Consider a steady, fully developed laminar flow in an annulus with inside radius
R
2
and outside radius R
1
. Find a relation between the pressure gradient dp/dx, the
volume flow rate Q, the fluid viscosity , R
1
and R
2
/R
1
.
2. (a) Demonstrate that when a cylindrical can of liquid rotates like a solid body
about its vertical axis with uniform angular velocity, e, the free surface is a
paraboloid of revolution.
(b) Demonstrate that the pressure difference between any two points in the fluid is
given by ( ) ( ) 2 /
2
1
2
2
2
1 2 1 2
r r z z g p p + = e , where z is elevation and r is the
radial distance from axis.
(c) How would the results differ if the can were of square crosssection?
3. Please derive the momentum integral equation for the boundary layer flow on a
flat plate such as
dx
d
U
w
u
t
2
= , in which
w
t is the shear stress on the surface
of the flat plate , is the boundary layer momentum thickness, is the upstream
uniform flow velocity along the x direction, and is the fluid density.
4. Plot the Moody chart and explain which related parameters should be used to
determine friction factor for (a) a laminar flow, (b) a turbulent flow,and (c)
a wholly turbulent flow, respectively.
5. A capillary tube with a small radius a is held vertically in air with its bottom
immersed in a large body of liquid. The surface tension of the airliquid
combination is , and the contact angle of the airliquidtube wall combination is
.
(a) Show that if l >> a, the capillary rise l is given by l = 2cos/ga.
(b) How would this expression change if the system were comprised of two
plates separated by 2a, instead of being a tube with radius a?
Fluid
r
x
R
2
R
1
6. Derive the loss coefficient for the pipe fluid flowing through a sudden
expansion.
7. The open Utube of Fig.1 is partially filled with a liquid. When this device is
accelerated with a horizontal acceleration, a, a differential reading, h, develops
between the manometer legs which are spaced a distance l apart. Determine the
relationship between a, h, and l.
8. Water flowing from the oscillating slit shown below produces a velocity field
given by
( )
0 0 0
sin / V u t y v i v j e = + (
, where u
0
, v
0
, and e are constants. Thus,
the y component of velocity remains constant (v = v
0
) and the x component of
velocity at y = 0 coincides with the velocity of the oscillating sprinkler head [u =
u
0
sin(wt) at y = 0].
(a) Determine the streamline that passes through the origin at t = /(2w).
(b) Determine the pathline of the particle that was at the origin at t = 0.
(c) Discuss the shape of the streakline that passes through the origin.
9. Consider a region of potential flow:
(a) What is the governing equation of the flow? Where does it come from?
(b) Is the solution unique? Under what conditions? Justify your answer.
(c) Does the velocity field, u, obtained from the potential flow solutions satisfy
the NavierStokes equations? Why?
10. (a) A rocket is launched vertically upwards with an acceleration of 5g. Find the
pressure difference p
2
p
1
( in bars ) between the bottom and the top of the liquid
fuel tank, if the fuel has a density of 900 kg/m
3
.
(b) After reaching an altitude of 200 km, 20% of the fuel remains, and the power
plant is shut off. Find the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the
tank during the free fall of the rocket, assuming no air friction.
11. Consider an incompressible fluid flowing past a circular cylinder, define the
pressure coefficient (Cp) on the surface of the cylinder, plot and
explain the Cp distribution along the surface from the forward stagnation point to
the rear region for the cases of (a) an inviscid flow, (b) a viscous laminar flow,
and (c) a viscous turbulent flow, respectively.
12. The sketch shows a liquid emulsion (a finelydivided mixture of two liquids) of
mean density
1
entering a reaction zone of a constantarea reactor with speed V
1.
The components of the emulsion react chemically, and leave the reaction zone as a
liquid at the density
2
. Pitot tubes are installed upstream and downstream of the
reaction zone. ( Pressure inside a pitot tube is stagnation pressure, p
0
= p +
V
2
/2 ). It is agreed to assume that the flow is invisid, steady and onedimensional,
that the original emulsion is incompressible, and that the liquid leaving the
reaction zone is incompressible. Calculate the value of ( ) ( ) 2 /
2
1 1 02 01
V p p in
terms of the density ratio
2
/
1
.
13. As shown below, a horizontal jet of water exists a nozzle with a uniform speed of
V
1
= 10 ft/s, strikes a vane, and is turned through an angle . Determine the
anchoring force needed to hold the vane stationary. Neglect gravity and viscous
effects.
14. Consider a steady, incompressible, inviscid flow passing a circular cylinder of
radius, a, as shown in Fig.3. Find out the pressure variation and the acceleration
experienced by the fluid particles as they flow along the streamline AB.
15. A sluice gate across a channel of width b is shown in the closed and open
positions in the figures below. Is the anchoring force required to hold the gate in
place larger when the gate is closed or when it is open? Explain.
16. Consider a spherical ball with a uniform flow, when the Reynolds number
corresponding to the uniform flow increases, please sketch and describe the
variation of the flow field near the spherical ball..
17. Fig. 5 shows the velocity profiles before and after a twodimensional body in a
wind tunnel. The upstream (section(1) ) velocity is uniform at 100 ft/s. The static
pressures are given by
p1
=
p2
= 14.7 psia. The downstream velocity distribution
which is symmetrical about the centerline is given by
ft y u
ft y
y
u
3 100
3
3
1 30 100
> =
s


