Emirates Airline B777 Frequently Asked Questions

Effective 1st March 2010 Valid 1st March 2010 to 31st March 2010

Issue March 2010 This document is uncontrolled if printed

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions Preface Scope

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0.1 SCOPE This Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) document is published as a supplement to the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM) and Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM). It is designed to provide flight crew with referenced answers to common questions or where there are no references provide guidance on how to operate the Boeing B777 aircraft. It must be read in conjunction with the FCOM and FCTM. If there is any conflicting information, the FCOM / FCTM is the overriding reference. The question and answer section is based on actual questions posed during meetings, conferences and calls to the office and have been found to be a useful layout for information delivery. As always, your comments are welcome and encouraged. Please forward them directly to the Chief Pilot’s or Chief Instructors office to ensure a timely response.

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions Preface Revision Highlights 0.2 Revision Highlights

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This revision has been issued without change

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions Preface List of Effective Pages

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0.3

List of Effective Pages Chapter Number Chapter 0 Chapter 1 Title Preface Manual Page/s 1-10 1-10 Date 1st March 2010 1st March 2010

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions Preface Documentation Control Sheet

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0.4

Documentation Control Sheet Document/Media: Revision: 0310 Date: 1 March 2010 Type: Normal

Highlights: Please see Revision Highlights, Preface page 3 Filing / Distribution / Storage Instructions:
Distribute to FOIP

Document Approval: Prepared by:
Capt. Richard Norriss - CFIB

Checked by:
Capt. Fali Vajifdar – B777 FTP

Approved by:
Capt. Hassan Al Hammadi – CFB

p.p.

Printed Document:
Checked by: C. Cervantes, FCAC

Electronic Document:
Checked by: C. Cervantes, FCAC

Attestation of Insertion:
Inserted by: C. Cervantes, FCAC Date of Insertion: 25th February 2010 Location: ETC, Dubai

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions Preface Table of Contents

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Chapter 0 Preface 0.1 Scope 0.2 Revision Highlights 0.3 List of Effective Pages 0.4 Document Control Sheet 0.5 Table of Contents Chapter 1 FAQs

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B777 Frequently Asked Questions FAQ Manual

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Q01. At the TOC do I have to check the EO drift down altitude, insert DARD segments in route 2 or insert range rings etc? Background: Some cruise scans are miss-interpreted as SOP. Answer: No

However it is important to maintain general situation awareness and the above techniques can assist on an individual basis.

Reference:

NIL

Q02. What is the autopilot disconnect limit when on an ILS coupled approach, with Land 2/3 annunciated but manually landing? Background: FCOM gives no limitation for a manual landing from an ILS approach. Answer: Although there is no hard limit prudent airmanship and the ability to gain a “touch and feel” for the aircraft suggest disconnecting the autopilot before entering the landing flare phase to ensure a safe landing. Consider that autopilot alignment during strong crosswinds is likely to differ from pilot technique and that the autopilot will commence an initial alignment at 500 feet AGL Reference: FCOM Limitations

Q03. May I land using Flap 25? Background: For normal landings, when conditions permit, use flaps 30 to minimize landing speed and landing distance. Flaps 25 provide better noise abatement and reduced flap wear. Aft body clearance is approximately the same for either flap setting. Answer: Flight Operations department and the Boeing Fleet Management follow the manufacturer’s recommendation and thus promote Flaps 30 landings. The emphasis here is on safety. However, should Flap 25 be deemed the more appropriate selection for landing, the crew shall take into account the higher approach speed and additional landing distance required. Reference: FCTM 1.4

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Q04. What is the correct response to ‘transition’? Background: Whenever any altimeter sub-scale setting is altered, a crosscheck of all altimeters is to be made to confirm agreement. The call “Transition” is associated with the action of altering altimeter reference, rather than a statement that TA or TL is being passed. Each pilot will ensure the correct reference is set and crosscheck the setting on the other altimeters. Once transition to the relevant setting has been completed, no additional call regarding TA or TL is required. Since the altimeters have the same air data (single ADIRU) they will display the same information but only IF the same sub-scale setting is used. Answer: In the climb it is “Transition” “Altimeters reset STD” ensuring both PFDs and standby altimeter indicates STD. In the descent: “Transition” “Altimeters reset (hPa)”. You must also look over and check the other altimeter settings. There is no requirement to call out passing altitudes/flight levels. Reference: FOM 15.1 Altimetry procedures, FCOM NP 40.7, FCTM 1.17.

