Mihir Sen University of Notre Dame

November 11, 2009

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1 Outline 2 Basics 3 Classification 4 Terminology 5 Components 6 Operation 7 Thermodynamics 8 Parameters 9 Output

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Lenoir, 1860: first auto Otto and Langen, 1867: efficiency about 11% Diesel, by 1892: compression ignition engine

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Combustion engines
Chemical energy in fuel converted to thermal energy by combustion or oxidation Heat engine converts chemical energy into mechanical energy Thermal energy raises temperature and pressure of gases within engine, and gas expands against mechanical mechanisms of engine Combustion Internal: fuel is burned within the engine proper (including e.g. rocket engines, jet Engines, firearms) External: combustion is external to the engine (e.g. steam, Stirling engine, gas turbine)

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Classification of IC engines
Ignition Number of strokes Valve location Design Position and number of cylinders Air intake Fuel input method Fuel used Cooling Application

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Diesel engine 6/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Ignition Spark ignition (SI): high-voltage electrical discharge between two electrodes ignites air-fuel mixture in combustion chamber surrounding spark plug Compression ignition (CI): air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to high temperature in combustion chamber caused by high compression.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Number of strokes Four-stroke: four piston movements over two engine revolutions for each engine cycle Two-stroke: two piston movements over one revolution for each engine cycle 7/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Valve location Valves in head Valves in block One valve in head and one in block (less common) 8/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Design Reciprocating Rotary 9/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Reciprocating engines Engine has one or more cylinders in which pistons reciprocate back and forth Combustion chamber in closed end of cylinders Power delivered to rotating output crankshaft by mechanical linkage with pistons 10/ 55 .

com/watch?v=oGrD7FTFLJc 11/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Rotary engines Engine made of block (stator) built around large non-concentric rotor and crankshaft Combustion chambers are built into the nonrotating block

combustion chamber between pistons Radial engine: cylinders positioned radially around crankshaft 12/ 55 . one behind the other in length of crankshaft V: two banks of cylinders at an angle with each other along a single crankshaft.g. angle typically 60-90◦ Flat or opposed cylinder (V with 180◦ ): two banks of cylinders opposite each other on a single crankshaft (small aircrafts) W: three banks of cylinders on same crankshaft (not common) Opposed piston engine: two pistons in each cylinder.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Position and number of cylinders Single cylinder (e. lawnmowers) In-line or straight: cylinders in straight line. 13/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification In-line V Flat Radial http://en.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Air intake Naturally aspirated: no air pressure boost Supercharged: air pressure increased with compressor driven by crankshaft Turbocharged: air pressure increased by turbine-compressor driven by exhaust gases Crankcase compressed: two-stroke engine with crankcase as intake air compressor 14/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Supercharger Supercharger on AMC V8 engine for dragstrip racing 15/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Turbocharger 16/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Fuel input method Carbureted: air-fuel mixed at throat 17/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Fuel input method Fuel injection Multipoint port fuel injection: one or more injectors at each cylinder intake Throttle body fuel injection: injectors upstream of intake manifold 18/ 55 .

methyl) Dual fuel (e. and butylene Alcohol (ethyl.g. methane/diesel) Gasohol (e. renewable sources such as vegetable oils 19/ 55 .g. butane. 90% gasoline. propylene. 10% alcohol) Biodiesel: cleaner-burning diesel fuel made from natural.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Fuel used Gasoline Diesel or fuel oil Gas (natural gas or methane) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG): mainly propane.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Classification Cooling Air cooled Water cooled 20/ 55 .innerauto.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Terminology Terminology I TDC: top dead center. piston position farthest from crankshaft BDC: bottom dead center. piston position nearest to crankshaft Direct fuel injection: into main combustion chamber Indirect fuel injection: into a secondary chamber Bore: diameter of cylinder or piston face Stroke: distance that piston moves Clearance volume: volume in combustion chamber at TDC Displacement volume: volume displaced by piston Ignition delay: Time between start of ignition and start of combustion 21/ 55 .

