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Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures
OBJECTIVES After completing this unit, the student should be able to: • Identify the classes of jigs and fixtures. • Identify the types of jigs and fixtures. • Choose a class and type of jig and fixture for selected operations on sample parts.
JIGS AND FIXTURES Jigs and fixtures are production-workholding devices used to manufacture duplicate parts accurately. The correct relationship and alignment between the cutter, or other tool, and the workpiece must be maintained. To do this, a jig or fixture is designed and built to hold, support, and locate every part to ensure that each is drilled or machined within the specified limits. Jigs and fixtures are so closely related that the terms are sometimes confused or used interchangeably. The difference is in the way the tool is guided to the workpiece. A jig is a special device that holds, supports, or is placed on a part to be machined. It is a production tool made so that it not only locates and holds the workpiece but also guides the cutting tool as the oper-
ation is performed. Jigs are usually fitted with hardened steel bushings for guiding drills or other cutting tools (Figure 2–1A). As a rule, small jigs are not fastened to the drill press table. If, however, holes above .25 inch in diameter are to be drilled, it is usually necessary to fasten the jig to the table securely. A fixture is a production tool that locates, holds, and supports the work securely so the required machining operations can be performed. Set blocks and feeler or thickness gauges are used with fixtures to reference the cutter to the workpiece (Figure 2–1B). A fixture should be securely fastened to the table of the machine upon which the work is done. Though largely used on milling machines, fixtures are also designed to hold work for various operations on most of the standard machine tools. Fixtures vary in design from relatively simple tools to expensive, complicated devices. Fixtures also help to simplify metalworking operations performed on special equipment. CLASSES OF JIGS Jigs may be divided into two general classes: boring jigs and drill jigs. Boring jigs are used to bore holes that either are too large to drill or must be made an odd size (Figure 2–2). Drill jigs are used to drill,
Open jigs are for simple operations where work is done on only one side of the part. reverse spotface. the whole jig plate is normally hardened. The names used to identify these jigs refer to how the tool is built. counterbore. The only difference is in the size of the bushings used. countersink. open and closed. The basic jig is almost the same for either machining operation. jigs are used for parts that must be machined on more than one side. or into the work and is not usually clamped (Figure 2–4). Template jigs are normally used for accuracy rather than speed. chamfer. Closed. TYPES OF JIGS Drill jigs may be divided into two general types. . Figure 2–2 Boring jig. They may or may not have bushings. or reverse countersink (Figure 2–3). This type of jig fits over. tap. Templates are the least expensive and simplest type of jig to use. on. When bushings are not used. or box. ream.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 9 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 9 Figure 2–1 Referencing the tool to the work.
75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 10 10 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures Figure 2–3 Operations common to a drill jig. . Figure 2–4 Template jigs.
Both of these examples have clearance problems with the cutting tool. which is used for machining angles other than 90 degrees (Figure 2–9). This is most noticeable in Figure 2–9. it has little or no room for the drill point to clear the product completely. These jigs can also be made with or without bushings. Pulleys. The part locator will most likely be hardened and the Figure 2–6 Table jig. Additional clearance here would allow the drill to complete the hole and avoid drilling the relieved portion of the locator. A variation is the modified angle-plate jig. and gears are some of the parts that use this type of jig. and avoid drilling the part locator. collars. The only difference is that plate jigs have built-in clamps to hold the work. Plate jigs are similar to templates (Figure 2–5). Plate jigs are sometimes made with legs to raise the jig off the table for large work. This style is called a table jig (Figure 2–6). . depending on the number of parts to be made. produce a round hole all the way through the part wall. the use of bushings is determined by the number of parts to be made. As the drill exits the product being drilled. This type of jig is ideal for thin or soft parts that could bend or warp in another style of jig. Sandwich jigs are a form of plate jig with a back plate (Figure 2–7).75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 11 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 11 Figure 2–5 Plate jig. Angle-plate jigs are used to hold parts that are machined at right angles to their mounting locators (Figure 2–8). where an angled hole requires additional clearance to the relieved portion of the part locator. Here again.