Q05. At what speed may I exit when vacating the runway via a HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY? Background: The high speed taxiway is designed to expedite aircraft turning off the runway after landing, thus reducing runway occupancy time. Answer: A ‘HST” is a long radius taxiway designed and provided with lighting or marking to define the path of aircraft, travelling at high speed (up to 60 knots), from the runway centre to a point on the centre of a taxiway. Also referred to as long radius exit, turn-off taxiway, (also Rapid Exit Taxiway). Note: It is recommended not to use the tiller above 30kts and caution above 20kts. Reference:

http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/PCG/ , FCTM 3.5

Q06. Is it SOP to use the fix pages during ETOPS flight segments? Background: Due to Datalink requirements, additional waypoints (e.g. ETP’s etc) are not to be entered into the FMC active route so use of the fix pages may be useful. Answer: No.

However, for situational awareness, FIX pages and the FMC ALTERNATE Page are a beneficial tool to monitor distances or ETA and predicted arrival fuel for selected/ nominated airports. Reference: Nil

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Q07. Do we have to enter the ETAs into the FMC fix pages from the OFP for Entry, Exit and ETPs? Background: Answer: Nil No.

ETA’s for ETOPS waypoints such as ENTRY, EXIT, and ETP’s are to be calculated using information available on the OFP in the ETOPS information section. If desired for situational awareness, the ETAs for these ETOPS waypoints may be transferred from the OFP to the FMC ETA – ALT line of the FIX pages. Reference: Nil

Q08. Should Non-Normal check list completion be delayed in order to ascertain which airport to land at? Background: Some NNC's contain the step ' Land at the Nearest Suitable Airport'. Answer: No

In the majority of cases this is not the time to stop the checklist in order to determine which airport to land at. Instead, this checklist step should be acknowledged by the PF and the process of determining the nearest suitable airport should take place once all the NNC's have been accomplished and the EICAS messages have been reviewed. Reference: QRH CI2.2, FOM 20.3.1.2.

Q09. What primary reference is used to guide the appropriate selection of non-normal checklists? Background: With regards to EICAS, the PF calls for Non-Normal checklists to be accomplished by looking at the EICAS alert messages with a rectangle icon [] as these checklists have procedural steps, notes, or other information of which the flight crew should be aware. EICAS alert messages without rectangle icons are informational and unless CONSEQUENTIAL should be actioned to read the condition statement. Answer: The primary means to identify and select NNC is from EICAS. When calling for NNC’s to be accomplished, the EICAS and the icon [] associated with the EICAS alert messages should be used and not the Non Normal Checklist queue. The EICAS and observed faults (e.g. bird strike) are the principle means of recognizing if a Non normal situation exists. Generally checklists are called for in the order of checklists for which memory items were accomplished, followed by warning level alert messages, then caution and then advisory level alert messages. The PNF is responsible for checklist reading and tasks asked for by the PF. When the PF calls for a checklist to be accomplished, the PNF selects the appropriate NNC from the NNC queue. The PNF then overrides any remaining latched NNC’s in the checklist queue. These NNC’s need not

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be accomplished since they do not have a corresponding EICAS message and icon. They are consequential messages. When all the Icons have been removed from the EICAS (checklists with icons all completed), the PF calls for an EICAS review - do not press CANC/RECALL button, just read the EICAS. The displayed EICAS messages shall be reviewed and then cancelled. There is no requirement to recall all previously displayed EICAS messages Reference: NP 11.3, QRH CI2.6

Q10. Who is responsible for radio calls during non-normal situations? Background: It is not Boeing philosophy for the PF to take charge of the R/T communications when Non Normal checklists are in use. The PNF is responsible for communications during both normal and non-normal situations. Answer: PNF.

However the Commander may use his discretion if he determines it appropriate, to assign the radio calls to the PF. Reference: FCOM NP 11.3

Q11. Should we always call “LNAV available”? Background: When a “Direct to leg” has been utilized LNAV must be armed in order for FMC modes to engage. Answer: No

The “LNAV available” is solely an awareness call thus shall only be made if the PF fails to consequently arm LNAV. Reference: Text

Q12- When does the flight crew signal to the engineer that they have sighted the steering bypass pin? Background: On the Boeing there has developed a procedure whereby the F/O will bring to the Captains attention the Engineer holding the Steering Bypass pin, as soon as he sees him, and as the Captain is still doing the flight control check. This inevitably leads to unnecessary discussion about when to release the engineer and also leads to an interruption of observation of the flight control check. Sometimes it leads to the F/O releasing the engineer without any input from the Captain.