HC. CO. solids 22/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Terminology Terminology II Air-fuel ratio: Ratio of mass flow rate of air to that of fuel Specific fuel consumption: fuel used per unit power Emissions: NOx.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components Engine components 23/ 55 .

rotated by reciprocating pistons through connecting rods 24/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components Block: body of engine containing cylinders Bearing: main bearing for crankshaft Camshaft: rotating shaft used to push open valves at the proper time in engine cycle Carburetor: Venturi flow device to draw fuel and mix with air Catalytic converter: reduces emissions by chemical reaction Combustion chamber: volume between cylinder head and piston face Connecting rod: connects piston with crankshaft Crankcase: part of engine block surrounding crankshaft Crankshaft: rotating shaft through which engine work output is supplied to external systems.

part of the crankcase 25/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components Exhaust manifold: piping which carries exhaust gases away from engine cylinders Fan: to increase air flow through radiator Flywheel: to smoothen engine rotation Fuel injector: pressurized nozzle to inject fuel into air or cylinder Fuel pump: to move fuel from tank to engine Glow plug: electrical resistance inside combustion chamber to help cold start Head: piece which closes end of cylinders Head gasket: sealant between engine block and head Intake manifold: piping which delivers incoming air to cylinders Oil pan: oil reservoir on bottom of engine block.

electric motor. or small IC engines for large IC engines 26/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components Oil pump: to distribute oil from sump Oil sump: reservoir for the oil system of the engine Piston rings: metal rings around piston to seal gap between piston and cylinder Push rods: linkage between camshaft and valves on OHV engines Radiator: liquid to air heat exchanger to cool engine Rod bearing: rod connecting the piston with the rotating crankshaft Spark plug: creates high-voltage discharge across an electrode gap Speed control-cruise control: control system Starter: hand starter.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Components Supercharger: compressor powered from crankshaft to compress incoming air Throttle: butterfly valve at upstream end of intake maniford to control air flow rate into SI engine Turbocharger: turbine-compressor powered by exhaust flow to compress incoming air valves. controls flow of air in and out of the cylinders Water jacket: liquid flow passages around cylinder for cooling Water pump: to circulate coolant 27/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation 4-stroke SI engine operation 28/ 55 .youtube.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation 4-stroke SI engine operation First stroke: intake or induction Piston travels from TDC (top dead center) to BDC (bottom dead center) with intake valve open and exhaust valve closed Volume increases in combustion chamber and creates vacuum Air pushed through cylinder As air passes through intake system. fuel is added 29/ 55 .

spark plug fired and combustion initiated 30/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Second stroke: compression Piston reaches BDC. intake valve closes and piston travels back to TDC with all valves closed Air-fuel mixture compresses and temperature and pressure increase Near end of compression stroke.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Combustion Piston near TDC: nearly constant-volume combustion Changes composition of gas mixture to exhaust products and temperature and pressure increases 31/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Third stroke: expansion All valves closed High pressure pushes piston away from TDC: produces work output of engine cycle Piston moves from TDC to BDC: volume increases and pressure and temperature drop 32/ 55 .

which lowers cycle thermal efficiency 33/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Exhaust blowdown Late in power cycle exhaust valve is opened pressure differential pushes hot exhaust gas out of cylinder and through exhaust system when piston is at BDC Exhaust gas carries away high amount of enthalpy.

intake valve starts to open and is fully open by TDC when intake stroke starts next cycle Near TDC the exhaust valve starts to close and is fully closed sometime after TDC Period where both intake valve and exhaust valve are open is called valve overlap 34/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Fourth stroke: exhaust When piston is at BDC cylinder is still full of exhaust gases at atmospheric pressure Exhaust valve stays open and piston moves from BDC to TDC pushing out most of the remaining exhaust gases into the exhaust system Near end of exhaust stroke before TDC.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation Four-stroke SI operating cycle 35/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation 4-stroke CI engine operation First stroke: intake Second stroke: compression Combustion Third stroke: power Exhaust blowdown Fourth stroke: exhaust 36/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation 2-stroke SI engine operation Combustion: occurs quickly with piston at TDC First stroke: expansion power Exhaust blowdown Intake and scavenging: simultaneous intake and exhaust 37/ 55 .wikipedia.

