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MARCH 1991
by Ron Vogel, Computers and Structures, Inc. March, 1991
LRFDCOMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN WITH METAL DECK
INTRODUCTION
This is the companion paper to the "STEEL TIPS" dated January 1987 entitled "Composite Beam Design with Metal Deck". The original paper used allowable stress design (ASD). This "STEEL TIPS" utilizes the same three original examples but designed by the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Method. The purpose is to show the design procedure, the advantages of the method, and the ease of using the AISC First Edition (LRFD) for design. Three main areas have been revised from the ASD Approach: 1. Determination of effective slab width 2. Shored and unshored construction requirements 3. Lower bound moment of inertia may be utilized. A number of papers have been written about these differences and the economies of the LRFD method. The reader is referred to the list of references included.
Table 1 S U M M A R Y OF SECTION I3.1 ITEM Effective Width, on each side of beam (lesser of the 3 values) General AISCLRFD SUMMARY b = Beam Length/8 (L/8) = Beam Spacing/2 (s/2) = Distance to Edge of Slab hr < Wr > ds < Hs = = tc > 3.0 in. 2. 0 in. 3/4 in. hr + 1 1/2 in. hr + 3 in. 2.0 in. (Height of Rib) (Width of Rib) (Welded Stud Diameter) (MinimumStud Height) (Maximum Stud Height value for computations) (Minimum concrete above deck) SPECIFICATION SECTIONS I3 & I5
I3.5a
15.1 I5.2
Material Horizontal Shear Force (lesser of the 3 values) Strength of Stud
Hs > 4ds = 0.85f'cAc = AsFy  • Qn Qn = 0.5 Asc (f'c Ec) (but not more than Asc Fu) = 0.5 Asc (f'c wc)3/4 (using E¢ = wcl'5fx•c in above formula) = 6 ds = 4 ds Longitudinal Transverse
I5.3
I5.6
Shear Connector Placement and Spacing
(See LRFD Manual Fig. CI5.1, pg. 6177)
Table 2 AISCLRFD RULES  F O R M E D M E T A L DECK
(Sections I3.5b and I3.5c)
I E T M
RIBS PERPENDICULAR NEGLECT (N•0'85 [rjWl • r •r• r{SS 1}< 1'0
RIBS PARALLEL INCLUDE ' [hrrJ < 06•wrl, [ h r  1}  1.0
1. Concrete Area Below Top of Deck 2. Stud Reduction Factor
3. Maximum Stud Spacing 4. Deck Welding 5. Minimum Width of Rib
32 in. 16 in. 2 in.
NOT SPECIFIED NOT SPECIFIED NOT SPECIFIED
Page 2 Steel Tips March 1991
Typical Design Problems
Example 1. Design a composite interior floor beam (without cover plate) for an office building. See Beam A in Figure 1. Solution: 1. Design for construction loads: a. Strength design
  I .
i1
40'
[
BAt
^ ^
30' '
wu= s [1.6 (D.L. + L.L.)] = 10 [1.6 ( 57 + 20 )] / 1000 = 1.23 kip/ft (Load factor for D.L. assumed same as for L.L. during placement of concrete.) B Mu  wuL2  (1'23)(30)2  139 kipft 8 8 Mu (12)(139) _ 51 in.3 (Minimum) Zreq q•Fy (0.9)(36)
b. Servicibility design Limit construction deflection to 1 in. (without construction L.L.)
Figure 1
Given: Span length, L = 30 ft. Beam spacing, s = 10 ft. Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in. Concrete strength, f'c = 3.0 ksi Concrete weight, wc = 145 pcf (n = 9) Steel yield stress, Fy = 36 ksi 3 inch metal deck, ribs perpendicular to beam (hr = 3 in., wr = 6 in.) No shoring permitted. Do not reduce live load. Loads: Concrete slab including reinforcing steel and metal deck 54 Framing 3 Mechanical 4 Ceiling 6 Partition 20 Total D.L. Live Load 87 psf 100 psf
5wL4 (5)[(10)(57)](30)4(1728) Ireq= 384EA (384)(29,000,000)(1.0)  358 in.4 (Minimum) 2. Composite Beam Design: a. Trial design for required flexural strength wu = 10 [1.2(87)+1.6(100)]/1000 = 2.64 kip/ft Mu = wuL2 (2.64)(30)2 T = 8 = 297 kipft
For a trial size use formula in LRFD Manual pg. 49. 12Mu (3.4) Beam Weight = {d 2} •+Yc • Fy ) where q = 0.85 and assume a = 1 in. • d (in.) 14 16 18 21 396 396 396 396 12Mu(3.4) Fy d •+Yc a

WT (#/ft) 33 31
Size
Z
I
(in.) 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.5
(in.3) (in.4) W14X34 54.6 W16X31 54.0 340 375 510 843
28 W18X35 66.5 26 W21X44 95.4
Construction Loads, D.L. 57 psf (concrete & framing) L.L. 20 psf (men & equipment) Select W18X35. For simplicity, the entire 57 psf construction load is considered as live load during concrete placement. NOTE: The original Steel Tips design, based upon ASD, used Grade 50 steel.