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Answer: According to Boeing NP the engineer is dismissed prior to Flaps selection. There is no requirement to sight the pin. Emirates FOM states that pin sighting is required prior to taxi. This should not interfere with SOP but can be achieved when appropriate. Flight Control check can be done whilst the pin is being sighted since there is no Flight Control observation needed. Both pilots should sight the pin and the engineer is to be released with the commander’s permission. Reference: FCOM NP21.33, FOM15.2.6

Q13. Am I required to know the aircraft limitations by memory? Previously a # symbol indicated which Limitations needed to be memorised. Boeing removed the # with revision 35. Answer: No Emirates’ pilots are expected to conduct their profession to the highest standard and thus shall have a working knowledge of aircraft limitations. While pilots may no longer be required to quote FCOM limitations from memory, they are nevertheless required to demonstrate sufficient awareness of FCOM Limitations that ensures that no such Limitations are exceeded, Reference FOM 1.4.1 –d. Q14. When validating Non ILS approaches there is often a 10’ discrepancy between the FMS and the Lido charted crossing altitudes. Does this comply with the validation criteria? Background: Since the Company transitioned to the use of LIDO charts, there are some approaches that have 10’ discrepancies between the minimum crossing altitudes as depicted on the charts and the waypoint altitudes provided by the FMS nav database. Answer: Yes The 10’ discrepancy is a known variation which is created by the LIDO chart vendor rounding up to the nearest 10’ whilst the FMS vendor rounds down to the nearest 10’. The 10’ discrepancy is considered to comply with the validation criteria and the use of VNAV is encouraged in order to achieve usage of the highest level of automation. Reference CP Boeing

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Q15. Can I use expected, more conservative ambient conditions for the performance calculation rather than the reported ones? Background: A recent FCI directed crews to consult the applicable FCOM for performance on slippery and contaminated runways. A: YES

Background: While it is not acceptable to use more optimistic than officially reported ambient conditions for actual takeoff calculations, crews are allowed to make necessary allowances (to temperature, wind, pressure and/or runway condition) if actual conditions during takeoff have to be expected to be more limiting than current reported ones. Reference CP Boeing Q16. Do I have to use the taxi fuel figure shown on the OFP? A: NO

Background: OFP taxi fuel figures are based on statistical data. When the expected taxi route or time suggest that a higher, or lower figure may be more appropriate, crews are expected to make the required adjustments to the taxi fuel figure to ensure that they do not take off above the maximum RTOW, or unnecessarily start depleting their contingency fuel before takeoff. (The FOM does however make provision to allow the use of contingency fuel from the time the fuel bowser has been disconnected.) Crews should ensure that the maximum structural weight is not exceeded if additional taxi fuel is required. This may result in the requirement to reduce the limited Take-Off weight. Reference CP Boeing Q17. Is it acceptable to “buffer” the Actual Take-Off Weight used in the takeoff calculations to account for possible unused taxi fuel? A: Yes Background: On occasion it may be difficult to accurately assess the expected taxi time or route. In this case it is acceptable to use a slightly higher takeoff weight than shown on the loadsheets to account for the fact that some of the planned taxi fuel may not have been consumed prior to takeoff. It is vital however that any agreed adjustment is done prior to the performance data entry into the OPT / EFB and subsequent calculation which are to be done independently. Q18. Is it good practice to “top-up” DP flight plan Contingency Fuel (CONT) to a normal Contingency Fuel level if the ZFW changes to allow so? 1. A: That depends.

Background: On routes were our statistical data indicate that we consistently arrive with most of the CONT fuel intact, the Company may choose to adopt DP flight plans in order to reduce

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aircraft weight en route and thus reduce fuel consumption. In this case it is not recommended to increase the CONT to a higher (3%, 5% or 20 minute CONT) level. - There are occasions however when we are forced to resort to DP flight plans in order to protect payload. Not using a DP plan would force us to leave non-revenue passengers, freight, passenger baggage, or even full-fare passengers behind. In such case, if the final ZFW should allow us to carry more fuel, it is recommended to increase CONT up to a normal level. This level would be the lower of a) 3% CONT, or b) the equivalent of 20 minutes CONT. As the flight has been dispatched as DP flight, there is no requirement to increase CONT to a 5% level as the DP ERA also satisfies the requirements of a 3% CONT ERA. Route Fuel Statistics attached to every LIDO Briefing package will give you a good indication which sort of CONT would be appropriate. If statistics indicate that on average only an irrelevant amount of CONT is used and hardly any flights ever use more than 50% of CONT, then increasing CONT to a higher level should not be necessary. As always, the commander should exercise good judgment and consider all relevant factors when deciding on the final fuel load.