75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 12 12 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures Figure 2–7 Sandwich jig. usually totally surround the part (Figure 2–10). Box jigs. Figure 2–8 Angle-plate jig. They are usually equipped with a handle for easier movement. Additional clearance on the relieved diameter of the part locator may be possible. the work can be machined on three sides. This style of jig allows the part to be completely machined on every surface without the need to reposition the work in the jig. A larger clearance hole in the locator could also be added if the relieved diameter cannot be reduced. Channel jigs are the simplest form of box jig (Figure 2–11). Leaf jigs are small box jigs with a hinged leaf to allow for easier loading and unloading (Figure 2–12). where jig feet are used. The additional design consideration added to the locator would include the feature to provide the correct orientation of this clearance hole or machined relief to line up with the bushing location. the . or tumble jigs. In some cases. drill will be lost as a result of any attempted drilling. Indexing jigs are used to accurately space holes or other machined areas around a part. The main differences between leaf jigs and box jigs are size and part location. The work is held between two sides and machined from the third side. Leaf jigs are normally smaller than box jigs and are sometimes made so that they do not completely surround the part. Figure 2–9 Modified angle-plate jig. To do this.
Trunnion jigs are a form of rotary jig for very large or odd-shaped parts (Figure 2–14). Figure 2–11 Channel jig. Plate fixtures are the simplest form of fixture (Figure 2–17). drilled. Since the tool is already made and only needs to be modified. a great deal of time is saved by using this jig. The part is first put into a box-type carrier and then loaded on the trunnion. the part is normally machined at a right angle to its locator. While one part is . With this tool. The main construction difference is mass. The basic fixture is made from a flat plate that has a variety of clamps and locators to hold and locate the part. The lever-activated plate makes this tool very fast to load and unload. it must suit the part. Multistation jigs are made in any of the forms already discussed (Figure 2–16). It could also work on single-spindle models. The simplicity of this fixture makes it useful for most machining operations. and be simple and safe to operate. The main feature of this jig is how it locates the work. This jig is well suited for large. heavy parts that must be machined with several separate platetype jigs. Its adaptability makes it popular. This jig is commonly used on multiple-spindle machines. fixtures are built stronger and heavier than a jig would be for the same part. Larger indexing jigs are called rotary jigs. These complex jigs are often so specialized that they cannot be classified. perform the operation accurately. Pump jigs are commercially made jigs that must be adapted by the user (Figure 2–15). Regardless of the jig selected. Because of the increased tool forces. The angle-plate fixture is a variation of the plate fixture (Figure 2–18). TYPES OF FIXTURES The names used to describe the various types of fixtures are determined mainly by how the tool is built. The final station is used for unloading the finished parts and loading fresh parts.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 13 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 13 Figure 2–10 Box or tumble jig. another can be reamed and a third counterbored. Jigs and fixtures are made basically the same way as far as locators and positioners are concerned. There are several other jigs that are combinations of the types described. While jig uses either the part itself or a reference plate and a plunger (Figure 2–13).
Figure 2–13 Indexing jig. Vise-jaw fixtures are used for machining small parts (Figure 2–20).75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 14 14 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures Figure 2–12 Leaf jig. Vise-jaw fixtures are the least expen- . In these cases. most angle-plate fixtures are made at 90 degrees. With this type of tool. the standard vise jaws are replaced with jaws that are formed to fit the part. a modified angle-plate fixture can be used (Figure 2–19). there are times when other angles are needed.
an incorrectly cut shape is almost impossible. This bearing is an important part of the tool and must always be used. Multistation fixtures are used primarily for highspeed. The parts shown in Figure 2–22 are examples of the uses of an indexing fixture. high-volume production runs. Indexing fixtures are very similar to indexing jigs (Figure 2–21). using only two stations (Figure 2–23). sive type of fixture to make. the part is unloaded at station 1 and a fresh part is loaded. once the machining operation is complete at station 1. Duplex fixtures are the simplest form of multistation fixture. Their use is limited only by the sizes of the vises available. the tool is revolved and the cycle is repeated at station 2. The operation in Figure 2–24 shows how the cam is accurately cut by maintaining contact between the fixture and the bearing on the milling cutter. Profiling fixtures are used to guide tools for machining contours that the machine cannot normally follow. Figure 2–15 Pump jig. where the machining cycle must be continuous. At the same time. These fixtures are used for machining parts that must have machined details evenly spaced. These contours can be either internal or external. This form allows the loading and unloading operations to be performed while the machining operation is in progress. . Since the fixture continuously contacts the tool. For example.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 15 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 15 Figure 2–14 Trunnion jig.