.

\

=
where u is the velocity in ft/s and y is the distance on either side of the centerline
in feet. Calculate the drag force exerted on the air by the body per unit length
normal to the plane of the sketch.
18. Consider the steady frictionless flow of a perfect gas through a pipe of constant,
uniform crosssectional area. Heat is added to this flow through the pipe walls so
that the total temperature, T
0
, of the gas increases by an amount dT
0
over a small
length of the pipe. Find a relation for the correspondingly small change in the
Mach number (denoted by dM ) in terms of dT
0
, the Mach number, M, and the
temperature, T, of the flow. The expression also contains the ratio of the specific
heats, . (The total temperature, T
0
, is defined as the total enthalpy divided by C
p
.)
19. The rough surface of an automobile tire consists of roughness of size, . Consider
the following Couette flow which models the hydroplaning of the tire on a smooth
road
The speed of the tire is U, the mean liquid film thickness is h, and the kinematic
viscosity of the liquid is v. If the magnitudes of the unsteady turbulent velocities,
u and v, generated by the roughness are both given approximately by Uy/h
2
where y is the distance above the smooth road, find the ratio of the effective
dynamic viscosity of the film of liquid to actual liquid dynamic viscosity. The
answer includes U, , h and v.
20.Air flows steadily between two sections in a long, straight portion of 4in. inside
diameter pipe as shown below. The uniformly distributed temperature and
pressure at each section are given. If the average air velocity (of the nonuniform
velocity distribution) at section (2) is 1000 ft/s, calculate the average air velocity
at section (1).
21.A constant force F is applied to a simple cylindrical bellows of diameter D
1
. The
air flows out of the bellows, via a nozzle of diameter D
2
, to the ambient
atmosphere.
(a) If the air flow is incompressible (density ) and invisid, derive an expression
for the time it takes to exhaust a volume V of air from the bellows.
(b) Compute this time for STP (1 atm, 25
o
C) air if V = 1 liter, D
1
= 10 cm, D
2
= 1
cm, and F = 2 kgf.
22.Derive the velocity profile of the fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe,
( )
(
(

.

\



.

\

=
2
2
1
4 D
r D
r u
w
t
where
w
is the wall shear stress, D is the pipe
diameter, and is the fluid viscosity.
23.Explain the physical principle behind the flow rate measurements by (a) the
orifice meter, (b) the nozzle meter, and (c) the Venturi meter. Considering a
steady, inviscid and incompressible fluid flowing through these meters, derive
the equation to determine the corresponding flow rate.
24.A watertank has an orifice in the bottom of the tank:
The height, h, of water in the tank is kept constant by a supply of water which is
shown. A jet of water emerges from the orifice; the crosssectional area of the
jet, A(z), is a function of the vertical distance, z. Neglecting friction (viscous
effects) and surface tension find an expression for A(z) in terms of A(0), h and z
where A(0) is the crosssectional area at z = 0. Assume that the area of the tank
free surface is very large compared with A(0).
25.Fluid flows from the fire extinguisher tank shown below. Discuss the
differences between dB
sys
/dt and dB
CV
/dt if B represents mass.
26.Water at 60 flows from the basement to the second floor through the 0.75in.
(0.0625ft)diameter copper pipe (a drawn tubing) at a rate of Q = 12.0 gal/min
= 0.0267 ft
3
/s and exits through a faucet of diameter 0.50 in. as shown in Fig.1.
The pressure variations are determined and shown in Fig.2. as (a) all loses are
neglected and (b) all loses are included.
(A) Write down the energy equation for this incompressible, steady flow between
point (1) and (2), and show expressions of the major loses and the minor loses.
(B) Use Fig.2 and the energy equation, describe the physical meaning for pressure
variations of case (a) and case (b).
27.Consider turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate. The boundary
layer velocity profile is assumed to be ( )
7 1 7 1
/ Y y U u = = o for 1 / s = o y Y and
U u = for 1 > Y as shown in Fig.8. This is a reasonable approximation of
experimentally observed profiles, except very near the plate where this formula
gives = c c y u/ at y = 0. Note the differences between the assumed turbulent
profile and the laminar profile. Also assume that the shear stress agrees with the
experimentally determined formula:
4 1
2
0225 . 0

.