Q19. If I arrive at the DP with less than MIN DP FUEL, am I legally obliged to divert? A: Not necessarily.

Background: You may apply provisions of the In-flight Fuel Management to DP flight plans. As per FOM 11.3.3. it is permissible to continue towards your destination even if a fuel check should reveal that there will be less than Alternate and Final Reserve remaining at destination as long as the conditions of either one of two In-Flight Fuel Management scenarios are met. As the first scenario requires an Estimated Approach Time (EAT), which may be difficult to obtain at this stage, the more likely second scenario (max delay not known and EAT not received yet) provides to the following two options: - You must be able to reach a minimum of two airports at which in the judgement of the commander "landing is assured" with at least Final Reserve remaining at touchdown. - If you can reach within two hours a single airport with at least two separate and independent runways that otherwise satisfies above requirements and you take any additional fuel burn due to likely ATC delays into consideration, then this single airport may be considered equivalent to two airports. FOM 11.3.3. Q20 Where can we find the Noise Abatement Procedures for our departure and destination airports? Background: There have been questions concerning the application of the Noise Abatement Departure Procedures (NADP) and arrival procedures associated with certain countries and airports within the Emirates network. Current Flight Crew guidance is lacking or unclear regarding the procedures to follow during operations where a NADP is published. Furthermore, Emirates guidance is documented in several different sources which makes the correct information difficult to find and is not always readily available to the pilots. Answer: If the local authorities publish a NADP or arrival procedure, then it can be found on the LIDO Airport Operational Information (AOI) charts for that specific airport (i.e. ATH-LGAV). However, if the country publishes a standard NADP or arrival procedure, then it can be found in

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the LIDO Country Rules and Regulations (CRAR) pages for that country (i.e. Germany). The absence of a specific procedure in the AOI Charts means we must also check the CRAR to determine if a noise abatement procedure exists for that airport. The procedures for the specific NADP1 or 2 (former Procedure A and B) can be found in the LIDO RAR General Pages 630-660. Q21 Is RAW Data monitoring required during non-localizer approaches; such as VOR, NDB, RNAV, and GPS where the FMC is used for course or path tracking? Answer: (NO) Whilst the monitoring of Raw Data is considered good airmanship, the FCTM describes it as recommended if available. FCTM 5.25 Q22 Is Raw Data monitoring required during localizer- based approaches; LOC, LOC-BC, LDA, SDF, and IGS? Answer: (YES) Raw data MUST be monitored throughout the approach. FCTM 5.25 Q 23 IF you only use idle reverse on landing can you disregard the 3 min / 1 min cool down period on the engines in order to commence Single Engine taxi sooner? Answer: NO Background: This question was asked of Airbus / Boeing / GE when the SE taxi policy came into place back in 2008. Boeing and Airbus replied that it is GE/RR that required this cool down period. The response from GE was that even though idle reverse on landing is used, you still need to comply with the 3 min cool down period on the engines. Idle reverse on landing does not have a considerable cooling effect on the core engine and therefore the cool down period only starts when the aircraft is on ground with the engines in ground idle. Not complying with this may result in costly repairs due to oil coking and fuel nozzle degradation. Boeing technical

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Q 24 How do we carry out a PCI on the freighter?

The freighter has three 5 inch windows, two forward and one aft of the wing on the right side. 1 full side window on the left side aft of the wing. When the aircraft is fully loaded there is approximately 15 inches down each sidewall, which will probably limit most pilots from performing a PCI check. If the commander is in doubt about the condition of the airplane after the HOT has expired a return to stand and 2nd de-icing must be accomplished. A standard PCI may be accomplished if a partial load permits or the aircraft is empty. Ref: Freighter Project Pilot Q 25 When should we make the cabin crew prepare for landing call? Background: Currently there is no guidance on when to make the Cabin Crew Prepare for landing call resulting in a wide range of interpretations and in some extremes has been made at 20 000’. Answer: As the call is a trigger to cabin crew that landing is imminent making the call too early defeats the objective of the call itself. Just as the Call preparing crew for take off is not made during taxi or pushback the call for landing should be made later in the approach rather than during the descent phase. The topic is currently under review in order to provide clearer guidance to crew.

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