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 3
b. Verify flexural strength
' b
I o. o
•o° ·
°
o. ' %..;;'•,
n i
. .v .* .. . , ) .oo .o: . ' ?
i
Effective concrete width (AISC I3.1) lesser of,
d/2
/
b = (2)(30)(12) _ 90 in. and 8 b = (2)(10)(12) _ 120 in. 2 Use 90 in. Design for full composite action Tmax= AsFy= (10.3)(36)= 371kips (Governs) Cmax = q f'c b tc = (0.85)(3.0)(90)(2.5) = 574 kips • Tmax 371 a  { f'c b (0.85)(3.0)(90) 1.62 in. a/2 = 0.81 in. (larger than 0.5 in. assumed) Y2 = Yc  • = 5.5  0.81 = 4.69 in. q•Mn= q•AsFy/d + Y21= (0.85)(371)I1• +4.693 = 4270 kil•2n. = 356 kipft or from Table on LRFD Manual pg. 423 with Y2 = 4.69 in. PNA = TFL (Top flange location) Y1 =0in. = 371 kips (AsFy) By 14.69  4.501 *mn= ["•..•.0•.5J (364 351)+ 351 kipft.
a
!
i
1
Figure 2
H
.,.
.
.
.
.
o.
.
'
.
. .¢' • _.i _ t .
Figure 3
Yc
tie
Y2 •
= 356 kipft
> 297 kipft
O.K.
d/2 + Yc ' a/2 d/2
c. Calculate shear studs For full composite action •Qn = AsFy= 371 kips Assume 3/4 inch diameter by 5 inch long studs. Qn = 0.5Asc(f'c wc)3/4 = (0.5)(0.442) [(3)(145)]3/4 = 21.1 kips (<AscFu = 0.442(60)= 26.5 kips) Check flange thickness
1
T
Figure 4
tf= 0.425 > ds/2.5 = 0.3 in.
O.K.
Page 4 Steel Tips March 1991
Stud Reduction Factor (S.R.F.) 0.85 Jwr• •Hs •/2 lTrr  1} < 1.0
d. Design for deflection Deflection after initial construction deflection
A =
(Nr)
l•J
085
(mr)
6 I5,0_
13.0 
Nr
S.R.F. 1.13 <1.0 0.80 0.65
Use 1.0 0.80 0.65
5wL 4(5)(10) [(87  57 + 100) ] (30)4 1728 384E Itr (384)(29,000,000)Itr 817. m. Itr See Table 3 for Moment of Inertia, Itr computations.
1 2 3
with Itr for gross area, A = 0.46 in. or L/783 with lower bound Itr, A = 0.56 in. or L/643 A DL = 0.13 in. ALL = 0.43 in. or L/837 O.K, (with lower bound Itr = Ilb) The beam may be cambered for the initial construction deflection A= ( Ireq /Assumeddefiection. Iprovided
Assume 14 stud locations possible per 1/2 beam 14 (21.1) = 295 kips Remaining stud force = 371  295 = 76 kips Use twice reduction for doubled stud locations [ (2) (0.8)  1] 21.1 = 12.7 kips Total per 1/2 beam = 14 + 76/12.7 = 14+6=20 (distributed as shown in Figure 5) Total = 40 Studs.
358 A = /5i•) 1.0 = 0.70 in. Camber 3/4 in, e. Check for shear strength Vu = [1.2(10)(87) + 1.6(10)(100)]15 / 1000 = 39.7 kips qbVn = •0.6)Fydtw = (0.90)(0.6)(36)(17.7)(0.3) = 103 kips or from Table on page 331 of the LRFD Manual q Vn = 103 kips b > 39.7 kips O.K.