\

=
o
t
U
v
U
w
Determine the boundary layer thickness ,*, and and the wall shear stress,
w
, as a function of x. Determine the friction drag coefficient, C
Df
.
28.A liquid drop is held at the end of a straw, as sketched. Its volume is controlled by
the position of the piston. Gravity is negligible. Show that if the drops volume is
changed by a (slow) displacement of the piston, the net work done on the system
comprised of the liquid and its bounding surface is equal to the product of the
surface tension coefficient and the incremental change in the systems surface area.
Explain why it follows that the surface tension coefficient can be interpreted as an
internal energy per unit surface area.
29.Consider the frictionless, steady flow of a compressible fluid in an infinitesimal
stream tube.
(c) Demonstrate by the continuity and momentum theorems that
0 = + +
V
dV
A
dA d
0 = + + gdz VdV dp
(d) Determine the integrated forms of these equations for an incompressible
fluid.
(e) Derive the appropriate equations for unsteady frictionless, compressible flow,
in a steam tube of crosssectional area which depends on both space and
time.
30.Consider two cases, (a) water drains from a bathtub, (b) a liquid contained in a
tank that is rotated about its axis with angular velocity e, please explain the
physical differences between two cases, and which one is rotational?
31.Determine the streamlines for twodimensional steady flow ( )( ) j y i x l V V
=
0
.
32.A flat plate is hinged at one side to the floor, as shown, and held at a small angle
(<<1) relative to the floor. The entire system is submerged in a liquid of
density . At t = 0, a vertical force is applied and adjusted continually so that it
produces a constant rate of decrease of the plate angle,
t cons dt d tan / = e u
Assuming that the flow is incompressible and inviscid,
(a) derive an expression for the velocity u(x,t) at point x and time t.
(b) Find the horizontal force F(t) exerted by the hinge in the floor (assume the
plate has neglible mass).
33.A syringe (shown below) is used to inoculate a cow. The plunger has a face area of
500 mm
2
. If the liquid in the syringe is to be injected steadily at a rate of 300
cm
3
/min, at what speed should the plunger be advanced? The leakage rate past the
plunger is 0.10 times the volume flowrate out of the needle.
34.An air fan has a bladed rotor of 12in. outside diameter and 10in. inside diameter
as illustrated below. The height of each rotor blade is constant at 1 in. from blade
inlet to outlet. The flowrate is steady, on a timeaverage basis, at 230ft
3
/min and
the absolute velocity of the air at blade inlet
1
V
and u
max
related?
(n) If he flow is vertically upward, develop an expression for the fluid pressure
drop that occurs between section (1) and (2).
58.Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at steady rate of 1000 ml/s
as shown in Fig.9. The exit area of each of the two nozzles is 30 mm
2
and the flow
leaving each nozzle is in the tangential direction. The radius from the axis of
rotation to the centerline of each nozzle is 200 mm.
(o) Determine the resisting torque required to hold the sprinkler head stationary.
(p) Determine the resisting torque associated with the sprinkler rotating with a
constant speed of 500 rev/min.
(q) Determine the speed of the sprinkler if no resisting torque is applied.
59.Consider the fully developed pipe flow of an incompressible, nonNewtonian fluid:
This fluid is such that the normal stress in the x direction is equal to p where p is
the pressure and the shear stress, s, is related to the velocity gradient by
2

.

\

=
dr
du
C o
where C is a known constant. Find the friction factor, f, for this pipe flow in terms
of C, r (the fluid density) and R (the radius of the pipe).
[Note: Remember the definition:

.

