot Blower blowing Pressure A. 3 383. 2 B. the action required for proper burning in boiler is -----------24 . Carton Steel B. SH Steam Temperature B. All the above 363.O stands for A. Water Jet C. UAR 385. 60ºC B. 14th SH Header 362. New Boiler 361. How many ERV is provided in 210 MW Boiler A. 700 Series B. Pin Hole Puncture C. Oil Temperature High Alarm C. 80ºC Kannan. Wrong inner Setting D. One Direction Flow B. Carton Steel 369. Where the Soot blowers are positioned in APH at Mettur TPS A. Remove Osmosis 365. 5th SH Header B. Magnesium B. PRDS steam temperature 364. Burst opening (or) Fish mouth opening B.Ions 367. Irrespective of Flow 381. 1. What Type of Safety Valve used in Boiler drum and SH A. Anion Exchanger used in Water Treatment to Removes A. If liquid fuel is highly viscose. 1 371. What is the allowable Temperature of an APH Bearings? A.10Ksc 378. Hydrazine dosing in Boiler Feed Water System to Remove A. Carbon Steel C. O2 368. Chloride B. How many drives in each APH in Mettur TPS A. 11Ksc C. 1. Gate Valve B. Air Jet B.6 380. Both (B) & (C) 379. 135ºC 375. R. 17 Ksc B. N2 C.k aee/bm/mtps 373. Material used in Cold End Basket Element of APH A. 800 Series C. Reverse Osmosis B.10 C. SH Spray can be used to control the A. How many LRSB are there in 210 MW Boiler of Mettur TPS A. Cold end only B. at Both the ends 376. Improper Gear Measuring C. Globe Valve C. Al Steel B. Carbon Steel C. Al Steel 370. Rotor Stop Alarm B. None of the above B. Cation Exchanger used in Water Treatment to Removes A. 2. Reheater steam temperature C. Allowable Flue Gas Out-Let Temperature of an APH A. Compression screw B. Sodium C. Dust Accumulation on the Guide rods B. H+ ions C. 4 B. Nature of Boiler Tube Puncture is A. How many SCAPH are used in 210MW Boiler A. 4 C . Hot End only C. 1 B. Flap Valve Suitable for A. 18 B . 27 377. The Impartment Protection device for an APH A. C. 600 Series 384. 10th SH Header C.
a) Cooling b) heating d) vapourising c) mixing a. Used as a Welding Machine c. Hydraulic Test is conducted in Boiler after Tube Puncture A. Shrouding used on Boiler to avert A. 2 ksc B. ARC d. High % of CO in the flue gas of boiler is an indicator of a) High excess air b) complete combustion c) low excess air 405. False 393. Over Heating C. Main cause of the Tube Puncture on Boiler A. Name the Valve Seat material used in high Pressure Steam Line A. Stainless Steel C. 4 ksc C. Ultra Sonic Testing C. Used as Lift for Boiler Furnace Maintenance B. Used as a Checking Device 396. Long term Over Heating of Tubes leads to A. True B. “Turndown ratio” for burners is the ratio of a) Max air input over min air input b) Max fuel input over min fuel input c) Max fuel input over actual fuel input 403. which has the highest specific gravity. Purpose of Sky Climber in Boiler A. All the Above 391. Non-Destructive testing method of Welding Joints A. X-Rays B. To Check the Tube Leakage in other area C. At what pressure drum and super heater air vents has to be closed? A. Oxygen percentage measurement by volume basis can be done by using: a) Copper tubes b) potassium oxide probe c) zirconium oxide probe 402. 10 ksc 399. Welding Failure D. To Check the Welding Joints in Puncture are B. All 394. TIG welding welding c. Both (A) & (B) 395. Large and irregular lumps of coal when fired in a boiler lead to……. Over Heating 390. a) 18 kg b) 14 kg c) 21 kg 401. Die Penetrate Test D. Burst Opening with thick lip B. approximate theoretical quantity of air required is. Which one of the following methods of welding is used at site for boiler tube welding? 397. Viscosity of the liquid fuel is very much dependent on a) Pipe size b) colour c) temperature d) pressure 400. Alloy steel Welding of Boiler Tubes required Pre Heating and Post Heating A. a) LSHS b) LDO c) HSD d) furnace oil 388. For complete combustion of every kg of fuel oil firing. Resistance welding b. Fish mouth open 392. Al Steel B. Steam erosion C. a) Poor combustion b) low excess air c) high thermal efficiency 404. Which one of the following has a high specific gravity? a) Kerosene b) furnace oil c) water Kannan. Fly Gas Erosion B. Presence of sulphur in the boiler fuel oil leads to a) Erosion b) corrosion c) low heat transfer 398. Stelliting 389. Pin hole Open C. a & b 386. Fly ash Erosion B.k aee/bm/mtps 25 . Identify the fuel.
k aee/bm/mtps 26 .Kannan.
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