B Span M
I II II I I I l l I I I I I I I
Figure 5
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 5
Table 3 Moment of Inertia Calculation
Type n Y i? Y nA ) y Io Ad2 Itt
(in.2)
10.3 25.0 35.3
(in.)
8.85 21.95
(
(in.)
(in.4)
510
(in.4)
887 365 1252
(in.4)
1. Gross section
91 549 640
18.13
523
1775 1775
2. Neglecting tensile concrete 3. Reduced concrete area, equal to XJ'On/F,,
No tensile concrete for this example. Therefore, Itr is same as for gross section. 10.3 10.3 20.6 8.85 17.7 + 4.69 91 231 322 510 _3_1 511 473 473 946
15.60
1457
NOTES: 1. Itr = 1457 in.4 is considered the "Lower Bound" moment of inertia, Iib and may be found directly from Table on Page 449 of the LRFD Manual. For Y2 = 4.69 in. W18x35 and Y1 = [4.694.501 Itr = 1430 + l' •°Y4'• 'J (15001430) = 1457 in.4 Itr = lib 2. Modular ratio, n = 9 3. Effective concrete width, b = 90 in. 4. Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in. 5. Ac = 90 (2.5) = 225 in.2 6. Transformed concrete area, A'c = Ac/n = 25.0 in.2
L
Figure 6
7. y =  •_.,n
•_.,Ay
8. d = y  y
9. Itr = •_fio + • A d 2
NOTE: The purpose and advantage of using the lower bound Itr value found in the LRFD Manual tables is to avoid the above computations. If the deflections using the lower bound Itr are acceptable, the actual deflections will be conservatively less. Lower bound Itr is based upon the area of the beam and an equivalent concrete area of and is applicable for full as well as partial composite action.
Page 6 Steel Tips March 1991
Example 2. Design a composite interior girder (without cover plate) for an office building. See Girder B in Figure 1. The 3inch deck ribs are oriented paralled to the girder. Girder is assumed loaded as shown in Figure 7. Solution: 1. Design for construction loads: Assume Framing D.L. = 10 psf Concrete Weight = 50 psf as L.L. Construction L.L. = 20 psf
P
I
P
P
I
Pu = (10)(30)[1.2(10) + 1.6(50 + 20)] / 1000 = 37.2 kips MuPL_ (37.2)(40)_ 744 kipft 2 2
L
Given:
4olo
Figure 7
Span length, L = 40 ft. Beam spacing, s = 30 ft. Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in. Concrete Strength, f'c = 3.0 ksi Concrete weight, wc = 145 pcf Steel Yield Stress, Fy = 50 ksi No shoring permitted. (n = 9)
12Mu_ (12)(744)_ 198 in.3 (Minimum) Zreq •bFy (0.9)(50)
2. Composite Girder Design a. Trial design for required flexural strength Pu = (10)(30)[1.2(90) + 1.6(60)]/1000 = 61.2 kips Mu PL2_ (61.2)(40)2  1224 kipft For a trial size use formula in LRFD Manual pg. 49. 12Mu (3.4) Beam Weight = {•Yc } d  2 q•Fy where q) = 0.85 and assume a/2 = 2 in.
3 inch metal deck, ribs are parallel to girder.
Loads:
Concrete slab including reinforcing steel and metal deck 54 Framing Mechanical Ceiling Partition Total D.L. Live 6 4 6 20 d
12Mu(3.4)
¢ Fy
(in.)
d •qYc a (in.)
WT (#fit)
Size
Z
I
(in.3) (in.4) 1830 2100 2850
90 psf 21 100 psf 24 27 1175 1175 1175 14 15.5 17.0 84 W21X83 196 76 W24X76 200 69 W27X84 244
Live Load Reduction = 23.1 (1+ D/L) = 23.1 (1+ 90/100) = 43.9 % or = 0.08 (A  150) = 0.08 (1200150) =84% or = 40 % maximum Use 60 psf L.L. Select W24x76. or enter Table on page 433 of the LRFD Manual with Y2 = 3.5 in. (Yc  a/2) PNA = TFL (Full Composite Action) 4) Mn 1230 kipft > 1224 kipft
=
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 7
b. Verify flexural strength
I'
C• g•
b/n ''1
•, ': .•.• ' • , . . • . . . .