\

=
dx
dp
u
R
f
4
, where u is the average
velocity of flow in the pipe.]
60. Explain the physical principle behind the flow velocity measurement by using the Pitot
tube.Plot agraph to show the pressure variation along the surface of a Pitot tube.
Explain how the flow velocity is measured and how to judge the direction of the flow.
61.A strong explosion (like an atomic bomb) causes a spherically symmetric shock wave to
move through the air radially out from the origin. As the shock sweeps by, it causes a
sudden rise in pressure and sets the initially static air into radially outward motion.
It can be argued from strong shock wave theory that if the undisturbed atmosphere is
homogeneous at a density a, the velocity Vs of the shock, as well as the pressure Ps
and the wind speed just behind the shock wave, should depend only on the density a,
the distance rs of the shock wave from the origin, and the total energy E released by the
explosion.
(r) Show that :
3
2
3
2
1
.
) / ( .
=
=
s s
s a s
r E const p
r E const v
(s) Obtain an expression for the shocks radial position as a function of time (the
expression may involve one unknown dimensionless constant). Show how the
strengths of two different bomb explosions, as measured by their energy releases,
can be compared based on film information about their shock wave positions as
functions of time.
62.Discuss the differences between laminar flow and turbulent flow in (a) flow
characteristics, (b) flow structures, and (c) momentum transfer.
63.It is often conjectured that the earth was, at one time, comprised of molten material.
If the acceleration due to gravity, g(r), at a radius, r, within this fluid sphere
(radius, R = 6440 km) varied linearly with r, if the density of the fluid was
uniformly 5600 kg/m
3
and if g(R) = 9.81 m/s
2
, find the pressure at the center of
this fluid earth.
64.Describe the basic structure and the function of the Pitotstatic tube. What is its
physical principle and what are the keypoints in designing it?
65.A soap bubble (surface tension ) is attached to a narrow glass tube of the
dimensions shown. The initial radius of the bubble is R
0
. At t = 0 the end of the
tube is abruptly opened.
(a)Obtain a solution for R(t), assuming that the flow is : (i) incompressible and (ii)
inviscid, that (iii) gravitational effects are negligible, and that (iv) the temporal
acceleration term in Eulers or Bernoullis equation is negligible (we are referring
to the term involving the partial derivative of the velocity with time).
(b)Derive a criterion for when assumption (iv) is satisfied.
66.An incompressible fluid is contained between two infinite parallel plates as
illustrated in Fig.a. Under the influence of a harmonically varying pressure
gradient in the x direction, the fluid oscillates harmonically with a frequency, w.
The differential equation describing the fluid motion is
2
2
cos
y
u
wt X
t
u
c
c
+ =
c
c
where X is the amplitude of the pressure gradient. Express this equation in
nondimensional form using h and w as reference parameters.
67.When a cup of tea is stirred, the tea leaves (which are denser than water) collect at
the center of the bottom of the cup. Give a qualitative explanation of this.
68.Estimate the projected area of a parachute (viewed from below) required to being a
man (of mass 70 kg) down to earth at a vertical descent velocity of 3 m/sec.
(Assume the drag coefficient for a parachute is C
D
= 1.2, density of air = 1.2
kg/m
3
)
69.A plane wall is immersed in a large body of liquid of density which is at rest:
The surface tension of the liquid surface is denoted by S and the contact angle
with the wall by . Find the equation of the water surface in the form y = f(x);
the function should contain the quantities S,,and the acceleration due to
gravity, g. To simplify the problem assume that the curvature of the water surface
can be approximated by
2 2
dx y d . Find the height, h, in terms of S,,and g.
70.Determine the anchoring force required to hold in place a conical nozzle attached
to the end of a laboratory sink faucet (see the sketch below) when the water
flowrate is 0.6 liter/s. The nozzle mass is 0.1 kg. The nozzle inlet and exit
diameters are 16 mm and 5 mm, respectively. The nozzle axis is vertical and the
axial distance between sections (1) and (2) is 30 mm. The pressure at section (1) is
464 kPa.
71.The small fan shown in Fig. 4 moves air at a mass flow rate of 0.1 kg/min.
Upstream of the fan, the pipe diameter is 60 mm, the flow is laminar with
parabolic velocity distribution and the kinetic energy coefficient,
1
, is equal to
2.0. Downstream of the fan, the pipe diameter is 30 mm, the flow is turbulent, the
velocity profile is quit uniform, and the kinetic energy coefficient,
2
, is equal to
1.08. If the rise in static pressure across the fan is 0.1 kPa and the fan motor draws
0.14 W, compare the value of loss calculated: (a) assuming uniform velocity
distributions, (b) considering actual velocity distributions.
72.A hurricane can be visualized as a planar incompressible flow consisting of a
rotating circular core surrounded by a potential flow:
A particular hurricane has a core of radius 40 m and air is sucked into this core at
a volume flow rate per meter depth perpendicular to the diagram of 5000 m
3
/sec.
Furthermore the pressure difference between the air far away from the hurricane
and the air at the edge of the core is assumed to be negligible. The density of the
air is assumed uniform and constant at 1.2 kg/m
3
. Find the angular rate of rotation
of the hurricane.
73.The working section of a water tunnel consists of a duct with a rectangular
crosssection. The width of the crosssection, b (perpendicular to sketch), is
constant but the height, h(x), may vary with longitudinal distance, x, measured
along the centerline of the duct:
Laminar boundary layers form on the upper and lower surface of the working
section and would cause an acceleration of the flow if the height h were constant
with x. (A similar effect would be caused by the front and back surfaces but we
ignore thus for the purposes of this problem and assume that there are no
boundary layers on the front and back surface.) A water tunnel designer wishes to
select the function h(x) in order to ensure that the pressure and velocity outside the
boundary layer (say, on the centerline) do not vary with x. The designer decides to
use a function, h(x), of the form
k
Hx h x h + =
0
) ( , where h
0
, H and k are constants
and the boundary layers begin at x=0. Find: (a) The value of k. (b) The expression
for H in terms of the kinematic viscosity, v, and the velocity, U, of the flow on the
centerline.
74.A wide moving belt passes through a container of viscous liquid. The belt moves
vertically upward with a constant velocity, V
0
, as illustrated in Fig.10. Because of
viscous forces the belt picks up a film of fluid of thickness h. Gravity tends to
make the fluid drain down the belt. Use the NavierStokes equation to determine
an expression for the average velocity of the fluid film as it is dragged up the belt.
Assume that the flow is laminar, steady, and uniform.
75.Consider the steady, planar flow of an inviscid (frictionless), incompressible fluid
(density r) in a rightangle corner:
(t) Show that this flow is irrotational.
(u) Find an expression for the pressure, p, at any point in the flow assuming that
the pressure at the origin, p
0
, is known. The yaxis is vertically upward and
the only body force is that due to gravity, g.
(v) If the xaxis is a thin wall with a uniform pressure, p
0
, on its underside, find
the vertical force on that portion of the wall between x = 0 and x = 1. Assume
unit depth perpendicular to the page.
76.An arctic hut in the shape of a halfcircular cylinder has a radius, R
0
. A wind of
velocity, V
0
, batters the hut and threatens to raise it off its foundations due to the
lift of the wind. This lift is partly due to the fact that the entrance to the hut is at
ground level at the location of the stagnation pressure. A clever occupant sized up
the situation quickly and relocated the entrance at an angle,
0
, from the ground
level, which caused the net force on the hut to vanish. What is the angle,
0
? For
the purpose of this problem the opening will be assumed to be very small
compared to the radius, R
0
. Assume incompressible potential flow and observe
that the static pressure inside the hut, p
s
, will depends on,
0
.
77.Consider a spherical ball with a uniform flow, when the Reynolds number
corresponding to the uniform flow increases, please sketch and describe the
variation of the flow field near the spherical ball.
78.Please use molecular structure to explain (viscosity)please explain the viscosity
difference of liquid and gasand relation between temp and pressure
79.Flow over a cylinder, stream function and velocity potential can be refer as
r
Ur
u k
u
sin
sin = and
r
Ur
u k
u 
cos
cos + = (as a uniform flow and a doublet)
please find out flow velocity distribution and cylinder surface pressure distribution.
Consider the sketch belowfrom entrance region to (fully developed)discuss(1)
(2)(3)pipe flow inertial forcepressure and viscous force correlationplease
draw form(1)(2)(3) pressure along Xdirection
80.Use Bernoulli Equation to analyze siphonicConsider siphonvalve open and close
situation(EL, energy line) and(HGL, hydraulic grad line)if there is a hole at
(1),please describe when valve open/close,(1) water will in or out?
81.What is P
i
theory? Consider a possible relation P
i
= f(, , , )The pressure
difference P
and viscousare(nonrepeating variable)utilized Ddensity
velocity Vthrough P
i
theory to prove the relation.
82.Fluid flow through resivor and pipePlease mark Energy Line and Hydraulic
Grade Lineplease describe when pipe has a holewhich section liquid will spurt
and which section air will into the pipe.
83.Please describe (Pitot tube) theory to measure velocityPlease sketch a pictureto
explain when fluid flow over a Pitot tube the static pressure change along pitot
tube, and how does Pitot tube determine flow direction.
84.Please describe the difference between laminar flow and turbulent flow
characteristic , flow structure, momentum transfer.