only air is compressed Fuel injector located in cylinder 38/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Operation 2-stroke CI engine operation Differences with respect to 2-stroke SI No fuel added to incoming air.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics Otto cycle 39/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics Piston is essentially stationary during combustion: constant volume 40/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics Diesel engine Uses heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn fuel Fuel injected into the combustion chamber during final stage of compression 41/ 55 .

as the piston moves 42/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics Combustion occurs at a constant pressure.

Ignition occurs at several places simultaneously.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Thermodynamics Variations Dual cycle: cross between SI and CI Atkinson cycle Miller cycle Homogeneous charge compression ignition: well-mixed fuel and air are compressed to auto-ignition. Homogeneous charge spark ignition gasoline engines Stratified charge compression ignition diesel engine 43/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters Engine parameters Vc Vd TDC B S BDC s r Stroke S = 2a Average piston speed U p = 2SN N = engine speed Displacement for one cylinder Vd = a π 2 B S 4 θ 44/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters Distance between crank axis and wrist pin axis s = a cos θ + r 2 − a2 sin2 θ Differentiating and dividing by U p π Up = sin θ 1 + 2 Up a cos θ r2 − a2 sin2 θ 45/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters Clearance volume. Vc Vc = VTDC VBDC = Vc + Vd Compression ratio rc = VBDC VTDC Vc + V d = Vc High compression ratio allows engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air-fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency 46/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Parameters Cylinder volume V = Vc + πB 2 (r − a − s) 4 Cross-sectional area of cylinder and the surface area of a flat-topped piston are given by Ap = π 2 B 4 Combustion chamber surface area A = Ach + Ap + πB r + a − s Ach is the cylinder head surface area 47/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Work Work is the output of any heat engine It is generated by the gases in the combustion chamber of the cylinder Force due to gas pressure on the moving piston generates work W = Ap dx = dV W = p dV F dx = pAp dx P = pressure in combustion chamber Ap = area against which the pressure acts (piston face) x = distance the piston moves 48/ 55 .

E = exhaust opens TDC BDC V E 49/ 55 .INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Indicator diagram p A I B 4-stroke SI I = ignition.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Specific work w: per unit mass of air within cylinder Brake work: actual work available in the crankshaft wb = wi − wf wi = indicated specific work generated inside combustion chamber wf = specific work lost due to friction and parasitic loads Mechanical efficiency ηm = wb wi Modern automobile engines at high speeds ηm = 75% to 95% 50/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Engine parameters Mean effective pressure (MEP) MEP = Specific displacement vd = vBDC − vTDC Using brake work BMEP = Using indicated work IMEP = wb vd wb vd w vd 51/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Torque For one revolution 2πT = Wb BMEP Vd = n so that   BMEP Vd    2π   BMEP Vd   4π 2-stroke T = 4-stroke 52/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Power Power is the rate of work of the engine P = 2πN T 1 MEPAp U p = 2n MEPAp U p /2 = MEPAp U p /4 2-stroke 4-stroke n = number of revolutions per cycle. and N = engine speed 53/ 55 .

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Effect of engine speed P T n 4-stroke SI 54/ 55 .

98 472 55/ 55 .0 161 316 125 311 6.0066 13.1 50.42 9.69 5.72 8.7 1170 Large stationary 2-stroke 50.INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Output Typical values Model airplane 2-stroke Bore (cm) Stroke (cm) Displacement/cyl (L) Speed (rpm) Power (kW) Average piston speed (m/s) Power/displacement (kW/L) BMEP (kPa) 2.71 0.00 2.84 109 503 Automobile 4-stroke 9.200 35 17.000 0.04 0.89 0.

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