, • " /. :o=:..; •x,.•'•Xx,•.•\•.:
d/2 d l 2 + Y o  a / 2
I
'":I
Effective concrete width lesser of, b = (2)(40)(12)/8 = 120 in. and b= (2)(30)(12)/2= 360in. Use 120 in. Design for full composite action Tmax = AsFy = (22.4)(50) = 1120 kips (Governs) Cmax = 0.85f' cAc = (0.85)(3.0)[(4.0)(120)] = 1224kips For Ac see Figure 8. Y2 = Yc  • = 5.5  2.01 = 3.49 in.
a
/•c = 2.5b
+ 3.Ob = 4.Ob
2
Figure 8
4.82"
I
=
'k ,"1 't, ,'1
ct w
qbMn= qbAsFyld+ Y2)= (0.85)(1120)I2•+ = 1225 kipft > 1224 kipft O.K
3.49/12
assume!6"
_1_ 8"
_1_
8"
.!_
or from Table page 433 for Y2 = 3.5 and TFL OMn = 1230 kipft Tmax = Cabove + Cbelow Cabove= (0.85)(3.0)(120)(2.5)= 765 kips Cbelow = 1120  765 = 355 kips 355 depth = [(1/2)(120)] (0.85)(3.0)  2.32 in. Centroid from top = a/2 a_ 2 (765)(1.25)+355(2.5+2.32/2) 1120 c. Design for deflection Initial deflection during construction A= 19PL3 (19)[(10)(30)(54 + 6)](480)3 384Eis (384)(29,000,000)(2100) = 1.62 in.
= 2.01 in.
Camber 1 1/2 inches. Composite deflection using Lower Bound Itr (Ilb). From Table on page 446 of LRFD Manual,
Assumption of a/2 = 2 in. O.K.
Figure 9
with Y2 = 3.5 PNA = TFL . Ilb = 4780 in4
D.L. = 90 psf Construction D.L. = 60 psf L.L. = 60 psf
19PL3 (19)[(10)(30)(90  60 + 60)1(480)3 ATL 384EI(384)(29,000,000)(4780) = 1.07 inches or L/450 ALL= (60/90)(1.07)= 0.71 in. or L/673 O.K.
NOTE: The mooment of inertia using the gross area equals 5510 in.
Page 8 Steel Tips March 1991
d. Shear Connectors Example 3
Partial Composite Action
For full composite action
= AsFy = 1120 kips
Design Beam in Example 1 for p•fial composite action.
Reduction Factor = 0.6 [hr J[
% /
('"'1[
1 _ 1.0 <
]
SOLUTION: a. Determine required shear studs
= 0.6
1 = 0.8 Estimate number of shear studs for partial composite action using the following approximate equation
Use 0.8 for stud reduction factor. Qn = (0.8)(21.1) = 16.9 kips (See Example 1)
No. 1120      67 Studs Qn 16.9 67 Studs are required from Zero to Maximum Moment.
M •Mp '• u [•Mn  *Mp )

,•Qn
Qn
No.
Where Mu = Moment demand Mp = Steel Beam Capacity with • = 0.85 ) Mn = Full Composite Beam Capacity Mu = 297 kipft {Mp = •Fy Z = (0.85) (36) (66.5)/12 = 170 kipft {Mn = 356 kipft = AsFy = 371 kips Qn = 21.1 kips •= [356170) •,21.1) 0.47 (17.6)= 8.2 Try 9 studs on each 1/2 beam.
Total = 134
$•uds,
Use equal spacing for full length. e. Check Shear Vu  1.5 (Pu) = 1.5 (61.2) = 92 kips Vn = • (0.6 Fy) d tw = (0.9) (0.6) (50) (23.92) (.44) = 284 kips > 92 kips Q.K.
NOTE: The original Steel Tips design, based upon ASD, used a W27X94 with 92 studs.
Total = 18 studs. b. Check flexural strength
•Qn = (9)(21.1) = 190 kips From Eq. CI34 in commentary of LRFD Manual 190 a = 0.85f'cb (.85)(3.0)(90) 0.83 in. Y2= Yca/2= 5.50.41 = 5.09
From Table on page 423 of the LRFD Manual for W18X35 Y2 = 5.0  5.09 in. •Qn = 187  190 kips ( PNA = BFL approx.) • Mn = 296 kipft (approx. equal 297 kipft required) O.K. ) Therefore, partial composite action with 18 total studs is adequate for the required moment.