. Figure 2–17 Plate fixture.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 16 16 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures Figure 2–16 Multistation jig.
Fixtures can also be identified by a subclassification. Figure 2–20 Vise-jaw fixture. it is called a straddlemilling fixture. Figure 2–19 Modified angle-plate fixture. it is called a milling fixture. If the task it is intended to perform is straddle milling.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 17 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 17 Figure 2–18 Angle-plate fixture. . CLASSIFICATION OF FIXTURES Fixtures are normally classified by the type of machine on which they are used. if a fixture is designed to be used on a milling machine. The same principle applies to a lathe fixture that is designed to machine radii. For example. It is called a lathe-radius fixture.
Figure 2–22 Parts machined with an indexing fixture.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 18 18 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures Figure 2–21 Indexing fixture. Figure 2–23 Duplex fixture. .
such as indexing. A.250 inch. – Box. Box fixture 2.75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 19 UNIT 2 Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures 19 • The type of jig is determined by how it is built. A gang-milling fixture is actually what class of tool? 6. The most common types are plate. and locate a workpiece. What is the difference between a jig and a fixture? How are jigs and fixtures normally identified? What are set blocks used for? What class of jig would normally be used to tap holes? 5. but it may also be classed as a straddle-milling fixture. Vise-jaw fixture The following is a partial list of production operations that use fixtures: Assembling Boring Broaching Drilling Forming Gauging Grinding Heat treating Honing Inspecting SUMMARY The following important concepts were presented in this unit: • Jigs and fixtures are production workholding devices designed to hold. Duplex fixture 3. indexing. are made as either open or closed jigs. Figure 2–25. Analyze the following part drawings and operations to be performed and select the best jig or fixture for each. – A jig guides the cutting tool with a drill bushing. table. REVIEW 1. • Fixture classes are determined by the machine tools on which they are used and sometimes by the operations performed. The two types of jigs are open and closed.250 inch by . rotary. 1. – A fixture references the cutting tool with a set block and feeler. A fixture used for a straddlemilling operation is classed as a mill fixture. 4. 2. channel. and angleplate jigs are all open jigs. support. sandwich. and leaf jigs are all closed jigs. Operation: Mill a slot . and multistation fixtures. • Other variations. Figure 2–24 Profiling fixture. • Fixture types are determined by the way they are built. Lapping Milling Planing Sawing Shaping Stamping Tapping Testing Turning Welding Figure 2–25 . – Template. trunnion. pump. plate. 3. angleplate. or thickness gauges. and multistation jigs. • Jigs are divided into two general classes: drill jigs and boring jigs. vise-jaw.
Indexing fixture Figure 2–27 Figure 2–29 .500-inchdiameter holes. Template jig Figure 2–26 C. Figure 2–27.38 inch. Angle-plate jig 3. 1. Box jig 2.25-inch).75028_Hoffman_CH02 7/7/03 6:16 AM Page 20 20 SECTION I Basic Types and Functions of Jigs and Fixtures B. Plate fixture 2. Figure 2–29. Operation: Drill four holes.62-inch and two .50 inch in diameter. 1.75 inch by . . Channel jig 2. Plate jig 2. Operation: Mill a shoulder . Figure 2–26. Angle-plate fixture 3. Angle-plate jig 3. Plate jig 3.75 inch by . 1. Figure 2–28. Operation: Drill four holes (two . Channel jig D. Box jig Figure 2–28 E. Operation: Drill four . 1.