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 9
c. Check deflection For deflection computation use the lower bound value given in the Table on page 449 of the LRFD Manual. For W18x35 PNA = BFL + Y2 = 5.0 + _ 4 Ilb = 1170 in. A TOTAL = (1775/1170) 0.46 = 0.70 in. ADL = 0.16 in. ALL = 0.54 in. or L/667 O.K. Obviously any number of studs from 9 (47%) to that for full composite action may be used (per 1/2 Beam Span) with the associated increase in moment capacity and decrease in deflection.
DISCUSSION With the use of the First Edition AISCLRFD manual, composite beam design can be simplified, particulary with partial composite action. As in the past, AISC has tried to incorporate enough tables and charts to make repetitive design computations easier. Determining preliminary beam sizes, number of welded studs and composite beam deflections is now very straight forward. With a minimum of assumptions (i.e. location to the compressive force, Y2) preliminary comparative designs can be done in minutes with the use of the tables. The reader is encouraged to read the LRFD Manual PART 4 (Composite Design), PART 6 (Specifications and Commentary), especially Section I on Composite Members, and the other references listed. The number of articles dealing with LRFD composite members design is growing as designers are becoming more familiar with the method and the AISCLRFD manual.
b
. a/2
Location of . effec'ive concrete
..•''T•
...[.. (• •
Y2{ •m. •t 1) I '   • : t (pt s)
Y1 (varies  • Sgure below)
I
I
Y1 = Distance from top of steel flange to any of the seven tabulated PNA locations. qn (@ point 5) + • qn (@ point 7) qn (@ point 6) = qn (@ point 7) = .25AsFy 2
4equ•
spaces
Bo$/l{
Top Flange
I1
Flange Locations
,
BFL
PNA
Figure 10
Page 10 Steel Tips March 1991
N MN LT R O E CA U E
Ac A'c As
Asc
BFL C D.L. E Ec Fy Fu Hs IIb Io Itr L L.L. Mn Mp Mu Nr
P• PNA
Q.
Area of concrete (in.2) Area of concrete modified by modular ratio (in.2) Area of steel (in.2) Area of welded stud (in.2) Bottom of flange location Compressive force (kips) Dead load (psf) Modulus of elasticity of steel (29,000,00 psi) Modulus of elasticity of concrete (ksi) Minimum yield strength of steel (ksi) Minimum tensile strength of steel (ksi) Welded stud height (in.) Lower bound moment of inertia (in.4) Moment of inertia (in. Transformed moment of inertia (in.4) Span length (ft) Live load (psf) Nominal flexural strength 0dpft) Plastic bending moment (kipfO Factored Moment (Required flexural strength) (kipft) Number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection Factored point load (kips) Plastic neutral axis Welded stud shear capacity (kips)
S.R.F. T TFL Va Vu Y1 Y2 Yc Z
a
b d ds f'c hr n tc
tf tw
W c Wr wu
A
Stud reduction factor Tensile force (kips) Top of flange location Shear capacity (kips) Shear demand (kips) Distance from top of beam flange (in.) Distance from top of beam to concrete flange force (in.) Total thickness of concrete fill and metal deck (in.) Plastic section modulus (in.3) Effective concrete flange thickness (in.) Effective concrete flange width (in.) Depth of steel beam (in.) Welded stud diameter (in.) Concrete compressive strength at 28 days. (ksi) Nominal rib height of metal deck (in.) Modular ratio (E/Ec) Thickness of concrete above metal deck (in.) Steel beam flange thickness (in.) Steel beam web thickness (in.) Unit weight of concrete (lbs./cu. ft) Average metal deck rib width (in.) Factored uniform load (kip/fO Deflection (in.) Resistance factor
REFERENCES
,
"Manual of Steel Construction, "First Edition, AISC, Chicago, 1986. STEEL TIPS, "Composite Beam Design with Metal Deck," Steel Committee of California, January 1987. STEEL TIPS, "The Economies of LRFD in Composite Floor Beams," Steel Committee of California, May 1989. Smith, J.C., "Structural Steel Design  LRFD Approach," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y., 1991. Salmon, C. and Johnson, J., "Steel Structures," Third Edition, Harper & Row, N.Y., 1990. McCormac, J., "Structural Steel Design  LRFD Method," Harper & Row, N.Y.,1989. Vinnakota, S., et al., "Design of Partially or Fully Composite Beams, with Ribbed Metal Deck, Using LRFD Specifications," AISC Engineering Journal, 2nd Quarter, 1988.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 11
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